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The Complete Pythagoras

A full-text, public domain edition for the generalist & specialist Edited by Patrick Rousell for the World Wide Web. I first came across Kenneth Sylvan Guthries edition of the Complete Pythagoras hile researching a boo! on "eonardo# I had been surfing these deep aters for a hile and so the value of Guthries publication as immediately apparent# As Guthrie explains in his o n introduction, hich is at the beginning of the second boo! $p %&'(, he as initially prompted to publish these ritings in the %)*+s for fear that this information ould become lost# As it is, much of this information has since been published in fairly good modern editions# ,o ever, these are still hard to access and there is no current complete collection as presented by Guthrie# -he advantage here is that e have a fairly comprehensive collection of or!s on .ythagoras and the .ythagoreans, translated from the original Gree! into /nglish, and presented as a unified, albeit electronic edition# The Complete Pythagoras is a compilation of t o boo!s# -he first is entitled The Life Of Pythagoras and contains the four biographies of .ythagoras that have survived from anti0uity1 that of Iamblichus $*'+-222 A#3#(, .orphry $*22-2+& A#3#(, .hotius $ca '*+- ca ')% A#3#( and 3iogenes "aertius $%'+ A#3#(# -he second is entitled Pythagorean Library and is a complete collection of the surviving fragments from the .ythagoreans# -he first boo! as published in %)*+, the second a year later, and released together as a bound edition# -he bound edition as produced inexpensively as a mimeographed hand-typed manuscript that as rolled-off onto cheap stoc!# 4onse0uently, only a handful of copies of hat must have been a very small edition are extant and ere found to be highly deteriorated# - o copies ere referenced for this edition# -here has been no attempt on my part to moderni5e Guthries original edition but rather to reproduce a facsimile# -he reason for this is t o-fold1 6irst, to add another voice $an uninformed one at that, since I am not a classicist( ould have distanced the reader yet further from the original# Second, hile Guthries translation may at times seem archaic and convoluted, as his /nglish dates from the late %)th 4entury, it nevertheless seems to hug the original Gree! texts best# It may best be understood as a transliteration, as opposed to a translation# It can therefore be used as another source to compare to modern editions# -here is little that I ould ant to add to Guthries introduction, except for this1 there is one name that stands out here# 7hile Alexander and /instein may be household names, let us consider Archytas, a master of both the active and the contemplative life# Archytas of -arentum $ca 289 :#4#( as not only a great general and friend of .latos, he as also a great mathematician and philosopher# ;ot only did he at one point save .lato from the Sicilian tyrant 3iogenes $the younger(, he also had a profound influence on .latos thought# As a mathematician he is believed to have solved the 3elian problem $the doubling of the volume of the cube( and been responsible for most of hat has come do n to us as :oo! <III of /uclids Elements# As a philosopher he as, I believe, the first to openly postulate a theory of infinity $see text( and extended the =theory of means> in music# .atric! ?oussel, a#!#a# .atric! 4, is an artist and riter ho after living and or!ing in ;@4 for %9 years, recently moved to southern 6rance# 4ontact1 cpatrickc completepythagoras.net

INDEX
<A"BC/ A;/ :iographies Iamblichus i# Importance of the SubDect ii# @outh, /ducation, -ravels iii# Eourney to /gypt iv# Studies in /gypt and :abylonia v# -ravels in Greece, Settlement at 4rotona vi# .ythagorean 4ommunity vii# Italian .olitical Achievements viii# Intuition, ?everence, -emperance, Studiousness ix# 4ommunity and 4hastity x# Advice to @ouths xi# Advice to 7omen xii# 7hy he calls himself a .ythagorean xiii# ,e shared Arpheuss 4ontrol over Animals xiv# .ythagoras Fs preexistence xv# ,e 4ured by Cedicine and Cusic xvi# .ythagorean Aestheticism xvii# -ests of Initiation xviii# Argani5ation of the .ythagorean School xix# Abaris the Scythian xx# .sychological ?e0uirements xxi# 3aily .rogram xxii# 6riendship xxiii# Bse of parables in Instruction xxiv# 3ietary Suggestions xxv# Cusic and poetry xxvi# -heoretical Cusic xxvii# Cutual political Assistance xxviii# 3ivinity of .ythagoras xxix# Sciences and Caxims xxx# Eustice and politics xxxi# -emperance and Self-control xxxii# 6ortitude xxxiii# Bniversal 6riendship xxxiv# ;onmercenary Secrecy xxxv# Attac! on .ythagoreanism xxxvi# -he .ythagorean Succession 3iogenes "aertius i# /arly "ife ii# Studies iii# Initiations iv# -ransmigration v# 7or!s vi# General <ie s on "ife

.orphry .hotius

vii# viii# ix# x# xi# xii# xiii# xiv# xv# xvi# xvii# xviii# xix# xx# xxi# xxii# xxiii# xxiv# xxv# xxvi# xxvii#

Ages of "ife Social 4ustoms 3istinguished Appearance 7omen 3eified by Carriage Scientific culture 3iet and Sacrifices Ceasures and 7eights ,esperus Identified ith "ucifer Students and ?eputations 6riendship 6ounded on Symbols Symbols or Caxims .ersonal ,abits <arious -eachings .oetic -estimonies 3eath of .ythagoras .ythagorass 6amily ?idiculing /pigrams "ast .ythagoreans <arious .ythagoras ;amesa!es .ythagorass "etter to Anaximenes /mpedocless 4onnection

<A"BC/ -7A .ythagorean 6ragments


Introduction Symbols of .ythagoras $98+-9++ :#4#( Golden <erses of .ythagoras $ca#29+ :#4#(

.hilolaus
o o o o :iography 6ragments :iography

Archytas of -arentum $G++ :#4#( 6ragments i# Cetaphysical ii# .hysical and Cathematical iii# /thical iv# .olitical v# "ogical Acellus "ucanus $G'+ :#4#(
o o :iography

6ragments i# -reatise on the Bniverse ii# 4reation iii# -he .erpetuity of the 7orld iv# Gro th of Cen

An "a s

,ippodamus the -hurian, $GG2-G+' :#4#(


o o An 6elicity An A ?epublic

3iotogenes

o An Sanctiy o 4oncerning A Kingdom -heages $ca# G9+ :#4#( Haleucus the "ocrian $9&+ :#4#( 4harondas of 4atanaea $G)G :#4#( 4allicratidas $9++ :#4#(

.erictyone $G2+ :#4#(


o An -he 3uties Af A 7oman o An -he ,armony Af A 7oman Aristoxenus of -arentum $29+ :#4#( /uryphamus $ca# G9+ :#4#( ,ipparchus $2'+ :#4#( Cetopus $G++ :#4#( 4rito $ca# G++ :#4#( .olus $ca# G9+ :#4#( Sthenidas the "ocrian $G++ :#4#( /cphantus of 4rotona $ca# G++ :#4#( .empelus $ca# G++ :#4#( .hintys $ca# G++ :#4#( 4linias $ca# G++ :#4#( Sextus the .ythagorean$ca# 2++ :#4#(

Select .ythagorean Sentences


o o o 6rom Iamblichus 6rom Stobaeus 6rom 4lement

,ierocles $G9+ A#3#( o /thical 6ragments i# 4onduct -o ards -he Gods ii# .roper 4onduct -o ards Aur 4ountry iii# .roper 4onduct -o ards -he .arents iv# An 6raternal "ove v# An Carriage vi# 4onduct -o ards Aur ?elatives vii# An /conomics -imaeus "ocrius $G'+-G9+ :#4#( o -he Soul and -he 7orld i# Cind, ;ecessity, 6orm & Catter ii# 4reation Af -he 7orld iii# .roportions Af -he 7orld-4ombination iv# .lanetary ?evolutions and -ime v# -he /arths 4reation :y Geometric 6igures vi# 4oncretion Af -he /lements vii# 4omposition Af -he Soul viii# Sentations ix# ?espiration x# 3isorders xi# 3iscipline xii# ,uman 3estiny

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IAC:"I4,BS of Syrian 4halciss "I6/ A6 .@-,AGA?AS 4,A.-/? I IC.A?-A;4/ A6 -,/ SB:E/4Since ise people are in the habit of invo!ing the divinities at the beginning of any philosophic consideration, this is all the more necessary on studying that one hich is Dustly named after the divine .ythagoras# Inasmuch as it emanated from the divinities it could not be apprehended ithout their inspiration and assistance# :esides, its beauty and maDesty so surpasses human capacity, that it cannot be comprehended in one glance# Gradually only can some details of it be mastered hen, under divine guidance e approach the subDect ith a 0uiet mind# ,aving therefore invo!ed the divine guidance, and adapted ourselves and our style to the divine circumstances, e shall ac0uiesce in all the suggestions that come to us# -herefore e shall not begin ith any excuses for the long neglect of this sect, nor by any explanations about its having been concealed by foreign disciplines, or mystic symbols, nor insist that it has been obscured by false and spurious ritings, nor ma!e apologies for any special hindrances to its progress# 6or us it is sufficient that this is the ill of the Gods, hich all enable us to underta!e tas!s even more arduous than these# ,aving thus ac!no ledged our primary submission to the divinities, our secondary devotion shall be to the prince and father of this philosophy as a leader# 7e shall, ho ever have to begin by a study of his descent and nationality#

4,A.-/? II @AB-,, /3B4A-IA;, -?A</"S


It is reported that Ancaeus, ho d elt in 4ephallenian Samos, as descended from Eupiter, the fame of hich honorable descent might have been derived from his virtue, or from a certain magnanimityI in any case, he surpassed the remainder of the 4ephallenians in isdom and reno n# -his Ancaeus as, by the .ythian oracle, bidden form a colony from Arcadia and -hessalyI and besides leading some inhabitants of Athens, /pidaurus, and 4halcis, he as to render habitable an island, hich, from the virtue of the soil and vegetation as to be called :lac!leaved, hile the city as to be called Samos, after Same, in 4ephallenia# -he oracle ran thus1 =I bid you, Ancaeus, to colonise the maritime island of Same, and to call it .hyllas#> -hat the colony originated from these places is proved first from the divinities, and their sacrifices, hich ere imported by the inhabitants, second by the relationships of the families, and third by their Samian gatherings# 6rom the family and alliance of this Ancaeus, founder of the colony, ere therefore descended .ythagorass parents Cnesarchus and .ythais# -hat .ythagoras as the son of Apollo is a legend due to a certain Samian poet, ho thus described the popular recognition of the nobility of his birth# Sang he, =.ythais, the fairest of the Samian race 6rom the embraces of the God Apollo :ore .ythagoras, the friend of Eove#> It might be orth hile to relate the circumstances of the prevalence of this report# Cnesarchus had gone to 3elphi on a business trip, leaving his ife ithout any signs of pregnancy# ,e en0uired of

the oracle about the event of his return voyage to Syria, and he as informed that his trip ould be lucrative, and most conformable to his ishesI but that his ife as no ith child, and ould present him ith a son ho ould surpass all ho had ever lived in beauty and isdom, and that he ould be of the greatest benefit to the human race in everything pertaining to human achievements# :ut hen Cnesarchus reali5ed that the God, ithout aiting for any 0uestion about a son, had by an oracle informed him that he ould possess an illustrious prerogative, and a truly divine gift, he immediately changed his ifes former name .arthenis to one reminiscent of the 3elphic prophet and her son, naming her .ythais, and the infant, ho as soon after born at Sidon in .hoenicia, .ythagoras, by this name commemorating that such an offspring had been promised him by the .ythian Apollo# -he assertions of /pimenides, /udoxus and Jenocrates, that Apollo having at that time already had actual connexion ith .arthenis, causing her pregnancy, had regulari5ed that fact by predicting the birth of .ythagoras, are by no means to be admitted# ;o one ill deny that the soul of .ythagoras as sent to man!ind from Apollos domain, having either been one of his attendants, or more intimate associates, hich may be inferred both from his birth, and his versatile isdom# After Cnesarchus had returned from Syria to Samos, ith great ealth derived from a favorable sea-voyage, he built a temple to Apollo, ith the inscription of .ythius# ,e too! care that his son should enDoy the best possible education, studying under 4reophilus, then under .horecydos the Syrian, and then under almost all ho presided over sacred concerns, to hom he especially recommended his son, that he might be as expert as possible in divinity# -hus by education and good fortune he became the most beautiful and godli!e of all those ho have been celebrated in the annals of history# After his fathers death, though he as still but a youth, his aspect as so venerable, and his habits so temperate that he as honored and even reverenced by elderly men, attracting the attention of all ho sa and heard him spea!, creating the most profound impression# -hat is the reason that many plausibly asserted that he as a child of the divinity# /nDoying the privilege of such a reno n, of an education so thorough from infancy, and of so impressive a natural appearance he sho ed that he deserved all these advantages by deserving them, by the adornment of piety and discipline, by ex0uisite habits, by firmness of soul, and by a body duly subDected to the mandates of reason# An inimitable 0uiet and serenity mar!ed all his ords and actions, soaring above all laughter, emulation, contention, or any other irregularity or eccentricityI his influence at Samos as that of some beneficent divinity# ,is great reno n, hile yet a youth, reached not only men as illustrious for their isdom as -hales at Ciletus, and :ias at .rione, but also extended to the neighboring cities# ,e as celebrated every here as the =long-haired Samian,> and by the multitude as given credit for being under divine inspiration# 7hen he had attained his eighteenth year, there arose the tyranny of .olicratesI and .ythagoras foresa that under such a government his studies might be impeded, as they engrossed the hole of his attention# So by night he privately departed ith one ,ermodamas, - ho as surnamed 4reophilus, and as the grandson of the host, friend and general preceptor of the poet ,omer, - going to .horecydes, to Anaximander the natural philosopher, and to -hales at Ciletu# ,e successively associated ith each of those philosophers in a manner such that they all loved him, admired his natural endo ments, and admitted him to the best of their doctrines, -hales especially, on gladly admitting him to the intimacies of his confidence, admired the great difference bet een him and other young men, ho ere in every accomplishment surpassed by .ythagoras# After increasing the reputation .ythagoras had already ac0uired, by communicating to him the utmost he as able to impart to him, -hales, laying stress on his advanced age and the infirmities of his body, advised him to go to /gypt, to get in touch ith the priests of Cemphis and Eupiter# -hales confessed that the instruction of these priests as the source of his o n reputation for isdom, hile neither his o n endo ments nor achievements e0ualed those hich ere so evident in .ythagoras# -hales insisted that, in

vie of all this, if .ythagoras should study ith those priests, he as certain of becoming the isest and most divine of men#

4,A.-/? III EAB?;/@ -A /G@..ythagoras had benefited by the instruction of -hales in many respects, but his greatest lesson had been to learn the value of saving time, hich led him to abstain entirely from ine and animal food, avoiding greediness, confining himself to nutriments of easy preparation and digestion# As a result, his sleep as short, his soul pure and vigilant, and the general health of his body as invariable# /nDoying such advantages, therefore, he sailed to Sidon, hich he !ne to be his native country, and because it as on his ay to /gypt# In .hoenicia he conversed ith the prophets ho ere the descendants of Coschus the physiologist, and ith many others, as ell as ith the local hierephants# ,e as also initiated into all the mysteries of :yblus and -yre, and in the sacred functions performed in many parts of Syria# ,e as led to all this not from any han!ering after superstition as might easily be supposed, but rather from a desire of and love for contemplation, and from an anxiety to miss nothing of the mysteries of the divinities hich deserved to be learned# After gaining all he could from the .hoenician mysteries, he found that they had originated from the sacred rites of /gypt, forming as it ere an /gyptian colony# -his led him to hope that in /gypt itself he might find monuments of erudition still more genuine, beautiful, and divine# -herefore follo ing the advice of his teacher -hales, he left, as soon as possible, through the agency of some /gyptian sailors, ho very opportunely happened to land on the .hoenician coast under Count 4armel, in the temple on the pea! of hich .ythagoras for the most part d elt in solitude# ,e as gladly received by the sailors ho intended to ma!e a great profit by selling him into slavery# :ut they changed their mind in his favor during the voyage, hen they perceived the chastened venerability of the mode of life he had underta!en# -hey began to reflect that there as something supernatural in the youths modesty, and in the manner in hich he had unexpectedly appeared to them on their landing, hen from the summit of Count 4armel, hich they !no to be more sacred than other mountains, and 0uite inaccessible to the vulgar, he had leisurely descended ithout loo!ing bac!, avoiding all delay from precipices or difficult roc!s and that hen he came to the boat, he said nothing more than, =Are you bound for /gyptK> And farther that, on their ans ering affirmatively, he had got aboard, and had, during the hole trip sat silent here he ould be least li!ely to inconvenience them at their tas!s# 6or t o nights and three days .ythagoras had remained in the same unmoved position, ithout food, drin!, or sleep, except that, unnoticed by the sailors, he might have do5ed hile sitting upright# Coreover the sailors considered that, contrary to their expectations, their voyage had proceeded ithout interruptions, as if some deity had been on board# 6rom all these circumstances they concluded that a very divinity had passed over ith them from Syria into /gypt# Addressing .ythagoras and each other ith a gentleness and propriety that as un onted, they completed the remainder of their voyage through a halcyon sea, and at length happily landed on the /gyptian coast# ?everently the sailors here assisted him to disembar!I and after they had seen him safe onto a firm beach, they raised before him a temporary altar, heaped on it the no abundant fruits of trees, as if these ere the first-fruits of their freight, presented then to him and departed hastily to their destination# .ythagoras, ho ever, hose body had become emaciated through the severity of so long a fast, did not refuse the sailors help in landing, and as soon as they had left partoo! of as much of the fruits as as re0uisite to restore his physical vigor# -hen he ent inland, in entire safety preserving his onted tran0uillity and modesty#

4,A.-/? I< S-B3I/S I; /G@.- A;3 :A:@"A;IA


,ere in /gypt he fre0uented all the temples ith the greatest diligence, and most studious research, during hich time he on the esteem and admiration of all the priests and prophets ith hom he associated# ,aving most solicitously familiari5ed himself ith every detail, he did not, nevertheless, neglect any contemporary celebrity, hether sage reno ned for isdom, or peculiarly performed mysteryI he did not fail to visit any place here he thought he might discover something orthhile# -hat is ho he visited all of the /gyptian priests, ac0uiring all the isdom each possessed# ,e thus passed t enty-t o years in the sanctuaries of temples, studying astronomy and geometry, and being initiated in no casual or superficial manner in all the mysteries of the Gods# At length, ho ever, he as ta!en captive by the soldiers of 4ambyses, and carried off to :abylon# ,ere he as overDoyed to associate ith the Cagi, ho instructed him in their venerable !no ledge, and in the most perfect orship of the Gods# -hrough their assistance, li!e ise, he studied and completed arithmetic, music, and all the other sciences# After t elve years, about the fifty-sixth year of his age, he returned to Samos#

4,A.-/? < -?A</"S I; G?//4/I S/--"/C/;- A- 4?A-A;A


An his return to Samos he as recogni5ed by some of the older inhabitants, ho found that he had gained in beauty and isdom, and achieved a divine graciousnessI herefore they admired him all the more# ,e as officially invited to benefit all men by imparting his !no ledge publicly# -o this he as not averseI but the method of teaching he ished to introduce as the symbolical one, in a manner similar to that in hich he had been instructed in /gypt# -his mode of teaching, ho ever did not please the Simians, hose attention lac!ed perseverance# ;ot one proved genuinely desirous of those mathematical disciplines hich he as so anxious to introduce among the Gree!sI and soon he as left entirely alone# -his ho ever did not embitter him to the point of neglecting or despising Samos# :ecause it as his home to nI he desired to give his fello -citi5ens a taste of the s eetness of the mathematical disciplines, in spite of their refusal to learn# -o overcome this he devised and executed the follo ing stratagem# In the gymnasium he happened to observe the unusually s!illful and masterful ball-playing of a youth ho as greatly devoted to physical culture, but impecunious and in difficult circumstances# .ythagoras ondered hether this youth if supplied ith the necessaries of life, and freed from the anxiety of supplying them, could be induced to study ith him# .ythagoras therefore called the youth, as he as leaving the bath, and made him the proposition to furnish him the means to continue his physical training, on the condition that he ould study ith him easily and gradually, but continuously so as to avoid confusion and distraction, certain discipline hich he claimed to have learned from the :arbarians in his youth, but hich ere no beginning to desert him in conse0uence of the inroads of the forgetfulness of old age# Coved by hopes of financial support, the youth too! up the proposition ithout delay# .ythagoras then introduced him to the rudiments of arithmetic and geometry, illustrating them obDectively on an abacus, paying him three oboli as fee for the learning of every figure# -his as continued for a long time, the youth being incited to the study of geometry by the desire for honor, ith diligence, and in the best order# :ut hen the sage observed that the youth had become so captivated by the logic, ingeniousness and style of those demonstrations to hich he had been led in an orderly ay, that he ould no longer neglect their pursuit merely because of the sufferings of poverty, .ythagoras pretended poverty, and conse0uent inability to continue the payment of the three oboli fee# An hearing this, the youth replied, that even ithout the fee he could go on learning and receiving this instruction# -hen .ythagoras said, =:ut even I myself am lac!ing the means to procure foodL>As he ould

have to or! to earn his living, he ought not to be distracted by the abacus and other trifling occupations# -he youth, ho ever, loath to discontinue his studies, replied, =In the future, it is I ho ill provide for you, and repay your !indness in a ay resembling that of the stor!I for in my turn, I ill give you three oboli for every figure# 6rom this time on he as so captivated by these disciplines, that, of all the Samians, he alone elected to leave home to follo .ythagoras, being a namesa!e of his, though differing in patronymie, being the son of /ratocles# It is probably to him that should be ascribed three boo!s on Athletics, in hich he recommends a diet of flesh, instead of dry figs, hich of course ould hardly have been ritten by the Cnesarchian .ythagoras# About this time .ythagoras ent to 3elos here he as much admired as he approached the socalled bloodless altar of 6ather Apollo, and orshipped it# -hen .ythagoras visited all the oracles# ,e d elt for some time in 4rete and Sparta, to learn their la sI and on ac0uiring proficiency therein he returned home to complete his former omissions# An his arrival in Samos, he first established a school, hich is even no called, the Semicircle of .ythagoras, in hich the Samians no consult about public affairs, feeling the fitness of dispensing Dustice and promoting profit in the place constructed by him ho promoted the elfare of all man!ind# Autside of the city he formed a cave adapted to the practices of his philosophy, in hich he spent the greater part of day and night, ever busied ith scientific research, and meditating as did Cinos, the son of Eupiter# Indeed he surpassed those ho later practised his disciplines chiefly in this, that they advertised themselves for the !no ledge of theorems of minute importance, hile .ythagoras unfolded a complete science of the celestial orbs, founding it on arithmetical and geometrical demonstrations# Still more than for all this, he is to be admired for hat he accomplished later# ,is philosophy no gained great importance, and his fame spread to all Greece so that the best students visited Samoa on his account, to share in his erudition# :ut his fello -citi5ens insisted on employing him in all their embassies, and compelled him to ta!e part in the administration of public affairs# .ythagoras began to realise the impossibility of complying ith the claims of his country hile remaining at home to advance his philosophyI and observing that all earlier philosophers had passed their life in foreign countries, he determined to resign all political occupations# :esides, according to contemporary testimony, he disgusted at the Samarians scorn for education# -herefore he ent to Italy, conceiving that his real fatherland must be the country containing the greatest number of most scholarly men# Such as the success of his Dourney that on his arrival at 4rotona, the noblest city in Italy, that he gathered as many as six-hundred follo ers, ho by his discourses ere moved, not only to philosophical study, but to an amicable sharing of their orldly goods, hence they derived the names of Cenobites#

4,A.-/? <I -,/ .@-,AGA?/A; 4ACCB;I-@


-he Cenobites ere students that philosophi5edI but the greater part of his follo ers ere called !earers, of hom, according to ;icomachus there ere t o thousand that had been captivated by a single oration on his arrival in Italy# -hese, ith their children, gathered into one immense auditory, called Auditorium, hich as so great as to resemble a city, thus founding a place universally called Greater Greece# -his great multitude of people, receiving from .ythagoras la s and mandates as so many divine precepts, ithout hich they declined to engage in any occupation, d elt together in the greatest general concord, estimated and celebrated by their neighbors as among the number of the blessed, ho, as as already observed, shared all their possessions# Such as their reverence for .ythagoras, that they ran!ed him ith the Gods, as a genial beneficent divinity, hile some celebrated him as the .ythian, others called him the ;orthern Apollo# Athers

considered him .aeon, others, one of the divinities that inhabit the moonI yet others considered that he as one of the Alympian Gods, ho, in order to correct and improve terrestrial existence appeared to their contemporaries in human form, to extend to them the salutary light of philosophy and felicity# ,e never indeed came, nor, for that matter of that, ever ill come to man!ind a greater good than that hich as imparted to the Gree!s through this .ythagoras# ,ence, even no , the nic!-name of =long-haired Samian> is still applied to the most venerable among men# In his treatise on the .ythagoric .hilosophy, Aristotle relates that among the principal arcana of the .ythagoreans as preserved this distinction among rational animals1 Gods, men, and beings li!e .ythagoras# 7ell indeed may they have done so, inasmuch as he introduced so Dust and apt a generali5ation as Gods, heroes and demonsI of the orld, of the manifold notions of the spheres and stars, their oppositions, eclipses, ine0ualities, eccentricities and epicyclesI of all the natures contained in heaven and earth, together ith the intermediate ones, hether apparent or occult# ;or as there, in all this variety of information, anything contrary to the phenomena, or to the conceptions of the mind# :esides all this, .ythagoras unfolded to the Gree!s all the disciplines, theories and researches that ould purify the intellect from the blindness introduced by studies of a different !ind, so as to enable it to perceive the true principles and causes of the universe# In addition, the best polity, popular concord, community of possessions among friends, orship of the Gods, piety to the dead, legislation, erudition, silence, abstinence from eating the flesh of animals, continence, temperance, sagacity, divinity, and in one ord, hatever is anxiously desired by the scholarly, as brought to light by .ythagoras# It as, on account of all this, as e have already observed, that .ythagoras as so much admired#

4,A.-/? <II I-A"IA; .A"I-I4A" A4,I/</C/;-S


;o e must relate ho he traveled, hat places he first visited, and hat discourses he made, on hat subDects, and to hom addressedI for this ould illustrate his contemporary relations# ,is first tas!, on arriving in Italy and Sicily, as to inspire ith a love of liberty those cities hich he understood had more or less recently oppressed each other ith slavery# -hen, by means of his auditors, he liberated and restored to independence 4rotona, Sybaris, 4atanes, ?hegium, ,imaera, Agrigentum, -auromenas and some other cities# -hrough 4harondas the 4atanaean, and Haleucus the "ocrian, he established la s hich caused the cities to flourish, and become models for others in their proximity# .artisanship, discord and sedition, and that for several generations, he entirely rooted out, as history testifies, from all the Italian and Sicilian lands, hich at that time ere disturbed by inner and outer contentions# /very here, in private and in public, he ould repeat, as an epitome of his o n opinions, and as a persuasive oracle of divinity, that by any means so everI stratagem, fire, or s ord, e should amputate from the body, diseaseI from the soul ignoranceI from the belly, luxuryI from a city, seditionI from a household, discordI and from all things so ever, lac! of moderationI through hich he brought home to his disciples the 0uintessence of all teachings, and that ith a most paternal affection# 6or the sa!e of accuracy, e may state that the year of his arrival in Italy as that one of the Alympic victory in the stadium of /ryxidas of 4halcis, in the sixty-second Alympiad# ,e became conspicuous and celebrated as soon as he arrived, Dust as formerly he achieved instant recognition at 3elos, hen he performed his adorations at the bloodless altar of 6ather Apollo#

4,A.-/? <III I;-BI-IA;, ?/</?/;4/, -/C./?A;4/, and S-B3IABS;/SS

Ane day, during a trip from Sybaris to 4rotona, by the sea-shore, he happened to meet some fishermen engaged in dra ing up from the deep their heavily-laden fish-nets# ,e told them he !ne the exact number of the fish they had caught# -he surprised fishermen declared that if he as right they ould do anything he said# ,e then ordered them, after counting the fish accurately, to return them alive to the sea, and hat is more onderful, hile he stood on the shore, not one of them died, though they had remained out of their natural element 0uite a little hile# .ythagoras then paid the fisher-men the price of their fish, and departed for 4rotona# -he fishermen divulged the occurrence, and on discovering his name from some children, spread it abroad publicly# /verybody anted to see the stranger, hich as easy enough to do# -hey ere deeply impressed on beholding his countenance, hich indeed betrayed his real nature# A fe days later, on entering in the gymnasium, he as surrounded by a cro d of young men, and he embraced this opportunity to address them, exhorting them to attend to their elders, pointing out to them the general preeminence of the early over the late# ,e instanced that the /ast as more important than the 7est, the morning than the evening, the beginning than the end, gro th than decayI natives than strangers, city-planners than city-buildersI and in general that Gods ere more orthy of honor than, divinities, divinities than semi-divinities, and heroes than menI and that among these the authors of birth in importance excelled their progeny# All this, ho ever, he said only to prove by indiction, that children should honor their parents to hom, he asserted, they ere as much indebted for gratitude as ould be a dead man to him ho should bring him bac! to life, and light# ,e continued to observe that it as no more than Dust to avoid paining, and to love preeminently those ho had benefited us first and most# .rior to the childrens birth, these are benefited by their parents exclusively, being the springs of their offsprings righteous conduct# In any case, it is impossible for children to ere by not allo ing themselves to be outdistanced in reciprocation of benefits, to ards their parents# :esides, since from our parents e learn to honor divinity, no doubt the Gods ill pardon those ho honor their parents no less than those ho honor the Gods, $thus ma!ing common cause ith them(# ,omer even applied the paternal name to the King of the Gods, calling lim the father of Gods and men# Cany other mythologists informed us that the chiefs of the Gods even ere anxious to claim for themselves that superlative affection hich, through marriage, binds children to their parents# -hat is hy $the Arphic theologians( introduced among the Gods the terms father and mother, Eupiter begetting Cinerva, hile Euno produced <ulcan, the nature of hich offspring is contrary so as to unite the most remote through friendship# As this argument about the immortals proved convincing to the 4rotonians, .ythagoras continued to enforce voluntary obedience to the parental ishes, by the example of ,ercules, ho had been the founder of the 4rotonian colony# -radition indeed informed us that divinity had underta!en labors so great out of obedience to the commands of a senior, and that after his victories therein, he instituted the Alympic games in honor of his father# -heir mutual association should never result in hostility to friends, but in transforming their o n hostility into friendship# -heir benevolent filial disposition should manifest as modesty, hile their universal philanthropy should ta!e the form of fraternal consideration and affection# -emperance as the next topic of his discourses# Since the desires are most flourishing during youth, this is the time hen control must be effective# 7hile temperance alone is universal in its application to all ages, boy, virgin, oman, or the aged, yet this special virtue is particularly applicable to youth# Coreover, this virtue alone applied universally to all goods, those of body and soul, preserving both the health, and studiousness# -his may be proved conversely# 7hen the Gree!s and :arbarians arred about -roy, each of them feel into the most dreadful calamities, both during the 7ar, and the return home, and all this through the incontinence of a single individual# Coreover, the divinity ordained that the punishment of this single inDustice should last over a thousand and ten years, by an oracle predicting the capture of -roy, and ordering that annually the "ocrians should send virgins into the -emple of Cinerva in -roy#

4ultivation of learning as the next topic .ythagoras urged upon the young men# ,e invited them to observe ho absurd it ould be to rate the reasoning po er as the chief of their faculties, and indeed consult about all other things by its means, and yet besto no time or labor on its exercise# Attention to the body might be compared to un orthy friends, and is liable to rapid failureI hile erudition lasts till death, and for some procures post-mortem reno n, and may be li!ened to good, reliable friends# .ythagoras continued to dra illustrations from history and philosophy, demonstrating that erudition enables a naturally excellent disposition to share in the achievements of the leaders of the race# 6or others share in their discoveries by erudition# /rudition $possesses four great advantages over all other goods(# 6irst, some advantages, such as strength, beauty, health and fortitude, cannot be exercised except by the cooperation of somebody else# Coreover, ealth, dominion, and many other goods do not remain ith him ho imparts them to somebody else# -hird, some !inds of goods cannot be possessed by some men, but all are susceptible of instruction, according to the individual choice# Coreover, an instructed man ill naturally, and ithout any impudence, be led to ta!e part in the administration of the affairs of his home country, $as does not occur ith more ealth(# Ane great advantage of erudition is that it may be imparted to another person ithout in the least diminishing the store of the giver# 6or it is education hich ma!es the difference bet een a man and a ild beast, a Gree! and a :arbarian, a free man and a slave, and a philosopher from a boor# In short, erudition is so great an advantage over those ho do not possess it, that in one hole city and during one hole Alympiad seven men only ere found to be eminent inners in racing, and that in the hole habitable globe those that excelled in isdom amounted to no more than seven# :ut in subse0uent times it as generally agreed that .ythagoras alone surpassed all others in philosophyI for instead of calling himself a sage, he called himself a philosopher#

4,A.-/? IJ 4ACCB;I-@ A;3 4,AS-I-@


7hat .ythagoras said to the youths in the Gymnasium, these reported to their elders# ,ereupon these latter, a thousand strong, called him into the senate-house, praised him for hat he had said to their sons, and desired him to unfold to the public administration any thoughts advantageous to the 4rotonians, hich he might have# ,is first advice as to build a temple to the Cuses, hich ould preserve the already existing concord# ,e observed to them that all of these divinities ere grouped together by their common name, that they subsisted only in conDunction ith each other, that they specially reDoiced in social honors, and that $in spite of all changes( the choir of the Cuses subsisted al ays one and the same# -hey comprehended symphony, harmony, rhythm, and all things breeding concord# ;ot only to beautiful theorems does their po er extend, but to the general symphonius harmony# $Eustice( as the next desideratum# -heir common country as not to be victimi5ed selfishly, but to be received as a common deposit from the multitude of citi5ens# -hey should therefore govern it in a manner such that, as an hereditary possession they might transmit it into their posterity# -his could best be effected if the members of the administration realised their e0uality ith the citi5ens, ith the only supereminence of Dustice# It is from the common recognition that Dustice is re0uired in every place, that ere created the fables that -hemis seated in the same order ith Eupiter, and that 3ice, or rightness, is seated by .luto, and that "a is established in all cities, so that hoever is unDust in things re0uired of him by his position in society, may concurrently appear unDust to ards the hole orld# Coreover, senators should not ma!e use of any of the Gods for the purpose of an oath, inasmuch as their language should be such as to ma!e them credible even ithout any oaths#

As to their domestic affairs, their government should be the obDect of deliberate choice# -hey should sho genuine affection to their o n offspring, remembering that these, from among all animals, ere the only ones ho could appreciate this affection# -heir associations ith their partners in life, their ives, should be such as to be mindful that hile other compacts are engraved in tables and pillars, the uxorial ones are incarnated in children# -hey should moreover ma!e an effort to in the affection of their children, not merely in a natural, involuntary manner, but through deliberate choice, hich alone merits beneficence# ,e further besought them to avoid connexion ith any but their ivesI lest, angered by their husbands neglect and vice, these should not get even by adulterating the race# -hey should also consider that they received their ives from the <estal hearth ith libations, and brought them home in the presence of the Gods themselves as suppliants ould have done# Also that by orderly conduct and temperance they should become model not only for their family, but also for their community# Again, they should minimi5e public vice, lest offenders indulge in secret sins to escape the punishment of the la s, but should, rather be impelled to Dustice from reverence for beauty and propriety# .rocrastination also as to be ended inasmuch as opportuneness as the best part of any deed# -he separation of parents from their children .ythagoras considered the greatest of evils# 7hile he ho is able to discern hat is advantageous to himself may be considered the best man, next to him in excellence should be ran!ed he ho can see the utility in hat happens to othersI hile the orst man as he ho aited till he himself as afflicted before under standing here true advantage lies# See!ers of honor might ell imitate racers, ho do not inDure their antagonists, but limit themselves to trying to achieve the victory themselves# Administrators of public affairs should not betray offense at being contradicted, but on the other hand benefit the tractable# See!ers of true glory should strive really to become hat they ished to seemI for counsel is not as sacred as praise, the former being useful only among men, hile the latter mostly referred to the divinities# In closing, he reminded those that their city happened to have been founded by ,ercules, at a time hen, having been inDured by "acinius, he drove the oxen through ItalyI hen, rendering assistance to 4roton by night, mista!ing him for an enemy he sle him unintentionally# 7herefore ,ercules promised that a city should be built over the sepulchre of 4roton and from him derive the name 4rotona, thus endo ing him ith immortality# -herefore, said .ythagoras to the rulers of the city, these should Dustly render than!s for the benefits they had received# -he 4rotonians, on hearing his ords built a temple to the Cuses, and drove a ay their concubines, and re0uested .ythagoras to address the young men in the temple of .yhian Apollo, and the omen in the temple of Euno#

4,A.-/? J A3<I4/ -A @AB-,S


-o boys .ythagoras, complying ith their parents re0uest, gave the follo ing advice# -hey should neither revile any one nor revenge themselves on those ho did# -hey should devote themselves diligently to learning, hich in Gree! derives its name from their age# A youth ho started out modestly ould find it easy to preserve probity for the remainder of his life, hich ould be a difficult tas! for one ho at that age as not ell disposedI nay, for one ho begins his course from a bad impulse to run ell to the end is almost impossible# .ythagoras pointed out that boys ere most dear to the divinitiesI and he pointed out that, in times of great drought, cities ould send boys as ambassadors to implore rain from the Gods, in the per-

suasion that divinity is especially attentive to children, although such as are permitted to ta!e part in sacred ceremonies continuously hardly ever arrive at perfect purification# -hat is also the reason hy the most philanthropic of the Gods, Apollo and "ove, are, in pictures, universally represented as having the ages of boys# It is similarly recogni5ed that some of the games in hich con0uerors are cro ned ere instituted for the behoof of boysI the .ythian, in conse0uence of the serpent .ython having been slain by a boy, and the ;emean and Istimian, because of the death of Archemerus and ;elicerta# Coreover, hile the city of 4rotona, as building, Apollo promised to the founder that he ould give him a progeny, if he brought a colony into Italy, inferring therefrom that Apollo presided over their development, and that inasmuch as all the divinities protected their age, it as no more than fair that they should render themselves orthy of their friendship# ,e added that they should practise hearing, so that they might learn to spea!# 6urther, that as soon as they had entered on the path along hich they intended to proceed for the remainder of their existence, they should imitate their predecessors, never contradicting those ho ere their seniors# 6or later on, hen they themselves ill have gro n, they ill Dustly expect not to be inDured by their future Duniors# :ecause of these moral teachings, .ythagoras deserved no longer to be called by his patronymic, but that all men should call him divine#

4,A.-/? JI A3<I4/ -A 7AC/;


-o the omen .ythagoras spo!e as follo s, about sacrifices# -o begin ith, inasmuch as it as no more than natural that they ould ish that some other person ho intended to pray for them should be orthy, nay, excellent, because the Gods attend to those particularly, so also it is advisable that they themselves should most highly esteem e0uity and modesty, so that the divinities may be the more inclined to grant their re0uests# 6urther, they should offer to the divinities such things as they themselves have ith their o n hands produced, such as ca!es, honey-combs, Mto-ersKN and perfumes, and should bring them to the altars ithout the assistance of servants# -hey should not orship divinities ith blood and dead bodies, nor offer so many things at one time that it might seem they meant never to sacrifice again# 4oncerning their association ith men, they, should remember that their female nature had by their parents been granted the license to love their husbands more excessively than even the authors of their existence# 4onse0uently they should ta!e care neither to oppose their husbands, nor consider that they have subDected their husbands should these latter yield to them in any detail# It as in the same assembly that .ythagoras is said to have made the celebrated suggestion that, after a oman has had connexion ith her husband, it is holy for her to perform sacred rites on the same day, hich ould be inadmissible, had the connection been ith any man other than her husband# ,e also advised the omen that their conversation should al ays be cheerful, and to endeavor that others may spea! good things of them# ,e further admonished them to care for their good reputation, and to try not to Dustify the fable- riter ho accused three omen of using a single eye in common, so great is their mutual illingness to accommodate each other ith the loan of garments

and ornaments, ithout a itness, hen some one of them has special need thereof, returning them ithout arguments or litigation# 6urther .ythagoras observed that $Cercury( ho is called the isest of all, ho arranged the human voice, and in short, as the inventor of names, hether he as a God $in Eupiter, the supermundane gods, the liberated gods, or the planet Cercury(, or a divinity $the Cercurial order of demons(, or a certain divine man $the /gyptian -heuth, or in special animals such as the ibis, ape, or dogs(, perceiving that the female sex as most given to devotion, gave to each of their ages the name of one divinity# So an unmarried oman as called 4ore, or .roserpine, a bride ;ympha, a matron, CotherI and a grandmother, in the 3oric dialect, "aia# 4onse0uently, the oracles at 3odona and 3elphi are brought to light by a oman# :y this praise of female piety .ythagoras is said to have effected so great a change in popular female attire, that the omen no longer dared to dress up in costly raiment, consecrating thousands of their garments in the temple of Euno# -his discourse had effect also on marital fidelity, to an extent such that in the 4rotonan region connubial faithfulness became proverbialI $thus imitating( Blysses ho, rather than abandon .enelope, considered immortality ell lost# .ythagoras encouraged the 4rotonian omen to emulate Blysses, by exhibiting their probity to their husbands# In short, through these $social( discourses .ythagoras ac0uired great fame both in 4rotona, and in the rest of Italy#

4,A.-/? JII 7,@ .@-,AGA?AS 4A""S ,ICS/"6 A .,I"ASA.,/? $6rom ,eraclides .onticus, vi# 2 4icero#-usc#vK(
.ythagoras is said to have been the first to call himself a philosopher, a orld hich heretofore had not been an appellation, but a description# ,e li!ened the entrance of men into the present life to the progression of a cro d to some public spectacle# -here assemble men of all descriptions and vie s# Ane hastens to sell his ares for money and gainI another exhibits his bodily strength for reno nI but the most liberal assemble to observe the landscape, the beautiful or!s of art, the specimens of valor, and the customary literary productions# So also in the present life men of manifold pursuits are assembled# Some are incensed by the desire of riches and luxuryI others by the love of po er and dominion, or by insane ambition for glory# :ut the purest and most genuine character is that of the man ho devotes himself to the contemplation of the most beautiful thingsI and he may properly be called a philosopher# .ythagoras adds that the survey of the hole haven, and of the stars that revolve therein, is indeed beautiful, hen e consider their order hich is derived from participation in the first and intelligible essence# :ut that first essence is the nature and number of reasons $or, productive principles(, hich pervades everything, and according to hich all these $celestial( bodies are arranged elegantly, and adorned fittingly# -----veritable isdom is a science conversant ith the first beautiful obDects $the intelligible property so called(I hich subsist in invariable sameness, being undecaying and divine, by the participation in hich other things also may ell be called beautiful# -he desire for something li!e this is philosophy# Similarly beautiful is devotion to eruditionI and this notion .ythagoras extended, order to effect the improvement of the human race#

4,A.-/? JIII

,/ S,A?/3 A?.,/BS 4A;-?A" A</? A;ICA"S


According to credible historians, his ords possessed an admonitory 0uality that prevailed even ith animals, hich confirms that, in intelligent men learning tames beasts even ild or irrational# -he 3aunian bear, ho had severely inDured the inhabitants, as by .ythagoras detained, long stro!ing it gently, feeding it on mai5e and acorns, and after compelling it by an oath to leave alone living beings, he sent it a ay# It hid itself in the mountains and forest, and as never since !no n to inDure any irrational animal# At -arentum he sa an ox feeding in a pasture, here he ate green beans# ,e advised the herdsman to abstain from this food to tell the ox to abstain from this food# -he herdsman laughed at him, remar!ing he did not !no the language of oxenI but that if .ythagoras did, he had better tell him so himself# .ythagoras approached the oxs ear and hispered into it for a long time, hereafter the ox not only refrained from them, but even never tasted them# -his ox lived a long hile at -arentum, near the temple of Euno, and as fed on human food by visitors, till very old, considered sacred# Ance happening to be tal!ing to his intimates about birds, symbols and prodigies, and observed that all these are messengers of the Gods, sent by them to men truly dear to them, hen he brought do n an eagle flying over Alympia, hich he gently stro!ed and dismissed# -hrough such and similar occurrences, .ythagoras demonstrated that he possessed the same dominion as Arpheus over savage animals, and that he allured and detained them by the po er of his voice#

4,A.-/? JI< .@-,AGA?ASS .?//JIS-/;4/


.ythagoras used to ma!e the very best possible approach to men by teaching them hat ould prepare them to learn the truth in other matters# 6or by the clearest and surest indications he ould remind many of his intimates of the former life lived by their soul before it as bound to their body# ,e ould demonstrate by indubitable arguments that he had once been /iuphorbus, son of .anthus, con0ueror of .atroclus# ,e ould especially praise the follo ing funeral ,omeric verses pertaining to himself, hich he ould sing to the lyre most elegantly, fre0uently repeating them# =-he shining circlets of his golden hair, 7hich even the Graces might be proud to ear, Instarred ith gems and gold, bestre the shore 7ith dust dishonored, and deformed ith gore# As the young olive, in some sylvan scene, 4ro ned by fresh fountains ith eternal green, "ifts the gay head, in sno y flo erets fair, And plays and dances to the gentle airI 7hen lo, a hirl ind from high heaven invades -he tender plant and ithers all its shadesI It lies uprooted from its genial bed, A lovely ruin no defaced and deadI -hus young, thus beautiful /uphorbus lay, 7hile the fierce Spartan tore his arms a ay#> ,omer Iliad, %8, .ope# 7e shall ho ever omit the reports about the shield of this .hrygian /uphorbus, hich, among other -roDan spoils, as dedicated to the Argive Euno, as being too popular in nature# 7hat .ythagoras,

ho ever, ished to indicate by all those particulars as that he !ne the former lives he had lived hich enabled him to begin providential attention to others, in hich he reminded them of their former existences#

4,A.-/? J< .@-,AGA?AS 4B?/3 :@ C/3I4I;/ A;3 CBSI4


.ythagoras conceived that the first attention that should be given to men should be addressed to the senses, as hen one perceives beautiful figures and forms, or hears beautiful rhythms and melodies# 4onse0uently he laid do n that the first erudition as that hich subsists through musics melodies and rhythms, and from these he obtained remedies of human manners and passions, and restored the pristine harmony of the faculties of the soul# Coreover, he devised medicines calculated to repress and cure the diseases of both bodies and souls# -here is also, by heavens something hich deserves to be mentioned above all1 namely, that for his disciples he arranged and adDusted hat might be called apparatus and massage, divinely contriving mingling of certain diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic melodies through hich he easily s itched and circulated the passions of the soul in a contrary direction, henever they had accumulated recently, irrationally or clandestinely such as sorro , rage, pity, over-emulation, fear, manifold desires, angers, appetites, pride, collapses, or spasms# /ach of those he corrected by the use of virtue, attempering them through appropriate melodies, as if through some salutary medicine# In the evening, li!e ise, hen his disciples ere retiring to sleep, he ould thus liberate them from the days perturbations and tumults, purifying their intellective po ers from the influxive and effluxive aves of corporeal nature, 0uieting their sleep, and rendering their dreams pleasing and prophetic# :ut hen they arose again in the morning, he ould free them from the nights logginess, coma and torpor through certain peculiar chords and modulations, produced by either simply stri!ing the lyre, or adapting the voice# ;ot through instrument or physical voice organs did .ythagoras effect thisI but by the employment of a certain indescribable divinity, difficult of apprehension, through hich he extended his po er of hearing filing his intellect on the sublime symphonies of the orld, he alone apparently hearing and grasping the universal harmony and consonance of the spheres, and the stars that are moved through them, producing a melody fuller and more intense than anything effected by mortal sounds# -his melody as also the result of dissimilar and varying sounds, speeds, magnitudes and intervals arranged ith reference to each other in a certain musical ratio, producing a convoluted motion most musical if gentle# Irrigated therefore ith this melody, his intellect ordered and exercised thereby, he ould, to the best of his ability exhibit certain symbols of these things to his disciples, especially through imitations thereof through instruments or the physical organs of voice# 6or he conceived that, of all the inhabitants of earth, by him alone ere these mundane sounds understood and heard, as if coming from the central spring and root of nature# ,e therefore thought himself orthy to be taught, and to learn something about the celestial orbs, and to be assimilated to them by desire and imitation, inasmuch as his body alone had been ell enough thereto conformed by the divinity ho had given birth to him# As to other men, he thought they should be satisfied ith loo!ing to him and the gifts he possessed, and in being benefited and corrected through images and examples, in conse0uence of their inability truly to comprehend the first and genuine archetypes of things# Eust as to those ho are unable to loo! intently at the sun e contrive to sho its eclipses in either the reflections of still ater, or in melted pitch, or some smo!ed glass, ell burnished bra5en mirror e spare the ea!ness of their eyes devising a method of representing light that is reflective, though less intense than its archetype, to those ho are interested in this sort of a thing# -his peculiar organi5ation of F.y-

thagorass body, far finer than that of any other man, seems to be hat /mpodocles as obscurely driving at in his enigmatical verses1 =Among the .ythagoreans as a man transcendent in !no ledgeI 7ho possessed the most ample stores of intellectual ealth, And in most eminent degree assisted in the or!s of the ise# 7hen he extended all the po ers of his intellect, ,e easily beheld everything, As far as ten or t enty ages of the human raceL> -hese ords =transcendent,> he beheld every detail of all beings, =and the ealth of intellect,> and so on, describe as accurately as at all possible his peculiar, and exceptionally accurate method of hearing, seeing and understanding#

4,A.-/? J<I .@-,AGA?/A; AS4/-I4ISC


Cusic therefore performed this .ythagorean adDustment# :ut another !ind of purification of the discursive reason, and also of the hole soul, through various studies, as effected $by asceticism(# ,e had a general notion that disciplines and studies should imply some form of laborI and therefore, li!e a legislator, he decreed trials of the most varied nature, punishments, and restraints by fire and s ord, for innate intemperance, or an ineradicable desire for possession, hich the depraved could neither suffer nor sustain# Coreover, his intimates ere ordered to abstain from all animal food, and any other that are hostile to the reasoning po er by impeding its genuine energies# An them he li!eise enDoined suppression of speech, and perfect silence, exercising them for years at a time in the subDugation of the tongue, hile strenuously and assiduously investigating and ruminating over the most difficult theorems# ,ence also he ordered them to abstain from ine, to be sparing in the their food, to sleep little, and to cultivate an unstudied contempt of, and hostility to fame, ealth, and the li!eI unfeignedly to reverence those to hom reverence is due, genuinely to exercise democratic assimilation and heartiness to ards their fello s in age, and to ards their Duniors courtesy, encouragement, ithout envy# Coreover .ythagoras is generally ac!no ledged to have been the inventor and legislator of friendship, under its many various forms, such as universal amity of all to ards all, of God to ards men through their pity and scientific theories, or the mutual interrelation of teachings, or universally of the soul to ards the body and of the rational to the rational part, through philosophy and its underlying theoriesI or hether it be that of men to ards each other, or citi5ens indeed through sound legislation, but of strangers through a correct physiologyI or of the husband to the ife or brothers and !indred, through unperverted communionI or hether, in short, it be of all things to ards all, and still farther, of certain irrational animals through Dustice, and a physical connexion and associationI or hether it be the pacification and conciliation of the body hich of itself is mortal, and of its latent conflicting po ers, through health and a temperate diet conformable to this, in imitation of the salubrious condition of the mundane elements# In short, .ythagoras procured his disciples the most appropriate converse ith the Gods, both a!ing and sleepingI something hich never occurs in a soul disturbed by anger, pain, or pleasure, and surely, all the more, by any base desire, or defiled by ignorance, hich is the most noxious and unholy of all the rest# :y all these inventions, therefore, he divinely purified and healed the soul, resuscitating and saving it diving part, and directing to the intelligible its divine eye, hich, as .lato says, is more orth saving than ten thousand corporeal eyesI for hen it is strengthened and clari-

fied by appropriate aids, hen e loo! through this, e perceive the truth about all beings# In this particular respect, therefore, .ythagoras purified the discursive po er of the soul# -his is the $practical( form that erudition too! ith him, and such are the obDects of his interest#

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As he therefore thus prepared his disciples for culture, he did not immediately receive as an associate any ho came to him for that purpose until he had tested them and examined them Dudiciously# -o begin ith he in0uired about their relation to their parents and !insfol!# ;ext he surveyed their laughter, speech or silence, as to hether it as unreasonableI further, about their desires, their associates, their conversation, ho they employed their leisure, and hat ere the subDects of their Doy or grief# ,e observed their form, their gait, and the hole motions of their body# ,e considered their frames natural indications physiognomically, rating them as visible exponents of the invisible tendencies of the soul# After subDecting a candidate to such trials, he allo ed him to be neglected for three years, still covertly observing his disposition to ards stability, and genuine studiousness, and hether he as sufficiently averse to glory, and ready to despise popular honors# After, this the candidate as compelled to observe silence for five years, so as to have made definite experiments in continence of speech, inasmuch as the subDugation of the tongue is the most difficult of all victories, as has indeed been unfolded by those ho have instituted the mysteries# 3uring this probation, ho ever, the property of each as disposed of in common, being committed to trustees, ho ere called politicians, economi5ers or legislators# Af these probationers, after the 0uin0uennial silence, those ho by modest dignity had on his approval as orthy to share in his doctrines, then became esoterics, and ithin the veil both heard and sa .ythagoras# .rior to this they participated in his ords through the hearing alone, ithout seeing him ho remained ithin the veil, and themselves offering to him a specimen of their manners# If reDected, they ere given the double of the ealth they had brought, but the auditors raised to him a tomb, as if they ere deadI the disciples being generally called auditors# Should these later happen to meet the reDected candidate, they ould treat him as a stronger, declaring that he hom they had by education modeled had died, inasmuch as the obDect of these disciplines had been to be turned out good and honest men# -hose ho ere slo in the ac0uisition of !no ledge ere considered to be badly organi5ed or, e may say, deficient, and sterile# If, ho ever, after .ythagoras had studied them physiognomically, their gait, motions and state of health, he conceived good hopes of themI and if, after the five years silence, and the emotions and initiations from so many disciplines together ith the ablutions of the soul, and so many and so great purifications produced by such various theorems, through hich sagacity and sanctity is ingrained into the soul###################if, after all this even, someone as found to be still sluggish and dull, they ould raise to such a candidate ithin the school a pillar or monument, such as as said to have been done to .erialus the -hurian, and 4ylon the prince of the Sybarites, ho ere reDected, they expelled him from the auditorium, loading him do n ith silver and gold# -his ealth had by them been deposited in common, in the care of certain custodians, aptly called Economics# Should any of the .ythagoreans later meet ith the reDect, they did not recogni5e him hom they accounted dead# ,ence also "ysis, blaming a certain ,ipparchus for having revealed the .ythagorean doctrines to the profane, and to such as accepted them ithout disciplines or theory, said1

=It is reported that you philosophise indiscriminately and publicly, hich is opposed to the customs of .ythagoras# 7ith assiduity you did indeed learn them, A ,ipparchusI but you have not preserved them# Cy dear fello , you have tasted Sicilian tit-bits, hich you should not have repeated# If you give them up, I shall be delightedI but if you do not, you ill to me be dead# 6or it ould be pious to recall the human and divine precepts of .ythagoras, and not to communicate the treasures of isdom to those ho have not purified their souls, even in a dream# It is unla ful to give a ay things obtained ith labors so great, and ith assiduity so diligent to the first person you meet, 0uite as much as to divulge the mysteries of the /leusynian goddesses to the profane# /ither thing ould be unDust and impious# 7e should consider ho long a time as needed to efface the stains that had insinuated themselves in our breasts, before e became orthy to receive the doctrines of .ythagoras# Bnless the dyers previously purified the garments in hich they ish the desired colors to be fixed, the dye ould either fade, or be ashed a ay entirely# Similarly, that divine man prepared the souls of lovers of philosophy, so that they might not disappoint him in any of those beautiful 0ualities hich he hoped they ould possess# ,e did not impart spurious doctrines, nor stratagems, in hich most of the Sophists, ho are at leisure for no good purpose, entangle young menI but his !no ledge of things human and divine as scientific# -hese Sophists, ho ever, use his doctrines as a mere pretext commit dreadful atrocities, s eeping the youths a ay as in a dragnet, most disgracefully, ma!ing their auditors become rash nuisances# -hey infuse theorems and divine doctrines into hearts hose manners are confused and agitated, Dust as if pure, clear ater should be poured into a deep ell full of mud, hich ould stir up the sediment and destroy the clearness of the ater# Such a mutual misfortune occurs bet een such teachers and disciples# -he intellect and heart of those hose initiation has not proceeded by disciplines, are surrounded lay thic!ets dense and thorny, hich obscure the mild, tran0uil and reasoning po er of the soul, and impede the development and elevation of the intellective part# -hese thic!ets are produced by intemperance and avarice, both of hich are prolific# Intemperance produces la less marriages, lusts, intoxications, unnatural enDoyments, and passionate impulsions hich drive headlong into pits and abysses# -he unbridling of desires has removed the barriers against incest ith even mothers or daughters, am Dust as a tyrant ould violate city regulations, or countrys la s, ith their hands bound behind them, li!e slaves, they have been dragged to the depths of degradation# An the other hand, avarice produces rapine, robbery, parricide, sacrilege, sorcery, and !indred evils# Such being the case, these surrounding thic!ets, infested ith passions, ill have to be cleared out ith systematic disciplines, as if ith fire and s ordI and hen the reason ill have been liberated from so many and great evils, e are in a position to offer to it, and implant ithin it something useful and good#> So great and necessary as the attention hich, according to .ythagoras, should be paid to disciplines as introductions to philosophy# Coreover, inasmuch as he devoted so much care to the examination of the mental attitudes of prospective disciples, he insisted that the teaching and communication of his doctrines should be distinguished by great honor#

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-he next step to set forth ho , after admission to discipleship follo ed distribution into several classes according to individual merit# As the disciples ere naturally dissimilar, it as impracticable for them to participate in all things e0ually, nor ould it have been fair for some to share in the deepest revelations, hile others might get excluded therefrom, or others from everythingI such discriminations, being unDust# 7hile he communicated some suitable of his discourses to all, he sought to benefit everybody, preserving the proportion of Dustice, by ma!ing every mans merit the index

of the extent of his teachings# ,e carried this method so far as to call some Pythagoreans, and others Pythagorists, Dust as e discriminate poets from poetasters# According to this distinction of names, some of his disciples he considered genuine, and to be the models of the others# -he .ythagoreans possessions ere to be shared in common inasmuch as they ere to live together, hile the .ythagorists should continue to manage their o n property, though by assembling fre0uently they might all be at leisure to pursue the same activities# -hese t o modes of life hich originated from .ythagoras, as transmitted to his successors# Among the .ythagoreans there ere also t o forms of philosophy, pursued by t o classes, the !earers and the #tudents# -he latter ere universally recogni5ed as .ythagoreans by all the rest, though the #tudents did not admit as much for the !earers, insisting that these derived their instructions not from .ythagoras, but from ,ippasus, ho as variously described as either a 4rotonian or Cetapontine# -he philosophy of the !earers consisted in lectures ithout demonstrations or conferences or arguments merely directing something to be done in a certain ay, un0uestioningly preserving them as so many divine dogmas, non-discussible, and hich they promised not to reveal, esteeming as most ise ho more than others retained them# Af the lectures there ere three !indsI the first merely announced certain factsI others expressed hat it as especially, and the third, hat should, or should not be done about it# -he obDective lectures studied such 0uestions as, 7hat are the islands of the :lessedK 7hat are the sun and moonK 7hat is the oracle at 3elphiK 7hat is the TetractysK 7hat is harmonyK 7hat as the real nature of the SirensK O -he subDective lectures studied the especial nature of an obDect, such as, 7hat is the most Dust thingK -o sacrifice# 7hat is the isest thingK -he next isest is the naming of po er# 7hat is the isest human thingK Cedicine hat is the most beautifulK ,armony# 7hat is the most po erfulK Cental decision# 7hat is the most excellentK 6elicity# 7hich is the most un0uestioned propositionK -hat all men are depraved# -hat is hy .ythagoras as said to have praised the Salaminian poet ,ippodomas, for singing1 =-ell, A ye Gods, the source from hence ye came, And ye, A Cen, ho evil ye became#> Such ere these subDective lectures, hich taught the distinctive nature of everything# -his sort of study really constitutes the isdom of the so-called seven sages# 6or these also did not investigate hat as good simply, but especially, nor hat is difficult, but hat is particularly so, ----namely, for a man to !no himself# So also they considered not hat as easy, but hat as most so, namely, to continue follo ing out your habits Such studies resembled, and follo ed the sages, ho ho ever preceded .ythagoras# -he practice lectures, hich studied hat should or should not be done, considered 0uestions such as1 -hat it is necessary to beget children, inasmuch as e must leave after us successors ho may orship the divinities# Again, that e should put on first the shoe on the right foot# -hat it is not proper to parade on the public streets, nor to dip into a sprin!ling vessel, nor to ash in a public bath# 6or in all these cases the cleanliness of the agents is uncertain# Ather such problems ere, 3o not assist a man in laying do n a burden, hich encourages him to loiter, but to assist him in underta!ing something# 3o not hope to beget children from a oman ho is rich# Spea! not about .ythagoric affairs ithout light# .erform libations to the Gods from the handle of the cup, to ma!e the omen auspicious and to avoid drin!ing from the same part $from hich the li0uor as poured outK( 7ear not the image of a God on a ring, for fear of defiling it, as such resemblances should be protected in a house# Bse no oman ill, for she is a suppliantI herefore, indeed, e bring her from the <estal hearth, and ta!e her by the right hand# ;or is it proper to sacrifice a hite coc!, ho also is a suppliant, being sacred to the moon and announces the hours#- -o him ho as!s for counsel, give none but the best, for counsel is a sacrament# -he most laborious path is the test, Dust as the pleasur-

able one is mostly the orst, inasmuch as e entered into the present life for the sa!e of education, hich best proceeds by chastening# It is proper to sacrifice, and to ta!e off ones shoes on entering into a temple# In going to a temple, one should not turn out of the ayI for divinity should not be orshipped carelessly# It is ell to sustain, and sho ounds, if they are in the breast, but not if they are behind# - -he soul of man incarnates in the bodies of all animals, except in those hich it is la ful to !illI hence e should eat none but those hom it is proper to slay# Such ere subDects of these ethical lectures# -he most extended lectures, ho ever, ere those concerning sacrifices, both at the time hen migrating from the preset life, and at other timesI also about the proper manner of sepulture# Af some of these propositions the reason is designedI such as for instance that e must beget children to leave successors to orship the Gods# :ut no Dustification is assigned for the others, although in some cases they are implied proximately or remotely, such as that bread is not to be bro!en, because it contributes to the Dudgment in ,ades# Such merely probable reasons, that are additional, are not .ythagoric, but ere devised by non-.ythagoreans ho ished to add eight to the statement# -hus, for instance, in respect to the last statement, that bread is not to be bro!en, some add the reason that e should not $unnecessarily( distribute hat has been assembled, inasmuch as in barbaric times a hole friendly group ould together pounce upon a single piece# Athers again explain that precept on the grounds that it is inauspicious, at the beginning of an underta!ing, to ma!e an omen of fracture or diminution# Coreover, all these precepts are based on one single underlying principle, the end of divinity, so that the hole of every life may result in follo ing God, hich is besides that principle and doctrine of philosophy# 6or it is absurd to search for good in any direction other than the Gods# -hose ho do so resemble a man ho, in a country governed by a !ing, should do honor to one of his fello -citi5ens ho is a magistrate, hile neglecting him ho is the ruler of all of them# Indeed, this is hat the .ythagoreans thought of people ho searched for good else here than from God# 6or since ,e exists, as the lord of all things, it must be self-evident that good must be re0uested of ,im alone# 6or even men impart good to those they love and enDoy, and do the opposite to those they disli!e# Such indeed as the isdom of those precepts# -here, as, ho ever, a certain Aegean named ,ippomedon, one of the .ythagorean !earers, ho insisted that .ythagoras himself gave the reasons for, and demonstrations of these precepts himselfI but that in conse0uence of their being delivered to many, some of hom ere slo , the demonstrations ere removed, leaving the bare propositions# -he .ythagorean #tudents, ho ever, insist that the reasons and demonstrations ere added by .ythagoras himself, explaining the difference arose as follo s# According to them, .ythagoras, hailed from Ionia and Samos, to Italy then flourishing under the tyranny of .olycrates, and he attracted as associates the very most prominent men of the city# :ut the more elderly of these ho ere busied ith politics, and therefore had no leisure, needed the discourses of .ythagoras dissociated from reasonings, as they ould have found it difficult to follo his meanings through disciplines and demonstrations, hile nevertheless .ythagoras reali5ed that they ould be benefited by !no ing hat ought to be done, even though lac!ing the underlying reason, Dust as physicians patients obtain their health ithout hearing the reasons of every detail of the treatment# :ut .ythagoras conversed through disciplines and demonstrations ith the younger associates, ho ere able both to act and learn# Such then are the differing explanations of the !earers and #tudents# As to ,ippasus, ho ever, they ac!no ledge that he as one of the .ythagoreans, but that he met the doom of the impious in the sea in conse0uence of having divulged and explained the method of s0uaring the circle, by t elve pentagonsI but nevertheless he obtained the reno n of having made the discovery# In reality, ho ever, this Dust as everything else pertaining to geometry, as the invention of that man as they referred to .ythagoras# :ut the .ythagoreans say that geometry as di-

vulged under the follo ing circumstances1 A certain .ythagorean happened to lose his fortune to recoup hich he as permitted to teach that science, hich, by .ythagoras as called ,istory# So much then concerning the difference of each mode of philosophi5ing, and the classes of .ythagorass disciples# 6or those ho heard him either ithin or ithout the veil, and those ho heard him accompanied ith seeing, or ithout seeing him, and ho are classified as internal or external auditors, ere none other than these# Bnder these can be classified the .olitical, /conomic, and "egislative .ythagoreans#

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Generally, ho ever, it should be !no n, that .ythagoras discovered many paths of erudition, but that he communicated to each only that part of isdom hich as appropriate to the recipients nature and po er, of hich the follo ing is an appropriate stri!ing illustration# 7hen Abaris the Scythian came from the ,yperboreans, he as already of an advanced age, and uns!illed and uninitiated in the Gree! learning# .ythagoras did not compel him to ade through introductory theorems, the period of silence, and long auscultation, not to mention other trials, but considered him to be fit for an immediate listener to his doctrines, and instructed him in the shortest ay, in his treatise on ;ature, and one An the God -his ,yperborean Abaris as elderly, and most ise in sacred concerns, being a priest of the Apollo there orshipped# At that time he as returning from Greece to his country, in order to consecrate the gold hich he had collected to the God in his temple among the ,yperboreans# As therefore he as passing through Italy, he sa .ythagoras, and identified him as the God of hom he as the priest# :elieving that .ythagoras resembled to no man, but as none other than the God himself, Apollo, both from the venerable associations he sa around him, and from those the priest already !ne , he paid him homage by giving him a sacred dart# -his dart he had ta!en ith him hen he had left his temple, as an implement that ould stand him in good stead in the difficulties that might befall him in so long a Dourney# 6or in passing through inaccessible places, such as rivers, la!es, marshes, mountains and the li!e, it carried him, and by it he as said to have performed lustrations and expelled inds and pestilences from the cities that re0uested him to liberate from such evils# 6or instance, it as said that "acedemon, after having been by him purified, as no longer infected ith pestilence, hich formerly had been endemic, through the miasmatic nature of the ground, in the suffocating heat produced by the overhanging mountain -aygetus, Dust as happens ith 4nossus in 4rete# Cany other similar circumstances ere reported of Abaris# .ythagoras, ho ever, accepted the dart, ithout expressing any ama5ement at the novelty of the thing, nor as!ing hy the dart as presented to him, as if he really as a god# -hen he too! Abaris aside, and sho ed him his golden thigh, as an indication that he as not holly mista!en $in his estimate of his real nature(# -hen .ythagoras described to him several details of his distant ,yperborean temple, as proof of deserving being considered divine# .ythagoras also added that he came $into the regions of mortality( to remedy and improve the condition of the human race, having assumed human form lest men disturbed by the novelty of his transcendency should avoid the discipline he advised# ,e advised Abaris to stay ith him, to aid him in correcting $the manners and morals( of those they might meet, and to share the common resources of himself and associates, hose reason led them to practice the precept that the possessions of friends are common# So Abaris stayed ith him, and as compendiously taught physiology and theologyI and instead of living by the entrails of beasts, he revea%ed to him the art of prognosticating by numbers conceiving this to be

a method purer, more divine and more !indred to the celestial numbers of the Gods# Also he taught Abaris other studies for hich he as fit# ?eturning ho ever to the purpose of the present treatise, .ythagoras endeavored to correct and amend different persons according to their individual abilities# Bnfortunately most of these particulars have neither been publicly transmitted nor is it easy to describe that hich has been transmitted to us concerning him#

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7e must no set forth a fe of the most celebrated points of the .ythagoric discipline, and landmar!s of their distinctive studies# 7hen .ythagoras tested a novice, he considered the latters ability to hold his counsel, =ochemuthein> being his technical term for this# ;amely, hether they could reserve and preserve hat they had heard and learned# ;ext, he examined their modesty, for he as much more anxious that they should be silent, than that they should spea!# 6urther, he tested every other 0uality, for instance, hether they ere astonished by the energies of any immoderate desire or passion# ,is examination of their affectability by desire or anger, their contentiousness or ambition, their inclination to friendship or discord, as by no means superficial# If then after an accurate survey these novices ere approved as of orthy manners, he then directed his attention to their facility in learning, and their memory# ,e examined their ability to follo hat as said, ith rapidity and perspicuityI and then, hether they ere impelled to the disciplines taught them by temperance and love# 6or he laid stress on natural gentleness# -his he called culture# 6erocity he considered hostile to such a !ind of education# 6or savage manners are attended by impudence, shamelessness, intemperance, sloth, stupidity, licentiousness, disgrace, and the li!e, hile their opposite attend mildness and gentleness# -hese things then he considered in ma!ing trial of those that came to him, and in these the "earners ere exercised# -hose that ere adapted to receive the goods of the isdom he possessed he admitted to discipleshipI endeavoring to elevate them to scientific !no ledgeI but if he perceived that any novice as unadapted to them, he expelled him as a stranger and a barbarian# $In the original, the JJ th chapter continues until after the second next paragraph#(

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-he studies hich he delivered to his associates, ere as follo sI for those ho committed themselves to the guidance of his doctrine acted thus# -hey too! solitary morning al!s to places hich happened to be appropriately 0uiet, to temples or groves, or other suitable places# -hey thought it inadvisable to converse ith anyone until they had gained inner serenity, focusing their reasoning po ersI they considered it turbulent to mingle in a cro d as soon as they rose from bedI and that is the reason hy these .ythagoreans al ays selected the most sacred spots to al!# After their morning al! they associated ith each other, especially in temples, or, if this as not possible, in similar places# -his time as employed in the discussion of disciplines and doctrines, and in the correction of manners# $4hapter JJ( After an association so holy, they turned their attention to the health of the body# Cost of them ere rubbed do n, and racedI fe er restled, in gardens or grovesI others in leaping

ith leaden eights on their hands, or in oratorical gesticulations, ith a vie to the strengthening of the body, studiously selecting for this purpose opposite exercises# -hey lunched on bread and honey, or on the honey-comb, avoiding ine# After ards, they held receptions to guests and strangers, conformably to the mandates of the la s, hich as restricted to this time of day# In the afternoon, they once more betoo! themselves to al!ing, yet not alone, as in the morning al!, but in parties of t o or three, rehearsing the disciplines they had learned, and, exercising themselves in attractive studies# After the al!, they patroni5ed the bathI and after hose ablution they gathered in the common dining-room, hich accommodated no more than a group of ten# -hen ere performed libations and sacrifices ith fumigations and incense# -hen follo ed supper, hich closed before the setting of the sun# -hey ate herbs, ra and boiled, mai5e, ine, and every food eatable ith bread# Af any animals la ful to immolate, they ate the flesh, but they rarely partoo! of fish, hich as not useful to them for certain causes animals not naturally noxious ere, neither to be inDured, nor slain# -his supper as follo ed by libations, succeeded by readings# -he youngest read hat the eldest advised, and as they suggested# 7hen they ere about to depart, the cupbearer poured out a libation for them, after hich the eldest ould announce precepts, such as the follo ing1 -hat a mild and fruitful plant should neither be inDured nor corrupted, nor any harmless animal# 6urther, that e should spea! piously, and form suitable conceptions of divine, tutelary and heroic beings, and similarly of parents and benefactors# Also, that e should aid, and not obstruct the enforcement of la s# 7hereafter, all separated, to go home# -hey ore a hite garment, that as pure# -hey also lay on hite and pure beds, the coverlets of hich, ere made of linen, not ool# -hey did not hunt, not underta!e any similar exercise# Such ere the precepts daily delivered to the disciples of .ythagoras, in respect to eating and living#

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-radition tells of another !ind of teaching by .ythagorean maxims pertaining to human opinions and practices, some examples of hich may here be mentioned# It advised to remove strife from untrue friendship# If possible, this as to apply to all friendshipI but at all events to that to ards parents, elders, and benefactors# /xisting friendships ith such as these ould not be preserved $but destroyed( by rivalry, contention, anger and subse0uent graver passions# -he scars and ulcers hich their advice sometimes cause should be minimi5ed as much as possible, hich ill be effected if especially the younger of the t o should learn ho to yield, and subdue his angry emotions# An the other hand, the so-called Fpaedartases,> or corrections and admonitions of the elder to ards the younger, should be made ith much suavity of manners, and great cautionI also ith much solicitude and tact, hich ma!es the reproof all the more graceful and useful# 6aith should never be separated from friendship, hether seriously or in Dest# /xisting friendship cannot survive the insinuation of deceit bet een professors of friendship# ;or should friendship be affected by misfortune or other human vicissitudeI and the only reDection of friendship hich is commendable is that hich follo s definite and incurable vice# Such is an example of the .ythagorean hortatory maxims, hich extended to all the virtues, and the hole of life#

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.ythagoras considered most necessary the use of parables in instruction# Cost of the Gree!s had adopted it, as the most ancientI and it had been both preferentially and in principle employed by the /gyptians, ho had developed it in the most varied manner# In harmony ith this it ill be found that .ythagoras attended to it sedulously, if from the .ythagoric symbols e unfold their significance and arcane intentions, developing their content of rectitude and truth, liberating them from their enigmatic form# 7hen, according to straightfor ard and uniform tradition they are accommodated to the sublime intelligence of these philosophers, they deify beyond human conception# -hose ho came from this school, not only the most ancient .ythagoreans, but also those ho during his old age ere still young, such as .hilolaos, and /urytus, 4harendas and Haleucus, :rysson and the elder Archytas, Aristaeus, "ysis and /mpdocles, Hamoixis and /pimanides, Cilo and "eucippus, Alcmaeon and ,ippasus, and -hymaridas ere all of that age, a multitude of savants, incomparably excellent, --- all these adopted this mode of teaching, both in their conversations, and commentaries and annotations# -heir ritings also, and all the boo!s hich they published, most of hich have been preserved, to our times, ere not composed in popular or vulgar diction, or in a manner usual to all other riters, so as to be immediately understood, but in a ay such as to be not easily apprehended by their readers# 6or they adopted .ythagorass la of reserve, in an arcane manner concealing divine mysteries from the uninitiated, obscuring their ritings and mutual conversations# -he result is that they ho presents theses symbols ithout unfolding their meaning by a unsuitable exposition, runs the danger of exposing them to the charge of being ridiculous and inane, trifling and garrulous# 7hen ho ever they expounded according to these symbols, and made clear and obvious even to the cro ds, then they ill be found analogous to prophetic sayings such as the oracles of the .ythian Apollo# -heir admirable meaning ill inspire those ho unite intellect and scholarliness# It might be ell to mention a fe of them, explain this mode of discipline# ;ot negligently enter into a temple or adore carelessly, even if only at the doors# Sacrifice and adore unshod# Shunning public roads, al! in unfre0uented paths# ;ot ithout light spea! about .ythagoric affairs# Such is a s!etch of the symbolic mode of teaching adopted by .ythagoras#

4,A.-/? JJI< 3I/-A?@ SBGG/S-IA;S


Since food, used properly and regularly, greatly contributes to the best discipline, it may be interesting to consider .ythagorass precepts on the subDect# 6orbidden as generally all food causing flatulence or indigestion, hile he recommended the contrary !ind of food, that preserve and are astringent# 7herefore he recommended the nutritious 0ualities of millet# ?eDected as all food foreign to the Gods, as ithdra ing us from communion ith them# An the other hand, he forbade to his disciples all food that as sacred, as too honorable to subserve common utility# ,e exhorted his disciples to abstain from such things as ere an impediment to prophecy or to the purity and chastity to the soul, or to the habit of temperance, and virtue# "astly, he reDected all things that ere an im-

pediment to sanctity and disturbed or obscured the other purities of the soul, and the phantasms hich occur in sleep# Such ere the general regulations about food# Specially, ho ever, the most contemplative of the philosophers, ho had arrived at the summit of philosophic attainments, ere forbidden superfluous, food such as ine, or unDustifiable food such as as animatedI and not to sacrifice animals to the Gods, nor by any means to inDure animals, but to observe most solicitous Dustice to ards them# ,e himself lived after this manner, abstaining from animal food, and adoring altars undefiled ith blood# ,e as li!e ise careful to prevent others from destroying animals of a nature !indred to ours, and rather corrected and instructed savage animals, than inDured them as punishment# 6urther, he ordered abstaining from animal food even to politiciansI for as they desired to act Dustly to the highest degree, they must certainly not inDure any !indred animals# ,o indeed could they persuade others to act Dustly, if they themselves ere detected in an insatiable avidity in devouring animals allied to us# -hese are conDoined to us by a fraternal alliance through the communion of life, and the same elements, and the commingling of these# /ating of the flesh of certain animals as ho ever permitted to those hose life as not entirely purified, philosophic and sacredI but even for these as appointed a definite time of abstinence# :esides, these ere not to eat the heart, nor the brain, hich entirely forbidden to all .ythagoreans# 6or these organs are predominant and as it ere ladders and seats of isdom and life# 6ood other than animal as by him also considered sacred, on account of the nature of divine reason# -hus his disciples ere to abstain from mallo s, because this plant is the first messenger and signal of the sympathy of celestial ith terrestrial natures# Coreover, the fish melanurus as interdicted because sacred to the terrestrial gods# "i!e ise, the erythinus# :eans also on account of many causes also ere interdicted, physical, psychic and sacred# Cany other similar precepts ere enDoined in the attempt to lead men to virtue through their food#

4,A.-/? JJ< CBSI4 A;3 .A/-?@


.ythagoras as li!e ise of opinion that music, if properly used, greatly contributed to health# 6or he as ont to use it in no careless ay, but as a purification# Indeed, he restricted this ord to signify music used as medicine# About the vernal season he used a melody in this manner# In the middle as placed a person ho played on the lyre, and seated around him in a circle ere those able to sing# -hen the lyrist in the centre struc! up and the singers raised certain paeans, through hich they ere evidently so overDoyed that their manners became elegant and orderly# -his music instead of medicines as also used at certain other times# 4ertain melodies ere devised as remedies against the passions of the soul, as also against despondency and gnashing of the teeth, hich ere invented by .ythagoras as specifics# 6urther, he employed other melodies against anger and rage, and all other aberrations of the soul# Another !ind of modulation as invented against desires# ,e li!e ise used dancing, hich as accompanied by the lyre, instead of the pipe, hich he conceived to have an influence to ards insolence, being theatrical, and by no means liberal# 6or the purpose of correcting the soul, he also used select verses of ,omer and ,esiod#

It is related among the deeds of .ythagoras that once, through a spondaic song, he extinguished the rage of a -auromanian lad, ho after feasting by night, intended to burn the vestibule of the house of his mistress, on seeing her issuing from the house of a rival# $-o this rash attempt the lad had been inflamed, by a .hrygian song, hich ho ever .ythagoras at once suppressed#( As .ythagoras as astronomi5ing he happened to meet this .hrygian piper at an unseasonable time of night, and persuaded him to change his .hrygian song for a spondaic oneI through hich the fury of the lad being immediately repressed, he retired home in an orderly manner, although but a little hile since he had stupidly insulted .ythagoras as on meeting him, ould bear no admonition, and could not be restrained# ,ere is another instance# Anchitus, the host of /mpedocles, had as Dudge, condemned to death the father of a youth, ho rushed on Anchitus ith dra n s ord, intending to slay him# /mpedocles changed the youths intention by singing, to his lyre, that verse of ,omer $Ad,G(1 =;epenthe, ithout gall, oer every ill Ablivion spreadsI -= thus saving his host Anchitus from death, and the youth from committing murder# It is said that from that time on the youth became one of the most faithful disciples of .ythagoras# -he .ythagoreans distinguished three states of mind, called e$artysis, or readinessI synarmoge, or fitness, and epaphe, or contact, hich converted the soul to contrary passions, and these could be produced by certain appropriate songs# 7hen they retired, they purified their reasoning po ers from the noises and perturbations to hich they had been exposed during the day, by certain odes and hymns hich produced tran0uil sleep, and fe , but good dreams# :ut hen they arose from slumbers, they again liberated themselves from the da5edness and torpor of sleep by songs of another !ind# Sometimes the passions of the soul and certain diseases ere, as they said, genuinely lured by enchantments, by musical sounds alone, ithout ords# -his is indeed probably the origin of the general use of this ord epode# -hus therefore, through music .ythagoras produced the most beneficial correction of manners and lives#

4,A.-/? JJ<I -,/A?/-I4A" CBSI4 $from ;icomachus(


7hile describing .ythagorass isdom in instructing his disciples, e must not fail to note that he invented the harmonic science and ratios# :ut to explain this e must go a little bac! ards in time# Ance as he as intently considering music, and reasoning ith himself hether it ould be possible to devise some instrumental assistance to the sense of hearing, so as to systemati5e it, as sight is made precise by the compass rule, and MtelescopeN, or touch is made rec!onable by balance and measures, - so thin!ing of these things .ythagoras happened to pass by a bra5iers shop, here providentially he heard the hammers beating out a piece of iron on the anvil, producing sounds that harmoni5ed, except one# :ut he recogni5ed in these sounds, the concord of the octave, the fifth, and the fourth# ,e sa that the sound bet een the fourth and the fifth, ta!en by itself, as a dissonance, and yet completed the greater sound among them# 3elighted, therefore, to find that the thing he as anxious to discover had by divine assistance succeeded, he ent into the smithy, and by various experiments discovered that the difference of sound arose from the magnitude of the hammers, but not

from the force of the stro!es, nor from the shape of the hammers, nor from the change of position of the beaten iron# ,aving then accurately examined the eights and the s ing of the hammers, he returned home, and fixed one sta!e diagonally to the alls, lest some difference should arise from there being several of them, or from some difference in the material of the sta!es# 6rom this sta!e he then suspended four gut-strings, of similar materials, si5e, thic!ness and t ist# A eight as suspended from the bottom of each# 7hen the strings ere e0ual in length, he struc! t o of them simultaneously, he reproduced the former intervals, forming different pairs# ,e discovered that the string stretched by the greatest eight, hen compared ith that stretched by the smallest eight, the interval of an octave# -he eight of the first as t elve pounds, and that of the latter six# :eing therefore in a double ratio, it formed the octave, hich as made plain by the eights themselves# -hen he found that the string from hich the greater eight as suspended compared ith that from hich as suspended the eight next to the smallest, and hich eight as eight pounds, produced the interval !no n as the fifth# ,ence he discovered that this interval is in a ratio of one and a half to one, or three to t o, in hich ratio the eights also ere to each other# -he he found that the string stretched by the greatest eight produced, hen compared ith that hich as next to it, in eight, namely, nine pounds, the interval called the fourth, analogous to the eights# -his ratio, therefore, he discovered to be in the ratio of one and a third to one, or four to threeI hile that of the from string from hich a eight of nine pounds as suspended to the string hich had the smallest eight, again in a ratio of three to t o, hich is ) to &# In li!e manner, the string next to that from hich the small eight as suspended, as to that hich had the smallest eight, in the ratio of G to 2 $being ' to &( but to the string hich had the greatest eight, in a ratio of 2 to *, being %* to '# ,ence that hich is bet een the fifth and fourth, and by hich the fifth exceeds the fourth is proved to be as nine is to eight# :ut either ay it may be proved that the octave is a system consisting of the fifth in conDunction ith fourth, Dust as the double ratio consists of three to t o, and four to threeI as for instance %*, ' and &I or, conversely of the fourth and the fifth, as in the double ratio of four to three and three to t o, as for instance, %*, ) and & therefore, and in this order, having confirmed both his hand and hearing to the suspended eights, and having established according to them the ratio of the proportions, by an easy artifice he transferred the common suspension of the strings from the diagonal sta!e to the head of the instrument hich he called =chordotenon,> or string-stretcher# -hen by the aid of pegs he produced a tension of the strings analogous to that effected by the eights# /mploying this method, therefore, as a basis, and as it ere an infallible rule, he after ard extended the experiment to other instruments, namely, the stri!ing of pans, to pipes and Mr----N, to monochords, triangles, and the li!e in all of hich he found the same ratio of numbers to obtain# -hen he named the sound hich participates in the number &, tonicI that hich participates of the number ', and is four to three, sub-dominantI that hich participates of the number ), and is one tone higher then the sub-dominant, he called, dominant, and ) to 'I but that hich participates of the number %*, octave# -hen he filled up the middle spaces ith analogous sounds in diatonic order, and formed an octochord from symmetric numbersI from the double, the three to t o, the four to three, and from the difference of these, the ' to )# -hus he discovered the harmonic progression, hich tends by a certain physical necessity from the lo est to the most acute sound, diatonically# "ater, from the diatonic he progressed to the chromatic and enharmonic orders, as e shall later sho hen e treat of music# -his diatonic scale ho ever, seems to have the follo ing progression, a semi-tone, a tone, and a toneI and this is the fourth, being a system consisting of t o tones, and of hat is called a semi-tone# After ards, adding another tone, e produce the fifth, hich is a system consisting of three tones and a semi-tone# ;ext to this is the system of a semi-tone, a tone, and a tone, forming another fourth, that is, another four to three ratio# -hus in the more ancient octave indeed, all the sounds from the lo est pitch hich are ith respect to each other fourths, produce every here ith each other fourthsI the semi-tone, by transition, receiving the first, middle and third place, according

to that tetrachord# ;o in the .ythagoric octave, ho ever, hich by conDunction is a system of the tetrachord and pentachord, but if disDoined is a system of t o tetrachords separated from each other, the progression is from the gravest to the most acute sound# ,ence all sounds that by their distance from each other are fifths, ith each other produce the interval of the fifthI the semi-tone successively proceeding into four places, the first, second, third, and fourth# -his is the ay in hich music is said to have been discovered by .ythagoras# ,aving reduced it to a system, he delivered it to his disciples to utili5e it to produce things as beautiful as possible# %This story of the smithy is an ancient error& as pieces of iron gi'e the same note (hether struck by hea'y or light hammers. Pythagoras may therefore ha'e brought the disco'ery (ith him from Egypt& though he may also ha'e de'eloped the further details mentioned in this chapter.)

4,A.-/? JJ<II CB-BA" .A"I-I4A" ASSIS-A;4/


Cany deeds of the .ythagoreans in the political sphere are deservedly praised# At one time the 4rotonians ere in the habit of ma!ing funerals and interments too sumptuous# -hereupon one of them said to the people that once he had heard .ythagoras converse about divine natures, during hich he had observed that the Alympian divinities attended to the dispositions of the sacrificers, and not to the multitude of the offerings# -he terrestrial gods, on the contrary, as being interested in less important matters, reDoiced in lamentations and ban0uets, libations, delicacies, and obse0uial pompI and as proof thereof, the divinity of ,ades is called .luto from his ish to receive# -hose that honor him slenderly $he does not much care for(, and permits to stay 0uite a little hileI but he hastens to dra do n those disposed to spend profusely on funeral solemnities, that he may obtain the honors offered in commemoration the dead# -he result as that the 4rotonians that heard this advice ere persuaded that if they conducted themselves moderately in misfortunes, they ould be promoting their o n salvation, but ould die prematurely if immoderate in such expenses# A certain difference arose about an affair in hich there as no itness# M.ythagoras onN A .ythagorean as made arbitratorI and he led both litigants to a certain monument, announcing that the man buried as exceedingly e0uitable# -he one prayed that he might receive much re ard for this good life, hile the other declared that the defunct as no better-off for his opponents prayers# -he .ythagorean condemned the latter, confirming that he ho praised the dead man for his orth had earned credibility# In a cause of great moment, this .ythagorean decided that one of the t o ho has agreed to settle that affair by arbitration, should pay four talents, hile the other should receive t o# -hen from him ho had received t o he too! three, and gave them to the other, so that each had been mulcted one talent $the text is confused(# - o persons had fraudulently deposited a garment ith a oman ho belonged to a court of Dustice, and told her that she as not to give it to either of them unless both ere present# "ater, ith intent to defraud, one claimed and got the common deposit, saying he had the consent of the other party# -he other one turned informer and related the compact made at the beginning to the magistrates# A certain .ythagorean, ho ever, as arbitrator, decided that the oman as guiltless, construing the claimed assent as constructive presence# - o persons, ho had seemed to be great friends, but ho had gotten to suspect each other through calumnies of a sycophant, ho told the one the other had ta!en undue liberties ith his ife# A .ythagorean happened to enter the smithy here the inDured party as finding fault ith the blac!smith for not having sufficiently sharpened a s ord he had brought him for that purpose# -he .y-

thagorean suspecting the use to hich the s ord as be put said, =-he s ord is sharper than all things except calumny#> -his caused the prospective avenger to consider that he should not rashly sin against his friend ho as ithin on an invitation $for the purpose of !illing him(# A stranger in the temple of Aesculapius accidentally dropped his belt, on hich ere gold ornaments# 7hen he tried to pic! it up, he as informed that the temple-regulations forbad pic!ing up anything on the floor# ,e as indignant, and a .ythagorean advised him to remove the golden ornaments hich ere not touching the floor leaving the belt hich as# $-ext corrupt(# 3uring a public spectacle, some cranes fle over the theatre# Ane sailor said to his companion, =3o you see the itnessesK> A .ythagorean near by hailed them into a court presided over by a thousand magistrates, here, being examined they confessed to having thro n certain boys into the sea, ho, on dro ning had called on the cranes, flying above them, to itness to the deed# -his story is mista!enly located else here, but it really happened at 4rotona# 4ertain recent disciples of .ythagoras ere at variance ith each other, and the Dunior came to the senior, declaring there as no reason to refer the matter to an arbitrator, inasmuch as all they needed to do as to dismiss their anger# -he elder agreed, but regretted he had not been the first to ma!e that proposition# 7e might relate here the story of 3amon and .hinthias, of .lato and Archytas, and of 4linias and .rorus# At present ho ever e shall limit ourselves to that of /ubulus the Cessenian, ho, hen sailing home ard, as ta!en captive by the -yrrhenians, here he as recogni5ed by a .ythagorean named ;ausithus, ho redeemed him from the pirates, and sent him home in safety# 7hen the 4arthaginians ere about to send five thousand soldiers into a desert island, the 4arthaginian Ciltiades sa among them the Argive .ythagorean .ossiden# Approaching him, and ithout revealing his intentions, he advised him to return home ith all possible haste# ,e placed him in a ship then sailing near the shore, supplied him ith the travel necessaries, and thus saved him from the impending danger# ,e ho ould try to relate all the fine deeds that beautified the mutual relations of the .ythagoreans ould find the tas! exceeding space and patience# I shall therefore pass on to sho that some of the .ythagoreans ere competent administrators, adapted to rule# Cany ere custodians of the la s, and ruled over certain Italian cities, infolding to them, and advising them to adopt the most salutary measures, hile themselves refusing all pay# -hough greatly calumniated, their probity and the desire of the citi5ens prevailed to ma!e them administrators# At this time the best governed states seem to have been in Italy and Sicily# Ane of the best legislators, 4hatondas the 4atanean, as a .ythagorean, and so ere the celebrated "ocrian legislators Haleucus and -imares# .ythagoreans also ere those ?heginic polities, called the Gymnasiarchic, named after -heocles# /xcelling in studies and manners hich ere then adopted by their fello -citi5ens, ere .hytius, -heocles, /lecaon and Aristocrates# Indeed, it is said that .ythagoras as the originator of all political erudition, hen he said that nothing existent pure, inasmuch as earth participates of fire, fire of air, and air of ater, and ater of spirit# "i!e ise the beautiful participates in the deformed, the Dust of the unDust, and so onI so that from this principle human impulse may $by proper direction( be turned in either direction# ,e also said that there ere t o motions, one of the body hich is irrational, and one of the soul, hich is the result of deliberate choice# ,e also said polities might be li!ened to three lines hose extremities Doin, forming a $triangle containing( one right angle $the lines being as G, 2 and *(I so that one of them is as G to 2, another as 9 to *, and the other $2( is the arithmetical medium bet een * and G# ;o hen, by reasoning, e study the mutual relations of these lines, and the places under them, e shall find that they represent the best image of a polity# .lato plagiari5ed, for in his ?epublic he clearly says, =-hat the result of the G to 2 ratio, conDoined

ith the 9 ratio, produce t o harmonies#> $ -his means that( he cultivated the moderation of the passions, and the middle path bet een extremes, rendering happy the life of his disciples by relating them to ideals of the good# 7e are also told that he persuaded the 4rotonians to give up associations ith courtesans and prostitutes# 4rotonian ives came to 3eine, the ife of the .ythagorean :rontinus, ho as a ise and splendid oman, the author of the maxim that it as proper for omen to sacrifice on the same day they had risen from the embraces of their husbands, ---$ hich some ascribe to .ythagoras ife -heano(, --- and entreated to persuade .ythagoras to discourse to them on their continence as due to their husbands# -his she did, and .ythagoras accordingly made an address to the 4rotonians, hich successfully ended the then prevalent incontinence# 7hen ambassadors came from Sybaris to 4rotona to demand the $return of ( the exiles, and .ythagoras, seeing one of the ambassadors ho ith his o n hand had slain one of .ythagorass friends, made no ans er hatever# :ut hen this man insisted on an explanation and addressed .ythagoras, the latter said it as unla ful to converse ith murderers# -his induced many to believe he as Apollo# All these stories, together ith hat e mentioned above about the destruction of tyrants, and the democrati5ation of the cities of Italy and Sicily, and many other circumstances, are elo0uent of the benefits conferred on man!ind by .ythagoras, in political respects#

4,A.-/? JJ<III 3I<I;I-@ A6 .@-,AGA?AS


,encefor ard e shall confine ourselves to the or!s flo ing from .ythagorass virtues# As usual, e shall begin from the divinities, endeavoring to exhibit his piety, and marvelous deeds# Af his piety, let this be a specimen1 that he !ne hat his soul as, hence it came into the body, and also its former lives, of this giving the most evident indications# Again, once passing over the river ;essus along ith many associates, he addressed the river, hich, in a distinct and clear voice, in the hearing of all his associates, ans ered, =,ail, .ythagorasL> 6urther, all his biographers insist that during the same day he as present in Cetapontum in Italy, and at -auromenium in Sicily, discoursing ith his disciples in both places, although these cities are separate, both by land and sea by many stadia, the traveling over hich consumes many days# It is also a matter of common report that sho ed his golden thigh to the ,yperborean Abaris, ho said that he resembled the Apollo orshipped among the ,yperboreans, and of hom Abaris as the priestI and that he had done this so that he as not deceived therin# A myriad of other more admirable and divine particulars are li!e ise unanimously and uniformly related of the man, such as infallible predictions of earth0ua!es, rapid expulsions of pestilences, and hurricanes, instantaneous cessations of hail, tran0uili5ations of the aves of rivers and seas, in order that his disciples might the more easily pass over them# -he po er of effecting miracles of this !ind as achieved by /mpedocles of Agrigentum, /pimenides the 4retan, and Abaris the ,yperborean, and these persons performed them in many places# -heir deeds ere so manifest that /mpedocles as surnamed a ind-stiller, /pimenides an expiator, and Abaris an air- al!er, because, carried on the dart given him by the ,yperborean Apollo, he passed over rivers, and seas and inaccessible places li!e one carried on air# Cany thin! that .ythagoras did the same thing, hen in the same day he discoursed ith his disciples at Cetapontum and -auromenium# It is also said that he predicted

there ould be an earth0ua!e from the ater of a ell hich he had tastedI and that a ship as sailing ith a prosperous ind, ould be submerged in the sea# -hese are sufficient proofs of his piety# .itching my thoughts on a higher !ey, I ish to exhibit the principle of the orship of the Gods, established by .ythagoras and his disciples1 that the mar! aimed at by all plans, hether to do or not to do, is consent ith the divinity# -he principle of their piety, and indeed their hole life is arranged ith a vie to follo God# -heir philosophy explicitly asserts that men act ridiculously in searching for good from any source other than GodI and that in respect the conduct of most men resembles that of a man ho, in a country governed by a !ing should reverence one of the city magistrates, neglecting him ho is the ruler of all of them# Since God exists as the lord of all things, it is evident and ac!no ledged that good must be re0uested of him# All men impart good to those they love, and admire, and the contrary to those they disli!e# /vidently e should do those things in hich God delights# ;ot easy, ho ever, is it for a man to !no hich these are, unless he obtains this !no ledge from one ho has heard God, or has heard God himself, or procures it through divine art# ,ence also the .ythagoreans ere studious of divination, hich is an interpretation of the benevolence of the Gods# -hat such an employment is orth hile ill be admitted by one ho believes in the GodsI but he ho thin!s that either of these is folly ill also be of opinion that both are foolish# Cany of the precepts of the .ythagoreans derived from the mysteries# .ythagoras should be received as referring not to a mere man, but to a super-man# -his is also hat is meant by their maxim, that man& bird& ar*--+ another th*---+ thing are bipeds, thereby referring to .ythagoras# Such, therefore, on account of his piety, as .ythagorasI and such he as truly thought to be# Aaths ere religiously observed by the .ythagoreans, ho ere mindful of that precept of theirs, =As duly by la , thy homage pay first to the immortal GodsI -hen to thy oath, and last to the heroes illustrious#> 6or instance1 A .ythagorean as in court, and as!ed to ta!e an oath# ?ather than to disobey this principle, although the oath ould have been a religiously permitted one, he preferred to pay to the defendant a fine of three talents# .ythagoras taught that no occurrence happened by chance or luc!, but rather conformably to divine .rovidence, and especially so to good and pious men# -his is ell illustrated by a story from Androcidess treatise on .ythagoric symbols about the -arentine .ythagorean -hymaridas# ,e as happening to be sailing a ay from his country, his friends ere all present to bid him fare ell, and to embrace him# ,e had already embar!ed hen someone cried to him, =A -hyramidas, I pray that the Gods may shape all your circumstances accord into your ishesL> :ut he retorted, =.redict me better thingsI namely, that hat may happen to me may be conformable to the ill of the Gods L> 6or he thought it more scientific and prudent not to resist or grumble against divine providence# If as!ed about the source hence these men derived so much piety, e must ac!no ledge that the .ythagorean number-theology as clearly fore-shado ed, to some extent, in the Arphic ritings# ;or is it to be doubted that hen .ythagoras composed his treatise Concerning the ,ods, he received assistance from Arpheus, herefore indeed that theological treatise is sub-titled, the learned and trust orthy .ythagoreans assert, by TelaugesI ta!en from the commentaries left by .ythagoras himself to his daughter, 3amo, -elaugess sister, and hich, after her death, ere said to have been given to :itale, 3amos daughter and to -elauges, the son of .ythagoras and husband of :itale,

hen he as of mature age for he as at .ythagorass death left very young ith his mother -heano# ;o ho can Dudge ho it as that delivered hat there is said of the Gods from the Sacred 3iscourse, or -reatise on the Gods, hich bears both titles# 6or e read1 =.ythagoras, the son of Cnesarchus as instructed in hat pertains to the Gods hen he celebrated orgies in the -hracian "ibethra, being therein initiated by AglaophemusI and that Arpheus, the son of 4alliope, having learned isdom from his mother in the mountain .angaeus, said that the eternal essence of number is the most providential principle of the universe, of heaven and earth, and of the intermediate natureI and farther still, that it is the root of the permanency of divine natures, of Gods, and divinities#> 6rom this it is evident that he learned from the Arphic riters that the essence of the Gods is defined by number# =-hrough the same numbers also, he produced a onderful prognostication and orship of the Gods, both of hich are particularly allied to numbers#> As conviction is best produced by an obDective fact, the above principle may be proved as follo s# 7hen Abaris performed sacred rites according to his customs, he procured a fore!no ledge of events, hich is studiously cultivated by all the :arbarians, by sacrificing animals, especially birdsI for they thin! that the entrails of such animals are particularly adapted to this purpose# .ythagoras, ho ever, not ishing to suppress his ardent pursuit of the truth, but to guide it into a safer ay, ithout blood and slaughter, and also because he thought that a coc! as sacred to the sun, =furnished him ith a consummate !no ledge of all truth, through arithmetical science#> 6rom piety, also, he derived faith concerning the Gods# 6or .ythagoras al ays insisted that nothing marvelous concerning Gods or divine teachings should be disbelieved, inasmuch as the Gods are competent to effect anything# :ut the divine teachings in hich e must believe are those delivered by .ythagoras# -he .ythagoreans therefore assumed and believed hat they taught $on the priori ground that( they ere not the offspring of false opinion# ,ence /urytus the 4rotonian, the disciple of .hilolaus, said that a shepherd feeding his sheep near .hilolauss tomb had heard someone singing# :ut the person to hom this as related did not at all 0uestion this, merely as!ing hat !ind of harmony it as# .ythagoras himself also, being as!ed by a certain person the significance of the converse ith his defunct father in sleep, ans ered that it meant nothing# 6or neither is anything portended by your spea!ing ith me, said he# .ythagoras ore clean hite garments, and used clean hite coverlets, avoiding the oolen ones# -his custom he enDoined on his disciples# In spea!ing of super-human natures, he used honorable appellations, and ords of good omen, on every occasion mentioning and reverencing the GodsI so, hile at supper, he performed libations to the divinities, and taught his disciples , daily to celebrate the super-human beings ith hymns# ,e attended li!e ise to rumors and omens, prophecies and lots, and in short to all unexpected circumstances# Coreover, he sacrificed to the Gods ith millet, ca!es, honeycombs, and fumigations# :ut he did not sacrifice animals, nor did any of the contemplative philosophers# ,is other disciples, ho ever, the ,earers and the .oliticians, ere by him ordered to sacrifice animals such as coc!, or a lamb, or some other young animal, but not fre0uentlyI but they ere prohibited from sacrificing oxen# Another indication of the honor he paid the Gods as his teaching that his disciples must never use the names of the divinities uselessly in s earing# 6or instance, Syllus, one of the 4rotonian .ythagoreans, paid a fine rather than s ear, though he could have done so ithout violating the truth# Eust as the .ythagoreans abstained from using the names of the Gods, also, through reverence, they ere un illing to name .ythagoras, indicating him hom they meant by the invention of the Tetraktys# Such is the form of an oath ascribed to them1

=I s ear by the discoverer of the Tetraktys, hich is the spring of all our isdomI -he perennial fount and root of ;ature#> In short, .ythagoras imitated the Arphic mode of riting, and $pious( disposition, the ay they honored the Gods representingI them images and in brass not resembling our $human form(, but the divine receptacle $of the sphere(, because they comprehend and provide for all things, being of a nature and form similar to the universe# :ut his divine philosophy and orship as compound, having learned much from the Arphic follo ers, but much also from the /gyptian priests, the 4haldeans and Cagi, the mysteries of /leusis, Imbrus, Samothracia, and 3elos and even the 4eltic and Iberian# It is also said that .ythagorass Sacred 3iscourse is current among the "atins, not being read to or by all, but only by those ho are disposed to learn, the best things, avoiding all that is base# ,e ordered that libations should be made thrice, observing that Apollo delivered oracles from the tripod, the triad being the first number# Sacrifices to <enus ere to be made on the sixth day, because this number is the first to parta!e of every number and hen divided in every possible ay, receives the po er of the numbers subtracted, and those that remain# Sacrifices to ,ercules, ho ever, should be made on the eighth day, of the month, counting from the beginning, commemorating his birth in the seventh month# ,e ordained that those ho entered into a temple should be clothed in a clean garment, in hich no one had sleptI because sleep, Dust as and brac! and bro n, indicates sluggishness, hile cleanliness is a sign, of e0uality and Dustice in reasoning# If blood should be found unintentionally spilled in a temple, there should be made a lustration, either in a golden vessel, or ith sea- aterI gold being the most beautiful of all things and the measure of exchange of everything elseI hile the latter as derived from the principle of moistness, the food of the first and more common matter# Also, children should not be brought forth in a templeI here the divine part of the soul should not be bound to the body# An a festal day neither should the hair be cut, nor the nails paredI as it as un orthy to disturb the orship of the Gods, to attend to our o n advantage# ;or should lice be !illed in a temple, as divine po er should not participate in anything superfluous or degrading# -he Gods should be honored ith cedar, laurel, cypress, oa! and myrtleI nor should the body be purified ith these, nor any of them be cut ith the teeth# ,e also ordered that hat is boiled should not be roasted, signifying hereby that mildness has no need of anger# -he bodies of the dead he did not suffer to be burned, herein follo ing the Cagi, being un illing that anything $so( divine $as fire( should be mingled ith mortal nature# ,e thought it holy for the dead to be carried out in hite garmentsI thereby obscurely prefiguring the simple and first nature, according to number, and the principle of all things# Above all, he ordained that an oath should be ta!en religiouslyI since that hich is behind $the futurity of punishment( is long# ,e said it as much more holy to be a man inDured than to !ill a manI for Dudgment is pronounced in ,ades, here the soul and its essence, and the first nature of things is correctly appraised#

,e ordered that coffins should not be made of cypress, either because the scepter of Eupiter as made of this ood, or for some other mystic reason# "ibations ere to be performed before the altar of Eupiter the Savior, of ,ercules, and the 3ioscuriI thus celebrating Eupiter as the presiding cause and leader of the mealI ,ercules as the po er of ;ature, and the 3ioscuri, as the symphony of all things# "ibations should not be offered ith closed eyes, as nothing beautiful should be underta!en ith bashfulness and shame# 7hen it thundered, one ought to touch the earth, in remembrance of the generation of things# -emples should be entered from places on the right handI and left from the left handI for the right hand is the principle of hat is called the odd number, and is divineI hile the left hand is a symbol of the even number, and of dissolution# Such are many of the inDunctions he is said to have adopted in the pursuance of piety# Ather particulars hich have been omitted may be inferred from hat has been given# ,ence the subDect be closed#

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-he .ythagoreans 4ommentaries best express his isdomI being accurate, concise, savoring of the ancient elegance of style, and deducing the conclusions ex0uisitely# -hey contain the most condensed conceptions, and are diversified in form and matter# -he are both accurate and elo0uent, full of clear and indubitable arguments, accompanied by scientific demonstration, in syllogistic formI as indeed ill be discovered by any careful reader# In his ritings, .ythagoras, from a supernal source, delivers the science of intelligible natures and Gods# After ards, he teaches the hole of physics, completely unfolding ethics and logic# -hen come various discipline and other excellent sciences# -here is nothing pertaining to human !no ledge hich is not discussed in these encyclopedic ritings# If therefore it is ac!no ledged that of the $.ythagoric( ritings hich are no in circulation, some ere ritten by .ythagoras himself, hile others consist of hat he as heard to say, and on this account are anonymous, though of .ythagoric originI - if all this be so, it is evident that he as abundantly s!illed in all isdom# It is said that hile he as in /gypt he very much applied himself to geometry# 6or /gyptian life bristles ith geometric problemI since, from remote periods, hen the Gods ere fabulously said to have reigned in /gypt, on account of the rising and falling of the ;ile, the s!illful have been compelled to measure all the /gyptian land hich they cultivatedI herefrom indeed the sciences name, geometry, as derived# :esides, the /gyptians studied the theories of the celestial orbs, in hich .ythagoras also as s!illed# All theorems about lines seem to have been derived from that country# All that relates to numbers and computation is said to have been discovered in .hoenicia# -he theorems about the heavenly bodies have by some been referred to the /gyptians and 4haldeans in common# 7hatever .ythagoras received, ho ever, he developed further, he arranged them for learners, and personally demonstrated them ith perspicuity and elegance# ,e as the first to give a name to philosophy, describing it as a desire for and love of isdom, hich latter he defined as the science of obDectified truth# :eings he defined as immaterial and eternal natures, alone possessing a po er that is efficacious, as are incorporeal essences# -he rest of things are beings only figuratively, and considered such only through the participation of real beingsI such are

corporeal and material forms, hich arise and decay ithout ever truly existing# ;o isdom is the science of things hich are truly beingsI but not of the mere figurative entities# 4orporeal natures are neither the obDects of science, nor admit of a stable !no ledge, since they are infinite, and by science incomprehensible, and hen compared ith universals resemble non-beings, and are in a genuine sense non-definable# Indeed it is impossible to conceive that there should be a science of things not naturally the obDects of scienceI nor could a science of non-existent things prove attractive to anyone# 6ar more desirable ill be things hich are genuine beings, existing in invariable permanency, and al ays ans ering to their description# 6or the perception of obDects existing only figuratively, never truly being hat they seem to be, follo s the apprehension of real beings, Dust as the !no ledge of particulars is posterior to the science of universals# 6or, as said Archytas, he ho properly !no s universals, ill also have a clear perception, of the nature of particulars, -hat is hy beings are not alone, only-begotten, nor simple, but various and multiform# 6or those genuine beings are intelligible and incorporeal natures, hile others are corporeal, falling under the perception of sense, communicate ith that hich is really existent only by participation# 4oncerning all these, .ythagoras formed sciences the most apposite, leaving nothing uninvestigated# :esides, he developed the master-sciences of method, common to all of them, such as logic, definitions, and analysis, as may be gathered from the .ythagoric commentaries# -o his intimates he as ont to utter symbolically oracular sentences, herein the smallest number of ords ere pregnant ith the most multifarious significance, not unli!e certain oracles of the .ythian Apollo, or li!e nature herself in tiny seeds, the former exhibiting conceptions, and the latter effects innumerable in multitude, and difficult to understand# Such as .ythagorass o n maxim, =-he beginning is the half of the hole#> In this and similar utterances the most divine .ythagoras concealed the spar!s of truth, as in a treasury, for those capable of being !indled thereby# In this brevity of diction he deposited an extension of theory most ample, and difficult to grasp, as in the maxim, =All things accord in number,> hich he fre0uently repeated to his disciples# Another one as, =6riendship is e0ualityI /0uality is friendship#> ,e even used single ords, such as =cosmos,> or, adorned orldI or, philosophyLQ or further, =TetractysL> All these and many other similar inventions ere by .ythagoras devised for the benefit and amendment of his associatesI and by those that understood them they ere considered to be so orthy of veneration , and so divinely inspired, that those ho d elt in the common auditorium adopted this oath1 =I s ear by the discoverer of the -etra!tys, hich is the spring of all our isdomI -he perennial founts and root of ;ature#> -his as the form of his so admirable isdom# Af the sciences honored by the .ythagoreans not the least ere music, medicine and divination# MCay be missing textN# # # # Af medicine, the most emphasi5ed part as dieteticsI and they ere most scrupulous in its exercise# 6irst, they sought to understand the physical symptoms of e0uanimity, labor, eating and repose# -hey ere nearly the first to ma!e a business of the preparation of food, and to describe its methods# Core fre0uently than their predecessors the .ythagoreans used poultices, ho ever disapproving more of medicated ointments, hich they chiefly limited to the cure of ulcerations# Cost they disapproved of cuts and cauteri5ations# Some diseases they cured by incantations# Cusic, if used in a proper manner, as by .ythagoras supposed to contribute greatly to health# -he .ythagoreans li!e ise employed select sentences of ,omer and ,esiod for the amendment of souls# -he .ythagoreans ere habitually silent and prompt to hear, and he on praise ho listened $most effectively(# :ut that hich they had learned and heard as supposed to be retained and preserved

in the memory# Indeed, this ability of learning and remembering determined the amount of disciplines and lectures, inasmuch as learning is the po er by hich !no ledge is obtained, and remembering that by hich it is preserved# ,ence memory as greatly honored, abundantly exercised, and given much attention# In learning also it as understood that they ere not to dismiss hat they ere taught, till its first rudiments had been entirely mastered# -his as their method of recalling hat they daily heard# ;o .ythagorean rose from his bed till he had first recollected the transactions of the day beforeI and he accomplished this by endeavoring to remember hat he first said, or heard, or ordered done by his domestics before risingI or hat as the second or third thing he had said, heard or commanded# -he same method as employed for the remainder of the day# ,e ould try to remember the identity of the first person he had met on leaving home, and ho as the secondI and ith, hom he had discoursed first, second or third# So also he did ith everything else, endeavoring to resume in his memory all the events of the hole day, and in the very same order in hich each of them had occurred# If ho ever, after rising there as enough leisure to do so, the .ythagoreans reminisced about day before yesterday# -hus they made it a point to exercise their memories systematicallyI considering that the ability of remembering as most important for experience, science and isdom# -his .ythagorean school filled Italy ith philosophersI and this place hich before as un!no n, as later, on account of .ythagoras called Greater Greece, hich became most famous for is philosophers, poets and legislators# Indeed, the rhetorical arts, demonstrative reasonings and legislation as entirely transferred from Greece# As to physics, e might mention the principal physiologists, /mpedocles and the /lean .armenides# As to ethical maxims, this is /picharmus, hose conceptions are used by all philosophers# -hus much concerning the isdom of .ythagoras, ho in a certain respect he very much impelled all his hearers to its pursuit, so far as they ere adapted to its participation, and ho perfectly he delivered it#

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,o he cultivated and delivered Dustice to humanity e shall best understand if e trace it to its first principle, and ultimate cause# Also e must investigate the ultimate cause of inDustice, hich ill sho us ho he avoided it, and hat methods he adopted to ma!e Dustice fructify in his soul# -he principle of Dustice is mutuality and e0uality, through hich, in a ay most nearly approximating union of body and soul, all men become cooperative, and distinguish the mine from the thine, as is also testified by .lato, ho learned this from .ythagoras# .ythagoras effected this in the best possible manner by erasing from common life every thing private, hile increasing everything held in common, so far as ultimate possessions, hich after all are the causes of tumult and sedition $Among his disciplesM(,N everything, as common, and the same to all, no one possessing anything private# ,e himself indeed, ho most approved of this communion, made use of common possessions in the most Dust mannerI but disciples ho changed their minds as given bac! his original contribution, ith an addition, and left# -hus .ythagoras established Dustice in the best possible manner, beginning at its very first principle# In the next place, Dustice is introduced by association ith other people, hile inDustice is, produced by unsociability and neglect of other people# 7ishing therefore to spread this sociability as far as possibility among men, he ordered his discipled to extend it to the most !indred animal races, considering these as their intimates and friends, hich ould forbid inDuring, slaying, or eating any of

them# ,e ho recogni5es the community of elements and life bet een men and animals ill in much greater degree establish fello ship ith those ho share a !indred and rational soul# -his also sho s that .ythagoras prompted Dustice beginning from its very root principle# Since lac! of money often compels men sometimes to act contrary to Dustice, he tried to avoid this by practising such economy that his necessary expenses might be liberal, and yet retain a Dust sufficiency# 6or as cities are only magnificent households, so the arrangement of domestic concerns is the principle of all good order in cities# 6or instance, it as said that he himself as the heir to the property of Alceus, ho died after completing an embassy to the "acedemoniansI but that in spite of this .ythagoras as admired for his economy no less than for his philosophy# Also hen he married, he so educated the daughter that as born to him, and ho after ards married the 4rotonian Ceno, that hile unmarried she as a choir-leader, hile as ife she held the first place among those ho orshipped at altars# It is also said that the Cetapontines preserved .ythagorasRs memory by turning his house into a temple of 4eres, and the street in hich he lived into a museum# :ecause inDustice also fre0uently results from insolence, luxury, and la lessness, he daily exhorted his disciples to support la s, and shun la lessness# ,e considered luxury the first evil that usually glides into houses and citiesI the second insolence, the third destruction# "uxury therefore should by all possible means be ecluded and expelledI and that from birth men should be accustomed to live temperately, and in a manly manner# ,e also added the necessity of purification from bad language, hether it be piteous, or provocative, reviling, insolent or scurrilous# :esides this household Dustice, he added another and most beautiful !ind, the legislative, hich both orders hat to do and hat not to do# "egislative Dustice is more beautiful that the Dudicial !ind, resembling medicine hich heals the diseased, but differs in this that it is preventive, planning the health of the soul from afar# -hat is hy the best of legislators graduated from the school of .ythagoras1 first, 4harondas the 4atanean, and next Haleucus and -imaratus, ho legislated for the "ocrians# :esides these ere -heaetetus and ,elicaon, Aristocrates and .hytius, ho legislated for the ?hegini# All these aroused from the citi5ens honors comparable to those offered to divinities# 6or .ythagoras did not act li!e ,eraclitus, ho agreed to rite la s for the /phesians, but also petulantly added that in those la s he ould order the citi5ens to hang themselves# 7hat la s .ythagoras endeavored to establish ere benevolent and scientific# ;or need e specially admire those $above mentioned professional( legislators# .ythagoras had a slave by the name of Hamolxis, hailing from -hrace# After hearing .ythagorass discourses, and obtaining his freedom, he returned to the Getae, and there, as has already been mentioned at the beginning of this or!, exhorted the citi5ens to fortitude, persuading then that the soul is immortal# So much so is this that even at present all the Galatians and -rallians, and many others of the :arbarians, persuade their children that the soul cannot be destroyed, but survives death, so that the latter is not to be feared, so that $ordinary( danger is to be met ith a firm and manly mind# 6or instructing the Getae in these things, and for having ritten la s for them, Hamolxis as by them considered as the greatest of the gods# 6urther, .ythagoras conceived that the dominion of the divinities as most efficacious for establishing DusticeI and from this principle he deduced a hole polity, particular la s and a principle of Dustice# -hus his basic theology as that e should reali5e Gods existence, and that his disposition to ards the human race is such that he inspects and does not neglect it# -his theology as very useful1 for e re0uire an inspection that e ould not be disposed to resist, such as the inspective gov-

ernment of the divinity, for if divine nature is of this nature, it deserves the empire of the universe# 6or the .ythagoreans rightly taught that $the natural( man is an animal naturally insolent, and changeable in impulse, desire and passions# ,e therefore re0uires an extraordinary inspectionary government of this !ind, hich may produce some chastening and ordering# -hey therefore thought that any ho recogni5e their changeableness should never be forgetful of piety to ards and orship of divinity# /veryone should pay heed, beneath the divine nature, and that of genii, to his parents and the la s, and obey them unfeignedly and faithfully# In general, they thought it necessary to believe that there is no evil greater than anarchyI since the human race is not naturally adapted to salvation ithout some guidance# -he .ythagoreans also considered it advisable to adhere to the customs and la s of their ancestors, even though some hat inferior to other regulations# 6or it is unprofitable and not salutary to evade existing la s, or to be studious of innovation# .ythagoras, therefore, to evince that his life as conformable to his doctrines gave many other specimens of piety to the Gods# It may be 0uite suitable to mention one of these, as an example of the rest# I ill relate hat .ythagoras said and did relative to the embassy from Sybaris to 4rotona, relative to the return of the exiles# :y order of the ambassadors, some of his associates had been slain, a part of them, indeed, by one of the ambassadors himself, hile another one of them as the son of one of those ho had excited the sedition, and had died of disease# 7hen the 4rotonians therefore ere deliberating ho they should act in this affair, .ythagoras told his disciples he as displeased that the 4rotonians should be so much at odds over the matter, and that in his opinion the ambassadors should not even be permitted to lead victims to the altar, let alone drag thence the suppliant exiles# 7hen the Sybarites came to him ith their complaints, and the man ho had slain some of his disciples ith his o n hands as defending his conduct, .ythagoras declared he ould ma!e no ans er to $a murderer(# Another $ambassador( accused him of asserting that he as Apollo, because hen in the past, some person had as!ed him about a certain subDect, hy the thing as soI and he had retorted# 7ould he thin! it sensible, hen Apollo as delivering oracles to him, to as! Apollo hy he did soK Another one of the ambassadors derided his school, herein he taught the return of souls to this orld saying that, as .ythagoras as about to descend into ,ades, the ambassador ould give .ythagoras an epistle to his father, and begged him to bring bac! an ans er, hen he returned# .ythagoras responded that he as not about to descend into the abode of the impious, here he clearly !ne that murderers ere punished# As then the rest of the ambassadors reviled him, .ythagoras, follo ed by many people, ent to the seashore, and sprin!led himself ith ater# After reviling the rest of the ambassadors, one of the 4rotonian counselors observed that he understood they had defamed .ythagoras, hom not even a brute ould dare to blaspheme, though all animals should again utter the same voice as men, as prehistoric fables relate# .ythagoras discovered another method of restraining men from inDustice1 the fear of Dudgment# ,e !ne that this method could be taught, and that fear as often able to suppress Dustice# ,e asserted therefore that it is much better to be inDured, than to !ill a manI for Dudgment is dispensed in ,ades, here the soul and its essence and the first nature of beings, are accurately appraised# 3esiring to exhibit among human une0ual, indefinite and unsytemmatical affairs the e0uality, definiteness and symmetry of Dustice, and to sho ho it ought to be exercised, he li!ened Dustice to $a right-angled( triangle, the only one among geometrical forms, hich, though, having an infinite diversity of adDustments of indeed une0ual parts $the length of the sides(, yet has e0ual po ers $the s0uare on the hypotenuse is e0ual to the s0uares on the other t o sides(# Since all associations $imply relations ith some other person( and therefore entail Dustice, the .ythagoreans declared that there ere t o !inds of associations, that differed1 the seasonable, and the unseasonable, according to age, merit, familiarity, philanthropy, and so forth# 6or instance, the association of a younger person ith an elderly one is unseasonable, hile that of t o young persons is

seasonable# ;o !ind of anger, threatening or boldness is becoming in a younger to ards an elderly man, all hich unseasonable conduct should be cautiously avoided# So also ith respect to merit, for, to ards a man ho has arrived at the true dignity of consummate virtue, neither unrestrained form of speech, nor any other of the above manners of conduct is seasonable# ;ot unli!e this as hat he taught about the relations to ards parents and benefactors# ,e said that the use of the opportune time as various# 6or of those ho are angry or enraged, some are so seasonably, and some unseasonably# -he same distinction obtains ith desires, impulsions and passions, actions, dispositions, associations and meetings# ,e further observed that to a certain extent, the opportuneness is to be taught, and that also the unexpected might be analysed artificiallyI hile none of the above 0ualifications obtain hen applied universally, and simply# ;evertheless its results are very similar to those of opportuneness, namely elegance, propriety, congruence, and the li!e# ?eminding us that unity is the principle of the universe, being its principal element, so also is it in science, experiment, and gro th# ,o ever t o-foldness is most honorable in houses, cities, camps, and such li!e organi5ations# 6or in sciences e learn and Dudge not by any single hasty glance, but by a thorough examination of every detail# -here is therefore grave danger of entire misapprehension of things, hen the principle has been mista!enI for hile the true principle remains un!no n, no conse0uent conclusions can be final# -he same situation obtains in things of another !ind# ;either a city nor a house can be ell organi5ed unless each has an effective ruler ho governs voluntary servants# 6or voluntariness is as necessary ith the ruler to govern, as in the ruled to obey# So also must there be a concurrence of ill bet een teacher and learnerI for no satisfactory progress can be made hile there obtains resistance on either side# -hus he demonstrated the beauty of being persuaded by rulers, and to be obedient to preceptors# -his as the greatest obDective illustration of this argument# .herecydes the Syrian had been his teacher, but no as afflicted ith the morbus pedicularis, .ythagoras therefore ent from Italy to 3elos, to nurse him, tending him until he died, and piously performing hatever funeral rites ere due to his former teacher# So diligent as he in discharge of his duties to ards those from hom he had received instruction# .ythagoras insisted strenuously ith his disciples on the fulfillment of mutual agreements# $,ere is an illustration(# "ysis had once completed his orship in the temple of Euno, and as leaving as he met in the vestibule ith /uryphamus the Syracusan, one of his fello disciples, ho as then entering into the temple# /uryphamus as!ed "ysis to ait for him, till he had finished his orship also# So "ysis sat do n on a stone seat there situate, and aited# /uryphamus ent in, finished his orship, but, having become absorbed in some profound considerations, forgot his appointment, and passed out of the temple by another gate# "ysis ho ever continued to ait, ithout leaving his seat, the remainder of that day, and the follo ing and also the greater part of the next day# ,e might have staid there still longer, perhaps unless, the follo ing day, in the auditorium, /uryphamus had heard that# "ysisRs associates ere missing him# ?ecollecting his appointment, he hastened to "ysis, relieved him of the engagement, telling him the cause of his forgetfulness as follo s1 =Some God produced this oblivion in me, as a trial of your firmness in !eeping your engagements#> .ythagoras also ordained abstinence from animal food, for many reasons, besides the chief one that it conduced to peaceableness# -hose ho are trained to abominate the slaughter of animals as ini0uitous and unnatural ill not thin! it much more unla ful to !ill a man, or engage in ar# 6or ar promotes slaughter, and legali5es it, increasing it, and strengthening it# .ythagoras Fs maxim =not to

touch the balance above the beam> is in itself an exhortation to Dustice, demanding the cultivation of everything that is Dust, O as ill be sho n hen e study the .ythagorean symbols# In all these particulars, therefore, .ythagoras paid great attention to the practice of DusticeI and to its preachment to men, both in deeds and ords#

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-emperance is our next topic, cultivated as it as by .ythagoras, and taught to his associates# -he common precepts about it have already been detailed, in hich e learned that everything irregular should be cut off ith fire and s ord# A similar precept is the abstaining from animal food, and also from such li!ely to produce intemperance, and lulling the vigilance and genuine energies of the reasoning po ers# A further step in this direction is the precept to introduce, at a ban0uet, sumptuous fare, hich is to be shortly sent a ay, and given to the servants, having been exhibited merely to chasten the desires# Another one as that none but courtesans should ear gold, not the free omen# 6urther the practice of taciturnity, and even entire silence, for the purpose of governing the tongue# ;ext, intensive and continuous pu55ling out of the most difficult speculations, for the sa!e of hich ine, food and sleep ould be minimi5ed# -hen ould come genuine discrediting of notoriety, ealth, and the li!eI a sincere reverence to ards those to hom reverence is dueI Doined ith an unassumed democratic geniality to ards ones e0uals in age, and to ards the Duniors guidance and counsel, free from envy, and everything similar hich is to be deduced from temperance# -he temperance of the .ythagoreans, and ho .ythagoras taught this virtue, may be learned from hat ,ippobotus and ;eanthes narrate of Cyllias and -imycha, ho ere .ythagoreans# It seems that 3ionysius the tyrant could not obtain the friendship of any one of the .ythagoreans, though he did everything possible to accomplish that purposeI for they had noted, and condemned his monarchical leanings# ,e therefore sent a troop of thirty soldiers, under the command of /urymenes the Syracusan, ho as the brother of 3ion, through $ hose( treachery he hoped to ta!e advantage of the .ythagoreans usual annual migration to catch some of themI for they ere in the habit of changing their abode at different seasons of the year, and they selected places suitable to such a migration# -herefore in .halae, a rugged part of -arentum, through hich the .ythagoreans ere scheduled to pass, /urymenes insidiously concealed his troopI and hen the unsuspecting .ythagoreans reached there about noon, the soldiers rushed upon them ith shouts, after the manner of robbers# 3isturbed and terrified at an attac! so unexpected, at the superior number of their enemies, O the .ythagoreans amounting to no more than ten, O and being unarmed against regularly e0uipped soldiery, the .ythagoreans sa that they ould inevitably be ta!en captive, so they decided that their only safety lay in flight, hich they did not consider inadmissible to virtue# 6or they !ne that according to right reason, fortitude is the art of avoiding as ell as enduring# So they ould have escaped, and their pursuit ould have been given up by /urymeness soldiers, ho ere heavily armed, had their flight not led them up against a field so n ith beans, hich ere already flo ering# Bn illing to violate their principle not to touch beans, they stood still, and driven to desperation turned, and attac!ed their pursuers ith stones and stic!s, and hatever they found to hand, till they had ounded many, and slain some# :ut $numbers told(, and all the .ythagoreans ere slain by the spearmen, as none of them ould suffer himself to be ta!en captive, preferring death, according to the .ythagorean teachings# As /urymenes and his soldiers had been sent for the express purpose of ta!ing some of the .ythagoreans alive to 3ionysius, they ere much crest-fallenI and having thro n the corpses in a

common sepulchre, and piled earth thereupon, they turned home ards# :ut as they ere returning they met t o of the .ythagoreans ho had lagged behind# Cyllias the 4rotonian, and his "acedemonian ife -imycha, ho had not been able to !eep up ith the others, being in the sixth month of pregnancy# -hese therefore the soldiers gladly made captive, and led to the tyrant ith every precaution, so as to insure their arrival alive# An learning hat had happened, the tyrant as very much disheartened, and said to the t o .ythagoreans, =@ou shall obtain from me honors of unusual dignity if you shall be illing to reign in partnership ith me#> All his offers, ho ever, ere by Cyllias and -imycha reDected# -hen said he, I ill release you ith a safe-guard if you ill tell me one thing only# An Cyllias as!ing hat he ished to learn, 3ionysius replied1 =-ell me only hy your companions chose to die rather than to tread on beansK :ut Cyllis at once ans ered, =Cy companions did indeed prefer death to treading on beansI but I had rather do that than tell you the reason#> Astonished at this ans er, 3ionysius ordered him removed forcibly, and -imycha tortured, for he thought that a pregnant oman, deprived of her husband, ould ea!en before the torments, and easily tell him all he anted to !no # -he heroic oman, ho ever, ith her teeth bit her tongue until it as separated and spat it out at the tyrant, thus demonstrating that the offending member should be entirely cut off, even if her sexs ea!ness, van0uished by the torments, should be compelled to disclose something that should be reserved in silence# Such difficulties did they ma!e to the admission of outside friendships, even though they happened to be royal# Similar to these also ere the precepts concerning silence, hich tended to the practice of temperanceI for of all continence, the subDugation of the tongue is the most difficult# -he same virtue is illustrated by .ythagorass persuading the 4rotonians to relin0uish all sacrilegious and 0uestionable commerce ith courtesans# Coreover .ythagoras restored to temperance a youth ho had become ild ith amatory passion, through music# /xhortations against lascivious insolence promote the same virtue# Such things ere delivered to the .ythagoreans by .ythagoras himself, ho as their cause# -hey too! such care of their bodies that they remained in the same condition, not being at one time lean, and at another stout, hich changes they considered anomalous# 7ith respect to their mind also, they managed to remain uniformly mildly Doyful, and not at one time hilarious, and at another sad, hich could be achieved only by expelling perturbations, despondency or rage# It as a precept of theirs that no human casualties ought to be unexpected by the intelligent, expecting everything hich it is not in their po er to prevent# If ho ever at any time any of them fell into a rage, or into despondency, he ould ithdra from his associates company, and see!ing solitude, endeavor to digest and heal the passion# Af the .ythagoreans it is also reported that none of them punished a servant or admonished a free man during angers but aited until he had recovered his onted serenity# -hey used an especial ord, paidartan, to signify such $self-controlled( rebu!es, effecting this calming by silence and 0uiet# So Spintharus relates of Archytas the -arentine that on returning after a certain time from the ar against the ,essenians aged by the -arentines, to inspect some land belonging to him, and finding that the bailiff and the other servants had not properly cultivated it, greatly neglecting it, he became enraged, and as so furious that he told his servants that it as ell for them that he as angry, for other ise, they ould not have escaped the punishment due to so great an offense# A similar anecdote is related of 4linias, according to SpintharusI for he also as ont to defer all admonitions and punishments until his mind as restored to tran0uillity# Af the .ythagoreans it is further related that they restrained themselves from all lamentation, eeping and the li!eI and that neither gain, desire, anger or ambition, or anything of the li!e, ever became the cause of dissension among themI all .ythagoreans being disposed to ards each other as parents to ards their offspring#

Another beautiful trait of theirs as that they gave credit to .ythagoras for everything, naming it after him, not claiming the glory of their o n inventions, except very rarely# 6e are there ho ac!no ledged their o n or!s# Admirable too is the careful secrecy ith hich, they preserved the mystery of their ritings# 6or during so many centuries, prior to the times of .hilolaus, none of the .ythagorean commentaries appeared publicly# .hilolaus first published those three celebrated boo!s hich, at the re0uest of .lato, 3ion of Syracuse is said to have bought for a hundred minae# 6or .hilolaus had been overta!en by sudden severe poverty, and he capitali5ed the ritings of hich he as parta!er through his alliance ith the .ythagoreans# As to the value of opinion, such ere their vie s1 A stupid man should defer to the opinion of any one, especially to that of the cro ds# Anly a very fe are 0ualified to apprehend and opine rightlyI for evidently this is limited to the intelligent, ho are very fe # -o the cro ds, such a 0ualification of course does not extend# :ut to despise the opinion of every one is also stupidI for such a person ill remain unlearned and incorrigible# -he unscientific should study that of hich he is ignorant, or lac!s scientific !no ledge# A learner should also defer to the opinion of the scientific, and is able to teach# Generally, youths ho ish to be saved should attend to the opinions of their elders, or of those ho have lived ell# 3uring the course of human life there are certain ages by them called endedasmenae hich cannot be connected by the po er of any chance person# Bnless a man from his very birth is trained in a beautiful end upright manner, these ages antagoni5e each other# A ell educated child, formed to temperance and fortitude, should devote a great part of his education to the stage of adolescence# Similarly, hen the adolescent is trained to temperance and fortitude, he should focus his education on the next age of manhood# ;othing could be more absurd than the ay in hich the general public treats this subDect # -hey fancy that boys should be orderly and temperate, abstaining from everything troublesome or indecorous, but as soon as they have arrived at the age of adolescence, they may do anything they please# In this age, therefore, there is a combination of both !inds of errors, puerile and virile# -o spea! plainly, they avoid anything that demands diligence and good order, hile follo ing anything that has the appearance of sport, intemperance and petulance, being familiar only ith boyish affairs# -heir desires should be developed from the boyish stage into the next one# In the mean hile ambition and the rest of the more serious and turbulent inclinations and desires of the virile age prematurely invade adolescenceI herefore this adolescence demands the greatest care# In general, no man ought to be allo ed to do hatever he pleasesI but there is al ays need, of a certain inspection, or legal and cultured government, to hich each of the citi5ens is responsible# 6or animals, hen left to themselves, and neglected, rapidly degenerate into vice and depravity# -he .ythagoreans $ ho did not approve of men being intemperate(, ould often compel ans ers from, and pu55le $such intemperate people( by as!ing them hy boys are generally trained to ta!e food in an orderly and moderate manner, being compelled to learn that order and decency are beautiful, and their contraries, disorder and intemperance base, hile drun!ards and gormandi5ers are held in great disgrace# 6or if none of $these temperate( habits are to be continued on into the virile age, to accustom us, as boys, to such $temperate( habits, as useless# -he same argument holds good in respect to other good habits to hich children are trained, a reversal of training is not seen in the case of the education of other lo er animals# 6rom the very first a help and a colt are trained to, and learn those tric!s hich they are to exercise hen they arrived at maturity# $-he more liberal standard for man in the matter of morals is therefore not sustained by the common sense that trains children to temperance(# -he .ythagoreans are generally reported to have exhorted not only their intimatesI but also homsoever they happened to meet, to avoid pleasure as a danger

demanding the utmost caution# Core than anything else does this passion deceive us, and mislead us into error# -hey contended that it as iser never to do anything hose end as pleasure, hose results are usually shameful and harmful# -hey asserted e should adopt as an end the beautiful, and fair, and do our duty# Anly secondarily should e consider the useful and advantageous# In these matters there is no need to consider considerations of chance# Af desire, the .ythagoreans said1 -hat desire itself is a certain tendency, impulse and appetite of the soul, ishing to be filled ith something or to enDoy the presence of something or to be disposed according to some sense-enDoyment# -here are also contrary desires, of evacuation and repulsion, and to terminate some sensation# -his passion is manifold, and is al most the most .rotean of human experiences# ,o ever, many human desires are artificially ac0uired, and self-prepared# -hat is hy this passion demands the utmost care and atchfulness, and physical exercise that is more than casual# -hat hen the body is empty it should desire food is no more than naturalI and then it is Dust as natural that hen it is full it should desire appropriate evacuation# :ut to desire superfluous food, or luxurious garment or coverlets, or residences, is artificial# -he .ythagoreans applied this argument also to furniture, dishes, servants and cattle raised for butchering# :esides, human passions are never permanent, but are ever changing, even to infinity# -hat is hy education of the youth should begin at the earliest moment possible, that the aspirations may be directed to ards ends that are proper, avoiding those that are vain and unnecessary, so as to be undisturbed by, and remain pure from such undesirable passionsI and may despise such as are obDects of contempt because subDected to changeable desires# @et it must be observed that senseless, harmful superfluous and insolent desires subsist in the souls of such individuals ho are the most po erfulI for there is nothing so absurd that soul of such boys, men and omen ould not lead them to perform# Indeed, the variety of food eaten is beyond description# -he !inds of fruits and roots hich the human race eats is nothing less than infinite# -he !inds of flesh eaten are innumerableI there is no terrestrial, aerial, or a0uatic animal hich has not been parta!en of# :esides, in the preparation of these, the contrivances used are innumerable and they are seasoned ith manifold mixtures of Duices# ,ence, according to the motions of the human soul, it is no more than natural that the human race should be so various as to be actually insaneI for each !ind of food that is introduced into the human body becomes the cause of a certain peculiar disposition# $Puantity( is as important as 0uality, for sometimes a slight change in 0uantity produces a great change in 0uality, as ith ine# 6irst ma!ing men more cheerful, later it undermines morals and sanity# -his difference is generally ignored in things in hich the result is not so pronounced, although everything eaten is the cause of a certain peculiar disposition# ,ence it re0uires great isdom to !no and perceive hich 0uality and 0uantity of food to eat# -his science, first unfolded by Apollo and .haon, as later developed by Aesculapius and his follo ers# About propagation, the .ythagoreans taught as follo s# 6irst, they prevented untimely birth# ;ot even among plants or animals is prematurity good# -o produce good fruit there is need of maturation for a certain time to give strong and perfect bodies to fruits and seeds# :oys and girls should therefore be trained to or! and exercise, ith endurance, and that they should eat foods adapted to a life of labor and temperance, ith endurance# -here are many things in human life hich it is better to learn at a late period in life, and this sex-life is one of them# It is therefore advisable that a boy should be educated so as not to begin sex-connection before the t entieth year, and even then rarely# -his ill ta!e place if he holds high ideals of a good habit for the body# :ody-hygiene and intemperance are not li!ely to subsist in the same individual# -he .ythagoreans, praised the earlier Gree! la s forbidding intercourse ith a oman ho is a mother, daughter or sister in a temple or other public place# It is advisable that there be many impediments to the practice of this energy# -he .ythagoreans forbad entirely intercourse that as unnatural, or resulting from anton insolence, al-

lo ing only the natural, the temperate, hich occur in the course of chaste and recogni5ed procreation of children# .arents should ma!e circumstantial provision for their offspring# -he first precaution is a healthful and temperate life, not unseasonably filling himself ith food, nor using foods hich create bad body-habits, above all avoiding intoxication# -he .ythagoreans thought that an evil, discordant, trouble-ma!ing character produced depraved sperma# -hey insisted that none but an indolent or inconsiderate person ould attempt to produce an animal, and introduce it to existence, ithout most diligently providing for it a pleasing and even elegant ingress into his orld# "overs of dogs pay the utmost possible attention to the breeding of their puppies, !no ing that goodness of the offspring depends on goodness of parents, at the right season, and in proper surroundings# "overs of birds pay no less attention to the matterI procreators of generous animals therefore should by all possible means manage that their efforts be fruitful# It is therefore absurd for men to pay no attention to their o n offspring, begetting casually and carelessly, and after birth, feed, and educate them negligently# -his is the most po erful and manifest cause of the vice and depravity of the greater part of man!ind, for the generality underta!e procreation on impulse, li!e beasts# Such ere the .ythagoreans teachings about temperance, hich they defended by ord and practised in deed# -hey had originally received them from .ythagoras himself, as if they had been oracles delivered by the .ythian Apollo himself#

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6ortitude, the subDect of this chapter, has already been illustrated, by the heroism of -imycha, and those .ythagoreans ho preferred death, to transgression of .ythagorass prohibition to touch beans, and other instances# .ythagoras himself sho ed it in the generous deeds he performed hen traveling every here alone, undergoing heart-brea!ing labors and serious dangers, and in choosing to leave his country and living among strangers# "i!e ise hen he dissolved tyrannies, ordered confused common ealths, and emancipated cities# ,e ended illegalities, and impeded the activities of insolent and tyrannical men# As a leader, he sho ed himself benignant to the Dust and mild, but expelled rough and licentious men from his society, refusing even to ans er them, resisting them ith all his might, although he assisted the former# Af these courageous deeds, as ell as of many upright actions, many instances could be adducedI but the greatest of these is the prevailing freedom of speech he employed to ards the tyrant .halaris, the most cruel of them, ho detained him in captivity# A ,yperborean sage named Abaris visited him, to convers ith him on many topics, especially sacred ones, respecting statues and orship, the divine providence, natures terrestrial and celestial, and the li!e# .ythagoras, under divine inspiration, ans ered him boldly, sincerely and persuasively, so that he converted all listeners# -his roused .halariss anger against Abaris, for praising .ythagoras and increased the tyrants resentment against .ythagoras# .halaris s ore proudly as as his ont, and uttered blasphemies against the Gods themselves# Abaris ho ever as grateful to him, and learned from him that all things are suspended from, and governed by the heavensI hich he proved from many considerations, but especially from the potency of sacred rites# 6or teaching him these things, so far as Abaris from thin!ing .ythagoras an enchanter, that his reverence for him increased till he considered him a God# .halaris tried to counteract this by discrediting divination, and publicly denying there as any efficacy of the sacraments performed in sacred rites# Abaris, ho ever, guided the controversy to ards such things as are granted by all men, see!ing to persuade him of the existence of a divine providence, from circumstances that lie above human influence, such as immense ars, incurable dis-

eases, the decay of fruits, incursions of pestilence, or the li!e, hich are hard to endure, and are deplorable, arising from the beneficent $purifying( energy of the po ers celestial and divine# Shamelessly and boldly .halaris opposed all this# -hen .ythagoras, suspecting that .halaris intended to put him to death, but !no ing he as not destined to die through .halaris, retorted ith great freedom of speech# "oo!ing at Abaris, he said that from the heavens to aerial and terrestrial beings there as a certain descending communication# -hen from instances generally !no n he sho ed that all things follo the heavens# -hen he demonstrated the existence of an indisputable po er of freedom of ill, in the soulI proceeding further amply to discuss the perfect energy of reason and intellect# 7ith his $usual( freedom of ill he even $dared to( discuss tyranny, and all the prerogatives of fortune, concerning inDustice and human avarice, solidly teaching that all these are of no value# 6urther, he gave .halaris a divine admonition concerning the most excellent life, earnestly comparing it ith the most depraved# ,e li!e ise clearly unfolded the manner of subsistence of the soul, its po ers and passionsI and, hat as the most beautiful of all, demonstrated to him that the Gods are not the authors of evils, and that diseases and bodily calamities are the results of intemperance, at the same time finding fault ith the poets and mythologists for the unadvisedness of many of their fables# -hen he directly confuted .halaris, and admonished him, experimentally demonstrating to him the po er and magnitude of heaven, and by many arguments demonstrated to him that reason dictates that punishments should be legal# ,e demonstrated to him the difference bet een men and other animals, scientifically demonstrating the difference bet een internal and external speech# -hen he expounded the nature of intellect, and the !no ledge that is derived therefromI ith its ethical corollaries# -hen he discoursed about the most beneficial of useful things adding the mildest possible implied admonitions, adding prohibitions of hat ought not to be done# Cost important of all, he unfolded to him the distinction bet een the productions of fate and intellect, and the difference bet een the results of destiny and fate# -hen he reasoned about the divinities, and the immortality of the soul# All this, really, belongs to some other chapter, the present ones topic being the development of fortitude# 6or if, hen situated in the midst of the most dreadful circumstances, .ythagoras philosophised ith firmness of decision, if on all sides he resisted fortune, and repelled it, enduring its attac!s strenuously, if he employed the greatest boldness of speech toards him ho threatened his life, it must be evident that he entirely despised those things generally considered dreadful, rating them as un orthy of attention# If also he despised execution, hen this appeared imminent, and as not moved by its imminence, it is evident that he as perfectly free from the fear of death, $and all possible torments(# :ut he did something still more generous, effecting the dissolution of the tyranny, restraining the tyrant hen he as about to bring the most deplorable calamities on man!ind, and liberating Sicily from the most cruel and imperious po er# -hat it as .ythagoras ho accomplished this, is evident from the oracles of Apollo, hich had predicted that the dominion of .hilaris ould come to an end hen his subDects ould become better men, and cooperateI hich also happened through the presence of .ythagoras, and his imparting to them instruction and good principles# -he best proof of this may be found in the time hen it happened# 6or on the very day that .halaris condemned .ythagoras and Abaris to death, he himself by stratagem slain# Another argument for the truth of this are the adventures of /pimenides# ,e as a disciple of .ythagorasI and hen certain persons planned to destroy him, he invo!ed the 6uries and the avenging divinities, and thereby caused those ho had attempted his life to destroy each other# In the same ay .ythagoras, ho assisted man!ind, imitating both the manner and fortitude of ,ercules for the benefit of men punished and occasioned the death of him ho had behaved insolently and in a disorderly manner to ards othersI and this through the very oracles of Apollo, in the class of hich divinity both he and /pimenides had naturally since birth belonged# -his admirable and strenuous deed as the effect of his fortitude# 7e shall present another example of preservation of la ful opinionI for follo ing it out he did hat to him seemed Dust and dictated by right reason ithout permitting himself to be diverted from his

intention by pleasure, labor passion or danger# ,is disciples also preferred death to transgression of any precept of his# -hey preserved their manners unchanged under the most varying fortunes# :eing involved in a myriad of calamities could not cause them to deviate from his rules# -hey never ceased exhorting each other to support the la s, to oppose la lessness from birth to train themselves to a life of temperance and fortitude, so as to restrain and oppose luxury# -hey also used certain original melodies as remedies against the passions of the soulI against lamentation and despondency, hich .ythagoras had invented, as affording the greatest relief in these maladies# Ather melodies they employed against anger and rage, through hich they could increase or diminish those passions, till they reduced them to moderation, and compatability ith fortitude# -he thought hich afforded them the greatest support in generous endurance as the conviction that no human casualty should be unexpected by men of intellect, but that they must resign themselves to all vicissitudes beyond human control# Coreover, henever over helmed by grief or anger, they immediately forsoo! the company of their associates, and in solitude endeavored to digest and heal the oppressing passion# -hey too! it for granted that studies and disciplines implied labor, and that they must expect severe tests of different !inds and be restrained and punished even by fire and s ord, so as to exorcise innate intemperance and greedinessI for hich purpose no labor or endurance should be spared# 6urther, to accomplish they un-selfishly abstained from animal food, and also some other !inds# -his also as the cause of their slo ing of speech and complete silence, as means to the entire subDugation of the tongue, hich demanded year-long exercise of fortitude# In addition, their strenuous and# assiduous investigation and resolution of the most difficult theorems, their abstinence from ine, food and sleep, and their contempt of ealth and glory# -hus by many different means they trained themselves to fortitude# :ut this is not all# -hey restrained themselves from lamentations and tears# -hey abstained from entreaty, supplication, and adulation as effeminate and abDect $or humble(# -o the same practice of fortitude must be referred their peculiarity of absolute reserve among their arcana of the principal principles of their discipline, preserving them from being divulged to strangers, committing them un ritten to memory, and transmitting them orally to their successors as if they ere the mysteries of the Gods# -hat is hy nothing orth mentioning of their philosophy as ever made public and though it had been taught and learned for a long hile, it as not !no n beyond their alls# -hose outside ho might call the profane, sometimes happened to be presentI and under such circumstances the .ythagoreans ould communicate only obscurely, though symbols, a vestige of hich is retained by the celebrated precepts still in circulation, such as fire should not be po!ed ith a s ord, and other li!e ones, hich ta!en literally, resemble old- ives talesI but hich, hen properly unfolded, are to the recipients admirable and venerable# -hat precept hich, of all others, as of the greatest efficacy in the achievement of fortitude is that one hich helps defend and liberate from the life-long bonds that retain the intellect in captivity, and ithout hich no one can perceive or learn anything rational or genuine, hatever be the sense in activity# -hey said1 =-is mind that sees all things, and hears them allI All else is deaf and blind#> -he next most efficacious precept is that one hich exhorts excessively to be studious of purifying the intellect, and by various methods adapting it through mathematical disciplines to receive something divinely beneficial, so as neither to fear a separation from the body, nor, hen directed to ards incorporeal natures, through their most refulgent splendor to be compelled to turn a ay the eyes, nor to be converted to those passions hich fasten and even nail the soul to the body, and ma!es her rebellious to all those passions hich are the progeny of procreation, degrading her to a lo er level# -he training of ascent through all these is the study of the most perfect fortitude# Such are important instances of the fortitude of .ythagoras and his follo ers#

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6riendship of all things to ards all as most clearly enforced by .ythagoras, Gods friendship toards men he explained through piety and scientific cultivationI but that of teachings to ards each other, and generally the soul to the body, of the rational to ards the irrational part, through philosophy and its teachings# -hat of men to ards each otherI and of citi5ens, he Dustified through proper legislationI that of strangers, through the common possession of a bodyI that bet een man and ife, children brothers or !indred through the imperverted ties of nature# In short, he taught the friendship of all for all, and still further, of certain animals, through Dustice, and common physical experiences# :ut the pacification and conciliation of the body, hich is mortal by itself, and of its latent immortal po ers, he enforced through health, and a temperate diet suitable thereto, in imitation of the ever-healthy condition of the mundane elements# In all these, .ythagoras is recogni5ed as the inventor and summari5er of them in a single name, that of friendship# So admirable as his friendship to his associates, that even no hen people are extremely benevolent mutually people call them .ythagoreans, e should therefore narrate .ythagorass discipline thereto related, and the precepts he taught, his disciples# .ythagoreans therefore on the effacing of all rivalry and contention from true friendship, if not from all friendshipI at least from parental friendship, and generally from all gratitude to ards seniors and benefactors# -o strive or contend ith such, out of anger or some other passion, is not the ay to preserve existing friendship# Scars and ulcers in friendship should be the least possibleI and this ill be the case if those that are friends !no ho to subdue their anger# If indeed both of them !no this, or rather, the younger of the t o, and ho ran!s in some of the above mentioned orders, $their friendship ill be the more easily preserved(# -hey also taught that corrections and admonitions, hich they called =paedartases> should ta!e place from the elder to the younger, and ith much sumarity and cautionI and li!e ise, that much careful and considerate attention should be manifested in admonitions# 6or thus they ill be persuasive and helpful# -hey also said that confidence should never be separated from friendship hether in earnest, or in Dest# /xisting friendship cannot survive, hen once falsehood insinuates itself into the habits of professed friends# According to them, friendship should not be abandoned en account of misfortune, or any other human vicissitudeI the only permissible reDection of friend or friendship is the result of great and incorrigible vice# ,atred should not be entertained voluntarily against those ho not perfectly bad, but hen once formed, it should be strenuously and firmly maintained, unless its obDect should change his morals, so as to become a better man# ,ostility should not consist in ords, but in deeds# 7ar is commendable and legitimate, hen conducted in a manly manner# ;o one should ever permit himself to become the cause of contention, and e should as far as possible avoid its source# In a friendship hich is intended to be pure, the greater part of the things pertaining to it should be definite and legitimate# -hese should be properly distinguished and not be casualI and moreover our conversation should never gro casual or negligent, but remain orderly, modest and benevolent# So also ith the remaining passions and dispositions# 7e should not decline foreign friendships carelessly, but accept and guard them ith the greatest care# -hat the .ythagoreans preserved friendship to ards each other for many ages may be inferred from hat Aristoxenus in his treatise on the .ythagoric "ife says he heard from 3ionysius the tyrant of Sicily, hen having been deposed he taught language at 4orinth# ,ere in the ords of Aristoxenus1 =So far as they could these men avoided lamentations and tears, and the li!eI also adulation, en-

treaty, supplication and other emotions# 3ionysius therefore, having fallen from his tyranny and come to 4orinth, told us the detailed story about the .ythagoreans, .hintias and 3amon, ho ere sponsors for each others death# -his is ho it as1 4ertain intimates of his had often mentioned the .ythagoreans, defaming and reviling them, calling them arrogant and asserting that their gravity, their pretended fidelity, and stoicism, ould disappear on falling in some calamity# Athers contradicted thisI and as contention arose on the subDect, it as decided to settle the matter by an experiment# Ane man accused .hintias, before 3ionysius, of having conspired ith others against his life# Athers corroborated the charges, hich loo!ed probable though .hintias as astonished at the accusation #7hen 3ionysius had une0uivocally said that he had verified the charges, and that .hintias must die, the latter replied that if 3ionysius thought that this as necessary, he re0uested the delay of the remainder of the day, to settle the affairs of himself and 3amon, as these t o men lived togetherI and had all things in commonI but as .hintias as the elder, he mostly undertoo! the management of the household affairs# ,e therefore re0uested that 3ionysius allo him to depart for this purpose, and that he ould appoint 3amon a his surety# 3ionysius claimed surprise at such a re0uest, and as!ed him if any man existed ho ould stand surety for the death of another# .hintias asserted that there as, and 3amon as sent forI and on hearing hat had happened, agreed to become the sponsor, and that he ould remain there till .hintiass return# 3ionysius declared astonishment at these circumstances, and they ho had proposed the experiment derided 3amon as the one ho ould be caught, sneering at him as the =vicarious stagI> hen ho ever sunset approached, .hintias came to dieI at hich all present ere astonished and subdued# 3ionysius, having embraced and !issed the men, re0uested that they ould receive him as a third into their friendship# -hey ho ever ould by no means consent to anything of the !ind, though he entreated them to comply ith his re0uest#> -hese ords are related by Aristoxenus ho received them from 3ionysius himself# It is also said, that the .ythagoreans endeavored to perform the offices of friendship to those of their sect, though they ere un!no n, and had never seen each otherI on receiving a sure indication of participation in the same doctrinesI so that, Dudging from such friendly offices, it may be believed, as is generally reported, that orthy men, even though they should d ell in the remotest parts of the earth, are mutually friends, and this before they became !no n to, and salute each other# -he story runs that a certain .ythagorean, traveling through a long and solitary road on foot, came to an innI and there from over-exertion, or other causes fell into a long and severe disease, as at length to ant the necessaries of life# -he inn-!eeper ho ever, hether from amity or benevolence, supplied him ith everything re0uisite, sparing neither personal service, or expense# 6eeling the end near, the .ythagorean rote a certain symbol on a tablet, and desired the inn!eeper, in event of his death, to hang the tablet near the road, and observe hether any traveler read the symbol# 6or that person, said he, ill repay you hat you have spent on me and ill also than! you for your !indness# After the .ythagoreans death the inn!eeper buried him and attended to the obse0uies, ithout any expectation of being repaid, nor of receiving remuneration from anybody ho might read the tablet# ,o ever, struc! ith the .ythagoreans re0uest, he as induced to expose the riting in the public road# A long time thereafter a .ythagorean passed that ay, and on understanding the symbol, found out ho had placed the tablet there, and having also investigated every particular, paid the inn-!eeper a much greater sum than he had disbursed# It is also related that 4linias the -arent hen he "earned that the 4yranian .rorus, ho as a 5ealous .ythagorean, as in danger of losing all his property, sailed to 4yrene, and having collected a sum of money, restored the affairs of .rorus to a better condition, though thereby diminished his o n estate and ris!ed the peril of the sea-voyage#

Similarly, -hestor .osidomiates, having from mere report heard that the .ythagorean -hymaridas .arius had fallen into poverty, from great ealth into abDect poverty, is said to have sailed to .aros, and after having collected a large sum of money, and reinstated -hymaridas in affluence# -hese are beautiful instances of friendship# :ut much more admirable than the above are examples ere the .ythagoreans teachings respecting the communion of divine goods, the agreement of intellect, and their doctrines about the divine soul,####### -hey ere ever exhorting each other not to tear apart the divine soul ithin them# -he significance of their friendship both in ords and deeds as effort to achieve a certain divine union, $or union ith the divinity(, or communion ith the divine soul# :etter than this, either hat is uttered in ords, or performed by, it is not possible to find# 6or I am of opinion that in this all the goods of friendship are united# In this, as a climax e have collected all the blessings of .ythagorean friendshipI there is nothing left to say#

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,aving thus, according to plan discussed .ythagoras and .ythagoreanism, e may be interested in scattered points hich do not fall under any of the former topics# $6irst, as to language(# It is said that each Gree! novice as ordered to use his native language, as they did not approve of the use of a foreign language# 6oreigners Doined the .ythagoreans1 Cessenians, "ucani, .icentini, and ?omans# Cetrodorus, the son of -hyrsus, ho as the father of /picharmus, ho specialised in medicine, in explaining his fathers ritings to his brother, says that /picharmus, and prior to him .ythagoras, conceived that the best dialect, and the most musical, as the 3oric# -he Ionic and Aeolic remind of chromatic progression, hich ho ever is still more evident in the Attic# -he 3oric, consisting of pronounced letters, is enharmonic# -he myths also bear itness to the anti0uity of this dialect# ;ereus as said to have married 3oris, the daughter of AceanI by hom he had fifty daughters, one of hom as the mother of Achilles# Cetrodorus also says that some insist that ,elen as the offspring of 3eucalion, ho as the son of .rometheus and .yrrha the daughter of /pimetheusI and from him descended 3orus and Aeolus# 6urther he observes that from the :abylonian sacred rites he had learned that ,elen as the offspring of Eupiter, and that the sons of ,ellen ere 3orus, Juthus, and AeolusI ith hich ,erodotus also agrees# Accuracy in particulars so ancient is difficult for moderns, to enable them to decide hich of the accounts is most trust orthy# :ut either of them claim that the 3oric dialect is the most ancient, that the Aeolic, hose name derives it from Aeolus, is the next age, and that the third is the Ionic, derived from Ion, the son of Juthus# 6ourth is the Attic, formed from 4reusa, the daughter of /rechtheus, ho is three generations younger than the othersI as it existed about the time of the -hracians and the rape of Arithyia, as is evident from the testimony of most histories# -he 3oric dialect as also used by the most ancient of the poets, Arpheus##### $repetition(# -he .ythagoreans obDected to those ho offered disciplines for sale, ho open their souls li!e the gates of an inn to every man that approaches themI and ho, if they do not thus MhaveN buyers, diffuse themselves through cities, MsoN in short, hire gymnasia, and re0uire a re ard from young men for those things that are ithout price# .ythagoras indeed hid the meaning of much that as said by him, in order that those ho ere genuinely instructed might clearly parta!ers of itI but that others, as ,omer says of -antalus, might be pained in the midst of hat they heard, in conse0uence of receiving no delight therefrom#

-he .ythagoreans thought that those ho teach for the sa!e of re ard, that they sho themselves orse than sculptors, or artists ho perform MtheN or! sitting# 6or these, hen someone orders M oodN to ma!e a statue of ,ermes, search for ood suited to receive the proper formI hile those pretend that they can readily produce the or!s of virtue from every nature# -he .ythagoreans li!eise said that it is more necessary to pay attention to philosophy than to parents or agricultureI for no doubt it is o ing to the latter that e live, but philosophers and preceptors are the causes of our living ell, and becoming ise, on discovering the right mode of discipline and instruction# ;or did they thin! fit either to spea! or rite in such a ay such that their conceptions might be obvious to the first comerI for the very first thing .ythagoras is said to have taught is that, being purified from all intemperance, his disciples should preserve the doctrines they have heard in silence# It is accordingly reported that he ho first divulged the theory of commensurable and incommensurable 0uantities to those un orthy to receive it as by the .ythagoreans so hated that they not only expelled him from their common association, and from living ith him, but also for him constructed a tomb, as for one ho had migrated from the human into another life# It is also reported that the 3ivine .o er as so indignant ith those ho divulged the teachings of .ythagoras, that he perished at sea, as an impious person ho divulged the method of inscribing in a sphere the dodecahedron, one of the five so-called solid figures, the composition of the icostagonus# :ut according to others, this is hat happened to him ho revealed the doctrine of rational and incommensurable 0uantities# All .ythagoric discipline as symbolic, resembling riddles and pu55les, and consisting of maxims, in the style of the ancients# "i!e ise the truly divine .ythian oracles seem to be some hat difficult of understanding and explanationI to those ho carelessly receive the ans ers given# -hese are the indications about .ythagoras and the .ythagoreans collected from tradition#

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-here ere ho ever certain persons ho ere hostile to the .ythagoreans, and ho rose against them# -hat stratagems ere employed to destroy them, during .ythagorass absence, is universally ac!no ledgedI but the historians differ in their account of the Dourney hich he then undertoo!# Some say that he ent to .herecydes the Syrian, and others, to Cetapontum# Cany causes of the stratagems are assigned# Ane of then, hich is said to have originated from the men called 4ylonians, is as follo s1 4ylon of 4rotona as one of the most prominent citi5ens, in birth, reno n and ealth, but in manners he as severe, turbulent, violent, tyrannical# ,is greatest desire as to become partner of the .ythagoric life, and he made application to .ythagoras ho as no no advanced in age, but as reDected for the above causes# 4onse0uently, he and his friends became violent enemies of the brotherhood# 4eylonRs ambition as so vehement and immoderate that ith his associates, he persecuted the very last of the .ythagoreans# -hat is hy .ythagoras moved to Cetapontum, here he closed his existence# -hose ho ere called 4ylonians continued to plot against the .ythagoreans, and to exhibit the most virulent malevolence# ;evertheless for a time this enmity as subdued by the .ythagoreans probity, and also by the vote of the citi5ens, ho entrusted the hole of the city affairs to their management# At length, ho ever, the 4ylonians became so hostile to =the men,> as they ere called, that they set fire to Cilos residence, here ere assembled all the .ythagoreans, holding a council of ar# All ere burnt, except t o, Archippus and "ysis, ho escaped through their bodily vigor# As no public

notice as ta!en of this calamity, the .ythagoreans ceased to pay any further attention to public affairs, hich as due to t o causes1 the citiess negligence, and through the loss of those men most 0ualified to govern# :oth of the saved .ythagoreans ere -arentines, and Archippus returned home# "ysis resenting the public neglect ent into Greece, residing in the Achian .eloponnesus# Stimulated by an ardent desire, he migrated to -hebes, here he had as disciple /paminondas, ho spo!e of his teacher as his father# -here "ysis died# /xcept Archytas of -arentum, the rest of the .ythagoreans departed from Italy, and d elt together in ?hegium# -he most celebrated ere .hantos, /checrates, .olymnastus, and 3iocrates, ho ere .hlyasiansI and Jenophilus 4halcidensis of -hrace# :ut in course of time, as the administration of public affairs ent from bad to orse, these .ythagoreans nevertheless preserved their pristine manners and disciplinesI yet soon the sect began to fail, till they nobly perished# -his is the account by Aristoxenus# ;ichomachus agrees ith Aristoxenus, except that he dates the plot against the .ythagoreans during .ythagorass Dourney to 3elos, to nurse his preceptor .herecydes the Syrian, ho as then afflicted ith the morbus pedicularis, and after his death performed the funeral rites# -hen those ho had been reDected by the .ythagoreans, and to hom monuments had been raised, as if they ere dead, attac!ed them, and committed them all to the flames# After ards they ere over helmed by the Italians ith stones, and thro n out of the house unburied# -hen science died in the breasts of its possessors, having by them been preserved as something mystic and incommunicable# Anly such things as ere difficult to be understood, and hich ere not expounded, ere preserved in the memory of those ho ere outside of the sect, except a fe things, hich certain .ythagoreans, ho at that time happened to be in foreign, lands, preserved as spar!s of science very obscure, and of difficult investigation# -hese men being solitary, and deDected at this calamity, ere scattered in different places retaining no longer public influence# -hey lived alone in solitary places, herever they found anyI each preferred association ith himself to that ith any other person# 6earing ho ever lest the name of philosophy should be entirely exterminated from among man!ind, and that they should, on this account incur the indignation of the Gods, by suffering so great a gift of theirs to perish, they made an arrangement of certain commentaries and symbols, gathered the ritings of the more ancient .ythagoreans, and of such things as they remembered# -hese relics each left at his death to his son, or daughter, or ife, ith a strict inDunction not to alienate from the family# -his as carried out for some time and the relics ere transmitted in succession to their posterity# Since Apollonius dissents in a certain place regarding these particulars, and adds many things that e have not mentioned, e must record his account of the plot against the .ythagoreans# ,e says that from childhood .ythagoras had aroused envy# So long as he conversed ith all that came to him, he as pleasing to allI but hen he restricted his intercourse to his disciples the general peoples good opinion of him as altered# -hey did indeed permit him to pay more attention to strangers than to themselvesI but they ere indignant at preferring some of their fello -citi5ens before othersI and they suspected that his disciples assembled ith intentions hostile to themselves# In the next place, as the young men that ere indignant ith him ere of high ran!, and surpassed others in ealth, and, hen they arrived at the proper age, not only, held the first honors in their o n families, but also managed the affairs of the city in common, they, being more than three hundred in number, formed a large body, so that there remained but a small part of the city hich as not devoted to their habits and pursuits# Coreover so long as the 4rotonians confined themselves to their o n country, and .ythagoras d elt among them, the original form of government continuedI but the people had changed, and

they ere no longer satisfied ith itI and ere therefore see!ing a pretext for a change# 7hen they captured Sybaris, and the land as not divided by lot, according to the desire of the multitude, and .ythagoras gone, this veiled hatred against the .ythagoreans burst forth, and the populace forsoo! them# -he leaders of this dissension ere those that ere nearest to the .ythagoreans, both by !indred and intercourse# -hese leaders, as ell as the common fol! ere offended by the .ythagoreans actions, hich ere unusual, and the people interpreted that peculiarity as a reflection on theirs# -he .ythagoreans !indred ere indignant that they associated ith none, their parents exceptedI that they shared in common their possessions to the exclusion of their !indred, hom they treated as strangers# -hese personal motives turned the general opposition into active hostility# ,ippasus, 3iodorus and -heages united in insisting that the assembly and the magistracy should be opened to every citi5en, and that the rulers should be responsible to elected representatives of the people# -his as opposed by the .ythagoreans Alcimachus, 3imachus, Ceton and 3emocides, and opposed changes in the inherited constitution# -hey ere ho ever defeated, and ere formally accused in a popular as assembly by t o orators, the aristocrat 4ylon, and the plebeian ;inon# -hese t o planned their speeches together, the first and longer one being made by 4ylon, hile ;ino concluded by pretending that he had penetrated the .ythagorean mysteries, and that he had gathered and ritten out such particular as ere calculated to criminate the .ythagoreans, and a scribe he gave to read a boo! hich as entitled the Sacred 3iscourse# ,ere is a specimen of hat it contained1 $-his next paragraph is misplaced, but is put here as more suitable here than here it is the text, in front of the last one(# ;one of the .ythagoreans called .ythagoras by his name# 7hile alive, they referred to him as the divine oneI after his death, as =that man> Dust as ,omer ma!es /umaeus refer to Blysses thus1 =-hou absent he may be, A guest, I fear -o name himI so great is my love and care#> Such ere some of his precepts1 -hey ere to get up before sunrise, and never to ear a ring on hich the image of God as engraved, lest that image be defiled by being orn at funerals, or other impure place# -hey ere to adore the rising sun# .ythagoras ordered them never to do anything ithout previous deliberation and discussionI in the morning forming a plan of hat as to be done later, and at night to revie the days actions, hich served the double purpose of strengthening the memory, and considering their conduct# If any of their associates appointed them to meet them at some particular place and time they should stay there till he came, regardless of the length of time, for .ythagoreans should not spea! carelessly, but remember hat as said and regard order and method# At death they ere not to blaspheme, but to die uttering propitious ords, such as are used by those ho sail out of the port into the Adriatic Sea# 6riends are to be venerated in the same manner as GodsI but others are to be treated as brutes# -his very sentiment is ascribed to .ythagoreans themselves, but in verse form such as1 ="i!e blessed Gods, his friends he eer revered :ut rec!oned others as of no account#> .ythagoras considered that ,omer deserved to be praised for calling a !ing the shepherd of the people hich implied approval of aristocracy, in hich the rulers are fe , hile the implication is that the rest of men are li!e cattle# /nmity as re0uired to beans, because they ere used in votingI inasmuch as the .ythagoreans selected office holders by appointment# -o rule should be an obDect of desire, for it is better to be a bull for one day only, than for all ones life to be an ox# 7hile other states constitutions might be laudable, yet it ould be advisable to use only that hich is !no n to oneself#

In short, ;inon sho ed that their philosophy as a conspiracy against democracy1 and advised the people to listen to the defendants, that they ould never have been admitted into the assembly if the .ythagoreans council had to depend for admission on the Session of a thousand men, that they should not allo speech to those ho, had used their utmost to prevent speech by others# -he people must remember that hen they raised their right hands to vote, or even count their votes, this their right hand as constructively reDected by the .ythagoreans, ho ere Aristocrats# It as also disgraceful that the 4rotonian masses ho had con0uered thirty myriads of men at the river -racis should be out eighed by a thousandth part of the same number through sedition in the city itself# -hrough these calumnies ;inon so exasperated his hearers that a fe days after a multitude assembled intending to attac! the .ythagoreans as they ere sacrificing to the Cuses in a house near the temple of Apollo# 6oreseeing this, the .ythagoreans fled to an inn, hile 3emocedes ith the youths retired to .lataea# -he partisans of the ne constitution decreed an accusation against 3emocedes of inciting the to capture po er, putting a price of thirty talents on his head, dead or alive# A battle ensued, and the victor, -heages as given the talents promised by the city# -he citys evils spread to the hole region, and the exiles ere arrested even in -arentum, Cetapontum and 4aulonia# -he envoys from these cities that came to 4rotona to get the charges ere, according to the 4rotonian record, bribed, ith the result that the exiles ere condemned as guilty, and driven out further# -he 4rotonians then expelled from the city all ho ere dissatisfied ith the existing regimeI banishing along ith them all their families, on the t o-fold pretext that impiety as unbearable, and that the children should not be separated from their parents# -hey then repudiated the debts, and redistributed the lands# Cany years after, hen 3inarchus and his associates had been slain in another battle, and hen "itagus, the chief leader of the sedition ere dead, pity and repentance induced the citi5ens to recall from exile hat remained of the .ythagoreans# -hey therefore sent for from messengers from Achaia ho ere to come to an agreement ith the exiles, and file their oaths $of loyalty to the existing 4rotonian regimeK( at 3elphi# -he .ythagoreans ho returned from exile ere about sixty in number, not to mention the aged among hom ere some physicians and dieticians on original lines# 7hen these .ythagoreans returned, they ere elcomed by the cro ds, ho silenced dissenters by announcing that the regime as ended# -hen the -hurians invaded the country, and the .ythagoreans ere sent to procure assistance but they perished in battle, mutually defending each other# So thoroughly had the city become .ythagoreani5ed that beside the public praise, they performed a public sacrifice in the temple of the Cuses hich had originally been built at the instigation of .ythagoras# -hat is all of the attac! on the .ythagoreans#

4,A.-/? JJJ<I -,/ .@-,AGA?/A; SB44/SSIA;


.ythagorass ac!no ledged successor as Aristaeus, the son the 4rotonian 3amophon, ho as .ythagorass contemporary, and lived seven ages before .lato# :eing exceedingly s!illful in .ythagoric dogmas, he succeeded to the school, educated .ythagorass children, and married his ife -heano# .ythagoras as said to have taught his school 2) years, and to have lived a century# Aristaeus gro ing old, he relin0uished the school to .ythagorass son Cnesarchus# ,e as follo ed by :ulagoras, in hose time 4rotona as plundered# After the ar, Gartydas the 4rotonian, ho has been absent on a Dourney, returned, and too! up the schoolI but he so grieved about his

countrys calamity the he died prematurely# .ythagoreans ho became very old ere accustomed to liberate themselves from the body, as a prisoner# "ater, being saved through certain strangers, Aresas "ucanus undertoo! the schoolI and to him came 3iodorus Aspendius, ho as received into the school because of the small number of genuine .ythagoreans# 4linias and .hilelaus ere at ,eracleaI -heorides and /urytus at Cetapontum, and at -arentum, Archytas, /picharmus as also said to have been one of the foreign ,earers, but he as not one of the school# ,o ever, having arrived at Syracuse he refrained form public philosophi5ing, in consideration of the tyranny of ,iero# :ut he rote the .ythagoren vie s in metre, and published the occult .ythagorean dogmas in comedies# It is probable that the maDority of the .ythagoreans ere anonymous, and remain un!no n# :ut the follo ing names are !no n and celebrated1 Af the 4rotonians, ,ippostratus, 3ymas, Aegon, Armon, Sillus, 4leosthenes, Agelas, /pisylus, .hyciades, /chpntus, -imaeus, :uthius, /ratus, Itmaeus, ?hodippus, :ryas, /vandrus, Cyllias, Antimedon, Ageas, "eophron, Agylus, Anatus, ,ipposthenes, 4leophron, Alcmaecsi, 3amocles, Cilon, Cenon# At Cetapontum resided :rontinus, .armiseus, 4restadas, "eon, 3amarmenus, Aeneas, 4hilas, Celisias, Aristeas, "aphion, /vandrus, Agesarchus, -hrasus, /uryphemus, Aristomenes, Agesarchus, Alceas, Jenophantes, -hraseus, Arytus, /piphron, /riscus, Cegistisas, "eocydes, -hrasymedes, /uphemus, .roclos, Antimenes, "acritus, 3emotages, .yrrho, ?hexbius, Alopecus, Astylus, 3acidas, Aliochus, "acrates and Glycinus, Af the Agrigentines as /mpedocles, Af the /leatae, as .armanides# Af the -arentines ere .hilolaus, /u5ytus, Arcytas, -heodorus, Aristippus, "ycon, ,estiyacus, .olemarchus, Asteas, 4linias, 4leon, /urymedon, Arceas, 4linagoras, Archippus, Hopyrus, /uthynus, 3icearchus, .hilonidas, .hrontidas, "@SIS, "ysibius, 3inocrates, /checrates, .action, Acusalidas, Iomus, .isicrates, and 4learatus# Af the "eontines ere .hrynichus, Smichias, Aristoclidinas, 4linias, Abroteles, .isyrrhydus, :ryas, /vandrus, Archemachus, Cimnomachus, Achmonidas, 3icas and 4ariphantidas# Af the Sybarites ere Cetopus, ,ippasus, .roxenus, /vanor, 3eanax, Cenestor, 3iodes, /mpedus, -imasius, .olemaeus, /vaeus, and -yrsenus# Af the 4arthaginians as Ciltiades, Anthen, Adius and "eocritus# Af the .arians, Aetius, .haenecles, 3exitheus, Alchimachus, 3inarchus, Ceton, -ICA/BS, -imesianax, Amaerus, and -hymarides# Af the "ocrians,# Gyptius, Jenon, .hilodamus, /vetes, Adicus, Athenonidas, Sosistratus, /uthynus, Haleucus, -imares# Af the .osidonians, Athamas, Simus, .roxenus, 4ranous, Cyes, :athylaus, .haedon# Af the "ucani, Acellus, and his brother Accillus, Aresandrus, 4erambus, 3ardaneus, and Calion# Af the Aegeans, ,ippomedon, -imosthenes, /uelthus, -hrasydamus, 4rito, and .olyctor# Af the ,yperboreans, A:A?IS# Af the "acones, Autocharidas, 4leanor, /urycrates# Af the ?heginenses, Aristides, 3emosthenes, Aristocrates, .hytius, ,elicaon, Cnesibulus, ,ipparchides, Athosion, /uthycles, Apsimus# Af the Selinuntians, 4alais# Af the Syracusans, "eptines, .hintias, and 3amon# Af the Samians, Celissus, "acon, Archippus, Glorippus, ,elcris, ,ippon# Af the 4aulonienses, 4allibrotus, 3icon, ;astas, 3rymon and Jentas# Af the .hliasians, 3iocles, /checrates,.hanton and .olymnastus# Af the Sicyonians, .oliades, 3emon, Sostratius, and Sosthenese#

Af the 4yrenians, .rorus, Celanippus, Aristangelus and -heodorus# Af the 4yriceni .ythodorus, ,ipposthenes,:utherus and Jenophilus# Af the 4atanaei, 4harondasI and "ysiades# Af the 4orinthians, 4hrysippus# Af the -yrrhenians, ;ausitheus# Af the Athenians, ;eocritus# Af the .ontians, "yramnus# In all, t o hundred and eighteen# -he most illustrious .ythagorean omen are -imycha, the ife of Cyllias the 4rotonianI .hyltis, the daughter of -heophrius the 4rotonian# :yndacis, the sister of Acellus ml Acillus, "ucanians# 4hilonis,the daughter of 4hilon the "acedenonian# 4ratesiclea, the "acedemonian, the ife of the "acedemonian 4leanor# -heane, the ife of :rontinus of Cetapontum# Cya, the ife of Cilon the 4rotonian# "asthenia the Arcadian, Abrotelia, the daughter of Abroteles the -arentine# /checratia the .hliasian# -yrsenis the SybariteI .isirrhonde, the -arentine# ;isleadusa, the "acedemonian# :yro, the Argive# :abelyma the Argive, and 4leaechma, the sister of Autocharidas the "acedemonia# In all, seventeen#

"I6/ A6 .@-,AGA?AS :@ .A?.,@?@ M*22-2+& A#3#N


%# Cany thin! that .ythagoras as the son of Cnesarchus, but they differ as to the latters raceI some thin!ing him a Samian, hile ;eanthes, in the fifth boo! of his -ables states he as a Syrian, from the city of -yre# As a famine had arisen in Samos, Cnesarchus ent thither to trade, and as naturali5ed there# -here also as born his son .ythagoras, ho early manifested studiousness, but as later ta!en to -yre, and there entrusted to the 4haldeans, hose doctrines he imbibed# -hence he returned to Ionia, here he first studied under the Syrian .herecydes, then also under ,ermodamas the 4reophylian ho at that time as an old man residing in Samos# *# ;eanthes says that others hold that his father as a -yrrhenian, of those ho inhabit "emnos, and that hile on a trading trip to Samos as there naturali5ed# An sailing to Italy, Cnesarchus too! the youth .ythagoras ith him# Eust at this time this country as greatly flourishing# ;eanthes adds that .ythagoras had t o older brothers, /unostus and -yrrhenus# :ut Apollonius, in his boo! about .ythagoras, affirms that his mother as .ythais, a descendant, of Ancaeus, the founder of Samos# Apollonius adds that he as said to be the off-spring of Apollo and .ythais, on the authority of CnesarchusI and a Samian poet sings1 =.ythais, of all Samians the most fairI Eove-loved .ythagoras to .hoebus bareL>

-his poet says that .ythagoras studied not only under .herecydes and ,ermodamas, but also under Anaximander# 2# -he Samian 3uris, in the second boo! of his =,ours,> rites that his son as named Arimnestus, that he as the teacher of 3emocritus, and that on returning from banishment, he suspended a bra5en tablet in the temple of ,era, a tablet t o feet s0uare, bearing this inscription1 =Ce, Arimnestus, ho much learning traced, .ythagorass beloved son here placed#> -his tablet as removed by Simus, a musician, ho claimed the canon graven thereon, and published it as his o n# Seven arts ere engraved, but hen Simus too! a ay one, the others ere destroyed# G# It is said that by -heano, a 4retan, the daughter of .ythonax, he had a son, -helauges and a daughter, CyiaI to hom some add Arignota, hose .ythagorean ritings are still extant# -imaeus relates that .ythagorass daughter, hile a maiden, too! precedence among the maidens in 4rotona, and hen a ife, among married men# -he 4rotonians made her house a temple of 3emeter, and the neighboring street they called a museum# 9# "ycus, in the fourth boo! of his !istories, noting different opinions about his country, says, =Bnless you happen to !no the country and the city hich .ythagoras as a citi5en, ill remain a mere matter of conDecture# Some say he as a Samian, others, a .hliasian, others a Cetapontine# &# As to his !no ledge, it is said that he learned the mathematical sciences from the /gyptians, 4haldeans and .hoeniciansI for of old the /gyptians excelled, in geometry, the .hoenicians in numbers and proportions, and the 4haldeans of astronomical theorems, divine rites, and orship of the GodsI other secrets concerning the course of life he received and learned from the Cagi# 8# -hese accomplishments are the more generally !no n, but the rest are less celebrated# Coreover /udoxus, in the second boo! of his .escription of the Earth, rites that .ythagoras used the greatest purity, and as shoc!ed at all bloodshed and !illingI that he not only abstained from animal food, but never in any ay approached butchers or hunters# Antiphon, in his boo! on illustrious /irtuous "en praises his perseverance hile he as in /gypt, saying, =.ythagoras, desiring to become ac0uainted ith the institutions of /gyptian priests, and diligently endeavoring to participate therein, re0uested the -yrant .olycrates to rite to Amasis, the King of /gypt, his friend and former host, to procure him initiation# 4oming to Amasis, he as given letters to the priestsI of ,eliopolis, ho sent him on to those of Cemphis, on the pretense that the ere the more ancient# An the same pretense, he as sent on from Cemphis to 3iospolis# '# 6rom fear of the King the latter priests dared not ma!e excusesI but thin!ing that he ould desist from his purpose as result of great difficulties, enDoined on him very hard precepts, entirely different from the institutions of the Gree!s# -hese he performed so readily that he on their admiration, and they permitted him to sacrifice to the Gods, and to ac0uaint himself ith all their sciences, a favor theretofore never granted to a foreigner# )# ?eturning to Ionia, he opened in his o n country, a school, hich is even no called .ythagorass Semicircles, in hich the Samians meet to deliberate about matters of common interest# Autside the city he made a cave adapted to the study of his philosophy, in hich he abode day and night, discoursing ith a fe of his associates# ,e as no forty years old, says Aristoxenus# See-

ing that .olycratess government as becoming so violent that soon a free man ould become a victim of his tyranny, he Dourneyed to ards Italy# %+# 3iogenes, in his treatise about the 0ncredible Things 1eyond Thule, has treated .ythagorass affairs so carefully, that I thin! his account should not be omitted# ,e says that the -yrrhenian Cnesarchus as of the race of the inhabitants of "emnos, Imbros and Scyros and that he departed thence to visit many cities and various lands# 3uring his Dourneys he found an infant lying under a large, tall poplar tree# An approaching, he observed it lay on its bac!, loo!ing steadily ithout in!ing at the sun# In its mouth as a little slender reed, li!e a pipeI through hich the child as being nourished by the de -drops that distilled from the tree# -his great onder prevailed upon him to ta!e the child, believing it to be of a divine origin# -he child as fostered by a native of that country, named Androcles, ho later on adopted him, and entrusted to him the management of affairs# An becoming ealthy, Cnesarchus educated the boy, naming him Astrasus, and rearing him ith his o n three sons, /unestus, -yrrhenus, and .ythagorasI hich boy, as I have said, Androcles adopted# %%# ,e sent the boy to a lute-player, a restler and a painter# "ater he sent him to Anaximander at Ciletus, to learn geometry and astronomy# -hen .ythagoras visited the /gyptians, the Arabians, the 4haldeans and the ,ebre s, from hom he ac0uired expertery in the interpretation of dreams, and he as the first to use fran!incense in the orship of divinities# %*# In /gypt he lived ith the priests, and learned the language and isdom of the /gyptians, and three !inds of letters, the epistolic, the hieroglyphic, and symbolic, hereof one imitates the common ay of spea!ing, hile the others express the sense by allegory and parable# In Arabia he conferred ith the King# In :abylon he associated ith the other 4haldeans, especially attaching himself to Habratus, by hom he as purified from the pollutions of this past life, and taught the things hich a virtuous man ought to be free# "i!e ise he heard lectures about ;ature, and the principles of holes# It as from his stay among these foreigners that .ythagoras ac0uired the greater part of his isdom# %2# Astraeus as by Cnesarchus entrusted to .ythagoras, ho received him, and after studying his physiognomy and the emotions of his body, instructed him# 6irst he accurately investigated the science about the nature of man, discerning the disposition of everyone he met# ;one as allo ed to become his friend or associate ithout being examined in facial expression and disposition# %G# .ythagoras had another youthful disciple from -hrace# Hamolxis as he named because he as born rapped in a bears s!in, in -hracian called Halmus# .ythagoras loved him, and instructed him in sublime speculations concerning sacred rites, and the nature of the Gods# Some say this youth as named -hales, and that the barbarians orshipped him as ,ercules# %9# 3ionysiphanes says that he as a servant of .ythagoras, ho fell into the hands of thieves and by them as branded# -hen hen .ythagoras as persecuted and banished, $he follo ed him( binding up his forehead on account of the scars# Athers say that, the name Hamolxis signifies a stranger or foreigner# .herecydes, in 3elos fell sic!I and .ythagoras attended him until he died, and performed his funeral rites# .ythagoras then, longing to be ith ,ermodamas the 4reophylian, returned to Samos# After enDoying his society, .ythagoras trained the Samian athlete /urymenes, ho though he as of small stature, con0uered at Alympia through his surpassing !no ledge of .ythagorasRs isdom# 7hile according to ancient custom the other athletes fed on cheese and figs, /urymenes, by the advice of .ythagoras, fed daily on flesh, hich endued his body ith great strength# .ythagoras imbued him ith his isdom, exhorting him to go into the struggle, not for the

sa!e of victory, but the exerciseI that he should gain by the training, avoiding the envy resulting from victory# 6or the victors, are not al ays pure, though dec!ed ith leafy cro ns# %&# "ater, hen the Samians ere oppressed ith the tyranny of .olycrates, .ythagoras sa that life in such a state as unsuitable for a philosopher, and so planned to travel to Italy# At 3elphi he inscribed an elegy on the tomb of Apollo, declaring that Apollo as the son of Silenus, but as slain by .ytho, and buried in the place called -riops, so named from the local mourning for Apollo by the three daughters of -riopas# %8# Going to 4rete, .ythagoras besought initiation from the priests of Corgos, one of the Idaean 3actyli, by hom he as purified ith the meteoritic thunder-stone# In the morning he lay stretched upon his face by the seasideI at night, he lay beside a river, cro ned ith a blac! lambs oolen reath# 3escending into the Idaean cave, rapped in blac! ool, he stayed there t enty-seven days, according to customI he sacrificed to Heus, and sa the throne hich there is yearly made for him# An Heuss tomb, .ythagoras inscribed an epigram, =.ythagoras to Heus,> hich begins1 =Heus deceased here lies, hom men call Eove#> %'# 7hen he reached Italy he stopped at 4rotona# ,is presence as that of a free man, tall, graceful in speech and gesture, and in all things else# 3icaearchus relates that the arrival of this great traveler, endo ed ith all the advantages of nature, and prosperously guided by fortune, produced on the 4rotonians so great an impression, that he on the esteem of the elder magistrates, by his many and excellent discourses# -hey ordered him to exhort the young men, and then to the boys ho floc!ed out of the school to hear himI and lastly to the omen, ho came together on purpose# %)# -hrough this he achieved great reputation, he dre great audiences from the city, not only of men, but also of omen, among hom as a specially illustrious person named -heano# ,e also dre audiences from among the neighboring barbarians, among hom ere magnates and !ings# 7hat he told his audiences cannot be said ith certainty, for he enDoined silence upon his hearers# :ut the follo ing is a matter of general information# ,e taught that the soul as immortal and that after death it transmigrated into other animated bodies# After certain specified periods, the same events occur againI that nothing as entirely ne I that all animated beings ere !in, and should be considered as belonging to one great family# .ythagoras as the first one to introduce these teachings into Greece# *+# ,is speech as so persuasive that, according to ;icomachus, in one address made on first landing in Italy he made more than t o thousand adherents# Aut of desire to live ith him, M#########N , to hich both omen and built a large auditorium, to hich both omen and boys ere admitted# $6oreign visitors ere so many that( they built hole cities, settling that hole region of Italy no !no n as Cagna Grecia# ,is ordinances and la s ere by them received as divine precepts, and ithout them ould do nothing# Indeed they ran!ed him among the divinities# -hey held all property in common# -hey ran!ed him among the divinities, and henever they communicated to each other some choice bit of his philosophy, from hich physical truths could al ays be deduced, they ould s ear by the Tetractys, adDuring .ythagoras as a divine itness, in the ords# =I call to itness him ho to our souls expressed -he Tetractys, eternal ;atures fountain-spring#> *%# 3uring his travels in Italy and Sicily he founded various cities subDected one to another, both of long standing, and recently# :y his disciples, some of hom ere found in every city, he infused into them an aspiration for libertyI thus restoring to freedom 4rotona, Sybaris, 4atana, ?hegium, ,imera, Agrigentum, -auromenium, and others, on hom he imposed la s through 4harondas the 4atanean, and Haleucus the "ocrian, hich resulted in a long era of good government, emulated by

all their neighbors# Simichus the tyrant of the 4entorupini, on hearing .ythagorass discourse, abdicated his rule and divided his property bet een his sister and the citi5ens# **# According to Aristoxenus, some "ucanians, Cessapians, .icentinians and ?omans came to him# ,e rooted out all dissensions, not only among his disciples and their successors, for many ages, but among all the cities of Italy and Sicily, both internally and externally# ,e as continuously harping on the maxim, =7e ought, to the best of our ability avoid, and even ith fire and s ord extirpate from the body, sic!nessI from the soul, ignoranceI from the belly, luxuryI from a city, seditionI from a family, discordI and from all things excess#> *2# If e may credit hat ancient and trust orthy riters have related of him, he exerted an influence even over irrational animals# -he 3aunian bear, ho had committed extensive depredations in the neighborhood, he sei5edI and after having patted her for a hile, and given her barley and fruits, he made her s ear never again to touch a living creature, and then released her# She immediately hid herself in the oods and the hills, and from that time on never attac!ed any irrational animal# *G# At -arentum, in a pasture, seeing an ox MreapingN beans, he ent to the herdsman, and advised him to tell the ox to abstain from beans# -he countryman moc!ed him, proclaiming his ignorance of the ox-language# So .ythagoras himself ent and hispered in the oxs ear# ;ot only did the bovine at once desist from his diet of beans, but ould never touch any thencefor ard, though he survived many years near ,eras temple at -arentum, until very oldI being called the sacred ox, and eating any food given him# *9# 7hile at the Alympic games, he as discoursing ith his friends about auguries, omens, and divine signs, and ho men of true piety do receive messages from the Gods# 6lying over his head as an eagle, ho stopped, and came do n to .ythagoras# After stro!ing her a hile, he released her# Ceeting ith some fishermen ho ere dra ing in their nets heavily laden ith fishes from the deep, he predicted the exact number of fish they had caught# -he fishermen said that if his estimate as accurate they ould do hatever he commanded# -hey counted them accurately, and found the number correct# ,e then bade them return the fish alive into the seaI and, hat is more onderful, not one of them died, although they had been out of the ater a considerable time# ,e paid them and left# *&# Cany of his associates he reminded of the lives lived by their souls before it as bound to the body, and by irrefutable arguments demonstrated that he had bean /uphorbus, the son of .anthus# ,e specially praised the follo ing verses about himself, and sang them to the lyre most elegantly1 =-he shining circlets of his golden hairI 7hich even the Graces might be proud to ear, Instarred ith gems and gold, bestre the shore, 7ith dust dishonored, and deformed ith gore# As the young olive, in some sylvan scene, 4ro ned by fresh fountains ith celestial green, "ifts the gay head, in sno y flo erets fair, And plays and dances to the gentle air, 7hen lo, a hirl ind from high heaven invades, -he tender plant, and ithers all its shadesI It lies uprooted from its genial head, A lovely ruin no defaced and dead# -hus young, thus beautiful, /uphorbus lay, 7hile the fierce Spartan tore his arms a ay#>

$.ope, ,omers Iliad, :oo! %8(# *8# -he stories about the shield of this .hrygian /uphorbus being at Cycenae dedicated to Argive ,era, along ith other -roDan spoils, shall here be omitted as being of too popular a nature# It is said that the river 4aicasus, hile he ith many of his associates as passing over it, spo!e to him very clearly, =,ail, .ythagorasL> Almost unanimous is the report that on one and the same day he as present at Cetapontum in Italy, and at -auromenium in Sicily, in each place conversing ith his friends, though the places are separated by many miles, both at sea and land, demanding many days Dourney# *'# It is ell !no n that he sho ed his golden thigh to Abaris the ,yperborean, to confirm him in the opinion that he as the ,yperborean Apollo, hose priest Abaris as# A ship as coming into the harbor, and his friends expressed the ish to o n the goods it contained# =-hen,> said .ythagoras, =you ould o n a corpseL> An the ships arrival, this as found to be the true state of affairs# Af .ythagoras many other more onderful and divine things are persistently and unanimously related, so that e have no hesitation in saying never as more attributed to any man, nor as any more eminent# *)# <erified predictions of earth0ua!es are handed do n, also that he immediately chased a pestilence, suppressed violent inds and hail, calmed storms both on rivers and on seas, for the comfort and safe passage of his friends# As their poems attest, the li!e as often performed by /mpedocles, /pimenides and Abaris, ho had learned the art of doing these things from him# /mpedocles, indeed, as surnamed Alexanemos, as the chaser of indsI /pimenides, 4athartes, the lustrator# Abaris as called Aethrobates, the al!er in airI for he as carried in the air on an arro of the ,yperborean Apollo, over rivers, seas and inaccessible places# It is believed that this as the method employed by .ythagoras hen on the same day he discoursed ith his friends at Cetapontum and -auromenium# 2+# ,e soothed the passions of the soul and body by rhythms, songs and incantations# -hese he adapted and applied to his friends# ,e himself could hear the harmony of the Bniverse, and understood the universal music of the spheres, and of the stars hich move in concert ith them, and hich e cannot hear because of the limitations of our ea! nature# -his is testified to by these characteristic verses of /mpedocles1 =Amongst these as one in things sublimest s!illed, ,is mind ith all the ealth of learning filled, 7hatever sages did invent, he soughtI And hilst his thoughts ere on this or! intent, All things existent, easily he vie ed, -hrough ten or t enty ages ma!ing search#> 2%# Indicating by sublimest things, and, he sur'eyed all e$istent things, and the (ealth of the mind, and the li!e, .ythagoras Fs constitution of body, mind, seeing, hearing and understanding, hich as ex0uisite, and surpassingly accurate, .ythagoras affirmed that the nine Cuses ere constituted by the sounds made by the seven planets, the sphere of the fixed stars, and that hich is opposed to our earth, called =anti-earth#> ,e called "nemosyne, or Cemory, the composition, symphony and connexion of then all, hich is eternal and unbegotten as being composed of all of them# 2*# 3iogenes, setting forth his daily routine of living, relates that he advised all men to avoid ambition and vain-glory, hich chiefly excite envy, and to shun the presences of cro ds# ,e himself held morning conferences at his residence, composing his soul ith the music of the lute, and

singing certain old paeans of -hales# ,e also sang verses of ,omer and ,esiod, hich seemed to soothe the mind# ,e danced certain dances hich he conceived conferred on the body agility and health# 7al!s he too! not promiscuously, but only in company of one or t o companions, in temples or sacred groves, selecting the 0uietest and pleasantest places# 22# ,is friends he loved exceedingly, being the first to declare that the goods of friends are common, and that a friend as another self# 7hile they ere in good health he al ays conversed ith themI if they ere sic!, he nursed themI if they ere afflicted in mind, he solaced them, some by incantations and magic charms, others by music# ,e had prepared songs for the diseases of the body, by the singing of hich he cured the sic!# ,e had also some that caused oblivion of sorro , mitigation of anger and destruction of lust# 2G# As to food, his brea!fast as chiefly of honeyI at dinner he used bread made of millet, barley or herbs, ra and boiled# Anly rarely did he eat the flesh of victimsI nor did he ta!e this from every part of the anatomy# 7hen he intended to soDourn in the sanctuaries of the divinities, he ould eat no more than as necessary to still hunger and thirst# -o 0uiet hunger, he made a mixture of poppy seed and sesame, the s!in of a sea-onion, ell ashed, till entirely drained of the out ard DuiceI of the flo er of the daffodil, and the leaves of mallo s, of paste of barley and peaI ta!ing an e0ual eight of hich, and chopping it small, ith ,ymettian honey he made it into mass# Against thirst he too! the seed of cucumbers, and the best dried raisins, extracting the seeds, and the flo er of coriander, and the seeds of mallo s, purselain, scraped cheese, meal and creamI these he made up ith ild honey# 29# ,e claimed that this diet had, by 3emeter, been taught to ,ercules, hen he as sent into the "ibyan deserts# -his preserved his body in an unchanging conditionI not at one time ell, and at another time sic!, nor at one time fat, and at another lean# .ythagorass countenance sho ed the same constancy as in his soul also# 6or he as neither more elated by pleasure, nor deDected by grief, and no one ever sa him either reDoicing or mourning# 2&# 7hen .ythagoras sacrificed to the Gods, he did not use offensive profusion, but offered no more than barley bread, ca!es and myrrhI least of all, animals, unless perhaps coc!s and pigs# 7hen he discovered the proposition that the s0uare on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle as e0ual to the s0uares on the sides containing the right angle, he is said to have sacrificed an ox, although the more accurate say that this ox as made of flour# 28# ,is utterances ere of t o !inds, plain or symbolical# ,is teaching as t ofold1 of his disciples some ere called Students, and others ,earers# -he Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, hile the ,earers heard only the chief heads of learning, ithout more detailed explanations# 2'# ,e ordained that his disciples should spea! ell and thin! reverently of the Gods, muses and heroes, and li!e ise of parents and benefactorsI that they should obey the la sI that they should not relegate the orship of the Gods to a secondary position, performing it eagerly, even at homeI that to the celestial divinities they should sacrifice uncommon offeringsI and ordinary ones to the inferior deities# $-he orld he 3ivided into( opposite po ersI the =one> as a better monad, light, right, e0ual, stable and straightI hile the =other> as an inferior duad, dar!ness, left, une0ual, unstable and movable# 2)# Coreover, he enDoined the follo ing# A cultivated and fruit-bearing plant, harmless to man and beast, should be neither inDured nor destroyed# A deposit of money or of teachings should be faithfully preserved by the trustee# -here are three !inds of things that deserve to be pursued and ac-

0uiredI honorable and virtuous things, those that conduce to the use of life, and those that bring pleasures of the blameless, solid and grave !ind, of course not the vulgar intoxicating !inds# Af pleasures there ere t o !indsI one that indulges the bellies and lusts by a profusion of ealth, hich he compared to the murderous songs of the SirensI the other !ind consists of things honest, Dust, and necessary to life, hich are Dust as s eet as the first, ithout being follo ed by repentanceI and these pleasures he compared to the harmony of the Cuses# G+# ,e advised special regard to t o timesI that hen e go to sleep, and that hen e a a!e# At each of these e should consider our past actions, and those that are to come# 7e ought to re0uire of ourselves an account of our past deeds, hile of the future e should have a providential care# -herefore he advised everybody to repeat to himself the follo ing verses before he fell asleep1 =;or suffer sleep to close thine eyes -ill thrice thy acts that day thou hast run oerI ,o sliptK 7hat deedsK 7hat duty left undoneK> An rising1 >As soon as ere thou a!est, in order lay -he actions to be done that follo ing day> G%# Such things taught he, though advising above all things to spea! the truth, for this alone deifies men# 6or as he had learned from the Cagi, ho call God Aremasdes, Gods body is light, and his soul is truth# ,e taught much else, hich he claimed to have learned from Aristoclea at 3elphi# 4ertain things he declared mystically, symbolically, most of hich ere collected by Aristotle, as hen he called the sea a tear of #aturnI the t o bear $constellations( the hand of RheaI the .leiades, the lyre of the "usesI the .lanets, the dogs of PersephoneI and he called be sound caused by stri!ing on brass the voice of a genius enclosed in the brass# G*# ,e had also another !ind of symbol, such as, pass not over a balanceI that is, Shun avarice# .o!e not the fire ith a s ord, that is, e ought not to excite a man full of fire and anger ith sharp language# .luc! not a cro n, meant not to violate the la s, hich are the cro ns of cities# /at not the heart, signified not to afflict ourselves ith sorro s# 3o not sit upon a Mpac!N-measure, meant, do not live ignobly# An starting a Dourney, do not turn bac!, meant, that this life should not be regretted, hen near the bourne of death# 3o not al! in the public ay, meant, to avoid the opinions of the multitude, adopting those of the learned and the fe # ?eceive not s allo s into your house, meant, not to admit under the same roof garrulous and intemperate men# ,elp a man to ta!e up a burden, but not to lay it do n, meant, to encourage no one to be indolent, but to apply oneself to labor and virtue# 3o not carry the images of the Gods in rings, signified that one should not at once to the vulgar reveal ones opinions about the Gods, or discourse about them# Affer libations to the Gods, Dust to the ears of the cup, meant, that e ought to orship and celebrate the Gods ith music, for that penetrates through the ears# 3o not eat those things that are unla ful, sexual or increase, beginning nor end, nor the first basis of all things# G2# ,e taught abstention from the loins, testicle, pudenda, marro , feet and heads of victims# -he loins he called basis, because on them as foundations living beings are settled# -esticles and pudenda he called generation, for no one is engendered ithout the help of these# Carro he called increase as it is the cause of gro th in living beings# -he beginning as the feet, and the head the endI hich have the most po er in the government of the body# ,e li!e ise advised abstention from beans, as from human flesh# GG# :eans ere interdicted, it is said, because the particular plants gro and individuali5e only after $the earth( hich is the principle and origin of things, is mixed together, so that many things under-

ground are confused, and coalesceI after hich everything rots together# -hen living creatures ere produced together ith plants, so that both men and beans arose out of putrefaction hereof he alleged many manifest arguments# 6or if anyone should che a bean, and having ground it to a pulp ith his teeth, and should expose that pulp to the arm sun, for a short hile, and then return to it, he ill perceive the scent of human blood# Coreover, if at the time hen beans bloom, one should ta!e a little of the flo er, hich then is blac!, and should put it into an earthen vessel, and cover it closely, and bury in the ground for ninety days, and at the end thereof ta!e it up, and uncover it, instead of the bean he ill find either the head of an infant, or the pudenda of a oman# G9# ,e also ished men to abstain from other things, such as a s ines paunch, a mullet, and a seafish called a =nettle,> and from nearly all other marine animals# ,e referred his origin to those of past ages, affirming that he as first /uphorbus, then Aethalides, then ,ermotimus, then .yrrhus, and last, .ythagoras# ,e sho ed to his disciples that the soul is immortal, and to those ho ere rightly purified he brought bac! the memory of the acts of their former lives# G&# ,e cultivated philosophy, the scope of hich is to free the mind implanted ithin us from the impediments and fetters ithin hich it is confinedI ithout hose freedom none can learn anything sound or true, or perceive the unsoundedness in the operation of sense# .ythagoras thought that mind alone sees and hears, hile all the rest are blind and deaf# -he purified mind should be applied to the discovery of beneficial things, hich can be effected by, certain artificial ays, hich by degrees induce it to the contemplation of eternal and incorporeal things, hich never vary# -his orderliness of perception should begin from consideration of the most minute things, lest by any change the mind should be Darred and ithdra itself, through the failure of continuousness in its subDect-matter# G8# -hat is the reason he made so much use of the mathematical disciplines and speculations, hich are intermediate bet een the physical and the incorporeal realm, for the reason that li!e bodies they have a threefold dimension, and yet share the impassibility of incorporealsI as degrees of preparation to the contemplation of the really existent thingsI by an artificial reason diverting the eyes of the mind from corporeal things, hose manner and state never remain in the same condition, to a desire for true $spiritual( food# :y means of these mathematical sciences therefore, .ythagoras rendered men truly happy, by this artistic introduction of truly MconsistentN things# G'# Among others, Coderatus of Gades, ho MlearnedlyN treated of the 0ualities of numbers in seven boo!s, states that the .ythagoreans speciali5ed in the study of numbers to explain their teachings symbolically, as do geometricians, inasmuch as the primary forms and principles are hard to understand and express, other ise, in plain discourse# A similar case is the representation of sounds by letters, hich are !no n by mar!s, hich are called the first elements of learningI later, they inform us these are not the true elements, hich they only signify# G)# As the geometricians cannot express incorporeal forms in ords, and have recourse to the descriptions of figures, as that is a triangle, and yet do not mean that the actually seen lines are the triangle, but only hat they represent, the !no ledge in the mind, so the .ythagoreans used the same obDective method in respect to first reasons and forms# As these incorporeal forms and first principles could not be expressed in ords, they had recourse to demonstration by numbers# ;umber one denoted to them the reason of Bnity, Identity, /0uality, the purpose of friendship, sympathy, and conservation of the Bniverse, hich results from persistence in Sameness# 6or unity in the details harmoni5es all the parts of a hole, as by the participation of the 6irst 4ause# # 9+# ;umber t o, or .uad, signifies the t o-fold reason of diversity and ine0uality, of everything that is divisible, or mutable, existing at one time in one ay, and at another time in another ay#

After all these methods ere not confined to the .ythagoreans, being used by other philosophers to denote unitive po ers, hich contain all things in the universe, among hich are certain reasons of e0uality, dissimilitude and diversity# -hese reasons are hat they meant by the terms "onad and .uad, or by the ords uniform, biform, or diversiform# 9%# -he same reasons apply to their use of other numbers, hich ere ran!ed according to certain po ers# -hings that had a beginning, middle and end, they denoted by the number -hree, saying that anything that has a middle is triform, hich as applied to every perfect thing# -hey said that if anything as perfect it ould ma!e use of this principle and be adorned, according to itI and as they had no other name for it, they invented the form TriadI and henever they tried to bring us to the !no ledge of hat is perfect they led us to that by the form of this Triad# So also ith the other numbers, hich ere ran!ed according to the same reasons# 9*# All other things ere comprehended under a single form and po er hich they called .ecad, explaining it by a pun as decad, meaning comprehension# -hat is hy they called -en a perfect number, the most perfect of all as comprehending all difference of numbers, reasons, species and proportions# 6or if the nature of the universe be defined according to the reasons and proportions of members, and if that hich is produced, increased and perfected, proceed according to the reason of numbersI and since the .ecad comprehends every reason of numbers, every proportion, and every species, O hy should ;ature herself not be denoted by the most perfect number, -enK Such as the use of numbers among the .ythagoreans# 92# -his primary philosophy of the .ythagoreans finally died out first, because it as enigmatical, and then because their commentaries ere ritten in 3oric, hich dialect itself is some hat obscure, so that 3oric teachings ere not fully understood, and they became misapprehended, and finally spurious, and later, they ho published them no longer ere .ythagoreans# -he .ythagoreans affirm that .lato, Aristotle, Speusippus, Aristoxenus and JenocratesI appropriated the best of them, ma!ing but minor changes $to distract attention from this their theft(, they later collected and delivered as characteristic .ythagorean doctrines hatever therein as most trivial, and vulgar, and hatever had been invented by envious and calumnious persons, to cast contempt on .ythagoreanism# 9G# .ythagoras and his associates ere long held in such admiration in Italy, that many cities invited them to underta!e their administration# At last, ho ever, they incurred envy, and a conspiracy as formed against them as follo s# 4ylon, a 4rotonian, ho in race, nobility and ealth as the most preeminent, as of a severe, violent and tyrannical disposition, and did not scruple to use the multitude of his follo ers to compass his ends# As he esteemed himself orthy of hatever as best, he considered it his right to be admitted to .ythagorean fello ship# ,e therefore ent to .ythagoras extolled himself, and desired his conversation# .ythagoras, ho ever, ho as accustomed to read in human bodies nature and manners the disposition of the man, bade him depart, and go about his business# 4ylon, being of a rough and violent disposition, too! it as a great affront, and became furious# 99# ,e therefore assembled his friends, began to accuse .ythagoras, and conspired against him and his disciples# .ythagoras then ent to 3elos, to visit the Syrian .herecydes, formerly his teacher, ho as dangerously sic!, to nurse him# .ythagorass friends then gathered together in the house of Cilo the restlerI and ere all stoned and burned hen 4ylos follo ers set the house on fire# Anly t o escaped, Archippus and "ysis, according to the account of ;eanthes# "ysis too! refuge in Greece, ith /paminondas, hose teacher he had formerly been#

9&# :ut 3icaearchus and other more accurate historians relate that .ythagoras himself as present hen this conspiracy bore fruit, for .herecydes had died before he left Samos# Af his friends, forty ho ere gathered together in a house ere attac!ed and slainI hile others ere gradually slain as they came to the city# As his friends ere ta!en, .ythagoras himself first escaped to the 4aulonian haven, and thence visited the "ocrians# ,earing of his coming, the "ocrians sent some old men to their frontiers to intercept him# -hey said,> .ythagoras, you are ise and of great orthI but as our la s retain nothing reprehensible, e ill preserve them intact# Go to some other place, and e ill furnish you ith any needed necessaries of travel#> .ythagoras turned bac!, and sailed to -arentum, here, receiving the same treatment as at 4rotona, he ent to Cetapontum# /very here arose great mobs against him, of hich even no the inhabitants ma!e mention, calling them the .ythagorean riots, as his follo ers ere called .ythagoreans# 98# .ythagoras fled to the temple of the Cuses, in Cetapontum# -here he abode forty days, and starving, died# Athers ho ever state that his death as due to grief at the loss of all his friends ho, hen the house in hich they ere gathered as burned, in order to ma!e a ay for their master, they thre themselves into the flames, to ma!e a bridge of safety for him, hereby indeed he escaped# 7hen died the .ythagoreans, ith them also died their !no ledge, hich till then than they had !ept secret, except for a fe obscure things hich ere commonly repeated by those ho did not understand them# .ythagoras himself left no boo!I but some little spar!s of his philosophy, obscure and difficult, ere preserved by the fe ho ere preserved by being scattered, as ere "ysis and Archippus# 9'# -he .ythagoreans no avoided human society, being lonely, saddened and dispersed# 6earing nevertheless that among men the name of philosophy ould be entirely extinguished, and that therefore the Gods ould be angry ith them, they made abstracts and commentaries# /ach man made his o n collection of ritten authorities and his o n memories, leaving them herever he happened to die, charging their ives, sons and daughters to preserve them ithin their families# -his mandate of transmission ithin each family as obeyed for a long time# 9)# ;ichomacus says that this as the reason hy the .ythagoreans studiously avoided friendship ith strangers, preserving a constant friendship among each other# Aristoxenus, in his boo! on the Life of Pythagoras, says he heard many things from 3ionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, ho, after his abdication, taught letters at 4orinth# Among these ere that they abstained from lamentations and grieving and tearsI also from adulation, entreaty, supplication and the li!e# &+# It is said that 3ionysius at one time anted to test their mutual fidelity under imprisonment# ,e contrived this plan# .hintias as arrested, and ta!en before the tyrant, and charged ith plotting against the tyrant, convicted, and condemned to death# .hintias, accepting the situation, as!ed to be given the rest of the day to arrange his o n affairs, and those of 3amon, his friend and associate, ho no ould have to assume the management# ,e therefore as!ed for a temporary release, leaving 3amon as security for his appearance# 3ionysius granted the re0uest, and they sent for 3amon, ho agreed to remain until .hintias should return# &l# -he novelty of this deed astonished 3ionysiusI but those ho had first suggested the experiment, scoffed at 3amon, saying he as in danger of losing his life# :ut to the general surprise, near sunset .hintias came to die# 3ionysius then expressed his admiration, embraced them both, and as!ed to be received as a third in their friendship# -hough he earnestly besought this, they refused this, though assigning no reason therefore# Aristoxenus states he heard this from 3ionysius himself# M,ippobotusN and ;eanthes relate about Cyllia and -imycha########################

A;A;@CABS :IAG?A.,@ A. .@-,AGA?AS

.reserved by .,A-IBS
%# .lato as the pupil of Archytas, and thus the ninth in succession from .ythagorasI the tenth as Aristotle# -hose of .ythagorass disciples that ere devoted to contemplation ere called sebastici, the reverend, hile those ho ere engaged in business ere called politicians# -hose ho cultivated the disciplines of geometry and astronomy, ere called students# -hose ho associated personally ith .ythagoras ere called Pythagoreans, hile those ho merely imitated his teachings ere called Pythagoristians# All these generally abstained from the flesh of animalsI at a certain time they tasted the flesh of victims only# *# .ythagoras is said to have lived %+G yearsI and Cnesarchus, one of his sons, died a young man# -elauges as another son, and Sara and Cyia ere his daughters# -heano, it is said, as not only his disciple, but practically his daughter# 2# -he .ythagoreans preach a difference bet een the "onad, and the AneI the "onad d ells in the intelligible realm, hile the Ane d ells among numbers# "i!e ise, the - o exists among numerable things, hile the .uad is indeterminate# G#-he "onad expresses e0uality and measure, the .uad expresses excess and defect# Cean and Ceasure cannot admit of more or less, hile excess and defect, hich proceed to infinity, admit itI that is hy the .uad is called indeterminate# Since, because of the all-inclusion of the "onad and .uad, all things refer to number, they call all things numbersI and number is perfected in the -en# -en is reached by adding in order the first four figuresI that is hy -en is called the Puaternary $or, Tetrachtys(# 9# -hey affirm that man may improve in three aysI first, by conversation ith Gods, for to them none can approach unless he abstain from all evil, imitating the divinity, even unto assimilationI second, by ell doing, hich is a characteristic of the divinityI third by dyingI for if the slight soulseparation from the body resulting from discipline improves the soul so that she begins to divine, in dreamsI and if the disease-ecstasies produce visions, then the soul must surely improve far more hen entirely separated from the body by death# &# -he .ythagoreans abstained from eating animals, on their foolish belief in transmigrationI also because this flesh-food engages digestion too much, and is too fattening# :eans also they avoided, because they produced flatulency, produced over-satiety, and other reasons# 8# -he .ythagoreans considered the "onad as the beginning of all things, Dust as a point is the beginning of a line, a line of a surface, and a surface of a solid, hich constitutes a body# A point implies a preceding "onad, so that it is really the principle of bodies, and all of them arise from the "onad# '# -he .ythagoreans are said to have predicted many things, and .ythagorass predictions al ays came true# )# .lato is said to have learned his speculative and physical doctrines from the Italic .ythagoreansI and his ethics from SocratesI and his logic from Heno, .armenides and the /leatics# :ut all of these teachings descended from .ythagoras# %+# According to .ythagoras, .lato and Aristotle, sight is the Dudge of the ten colorsI hite and blac! being the extremes of all others, bet een1 yello , ta ny, pale, red, blue, green, light blue, and grey# ,earing is the Dudge of the voice, sharp and flat# Smell Dudges of odors, good and bad, and pu-

tridity, humidity, li0uidness and evaporation# -aste Dudges of tastes, s eet and bitter, and bet een them five1 sharp, acid, fresh, salt and hot# -ouch Dudges of many things bet een the extremes of heavy and lightness, such as heat and coldI and those bet een them, hardness and softnessI and those bet een them, dryness and moistness, and those bet een them# 7hile the main four senses are confined to their special senses in the head, touch is diffused throughout the head and the hole body, and is common to all the sensesI but is specialised in the hands# %%# .ythagoras taught that in heaven there ere t elve orders1 the first and outermost being the fixed sphere, here, according to Aristotle, d elt the highest God, and the intelligible deitiesI and here .lato located his ideas# ;ext are the seven planets1 Saturn, Eupiter, Cars, <enus, Cercury, Sun and Coon# -hen comes the sphere of 6ire, that of Air, 7ater, and last, /arth# In the fixed sphere d ells the 6irst 4ause, and hatever is nearest thereto is the best organi5ed, and most excellent, hile that hich is furthest therefrom is this orst# 4onstant order is preserved as lo as the CoonI hile all things sublunary are disorderly# /vil, therefore, must necessarily exist in the neighborhood of the /arthI hich has been arranged as the lo est, as a basis for the orld, and as a receptacle for the lo est things# All superlunary things are governed in firm order, and .rovidentiallyI and the decree of God, hich they follo I hile beneath the moon operate four causes1 God, 6ate, our election, and 6ortune# 6or instance, to go aboard a ship, or not, is in our po erI but the storms and tempests that may arise out of a calm, are the result of 6ortuneI and the preservation the ship, sailing through the aters, is in the hands of providence, of God# -here are many different modes of 6ate# -here is a distinction to be made bet een 6ate, hich is determined, orderly and conse0uent, hile 6ortune is spontaneous and casual# 6or example, it is one mode of 6ate that guides the gro th of a boyI through all the se0uent ages to manhood# %*# Aristotle, ho as a diligent investigator, agreed ith the .ythagoreans that the Hodiac runs obli0uely, on account of the generations of those M orthyN things hich become complements to the Bniverse# 6or if these moved evenly, there ould be no change of seasons, of any !ind# ;o the passage of the sun and the other planets from one MmoonN to another effect the four seasons of the year, hich determine the gro th of plants, and generation of animals# %2# Athers thought that the suns si5e exceeded that of the earth by no more than thirty timesI but .ythagoras, as I thin! correctly, taught it as more than a hundred times as great# %G# .ythagoras called the revolution of Saturn the great year, inasmuch as the other planets run their course in a shorter time1 Saturn, thirty yearsI Eupiter, in t elveI Cars in to I the Sun in oneI Cercury and <enus the same as the Sun# -he moon, being nearest to the /arth, has the smallest cycle, that of a month# It as .ythagoras ho first called heaven Cosmos because it is perfect, and =adornedQ ith infinite beauty and living beings# 7ith .ythagoras agreed .lato and Aristotle, that soul is immortalI although some ho did not understand Aristotle claimed he taught the soul as mortal# %9# .ythagoras said that man as a microcosmI hich means, a compendium of the universe not because, li!e other animals, even the least, he is constituted by the four elements, but because he contains all the po ers of the orld# 6or the orld contains Gods, the four elements, animals and plants# All of these po ers are contained in man# ,e has reason, hich is a divine po erI he has the nature of the elements, the po ers of moving, gro ing, and reproduction# ,o ever, in each of these he is inferior to the others# 6or example, an athlete ho practices five !inds of sports, and diverting his po ers into five channels, is inferior to the athlete ho practises a single sport, so man having all of the po ers, is inferior in each# -han the gods, e have less reasoning po ersI and less of each of the elements than the elements themselves# Aur anger and desire are inferior to these passions in the irrational animalsI hile our po ers of nutrition and gro th are inferior to that in plants# 4onstituted therefore of different po ers, e have a difficult life to lead#

%&# 7hile all other things are ruled by one nature only, e are dra n by different po ersI as for instance, hen by God e are dra n to better things, or hen e are dra n to evil courses by the prevailing of the lo er po ers# ,e ho, li!e a vigilant and expert charioteer, ithin himself cultivates the divine element, ill be able to utili5e the other po ers by a mingling of the elements, by anger, desire and habit, Dust as far as may be necessary# -hough it seems easy to !no yourself, this is the most difficult of all things# -his is said to derive from the .ythian Apollo, though it is also attributed to 4hilo, one of the seven sages# Its message is, in any event, to discover our o n po er, hich amounts to learning the nature of the hole extant orld, hich, as God advises us, is impossible ithout philosophy# %8# -here are eight organs of !no ledge1 sense, imagination, art, opinion, prudence, science, isdom and mind# Art, prudence, science and mind e share ith the GodsI sense and imagination, ith the irrational animalsI hile opinion alone is our characteristic# Sense is a fallacious !no ledge derived through the bodyI imagination is a notion in the soulI art is a habit of cooperating ith reason# -he ords = ith reason,> are here added, for even a spider operates, but it lac!s reason# .rudence is a habit selective of the rightness of planned deedsI science is a habit of those things hich remain ever the same, ith SamenessI isdom is a !no ledge of the first causesI hile mind is the principle and fountain of all good things# %'# 3ocility is divided into three1 shre dness, memory and acuteness# Cemory guards the things hich have been learnedI acuteness is 0uic!ness of understanding, and shre dness is the ability of deducing the unlearned from hat one has learned to investigate# %)# ,eaven may be divided into three1 the first sphereI second, the space from the fixed sphere to the moonI third, the hole orld, heaven and earth# *+# -he extreme elements, the best and the orst, operate unintermittently# -here is no intermission ith God, and things near him in mind and reasonI and plants are continuously nourished by day and night# :ut man is not al ays active, nor irrational animals, hich rest and sleep most of the time# *%# -he Gree!s al ays surpassed the :arbarians on manners and habits, on account of the mild climate in hich they live# -he Scythians are troubled by cold, and the Aethiopians by heatI hich determines a violent interior heat and moisture, resulting in violence and audacity# Analogously, those ho live near the middle 5one and the mountains participate in the mildness of the country they inhabit# -hat is hy, as .lato says, Gree!s, and especially the Athenians improved disciplines that they derived from the barbarians# **# $6rom them had come( strategym, painting, mechanics, polemics, oratory, and physical culture# :ut the sciences of these ere developed by the Athenians, o ing to the favorable natural conditions of light, and purity of air, hich had the double effect of drying out the earth, as it is in Attica, but ma!ing subtle the minds of men# So a rarefied atmosphere is unfavorable to the fertility of the earth, but is favorable to mental development# $In .hotiuss or!, this is follo ed by a paragraph on the /tesian inds, hich has nothing hatever to do ith the subDect, and hich, therefore, is omitted#(

"I6/ A6 .@-,AGA?AS by 3IAG/;/S "A/?-IBS Mcirca %'+ A#3#N

I /A?"@ "I6/
Since e have no gone through the Ionian philosophy, hich as derived from -hales, and the lives of the several illustrious, men ho ere the chief ornaments of that school, e ill no proceed to treat of the Italian School, hich as founded by .ythagoras, the son of Cnesarchus, a seal engraver, as he is recorded to have been by ,ermippusI a native of Samos, or, as Aristoxenus, asserts a -yrrhenian, and a native of one of the islands hich the Athenians, after they had driven out the -yrrhenians, had occupied# :ut some authors say that he as the son of Carmacus, the son of ,ippasus, the son of /uthyphron, the son of 4leonymus, ho as an exile from .hliasI and that Carmacus settled in Samos, and that from this circumstance .ythagoras as called a Samian# After that, he migrated to "esbosI having come to .herecydes, ith letters from his uncle Hoilus# -hen he made three silver goblets, and carried them to /gypt as a present for each of the three priests# ,e had brothers, the eldest of hom as named /unomus, the middle one -yrrhenius, and a slave named Hamolxis, to hom the Getae sacrifice, believing him to be the same as Saturn, according to the account of ,erodotus $G1)2(#

II S-B3I/S
,e as a pupil, as I have already mentioned, of .herecydes the SyrianI and after his death he came to Samos, and became a pupil of ,ermadamas, the descendant of 4reophylus, ho as already an old man no #

III I;I-IA-IA;S
As he as a youth devoted to learning, he 0uitted his country, and got initiated in all the Grecian and barbarian sacred mysteries# Accordingly he ent to /gypt, on hich occasion .olycrates gave him a letter of introduction to AmasisI and he learned the /gyptian language as Antiphon tells us, in his treatise on those men ho have become conspicuous for virtueI and he associated ith the 4haldeans and Cagi# After ards he ent to 4rete, and in company ith /pimenides, he descended into the Idaean cave---and in /gypt too he had entered into the holiest parts of their temples, --and learned all the most secret mysteries that relate to their Gods# -hen he returned again to Samos, and finding his country reduced under the absolute dominion of .olycrates, he set sail, and fled to 4rotona in Italy# ,aving given la s to the Italians, he there gained a very high reputation, together ith his scholars, ho ere about three hundred in numbers, and governed the republic in a most excellent mannerI so that the constitution as very nearly an aristocracy#

I< -?A;SCIG?A-IA;
,erclides .onticus says that he as accustomed to spea! of himself in this manner1 that he had formerly been Aethalides, and had been accounted the son of CercuryI and that Cercury had de-

sired him to select any gift he pleased except immortality# Accordingly he had re0uested that, hether living or dead, he might preserve the memory of hat had happened to him# 7hile, therefore, he as alive, he recollected everythingI and hen he as dead, he retained the same memory# At a subse0uent period he passed into /uphorbus, and as ounded by Cenelaus# 7hile he as /uphorbus, he used to say that he had formerly been Aethalides, and that he had received as a gift from Cercury, the perpetual transmigration of his soulI so that it as constantly transmigrating and passing into hatever plants or animals it pleasedI and he had also received the gift of !no ing and recollecting all that his soul had suffered in hell, and hat sufferings too are endured by the rest of the souls# :ut after /uphorbus died, he said that his soul had passed into ,ermotimusI and hen he ished to convince people of this, he ent into the territory of the :ranchidas, and going into the temple of Apollo, he sho ed his shield hich Cenelaus had dedicated there as an offering# 6or he said that he, hen he sailed from -roy, had offered up his shield hich as already getting orn-out, to Apollo, and that nothing remained but the ivory face hich as on it# ,e said that hen ,ermotimus died he had become .yrrhus, a fisherman of 3elosI and that he still recollected everything, ho he had formerly been Aethalides, then /uphorbus, then ,ermotimus, and then .yrrhus# 7hen .yrrhus died, he became .ythagoras, and still recollected all the circumstances I have been mentioning#

< 7A?KS A6 .@-,AGA?AS


;o they say that .ythagoras did not leave behind him a single boo!I but they tal! foolishlyI for ,eraclitus, the natural philosopher, spea!s plainly enough of him, saying, =.ythagoras, the son of Cnesarchus, as the most learned of all men in history and having, selected from these ritings, he thus formed his o n isdom and extensive learning, and mischievous art#> -hus he spea!s, because .ythagoras, in the beginning of his treatise on natural philosophy, rites in the follo ing manner1 =:y the air hich I breathe, and by the ater hich I drin!, I ill not endure to be blamed on account of this discourse#> -here are three volumes extant ritten by .ythagoras1 one on education, one on politics, and one ;atural .hilosophy# -he treatise hich is no extant under the name of .ythagoras is the or! of M"ysisN, of -arentum, a philosopher of the .ythagorean school, ho fled to -hebes, and became the teacher of /paminondas# ,eraclides, the son of Sarapion, in his 2bridgment of *3+otion says that he rote a poem in epic verse upon the BniverseI and besides that a sacred poem hich begins thus1 =3ear youths, I arn you cherish peace divine, And in your hearts lay deep these ords of mine#> A third about the SoulI a fourth on .ietyI a fifth entitled ,elothales, hich as the name of the father of /picharmus of 4osI a sixth, called 4rotonaI and other poems too# :ut the mystic discourse hich is extant under his name, they say is really the or! of ,ippasus, having been composed ith a vie to bring .ythagoras into disrepute# -here ere also many other boo!s composed by Aston of 4rotona, and attributed to .ythagoras# Aristoxenus asserts that .ythagoras derived the greater part of his ethical doctrines from -hemistoclea, the priestess at 3elphi# Ion of 4hios, in his /ictories, says that he rote some poems and attributed them to Arpheus# ,is also, it is said, is the poem called #copadaea, hich begins thusI S:ehave not shamelessly to any one#>

<

7A?KS A6 .@-,AGA?AS
;o they say that .ythagoras did not leave behind him a single boo!I but they tal! foolishlyI for ,eraclitus, the natural philosopher, spea!s plainly enough of him, saying, =.ythagoras, the son of Cnesarchus, as the most learned of all men in history and having, selected from these ritings, he thus formed his o n isdom and extensive learning, and mischievous art#> -hus he spea!s, because .ythagoras, in the beginning of his treatise on natural philosophy, rites in the follo ing manner1 =:y the air hich I breathe, and by the ater hich I drin!, I ill not endure to be blamed on account of this discourse#> -here are three volumes extant ritten by .ythagoras1 one on education, one on politics, and one ;atural .hilosophy# -he treatise hich is no extant under the name of .ythagoras is the or! of M"ysisN, of -arentum, a philosopher of the .ythagorean school, ho fled to -hebes, and became the teacher of /paminondas# ,eraclides, the son of Sarapion, in his 2bridgment of *3+otion says that he rote a poem in epic verse upon the BniverseI and besides that a sacred poem hich begins thus1 =3ear youths, I arn you cherish peace divine, And in your hearts lay deep these ords of mine#> A third about the SoulI a fourth on .ietyI a fifth entitled ,elothales, hich as the name of the father of /picharmus of 4osI a sixth, called 4rotonaI and other poems too# :ut the mystic discourse hich is extant under his name, they say is really the or! of ,ippasus, having been composed ith a vie to bring .ythagoras into disrepute# -here ere also many other boo!s composed by Aston of 4rotona, and attributed to .ythagoras# Aristoxenus asserts that .ythagoras derived the greater part of his ethical doctrines from -hemistoclea, the priestess at 3elphi# Ion of 4hios, in his /ictories, says that he rote some poems and attributed them to Arpheus# ,is also, it is said, is the poem called #copadaea, hich begins thusI S:ehave not shamelessly to any one#>

<II AG/S A6 "I6/


-hus does he divide the ages of life# A boy for t enty yearsI a young manTneaniskos, -- for t enty yearsI a middle aged manTneanias, -- for t enty years, and an old man for t enty# -hese different ages correspond proportionately to the seasonsI boyhood ans ers to the springI youth to summerI middle age to autumnI and old age to inter# ,e uses neaniskos here as e0uivalent to meirakionI and neanias as e0uivalent to aner#

<III SA4IA" 4BS-ACS


-imaeus says that he as the first person to assert that the property of friends is common, and that friendship is e0uality# ,is disciples used to put all their possessions together into one store, and use them in common# 6or five years they !ept silence, doing nothing but listening to discourses, and never once seeing .ythagoras, until they ere approvedI after that time they ere admitted into his house, and allo ed to see him# -hey also abstained from the use of cypress coffins, because the sceptre of Eupiter as made of that ood, as ,ermippus tells us in the second boo! of his account of .ythagoras#

IJ 3IS-I;GBIS,/3 A../A?A;4/
,e is said to have been a man of the most dignified appearanceI and respecting him his disciples adopted an opinion that he as Apollo ho had come from the ,yperboreansI and it is said that once hen he as stripped na!ed he as seen to have a golden thigh# Cany people affirmed that hen he as crossing the river ;essus, it addressed him by his name#

J 7AC/; 3/I6I/3 :@ CA??IAG/


-imaeus, in the tenth boo! of his !istories tells us that he used to say that omen ho ere married to men had the names of Gods, being successively sively called virgins, nymphs, and then mothers#

JI S4I/;-I6I4 4B"-B?/
Also it as .ythagoras ho carried geometry to perfection, after Coeris had first found out the principles of the elements of that science, as Aristiclides tells us in the second boo! of !istory of 2le$anderI and the part of the science to hich .ythagoras applied himself above all others, as arithmetic# ,e also discovered the numerical relation of sounds on a single stringI he also studied medicine# Apollodorus the logician recounts of him that he sacrificed a hecatomb, hen he had discovered that the s0uare of the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle as e0ual to the s0uares of the sides containing the right angle# -here is an epigram hich is couched in the follo ing terms1 =7hen the great Samian sage his noble problem found, A hundred oxen ith their life-blood dyed the ground#>

JII 3I/- A;3 SA4?I6I4/S


,e is also said to have been the first man ho trained athletes on meatI and /urymenes as the first man, according to the statement of .havorinus, in the third boo! of his 4ommentaries, ho ever did submit to this diet as before that men used to train themselves on dry figs, and moist cheese, and heaten breadI as the same .havorinus informs us in the eighth boo! of his 4ni'ersal !istory# :ut some authors state that a trainer of the name of .ythagoras certainly did train his athletes on this system, but that it as not our philosopherI for that he even forbade men to !ill animals at all, much less ould he have allo ed his disciples to eat them, as having a right to live in common ith man!ind# And this as his pretextI but in reality he prohibited the eating of animals because he ished to train and accustom men to simplicity of lifeI so that all their food should be easily procurable, as it ould be, if they ate only such things as re0uired no fire to coo! them, and if they dran! plain aterI for from this diet they ould derive health of body and acuteness of intellect# -he only altar at hich he orshipped as that of Apollo, the 6ather, at 3elos, hich is at the bac! of the altar of 4aratinus, because heat and barley, and cheeseca!es are the only offerings laid upon it, as it is not dressed by fireI and no victim is ever slain there, as Aristotle tells us, in his 4onstitution of the 3eli-

ans# It is also said that he as the first person ho asserted that the soul ent a necessary circle, being transformed and confined at different times in different bodies#

JIII C/ASB?/S A;3 7/IG,-S


,e as also the first person ho introduced measures and eights among the Gree!s, as Aristoxenus the musician informs us#

JI< ,/S./?BS A;3 "B4I6/?


.armenides assures us too that he as the first person ho asserted the identity of ,esperus and "ucifer#

J< S-B3/;-S A;3 ?/.B-A-IA;


,e as so greatly admired that it used to be said that his disciples loo!ed on all his sayings as the Aracles of God# In his ritings he himself said that he had come among men after having spent t o hundred and seventy years in the shades belo # -herefore the "ucanians, .eucetians, Cessapians and ?omans floc!ed around him, coming ith eagerness to hear his discoursesI but until the time of .hilolaus no doctrines of .ythagoras ere ever divulgedI and he as the first person ho published the three celebrated boo!s hich .lato rote to have purchased for him for a hundred minae# -he scholars ho used to come to him by night ere MnoN less than six hundred# 7henever any one of them M asN permitted to see him, he rote of it to his friends, as if they had achieved something onderful# -he people of Cetapontum used to call his house the temple of 4eresI and the street leading to it as called that of the Cuses, as e are informed in the universal history of .havorinus# According to the account given by Aristoxenus, in his tenth boo! of his "a s on /ducation, the rest of the .ythagoreans used to say that his precepts ought not to be divulged to all the orldI and Jenophilus the .ythagorean, hen he as as!ed hat as the best ay for a man to educate his son, said, =-hat he must first of all ta!e care that he as born in a city hich enDoyed good la s#> .ythagoras formed many excellent men in Italy, by his precepts, and among them Haleucus and 4harondas, the la givers#

J<I 6?I/;3S,I. 6AB;3/3 A; S@C:A"S


.ythagoras as famous for his po er of attracting friendshipsI and among other things, if he ever heard that anyone had any community of symbols ith him, he at once made him a companion and a friend#

J<II S@C:A"S A? CAJICS

;o

hat he called his symbols ere such as these1

=3o not po!e the fire ith a ord#> >3o not sit do n on a bushel#> >3o not devour your heart#> >3o not aid men in discarding a burden, but in increasing one#> >Al ays have your bed pac!ed up#> >3o not bear the image of God on a ring#> >/fface the traces of a pot in the ashes#> >3o not ipe a seat ith a lamp#> >3o not ma!e ater in the sunshine#> >3o not al! in the main street#> >3o not offer your hand lightly#> >3o not cherish s allo s under your roof#> >3o not cherish birds ith croo!ed talons#> >3o not defileI do not stand upon the parings of your nails, or the cuttings of your hair#> >Avoid a sharp s ord#> >7hen traveling abroad, do not loo! bac! at your o n borders#> ;o the precept not to po!e the fire ith a s ord meant, not to provo!e the anger or s elling pride of po erful menI not to violate the beam of the balance meant, not to transgress fairness and DusticeI not to sit on a bushel is to have an e0ual care for the present and the futureI for by the bushel is meant ones daily food# :y devouring ones heart, he intended to sho that e ought not to aste a ay our soul ith grief and sorro # In the precept that a man hen traveling abroad should not turn his eyes bac!, he recommended those ho ere departing this life not to be desirous to live, and not to be too much attracted by the pleasures here on earth# And the other symbols may be explained in a similar manner, that e may not be too prolix here#

J<III ./?SA;A" ,A:I-S


Above all things, he used to prohibit the eating of the erythinus and the mepanurusI also the hearts of animals, and beans# Aristotle informs us that to these prohibitions he sometimes added tripe and mullet# Some authors assert that he himself used to be contented ith honey, honey-comb and breadI and that he never dran! ine in the daytime# ,e usually ate vegetables, either boiled or ra I and he very rarely ate fish# ,is dress as hite, very cleanI his bed-clothes also ere hite and oolen, for linen had not yet been introduced in that country# ,e as never !no n to have eaten too much, or to have drun! too muchI or to indulge in the pleasures of love# ,e abstained holly from laughter, and from all such indulgences as Dests and idle stories# ,e never chastised any one, hether slave or free man, hile he as angry# Admonishing he used to call feeding stor!s# ,e used to practise divination, as far as auguries and auspicesI but not by means of burnt offerings, except only the burning of fran!incense# All the sacrifices hich he offered consisted of inanimate things# :ut some, ho ever, assert that he did sacrifice animals, limiting himself to coc!s, and suc!ing !ids, hich are called M-palioiN, but that he very rarely offered lambs# Aristoxenus, ho ever, affirms that he permitted the eating of all other animals, and abstained only from oxen used in agriculture, and from rams#

JIJ

<A?IABS -/A4,I;GS
-he same author tells us, as I have already mentioned, that he received his doctrines from -hemiclea at 3elphi# ,ieronymus says, that hen he descended into the shades belo , he sa the soul of ,esiod bound to a bra5en pillar, and gnashing its teethI and that of ,omer suspended from a tree, sna!es around it, as a punishment for the things that they had said of the Gods# -hose ho refrain from commerce ith their ives also ere punished and that on account of this he as greatly honored at 4rotona# Aristippus of 4yrene, in his Account of ;atural .hilosophers, says that .ythagoras derived his name from the fact of his spea!ing $agoreuein(, truth no less than the God at 3elphi $touputhieu(# ,e used to admonish his disciples to repeat these lines to themselves henever they returned home to their houses1 =In hat have I transgressedK 7hat ,ave I doneK 7hat that I should have done have I omittedK> ,e used to forbid them to offer victims to the Gods, ordering them to orship only at those altars hich ere unstained ith blood# ,e also forbad to s ear by the Gods, saying, =-hat every man ought so to exercise himself as to be orthy of belief ithout an oath# ,e also taught men that it behoved them to honor their elders, thin!ing most honorable that hich as precedent inpoint of timeI Dust as in the orld, the rising of the sun as more so than the settingI in life, the beginning more so than the endI and in animals, production more than destruction# Another of his rules as that men should honor the Gods above the geniuses, and heroes above men and of all men, parents ere those entitled to more honor# Another, that people should associate ith each other in such a ay as not to ma!e their friends enemies, but to render their enemies friends# Another as that they should not thin! anything exclusively their o n# Another as to assist the la , and to ma!e ar upon la lessness# ;ot to destroy or inDure a cultivated tree, nor any animal hich does not inDure man# Codesty and decorum consisted in never yielding to laughter, ithout loo!ing stern# Cen should avoid eating too much flesh, and in travelling should let rest and exertion alternateI that they should exercise memory, nor ever say or do anything in anger, not pay respect to every !ind of divination, should sing songs accompanied by the lyre, and should display a reasonable gratitude to the Gods and eminent men by hymns# ,is disciples ere forbidden to eat beans, because, as they ere flatulent, they greatly partoo! of animal propertiesI $that their stomachs ould be !ept in much better order by avoiding them(, and that such abstinence ould ma!e the visions that appear in ones sleep gentle and free from agitation# Alexander, in his Successions of .hilosophers, reports the follo ing doctrines as contained in .ythagorass 4ommentaries1 the Conad is the beginning of everything# 6rom this proceeds an indefinite duad, hich is subordinate to the monad, as to its cause# 6rom the monad and the indefinite duad proceed numbers# 6rom numbers proceed signs# 6rom these, lines, of hich plane figures consist# 6rom these plane figures are derived solid bodies# 6rom solid bodies are derived sensible bodies, of hich last there are four elements, fire, ater, earth and air# -he orld, hich is endued ith life and intellect, and hich is of a spherical figure, in its centre containing the earth, hich is also spherical, and inhabited all over, results from a combination of these elements, and from them derives its motion# -here are antipodes, and hat to us is belo , is to them above, ,e also taught that light and dar!ness, cold and heat, dryness and moisture, ere e0ually divided in the orldI and that, hile heat as predominant in summer, so hen cold prevailed, it as interI hen dryness prevailed, it as springI and hen moisture preponderated, autumn# -he loveliest season of the year

as hen all these 0ualities ere e0ually balancedI of hich the flourishing spring as the most holesome, and the autumn, the most pernicious# Af day, the most flourishing period as the morn hile the evening as the fading one, and the least healthy# Another of his theories as that the air around the earth as immovable, and pregnant disease, and that in it everything as mortal hile the upper air as in perpetual motion, and salubriousI and that in it everything as immortal, and on that account divine# -he sun, moon and the stars ere all GodsI for in them dominates the principle hich is the cause of# -he moon derives its light from the sun# -here a relationship bet een men and the Gods, because men parta!e of the divine principleI on hich count, therefore, God exercises his providence for our advantage# 6ate is the cause of the arrangement of the orld, both in general and in particular# 6rom the sun a ray penetrates both the cold aether, hich is the air, aer and the dense aether, pachun aithera, hich is the sea and moisture# -his ray descends into the depths and in this ay vivifies everything# /verything hich parta!es of the principle of heat lives, hich account, also, plants are animated beings but that not all living beings necessarily have souls# -he soul is something torn off from the aether, both arm and cold, from its parta!ing of the cold aether# -he soul is something different from life# It is immortal, because of the immortality of that from hich it as torn off# Animals are born from one another by seeds and that it is impossible for there to be any spontaneous production by the earth# Seed is a drop from the brain hich in itself contains a arm vaporI and that hen this is applied to the omb, it transmits moisture, virtue, and blood from the brain, from hich flesh, sine s, bones and hair, and the hole body are produced# 6rom the vapor is produced the soul and also sensation# -he infant first becomes a solid body at the end of forty daysI but, according to the principles of harmony, it is not perfect till seven, or perhaps nineI or at most ten months, and then it is brought forth# In itself it contains all the principles of life hich are all connected together, and by their union and combination form a hormonious hole, each of them developing itself at the appointed time# In general the senses, and especially sights, are a vapor of intense heat, on hich account a man is said to see through air, or through ater# 6or the hot principle is opposed by the cold oneI since, if the vapor in the eyes ere cold, it ould have the same temperature as the air, and so ould be dissipated# As it is, in some passages he calls the eyes the gates of the sun# In a similar manner he spea!s of hearing, and of the other senses# ,e also says that the soul of man is divided into three partsI into intuition $nous(, reason $phren(, and mind $thumos(I and that the first and last divisions are found also in other animals, but that the middle one, reason, is found in man only# -he chief abode of the soul is in those parts of the body hich are bet een the heart and the brain# -he mind abides in the heart, hile the intuition $or deliberation( and reason reside in the brain# -he senses are drops from themI and the reasoning sense is immortal, hile the others are mortal# -he soul is nourished by the blood, and reasons are the inds of the soul# -he soul is invisible, and so are its reasons, inasmuch as the aether itself is invisible# -he lin!s of the soul are the arteries, veins and nerves# 7hen the soul is vigorous, and is by itself in a 0uiescent state, then its lin!s are ords and actions# 7hen it is cast forth upon the earth, it anders about, resembling the body# Cercury is the ste ard of the souls, and that is the reason of his name 4onductor, 4ommercial, and Infernal, since it is he ho conducts the souls from their bodies, and from earth, and seaI and that he conducts the pure souls to the highest region, and that he does not allo the impure ones to approach them nor to come near one anotherI committing them to be# bound in indissoluble fetters by the 6uries# -he .ythagoreans also assert that the hole air is full of souls, and that these are those that .age %&) 3IAG/;/S "A/?-/S :IAG?A.,@ JIJ are accounted geniuses or heroes# -hey are the ones that send do n among men dreams, and to!ens of disease and healthI the latter not be-

ing reserved to human beings, but being sent also to sheep and other cattle# -hey are concerned ith purifications, expiations, and all !inds of divinations, oracular predictions, and the l$i!e(# Cans most important privilege is to be able to persuade his soul to be either good or bad# $Cen( are happy hen they have a good soulI yet they never 0uiet, never long retaining the same mind# An oath is DusticeI and on that account Eupiter is called Eupiter of Aaths# <irtue is harmony, health, universal good and GodI on hich account everything o es its existence and preservation to harmony# 6riendship is a harmonious 0uality# ,onors to Gods and heroes should not be e0ual# -he Gods should be honored at all times, extolling them ith praises, clothed in hite garments, and !eeping ones body chasteI but that to the heroes such honors should not be payed till after noon# A state of purity is brought about by purifications, ashings and sprin!lingsI by a mans purifying himself from all funerals, concubinage, or any !ind of pollutionI by abstaining from all flesh that has either been !illed or died of itself, from mullets, from melanuri, from eggs, from such animals as lay eggs, from beans, and from other things that are prohibited by those ho have chared of the mysteries in the temples# In his treatise on :eans, Aristotle says that .ythagorass reason for demanding abstention from them on the part of his disciples, as that either they resemble parts of the human body, or because they are li!e the gates of hell O they are the only plants ithout partsI -- or because they dry up other plants, or because they are representatives of universal nature, or because they are used in elections in oligarchical governments# ,e also forbade his disciples to pic! up hat fell from the table, for the sa!e of accustoming them to eat moderately, or else because such things belong to the dead# Aristophanes, indeed said that hat fell belonged to the heroes, in his heroes singing, =;ever taste the things hich fall, 6rom the table on the floor#> ,e also forbade his disciples to eat hite poultry, because a coc! of that color as sacred to the god Conth, and as also a suppliant# ,e as also accounted a good animal $K( and he as sacred to the god Conth, for he indicates the time# -he .ythagoreans ere also forbidden to eat of all fish that as sacred, on the ground that the same animals should not be served up before both gods and men, Dust as the same things do not belong to both freemen and slaves# ;o hite is an indication of a good nature, and blac! of a bad one# Another of the precepts of .ythagoras as never to brea! breadI because in ancient, times friends used to gather around the same loaf, as they even no do among the barbarians# ;or ould he allo men to divide bread hich unties them# Some thin! that he laid do n this rule in reference to the Dudgment hich ta!es place in hellI some because this practice engenders timidity in ar# According to others, the refence is to the Bnion, hich presides over the government of the Bniverse# Another one of his doctrines as that of all solid figures the sphere as the most beautifulI and of all plane figures, the circle# -hat old age, and all diminution as similar, and alsoI all increase and youth# -hat health as the permanence of form, and disease, its destruction# ,e thought salt should be set before people as a reminder of DusticeI for salt preserves everything hich it touches, and is composed of the purest particles of ater and the sea# -hese are the doctrines hich Alexander asserts that he discovered in the .ythagorean treatisesI and Aristotle gives us a similar account of them#

JJ

.A/-I4 -/S-ICA;I/S
-imon, in his Silli, has not left unnoticed the dignified appearance of .ythagoras, though he he attac!s him on other points# -hus he spea!s1 =.ythagoras ho often teaches precepts of magic, and ith speeches Af long high-sounding diction dra s, 6rom gaping cro ds, a vain applause#> In his 2lcmaeon, Innesimachus says1 =As e do sacrifice to the .hoebus hom .ythagoras orships, never eating aught 7hich has the breath of life#> Austophon says in his Pythagorean1 A# =,e said that hen he did descend belo Among the shades in ,ell, he there beheld All men ho eer had diedI and there he sa -hat the .ythagoreans differed much 6rom all the restI for that ith them alone 3id .luto deign to eat, much honoring -heir pious habits#> :# =,es a civil God, If he li!es eating ith such dirty fello s#> And again in the same play he says, =-hey eat nothing but herbs and vegetables, and drin! .ure ater onlyI but their lice are such -heir cloa!s so dirty, and their un ashd scent So ran!, that none of our younger men 7ill for a moment bear them#> ?eferring to his having been different people at different times, Jenophanes says in an elegiac poem, that begins thus1 =;o ill I upon another subDect touch, And lead the ay##### -hey say that once, as passing by he sa A dog severely beaten, he did pity himI And spo!e as follo s to the man ho beat him1 >Stop no and beat him notI since in his body Abides the soul of a dear friend of mine, 7hose voice I recogni5ed as he as crying#> 4ratinus also ridiculed him in his Pythagorean WomanI but in his Tarentines he spea!s thus1

=-hey are accustomed, if by chance they see A private individual abroad, -o try hat po ers of argument he has# ,o he can spea! and reasonI and they bother him 7ith strange antithesis, and forced conclusions, /rrors, comparisons, and magnitudes, -ill they have filled, and 0uite perplexed his mind#>

JJI 3/A-, A6 .@-,AGA?AS


.ythagoras died in this manner# 7hen he as sitting ith some of his companions in Cilos house, some of those hom he did not thin! orthy of admission into it, as by envy excited to set fire to it# :ut some say that the people of 4rotona themselves did this, being afraid lest he might aspire to the tyranny# .ythagoras as caught as he as trying to escapeI and coming to a place full of beans, he stopped there, saying that it as better to be caught than to trample on the beans, and better to be slain than to spea!I and so he as murdered by those ho ere pursuing him# In this ay also, most of his companions ere slainI being about forty in numberI but that a very fe did escape, among hom ere Archippus of -arentum, and "ysis, hom I have mentioned before# :ut 3icaearchus states that .ythagoras died later, having escaped as far as the temple of the Cuses at Cetapontum, here he died of starvation, after forty days# ,eraclides, in his abridgment of the Life of #atyrus, says that after he had buried .herecydes at 3elos, he returned to Italy, and there finding a superb ban0uet prepared at the house of Cilo, of 4rotona, he left that city or Cetapontum, here, not ishing any longer to live, he put an end to his life by starvation# :ut ,ermippus says that hen there as ar bet een the Agrigentiries and the Syracusans, .ythagoras, ith his usual companions, Doined the Agrigentine army, hich as put to flight# 4oming up against a field of beans, instead of crossing it, he ran around it, and so as slain by the SyracusansI and that the rest, about thirty-five in number, ere burned at -arentum, here they ere trying to excite a sedition in the state against the principal magistrates# ,ermippus also relates another story about .ythagoras# 7hen in Italy, he made a subterranean apartment, and charged his mother to rite an account of everything that too! place, mar!ing the time of each on a tablet, then sending them do n to him until he came up again# ,is mother did so# -hen after a certain time .ythagoras came up again, lean, and reduced to a s!eletonI he came into the public assembly, and said that he had arrived from the shades belo , and then he recited to them all that had happened to them in the mean hile# :eing charmed ith hat he told them, they believed that .ythagoras as a divine being, so they ept and lamented, and even entrusted to him their ives, as li!ely to learn some good from himI and they too! upon themselves the name of .ythagoreans# -hus far ,ermippus#

JJII .@-,AGA?AS 6ACI"@


.ythagoras had a ife, hose name as -heano, the daughter of :rontinus of 4rotona# Some say that she as the ife of :rontinus, and only .ythagorass pupil# As "ysis mentions in his letter to ,ipparchus, he had a daughter named 3amo# "ysiss letter spea!s of .ythagoras thus1

=And many say that you philosophi5e in public, as .ythagoras also used to doI ho, hen he had entrusted his commentaries to his daughter 3amo, charged her not to divulge them to any one outside of the house# -hough she might have sold his discourses for much money, she did not abandon themI for she thought that obedience to her fathers inDunctionI even though this entailed poverty, better than goldI and that too, though she as a oman#> ,e had also a son, named -elauges, ho as his fathers successor in his school, and ho, according to some authors, as the teacher of /mpedocles# At least ,ippobotus relates that /mpedocles said, =-elauges, noble youth, hom in due time -heano bore, to ise .ythagoras#> :ut there is no boo! extant, hich is the or! of -elauges, though there are some extant that are attributed to his mother -heano# Af her is told a story, that once, hen as!ed ho long a oman should be absent from her husband, and remain an pure, she said1 -he moment she leaves her o n husband, she is pureI but she is never pure at all after she leaves anyone else# A oman ho as going to her husband as by her told to put off her modesty ith, her clothes, and hen she left him, to resume it ith her clothesI hen she as as!ed hat clothes, she said1 =-hose hich cause you to be called a oman#>

JJIII ?I3I4B"I;G /.IG?ACS


;o .ythagoras, according to ,eraclides, the son of Serapion, died hen he as eighty years of age, according to his o n accountI by that of others, he as over ninety# An him e have ritten a sportive epigram, as follo s1 =@ou are not the only man ho has abstained 6rom living foodI for so have eI And ho, Id li!e to !no , did ever taste 6ood hile alive, most sage .ythagorasK 7hen meat is boiled, or roasted ell and salted, I do not thin! it ell can be called living# 7hich, ithout scruple therefore then e eat it And call it no more living flesh, but meat#> Another, hich runs thus1 =.ythagoras as, so ise a man, that he ;ever ate meat himself, and called it sin# @et gave the good Doints of beef to othersI So that I marvel at his principlesI 7ho others ronged, by teaching them to do 7hat he believed unholy for himself#> Another, hich follo s1 =Should you .ythagorass doctrine ish to !no , "oo! on the centre of /uphorbuss shield

6or he asserts there lived a man of old, And hen he had no longer an existence, ,e still could say that he had been alive, Ar else he ould not still be living no #> Another one follo s1 =AlasL AlasL 7hy did .ythagoras hold :eans in such ondrous honorK 7hy, besides 3id he thus die among his choice companionsK -here as a field of beansI and so the sage, 3ied in the common road of Agrigentum, ?ather than trample do n his favorite beans#>

JJI< -,/ "AS- .@-,AGA?/A;S


,e flourished about the sixtieth AlympiadI and his system lasted for about nine or ten generations# -he last .ythagoreans !no n to Aristoxenus ere Jenophilus the 4halcidean, from -hraceI .hanton the .hliasian ith his countrymen /chutes, M3iodeN and .olynmestus, disciples of .hilolaus and /urytus of -arentum#

JJ< <A?IABS .@-,AGA?AS/S


.ythagoras as the name of four men, almost contemporaneous, and living close to each other# Ane as a native of 4rotona, a man ho attained to tyrants po erI the second as .hliasian, and as some say, a trainer of restlers# -he third as a native of HacynthusI the fourth as this our philosopher, to hom the mysteries of philosophy are said to belong, and in hose time the proverbial phrase, ipse di$it, arose generally# Some also claim the existence of a fifth .ythagoras, a sculptor of ?hodes, ho is believed to have been the first discoverer of rhythm and proportion# Another as a Samian sculptor# Another, an orator of small reputation# Another as a physician, ho rote a treatise on s0uills, and some essays on ,omer# 3ionysius tells us there as another ho rote a history of the affairs of the 3orians# /ratosthenes, 0uoted by .havorinus, in the eighth boo! of his 4ni'ersal !istory, tells us that this philosopher, of hom e are spea!ing, as the first man ho ever practised boxing in a scientific manner, in the forty-eighth Alympiad, having his hair long, and being robed in purple# 6rom competition ith boys he as reDectedI but being ridicules for his application for this, he immediately entered among the men, and as victorious# Among other things, this statement is confirmed by an epigram of -heaetetus1 =Stranger, if eer you !ne .ythagoras, .ythagoras, the man ith flo ing hair, -he celebrated boxer, erst from Samos, I am .ythagoras# And if you as! A citi5en of /lis of my deeds, @ou ill surely thin! he is relating fables#>

.havorinus says that he employed definitions on account of the mathematical subDects to hich he applied himself# Socrates and his pupils did still moreI and in this they ere later follo ed by Aristotle and the Stoics# ,e too as the first man ho applied to the universe the name kosmos, and ho first called the earth roundI though -heophrastus attributes this to .armenides, and Heno to ,esiod# It is also said that he had a constant adversary, named 4ylon, as Socrates as Antidicus# -his epigram as formerly repeated concerning .ythagoras the athlete1 =.ythagoras of Samos, son of 4rates, 4ame hile a child to the Alympic gamesI /ager to battle for the pri5e in boxing#>

JJ<I .@-,AGA?AS "/--/?


/xtant is a letter of our philosophers, hich follo s1 .@-,AGA?AS -A A;AJIC/;/S =@ou ---, most excellent friend, if you ere not superior to .ythagoras in birth and reputation, ould have migrated from Ciletus, and gone else here# :ut no the reputation of your father !eeps you bac!, hich perhaps ould have restrained me too, if I had been li!e Anaximenes# :ut if you, ho are the most eminent man, abandon the cities, all their ernaments ill disappear, and the Cedian po er ill be the more dangerous to them# ;or is it al ays seasonable to be studying astronomy, but it is more honorable to exhibit a regard for ones country# I myself am not al ays occupied about speculations of my o n fancy, but I am busied also ith the ars hich the Italians are aging one ith another#> :ut since e have no finished our account of .ythagoras, e must also spea! of the most eminent of the .ythagoreans# After hom, e must mention those ho are spo!en of more promiscuously in connection ith no particular schoolI and then ill connect the hole series of philosophers orth spea!ing of, till e arrive at /picurus# ;o MEelangesN and -heano e have mentionedI and e must spea! of /mpedocles, in the first place, for according to some accounts, he as a pupil of .ythagoras#

JJ<II /C./3A4"/S AS .@-,AGA?/A;


-imaeus in his ninth boo!, relates that he as a pupil of .ythagoras, saying that he as after ards convicted of having divulged his doctrines, in the same ay as .lato as, and that he as therefore henceforth forbidden for attending his school# It is said .ythagoras has him in mind hen he said1 =And in that band there as a learned man Af ondrous isdomI on ho of all men ,ad the profoundest ealth of intellect#> :ut some say the philosopher as here referring to M.ytheridesN ;eanthes relates that until the time of .hilolaus and /mpedocles, the .ythagoreans used to admit into their school all persons indis-

criminatelyI but hen /mpedocles, by means of his poems, then they made a la to admit no epic poet# -hey said that the same thing happened to .latoI for that he too as excluded from the school# 7ho as /mpedocless .ythagorean teacher in not mentionedI for, as the letter of Eelanges in hich he is stated to have been a pupil of ,ippasus and :rontinus, that is not orthy of belief# :ut -heophrastus says that he as an imitator and rival of .armenides in his poems, for that he too has delivered his opinions on natural philosophy in /pic verse# ,ermippus ho ever says that he as an imitator not of .armenides, but of Jenophanes ith hom he livedI and that he imitated his epic style, and that it as at a later period that he fell in ith the .ythagoreans# :ut Alcimadas, in his ;atural .hilosophy, says that Heno and /rapedodes ere pupils of .armenides, about the same timeI and that they subse0uently seceded from him# Heno as said to have adapted a philosophical system peculiar to himselfI but that /mpedocles became a pupil of Anaxagoras and .ythagoras, and that he imitated the pompous demeanor and ay of life and gestures of the one, and the system of ;atural .hilosophy of the other#

<A"BC/ -7A .ythagorean 6ragments

I;-?A3B4-IA; -A .@-,AGA?/A; 6?AGC/;-S


-he reason that .ythagoreanism has been neglected, and often treated mythically, is that until this edition, the .ythagorean fragments have never been collected, in text, or any translation# -his boo! therefore mar!s an era in the study of philosophy, and is needed by every university and general library in the orld, not to mention those of the students of philosophy# :ut there is yet a ider group of people ho ill elcome it, the lovers of truth in general, ho ill be charmed by ,ierocles modern vie s about the family, inspired by Iamblichuss beautiful life of .ythagoras, hich has been inaccessible for over a century, and strengthened by the maxims of Sextus, hich represent the religious facts of the religion of the future more perfectly than can easily be found else here# -he universal culture of .ythagoras is faithfully portrayed by the manifold aspects of the teachings of Archytas, and .hilolaus, and of many other .ythagoreans, among hose fragments e find dissertations on every possible subDect1 metaphysics, psychology, ethics, sociology, science, and art# Cen of general culture, therefore, ill feel the need of this encyclopedic information and studyI and conversely, there is neither scientist, metaphysician, clergyman, litterateur or sociologist ho ill fail to discover therein something to his taste# -he 6ragments have been gathered from various sources# An .hilolaus, the authority is :oec!h# -he Archytas fragments have been ta!en from 4haignetI the minor or!s from Gale and -aylor, and the Caxims and Golden verses from 3acier# The Timaeus as ta!en from .latos or!s, among hich it has been preserved# ,ierocless 4ommentary on the Golden verses has been temporarily omitted as late, ordy, and containing nothing ne #

I;-?A3B4-IA; -A .@-,AGA?/A; "I:?A?@


As it is the /ditors purpose to live up to the title of this boo!, =A 4omplete .ythagorean "ibrary,> he ill be grateful to any purchaser of the boo! ho may point out to him further fragments that might be added, as the /ditor has no idea that he has, in spite of his good intentions, and ,erculean labors, done more than to ma!e the first attempt in a most important direction# Coreover, as the or! had to be done at off times, by night, or on holidays, it as inevitably hurried, and therefore inevitably imperfectI for all of hich oversights and errors he begs consideration, forgiveness, and constructive criticism# -his or! as done, ho ever, because of its great significance in the history of philosophy, hich has been else here more definitely been pointed out, and for the sa!e of hich, no doubt, the boo! ill be procured by all students, philosophers and general lovers of truth# It as underta!en for no purpose other than the benefit of humanity, that had for so long been deprived of this its precious heritage, and the /ditor ill be satisfied if he succeeds in restoring these treasures of thought and inspiration to his day and generation#

SIG;I6I4A;4/ A6 -,IS .@-,AGA?/A; "I:?A?@ IC.A?-A;4/ A6 -,IS 4A""/4-IA; A6 .@-,AGA?/A; 6?AGC/;-S

It is a general notion among the uneducated that the great geniuses of thought and poetry arose by divine decree in ready-made originality# Goethe did his best to disabuse the orld of this, ac!no ledging that most of the merit of his or! as due to the literature he had studied better than anybody else of his circle# <irgil as so ashamed of his borro ings from /nnius and others, later demonstrated by Cacrobius, that on his deathbed he ished to destroy his Aeneid, not understanding that it as all the more precious to us for the fidelity ith hich it represented the then immediately preceding age# -he uncoverers of the sources of Sha!espeare, ,omer, Cilton $<ondel(, 3ante $:runo "atini(, and many ethnic scriptures have doneI their victims no harm, but rather honorI enriching their significance, and ma!ing them all the more precious to the orld hich in the last analysis cares nothing for a :ritish poacher and pa nbro!er ho rote his name in & different ays, or about a blind traveler, compelled to ma!e the most of his foreign findings, or a 6lorentine :olshevi!, exile and sycophant, to hom it as heaven to be guided by a stout mother of a great family, ho had repulsed himI but the orld is very much concerned in having, in modern, accessible and cheap form a summary of the best that has been done up to that time# In restoring the bac!ground of philosophy and thought behind .lato and Aristotle, e are not doing them an inDury, but rather ma!ing their utterances all the more precious by sho ing the mental associations that inspired them as they penned their immortal ords# -his can, of course, be done only very partially, for e have only fragments to deal ithI but the inference is reasonable that if e can suggest so much from mere fragments, e could do much more from the no lost complete or!s of the .ythagoreans# -o begin ith, .lato sho ed his good taste by ma!ing great efforts to procure the inaccessible ritings of Acellus, and through Archytas secured several# So e have a definite historical connection on hich to base our further suppositions# -hen e hear that he paid a large sum of money for a .ythagorean riting, hich indeed may have been the treatise of the "ocrian -imaeus, hich is generally printed ith his or!s, and hose close relations ith his o n =-imaeus> are unblin!able# -o begin ith, e do !no that the titles of many of his dialogues ere not ta!en on chance, but represented famous thin!ers in that field, such as the .rotagoras, and others# -he correspondences bet een his Timaeus and the "ocrian or! are so mar!ed, that inevitably some connection has been assumed, and in vie of .latos fame and the "ocrians rusticity, has generally led to calling the "ocrian or! an abstract of .latos# :ut even they ho stated and assumed this had 0ualms of conscience# :oth 3e Gelder and -eneann had pointed out that the "ocrian =origin of the human soul is more clearly explained> than the .latonicI and :urges adds, that in vie of this it is =hard to understand ho the former could have been an abridgment of the latter#> 3e Gelder had already pointed out important discrepancies, so that the abstract theory is unsatisfactory# -he "ocrian calculation from 2'G $instead of .latos %)*( MthroughN the numbers of the scale to a total of %%G,&)9 is no easy matter, and impossible for the student abstracterI this implied great mathematical and musical s!ill, and could not have been made ithout very clear purposes, hich indeed here are unmista!ably .ythagorean# In comparing the "ocrian and .latonic essays e find the "ocrian much shorter, logical, and ithout any padding# It is therefore, antecedently, much more li!ely to have been the source of inspiration# -homas -aylor had already done much in this field, hich deserves, and no doubt in the future ill attract serious attention# 7e can here mention only a fe of the better !no n correspondences# -he second chapter of Acellus "ucanuss treatise, is practically reproduced by Aristotle in his essay on Generation and 4orruption, especially the three things necessary to generationI also the four

po ers, and details about matter# Several paragraphs about the mixture of the elements are ta!en entire# Also the expression, 5as is proper& from such things as are proper& and (hen it is proper.6 ,ippodamuss mingling of democracy, aristocracy and monarchy is found in .latos la s, and his Statesman# /cphantus said that any man ho has a divine conception of things is in reality a !ing# .lato in his Statesman said that 5(e must call royal he (ho possesses the royal science& (hether or not he go'erns.6 4allicratidas defined God as an intellectual, and incorruptible animal, hile in the %*th boo! of his Cetaphysics, Aristotle says that 7,od is an animal eternal and most e$cellent.6 Strange to say, .latos mother as named .ericthyone, hose namesa!e as one of the .ythagoreans female philosophers# She said that those ho are unfaithful to their parents must expect punishment in hell, hile Alimpiodorus, on the .haedo of .lato states that the soul is by the divinity not punished through anger, but medicinally, as as implied by .ericthyone# Aristoxenuss second paragraph is 0uoted in extenso in .latos "a s, $viii, p%'8, l'', :ipon(# .empeluss fragment on parents is also 0uoted by .lato in the same or!# Archytass treatment of happiness is reproduced in part in Aristotles ;icomachean /thics# -his most interesting topic, should furnish the subDect of a most valuable treatise, hich ill be necessary to the proper appreciation of all Gree! philosophy# 7ho ill have time for itK

.@-,AGA?/A; S@C:A"S, or CAJICS $6rom ,ierocles#(


%# Go not beyond the balance# $-ransgress not Eustice(# *# Sit not do n on the bushel# $3o not loaf on your Dob(# 2# -ear not to pieces the cro n# $3o not be a Doy-!iller(# G# /at not the heart# $3o not grieve over-much(# 9# 3o not po!e the fire ith a s ord# $3o not further inflame the 0uarrelsome(# &# ,aving arrived at the frontiers, turn not bac!# $3o not ish to live over your life(# 8# Go not by the public ay# $Go not the broad popular ay, hich leads to destruction(# '# Suffer not s allo s around your house# $?eceive no s allo s in your family(# )# 7ear not the image of God on your ring# $.rofane not the name of God(# %+# 3o not unload people, but load them up# $/ncourage not idleness, but virtue(# %%# ;ot easily sha!e hands ith a man# $Ca!e no ill-considered friendships(# %*# "eave no the least mar! of the pot on the ashes# $After reconciliation, forget the disagreement(# %2# So mallo s, but never eat them# $Bse mildness to others, but not to yourself(# %G# 7ipe not out the place of the torch# $"et not all the lights of reason be extinguished(# %9# 7ear not a narro ring# $See! freedom, avoid slavery(#

%&# 6eed not the animals that have croo!ed cla s# $-o your family admit no thief or traitor(# %8# Abstain from beans# $Avoid farcineous food causing flatulence, avoid democratic voting(# %'# /at not fish hose tails are blac!# $6re0uent not the company of men ithout reputation(# %)# ;ever eat the gurnet# $Avoid revenge(# *+# /at not the omb of animals# $Avoid hat leads to generation, to lo est affections(# *%# Abstain from flesh of animals that die of themselves# $Avoid decayed food(# **# Abstain from eating animals# $,ave no conversation ith unreasonable men(# *2# Al ays put salt on the table# $Al ays use the principle of Eustice to settle problems(# *G# ;ever brea! the bread# $7hen giving charity, do not pare too close(# *9# 3o not spill oil upon the seat# $3o not flatter princes, praise God only(# *&# .ut not meat in a foul vessel# $3o not give good precepts to a vicious soul(# *8# 6eed the coc!, but sacrifice him notI for he is sacred to the sun and the moon# $4herish people ho arm you, sacrifice them not to resentment(# *'# :rea! not the teeth# 3o not revile bitterly# $3o not be sarcastic(# *)# Keep far from you the vinegar-cruet# $Avoid malice and sarcasm(# 2+# Spit upon the parings of your nails, and on the clippings of your hair# $Abhor desires(# 2%# 3o not urinate against the sun# $:e modest(# 2*# Spea! not in the face of the sun# $Ca!e not public the thoughts of your heart(# 22 3o not sleep at noon# $3o not continue in dar!ness(# 2G# Stir up the bed as soon as you are risen, do not leave in it any print of the body# $7hen or!ing, han!er not for luxurious ease(# 29# ;ever sing ithout harp-accompaniment# $Ca!e of life a hole(# 2&# Al ays !eep your things pac!ed up# $Al ays be prepared for all emergencies(# 28# Puit not your post ithout your generals order# $3o# not suicide(# 2'# 4ut not ood on the public road# $;ever turn to private use hat belongs to the public(# 2)# ?oast not hat is boiled# $;ever ta!e in ill part hat is done in simplicity and ignorance(# G+# Avoid the t o-edged s ord# $,ave no conversation ith slanderers(#

G%# .ic! not up hat is fallen from the table#$Al ays leave something for charity(# G*# Abstain even from a cypress chest# $Avoid going to funerals(# G2# -o the celestial gods sacrifice an odd number, but to the infernal, an even# $-o God consecrate the indivisible soul, the body to hell(# GG# Affer not to the gods the ine of an unpruned vine# $Agriculture is a great piece of piety(# G9# ;ever sacrifice ithout meal# $/ncourage agriculture, offer bloodless offerings(# G&# Adore the gods, and sacrifice bare-foot# $.ray and sacrifice in humility of heart(# G8# -urn round hen you orship# $Adore the immensity of God, ho fills the universe(# G'# Sit do n hen you orship# $;ever orship in a hurry(# G)# .are not your nails during the sacrifices# $In the temple behave respectfully(# 9+# 7hen it thunders, touch the ground# $Appease God by humility(# 9%# 3o not primp by torch-light# $"oo! at things in the light of God(# 9*# Ane, - o# $God and ;atureI all things are !no n to God(# 92# ,onor mar!s of dignity, the -hrone, and the -ernary# $7orship magistrates, Kings, ,eroes, Geniuses and God(# 9G# 7hen the inds blo , adore echo# $3uring revolts, flee to deserts(# 99# /at not in the chariot# $/at not in the midst of hurried, important business(# 9&# .ut on your right shoe first, and ash your left foot first#$.refer an active life, to one of ease and pleasure(# 98# /at not the brain# $7ear not out the brain, refresh yourself(# 9'# .lant not the palm-tee# $3o nothing but hat is good and useful(# 9)# Ca!e thy libations to the gods by the ear# $:eautify thy orship by music(# &+# ;ever catch the cuttle-fish# $Bnderta!e no dar! affairs, intricate affairs, that ill ound you(# &%#Stop not at the threshold# $:e not avering but choose your side(# &*# Give ay to a floc! that goes by# $Appose not the multitude(# &2# Avoid the easel# $Avoid tale-tellers(# &G# ?efuse the eapons a oman offers you# $?eDect all suggestions revenge inspires(#

&9# Kill not the serpent that chances to fall ithin your alls# $,arm no enemy ho becomes your guest or suppliant(# &&# It is a crime to thro stones into fountains# $It is a crime to persecute good men( &8# 6eed not yourself ith your left hand# $Support yourself ith honest toil, not robbery(# &'# It is a horrible crime to ipe off the s eat ith iron# $It is a criminal to deprive a man by force of hat he earned by labor(# &)# Stic! not iron in the footsteps of a man# $Cangle not the memory of a man(# 8+# Sleep not on a grave# $"ive not in idleness on the parents inherited estates(# 8%# "ay not the hole faggot on the fire# $"ive thriftily, spend not all at once(# 8*# "eap not from the chariot ith your feet close together# $3o nothing inconsiderately(# 82# -hreaten not the stars# $:e not angry ith your superiors(# 8G# .lace not the candle against the all# $.ersist not in enlightening the stupid(# 89# 7rite not in the sno # $-rust not your precepts to persons of an inconstant character(#

.@-,AGA?ASS GA"3/; </?S/S


%# 6irst honor the immortal Gods, as the la demandsI *# -hen reverence thy oath, and than the illustrious heroesI 2# -hen venerate the divinities under the earth, due rites performing, G# -hen honor your parents, and all of your !indredI 9# Among others ma!e the most virtuous thy friendI &# "ove to ma!e use of soft speeches, but deeds that are usefulI 8# Alienate not the beloved comrade for trifling offences, '# :ear all you can, hat you can, and you should Mare near to each otherN )#-a!e this all to heart1 you must gain control of your habitsI %+# 6irst over stomach, then sleep, and then luxury, %%# And angerI hat brings you shame, do not unto others# %*# ;or by yourselfI highest of duties is honor of self, %2# "et Eustice be practiced in ords as in deedsI

%G# -hen ma!e the habit, never inconsiderately to actI %9# ;either forget that death is appointed to allI %&# -hat possessions here gladly gathered, there must be leftI %8# 7hatever sorro the fate of the gods may here send us, %'# :ear, hatever may stri!e you, ith patience unmurmuring# %)# -o relieve it, so far as you can, is permittedI but reflect1 *+# ;ot much good has 6ate given to the good# *% -he speech of the people is various, no good, and no evilI **# So let them not frighten you, nor !eep you from your purpose# *2# If false calumnies come to your ear, support it in patienceI *G# @et that hich I no am declaring, fulfill it full faithfully1 *9# "et no one ith speech or ith deeds eer deceive youI *&# -o do or to say hat is not the best, *8# -hin!, ere you act, that nothing stupid resultI *'# -o act inconsiderately is part of a foolI *)# @et hatever later ill not bring you repentance, that you should carry through, 2+# 3o nothing beyond hat you !no I yet learn 2%# 7hat you may needI thus shall your life gro happy# 2*# ;either gro anxious about the health of the bodyI 22# Keep measure in eating and drin!ing, and every exercise of the bodyI 2G# :y measure, I mean hat later ill not induce painI 29# 6ollo clean habits of life, but not the luxuriousI 2&# Avoid hat envy arouses, 28# At the rong time, never be prodigal, as if you did not !no hat as properI

2'# ;or sho yourself stingyI that hich is medium is ever the best# 2)# ;ever let slumber approach thy earied eye-lids,

G+# /re thrice you revie ed hat this day you didI G% $Cissing( G*# 7herein have I sinnedK 7hat did IK 7hat duty is neglectedK G2# All from the first to the last, revie I and if you have erred, GG# Grieve in your spirit, reDoicing for all that as good# G9# 7ith 5eal and ith industry, this, then repeatI and learn to repeat it ith Doy# G&# -hus ilt thou tread on the paths of heavenly virtue, G8# Surely, I s ear it by him ho into our souls placed the 6our $elements(, Myes, by him ho imparted to our soul the tetraktys,N G'# ,im ho is spring of ;ature eternalT;o start on your tas!L G)# After you have implored the blessing of the Gods#TIf this you hold fast, 9+# Soon ill you recogni5e of Gods and mortal men 9%# -he peculiar existence, ho everything passes and returns# 9*# -hen ill you see hat is true, ho ;ature in all is most e0ual, 92# So that you hope not for hat has no hope, nor that aught should escape you# 9G# Cen shall you find hose sorro s themselves have created, 99# 7retches ho see not the God, that is to near, near, 9&# ;othing they hearI fe !no ho to help themselves in misfortune# 98# -hat is the 6ate, that blinds humanity, in circlMingN circles, 9'# ,ither and yon, they run, in endless sorro sI 9)# 6or they are follo ed by a grim companion, disunion ithin themselves, &+# BnnoticedI neer rouse him, and fly from before himL &%# 6ather Heus, A free them all from sufferings so great, &*# Ar sho unto each the Genius, ho is their guideL &2# @et, do not fear, for the mortals are divine by M-----N &G# -o hom holy ;ature everything ill reveal and demonstrateI

&9# 7hereof if you have received, so !eep hat I teach youI &&# 6or I ill heal you, and you shall remain insured from manifold evil# &8# Avoid foods forbidden, reflect, that this contributes to cleanliness &'# And redemption of your soulI -his all, Ah, considerI &)# "et reason, the gift divine, be thy highest guideI 8+# -hen should you be separated from the body, and soar in the spiritual aether, 8%# -hen ill you be imperishable, a divinity, no longer a humanL

:IAG?A.,@ A6 .,I"A"ABS :@ 3IAG/;/S "A/?-/S


.hilolaus of 4rotona, a .ythagorean, as he from hom .lato, in some of his "etters, begged 3io to purchase .ythagorean boo!s# ,e died under the accusation of having had designs on the tyranny# I have made about him the follo ing epigram1 =I advise everybody to ta!e, good care to avoid suspicionI even if you are not guilty, but seem so, you are ruined# -hat is hy 4rotona, the homeland of .hilolaus, destroyed him, because he as suspected of ishing to establish autocracy#> ,e teaches that all things are produced by necessity and harmony, and he is the first ho said that the earth has a circular movementI others ho ever insist this as due to ,icetas of Syracuse# ,e had ritten a single boo! hich the philosopher .lato, visiting 3ionysius in Sicily, bought according to ,ermippus, from .hilolauss parents, for the sum of G+ Alexandrian minae, hence he dre his -imaeus# Athers state that he received it as a present for having obtained the liberty of one of .hilolauss disciples, hom 3ionysius had imprisoned# In his !omonyms 3emetrius claims that he is the first of the .ythagorean philosophers ho made a or! on nature public property# -his boo! begins as follo s1 =-he orlds being is the harmonious compound of infinite and finite principlesI such is the totality of the orld and all it contains#>

6?AGC/;-S A6 .,I"A"ABS 6rom :oec!h


%# $Stob#*%#8I 3iog##U#'#'9( -he orlds nature is a harmonious compound of infinite and finite elementsI similar is the totality of the orld in itself, and of all it contains# b# All beings are necessarily finite or infinite, or simultaneously finite and infiniteI but they could not all be infinite only# *# ,o , since it is clear that the beings can not be formed neither of elements that are all infinite, it is evident that the orld in its totality, and its included beings are a harmonious compound of finite and infinite elements# -hat can be seen in or!s of art# -hose that are composed of finite elements,

are finite themselves, those that are composed of both finite and infinite elements, are both finite and infiniteI and those composed of infinite elements, are infinite# *# All things, at least those e !no contain numberI for it is evident that nothing hatever can either be thought or !no n, ithout number# ;umber has t o distinct !inds1 the odd and the even, and a third, derived from a mingling of the other t o !inds, the even-odd# /ach of its subspecies is susceptible of many very numerous varietiesI hich each manifests individually# 2# -he harmony is generally the result of contrariesI for it is the unity of multiplicity, and the agreement of discordances# $;icom#Arith#*19+)( G# -his is the state of affairs about nature and harmony# -he essence of things is eternalI it is a uni0ue and divine nature, the !no ledge of hich does not belong to man# Still it ould not be possible that any of the things that are, and are !no n by us, should arrive to our !no ledge, if this essence as not the internal foundation of the principles of hich the orld as founded, that is, of the finite and infinite elements# ,o since these principles are not mutually similar, neither of similar nature, it ould be impossible that the order of the orld should have been formed by them, unless the harmony intervened, in any manner hatever# Af course, the things that ere similar and of similar nature, did not need the harmonyI but the dissimilar things, hich have neither a similar nature, nor an e0uivalent function, must be organi5ed by the harmony, if they are to ta!e their place in the connected totality of the orld# 9# -he extent of the harmony is a fourth, plus a fifth# -he fifth is greater than the fourth by nine eighthsI for from the lo est string to the second lo est, there is a fourthI and from this to the next, a fifthI but from this to the next, or =third,> a fourthI and from this =third> to the lo est, a fifth# -he interval bet een the second lo est and the =third> $from the top( is nine eighthsI the interval of the fourth, is four thirdsI that of the fifth, three halvesI that of the octave, the double relation# -hus the harmony contains five nine-eighths plus t o sharpsI the fifth, three nine eighths, plus one sharpI the fourth t o nine-eighths, plus one# &# $:oethius, Cusic, 219(# ;evertheless the .ythagorean .hilolaus has tried to divide the tone otheriseI his tones starting-point is the first uneven number hich forms a cube, and you !no that the first uneven number as an obDect of veneration among these .ythagoreans# ;o the first odd number is threeI thrice three are nine, and nine times three is *8, hich differs from the number *G by the interval of one tone, and differs from it by this very number 2# Indeed, 2 is one eighth of *G, and this eighth part of *G added to *G itself, produces *8, the cube of 2# .hilolaus divides this number *8 in t o parts, the one greater than half, hich he calls apotomeI the other one smaller than half he calls sharpI but hich latterly has become !no n as minor half-tone# ,e supposes that this MsharpN contains thirteen unities, because %2 is the difference bet een *9& and *G2, and that this MsameN number is the sum of ), 2, and unity, in hich the unity plays the part of the period, 2 of the first odd line, and ) of the first odd s0uare# After having, for these reasons, expressed by %2 the sharp, hich is called a semi-tone, out of %G unities he forms, the other part of the number *8 hich he calls apotome, and as the difference bet een %2 and %G is the unity, he insists that the unity forms the coma, and that *8 unities form an entire tone, because *8 is the difference bet een *%9 and *G2, hich are distant by one tone# 8# $:oethius, Cusic, 21'(# -hese are the definitions that .hilolaus has given of these intervals, and of still smaller intervals# -he coma, says he, is the interval hose eighth-ninths relation exceeds the sum of t o sharps, namely, the sum of t o minor semi-tones# -he schisma is half the comma, the diaschisma is half the sharp, namely, of the minor semi-tone#

'# $4laudius ;amert#de Stat# anim#*12( :efore treating of the substance of the soul, .hilolaus, according to geometrical principles, treats of music, arithmetic, measures, eights, numbers, insisting that these are the principles hich support the existence of the Bniverse# )# $;icom## Arith#*1p#8*( Some, in this follo ing .hilolaus, thin! that this !ind of a proportion is called harmonic, because it has the greatest analogy ith hat is called geometrical harmonyI hich is the cube, because all its dimensions are mutually e0ual, and conse0uently in perfect harmony# Indeed this proportion is revealed in all !inds of cubesI hich has al ays %* sides, ' angles, and & surfaces# b#$4assiodorus, /xp#in .s#),p#2&( -he number ', hich the arithmeticians call the first actual s0uare, has been named, by the .ythagorean .hilolaus the name of geometrical harmony, because he thin!s he recogni5es in it all the hamonic relations# %+# $Stob# /clogl#%19181p#2&+( -he orld is singleI it began to form from the centre out ards# Starting from this centre, the top is entirely identical to the baseI still you might say that hat is above the centre is opposed to hat is belo itI for, for the base, lo est point ould be the centre, as for the top, the highest point ould still be the centreI and li!e ise for the other partsI in fact, in respect to the centre, each one of the opposite points is identical, unless the hole be moved# b#$Stob#/cl#l1*l121p#G&'( -he prime composite, the Ane placed in the centre of the sphere is called ,estia# %%# a# $Stob#/cl#l1**1l1p#G''( .hilolaus has located the fire in the middle, the centreI he calls it ,estia, of the All, the house MpoliceipestN of Eupiter, and the mother of the Gods, the altar, the lin!, the measure of nature# :esides, he locates a second fire, 0uite at the top, surrounding the orld# -he centre, says he, is by its nature the firstI around it, the ten different bodies carry out their choric danceI these are, the heaven, the planets, lo er the sun, and belo it the moon I lo er the earth, and beneath this, the anti-earth $a body invented by the .ythagoreans, says Aristotle, Cet i1 9( then beneath these bodies the fire of ,estia, in the centre, here it maintains order# -he highest part of the 4overing, in hich he asserts that the elements exist in a perfectly pure condition, is called Alympus, the space beneath the revolutionary circle of Alympus, and here in order are disposed the five planets, the sun and moon, forms the 4osmos orldI finally, beneath the latter is the sublunar region, hich surrounds the earth, here are the generative things susceptible to changeI that is the heaven# -he order hich manifests in the celestial phenomena is the obDect of scienceI the disorder hich manifests in the things of becoming, is the obDect of virtueI the former is perfect, the latter is imperfect# b# $.lut# .lac#.hil#21ll(# -he .ythagorean .hilolaus located the fire in the centre, it is the ,estia of the All, then the Anti-earth, then the earth e inhabit, placed opposite the other, and moving circularlyI hich is the cause that its inhabitants are not visible to ours# c# $Stob#/cl#l1*%1&1p#G9*(# -he directing fire, MofN .hilolaus, is in the entirely central fireI hich the demiurge has placed as a sort of !eel MtoN serve as foundation to the sphere of the All# %*# $.lut#.lac#.hil#*19(# .hilolaus explains destruction by t o causesI one is the fire hich descends from heaven, the other is the ater of the noon, hich is driven a ay therefrom by the circulation of airI the loss of these t o stars nourish the orld# %2# $3iog#"aert#'1'9(# .hilolaus as the first ho said the orld moves in a circleI others attribute it to ,ivatas of Syracuse# b# $.lut#.lac#.hilos#218(# Some insist that the earth is immovable but the .ythagorean .hilolaus says that it moves circularly around the central fire, in an obli0ue circle li!e the sun and moon# %G# $Stob#/cl#l1*9121p#92+( -he .ythagorean .hilolaus says that the sun is a vitrescent body hich receives the light reflected by the fire of the 4osmos, and sends it bac! to us, after having filtered them, light and heatI so that you might say that there are t o suns, the body of the fire hich is in

the heaven, and the igneous light hich emanates therefrom, and reflects itself in a !ind of a mirror# .erhaps e might consider as a third light that hich, from the mirror in hich it reflects, and falls bac! on us in dispersed rays# %9# $Stob#/clog#%1*&1 l1p# 9&*( Some .ythagoreans, among hom is .hilolaus, pretend that the moons resemblance to the earth consists in its surface being inhabited, li!e our earthI but by animals and vegetation larger and more beautifulI for the lunar animals are fifteen times larger than ours, and do not evacuate excreta# -he day is also fifteen times as long# Athers pretend that the apparent form of the noon is only the reflection of the sea, hich e inhabit, hich passes beyond the circle of fire# %&# $4ensorinus, de 3ie ;atal#%'(# According to the .ythagorean .hilolaus there is a year composed of 9) years and *% intercalary monthsI he considers that the natural year has 2&G and a half days# %8# $Iambl#ad ;icon#Arith#%%(# .hilolaus says that number is the sovereign and autogenic force hich maintains the eternal permanence of cosmic things# %'# $Stob#%121'(# -he po er, efficacy and essence of number is seen in the decadI it is great, it reali5es all its purposes, it is the cause of all effectsI the po er of the decad is the principle and guide of all life, divine, celestial or human into hich it is insinuatedI ithout it everything is infinite, obscure, and furtive# Indeed it is the nature of number hich teaches us comprehension, hich serves us as guide, hich teaches us all things, hich ould remain impenetrable and un!no n for every man, for there is nobody ho could get so clear a notion about it, things in themselves, neither in their relations, if there as no number or number-essence# :y means of sensation, number instills a certain proportion, and thereby establishes among all things harmonic relations, analogous to the nature of the geometric figure called the gnomonI it incorporates intelligible reasons of things, separates them, inidividualises them, both in finite and infinite things# And it is not only in matters pertaining to genii or gods that you may see the force manifested by the nature and po er of number, but it is in all its or!s, in all human thoughts, every here indeed, and even in the production of arts and music# -he nature of number and harmony are numberless, for hat is false has no part in their M-------NI for the principle of error and envy is thoughtless, irrational, infinite nature# ;ever could error slip into numberI for its nature is hostile thereto# -ruth is the proper, innate character of number# b# $-heologoumena, &%(# -he decad is also named 6aith because according to .hilolaus, it is by the decad and its elements, if utili5ed energetically and ithout negligence, that e arrive at a solidly grounded faith about beings# It is also the source of memory, and that is hy the "onad has been called $CnemosyneK(# c# $-heon of Smyrna, .laton#;emn#p#G)( -he MTetractysN determines every number, including the nature of everything, of the even and the odd, of the mobile and immobile, of good and evil# It has been the subDect of long discussions by Archytas, and of .hilolaus, in his or! on nature# d# $"ucien, .ro# "aps# Inter# Salut# 9#( Some called the Tetractys the great oath of the .ythagoreans, because they considered it the perfect number, or even because it is the principle of healthI among them is .hilolaus# %)# $-heon of Smyrna, .lat# Cath# G#(# Archytas and .hilolaus use the terms monad and unity interchangeably#

b# $Syrianus, sub init, 4omment# in Arist# ;et# I#xivK(# @ou must not suppose that the philosophers begin by principles supposed to be oppositeI they !no the principle above these t o elements, as .hilolaus ac!no ledges hen saying that it is God ho hypostasi5es the finite and the infinite# ,e sho s that it is by the limit, that every coordinate series of things further approaches Bnity, and that it is by infinity that the lo er series is produced# -hus even above these t o principles they posited the uni0ue and separate cause distinguished by all of its excellence# -his is the clause hich Archinetus called the cause before the cause and hich .hilolaus vehemently insists is the principle of all, and of hich :rontinus says that in po er and dignity it surpasses all reason and essence# c# $Iambl# ad ;icom# Arith# p%+)(# In the formation of s0uare numbers by addition, unity is as it ere the starting-post from hich one starts, and also the end hither one returnsI for if one places the numbers in the form of a double procession, and you see them gro from unity to the root of the s0uare, and the root is li!e the turning-point here the horses turn to go bac! through similar numbers to unity, as in the s0uare of 9# 6or example1 %-----*-----2-----G -----9 V added, *9 %-----*-----2-----G It is not the same ith rectangular numbersI if, Dust as if in the gnomon, one adds to any number the sum of the even, then the number t o ill alone seem to receive and stand addition and ithout the number t o it ill not be possible to produce rectangular numbers# If you set out the naturally increasing series of numbers in the order of the double race-trac!, then unity, being the principle of everything according to .hilolaus $for it is he ho said, =unity the principle of everything>(, ill indeed present itself as the barrier, the starting point hich produces the rectangular numbers, but it ill not be the goal or limit here the series returns, and comes bac!I it is not unity, but the number * hich ill fulfill this function# -hus1 & %------*------2-----G ------------------ 9V *G G --------*-----2-----G ------------------d# $Ahilo, Cundi Apif #*G(# .hilolaus confirms hat I have Dust said by the follo ing ordsI =,e ho commands and governs everything is a God ho is single, eternally existing, immutable, selfidentical, different from other things# e# $Athenag#"egat#pro 4hristo(# .hilolaus says that all things are by God !ept as if in captivity, and thereby implies, that ,e is single and superior to matter# *+# $.roclus, ad /uclid# /lem#I#22(# /ven among the .ythagoreans e find different angles consecrated to the different divinities, as did .hilolaus, ho devoted to some the angle of the triangle, to others the angle of the rectangle, to others other angles, and sometimes the same to several# -he .ythagoreans say that the triangle is the absolute principle of generation of begotten things, and of their formI that is hy -imaeus says that the reasons of physical being, and of the regular formation of the elements are triangularI indeed, they have the three dimensions, in unity they gather the elements hich in themselves are absolutely divided and changingI they are filled ith the infinity characteristic of matter, and above the material beings they form bonds that indeed are frail# -hat is hy triangles are bounded by straight lines and are MhaveN angles hich unite the lines, and are their MendsN# .hilolaus as therefore right in devoting the angle of the triangle to four divinities, M4ronosN, ,ades, Cars and :acchus, under these names combining the fourfold disposition of the elements, hich refers to the superior part of the Bniverse, starting from the s!y, or sections of the

5odiac# Indeed, 4ronos presides over everything humid and cold essenceI Cars, over everything fieryI ,ades contains everything terrestrial, and 3ionysius directs the generation of et and arm things, symboled by ine, hich is li0uid and arm# -hese four divinities divide their secondary operations, but they remain unitedI that is hy .hilolaus, by attributing to them one angle only, ished to express this po er of unification# -he .ythagoreans also claim that, in preference to the 0uadrilateral, the tetragone bears the divine impressI and by it they express perfect order####6or the property of being straight imitates the po er of immutabilityI and e0uality represents that of permanenceI for motion is the result of ine0ualityI and rest, that of e0uality# -hose are the causes of the organisation of the being that is solid in its totality, and of its pure and immovable essence# -hey ere therefore right to express it symbolically by the figure the tetragon# :esides, .hilolaus, ith another stro!e of genius, calls the angle of the tetragon# that of ?hea, of 3imeter, and of ,estia###6or considering the earth as a tetragon, and noting that this element possesses the property of continuousness, as e learned it from -imaeus, and the earth receives all that drips from the divinities and also the generative po ers that they contain, he as right in consecrating the angle of the tetragon to these divinities hich procreate life# Indeed, some of them call the earth ,estia and 3emeter, and claim that it parta!es of ?hea, in its entirety, and that ?hea contains all the begotten causes# -hat is hy, in obscure language, he says, that the angle of the tetragon contains the single po er hich produces the unity of these divine creations# And e must not forget that .hilolaus assigns the angle of the triangle to four divinities, and the angle of the tetragon to three, thereby indicating their penetrative faculty, hereby they influence each other mutuallyI sho ing ho all things participate in all things, the odd things in the even and the even in the odd# -he triad and the tetrad, participating in the generative and creative beings, contain the hole regular organi5ation of begotten beings# -heir product is the dodecad, hich ends in the single monad, the sovereign principle of EupiterI for .hilolaus says that the angle of the dodecagon belongs to Eupiter, because in unity Eupiter contains the entire of the dodecad# *%# $-heolog#Arithm# p#9&(# After the mathematical magnitude hich by its three dimensions or intervals reali5es the number four, .hilolaus sho s us the being manifesting in number five 0uality and color, in the number six the soul and lifeI in the number seven, reason, health, and hat he calls lightI then he adds that love, friendship, prudence, and reflexion are communicated to beings by the number eight# b# $-heolog#Arithm# p#**(# -here are four principles of the reasonable animal, as .hilolaus in his or! on ;ature, the s!ull, the heart, the navel, and the sexual organs# -he head is the seat of reason, the heart, that of the soul or life, and sensationI the navel, the principle of the facility of stri!ing roots and reproducing the first beingI the sexual organs, of the faculty of proDecting the sperm, and procreating# -he s!ull contains the principle of man, the heart of the animal, the navel that of the plant, the sexual organs that of all living beings, for these gro and produce offspring# c# $Stob#/dog#.hysic#l1*121 p#l+(# -here are bodies five in the sphereI fire, ater, earth, airI and the circle of the sphere, hich ma!es the fifth# **# $Stob#/cog#l1*1*1 p#G%'(# 6rom the .ythagorean .hilolaus, dra n from his boo! On the *#oul+# ,e insists that the orld is indestructible# ,ere is hat he says in his boo! On the #oul# -hat is hy the orld remains eternally, because it cannot be destroyed by any other, nor spontaneously destroy itself# ;either ithin it, nor ithout it can be found a force greater than itselfI able to destroy it# -he orld has existed from all eternity, and ill remain eternally, because it is single, governed by a principle hose nature is similar to its o n, and hose force is omnipotent and sovereign# :esides,

the single orld is continuous, and endo ed ith a natural respiration, moving eternally in a circle, having the principle of motion and changeI one of its parts is immovable, the other is changingI the immovable part extends from the soul to the moon, that embraces everything, to the moonI and the changing part from the moon to the earthI or, since the mover has been acting since eternity, and continues his action eternally, and since the changeable part receives its manner of being from the Cover ho acts thereon, it necessarily results thence that one of the parts of the 7orld ever impresses motion, and that the other ever receives it passivelyI the one is entirely the domain of reason and the soul, the other of generation and changeI the one is anterior in po er, and superior, the other is posterior and subordinate# -he composite of these t o things, the divine eternally in motion and of generation ever changingI is the 7orld# -hat is hy one is right in saying that the 7orld is the eternal energy of God, and of becoming hich obeys the la s of changing nature# -he one remains eternally in the same state, self-identical, the remainder constitutes the domain of plurality, hich is born and perishes# :ut nevertheless the things that perish save their essence and form, than!s to generation, hich reproduces the identical form of the father ho has begotten and fashioned them# *2# $4laudian Camort# 3e Statu# Anim#*1 p#8(# -he soul is introduced and associated ith the body by number and by a harmony simultaneously immortal and incorporeal####-he soul cherishes its body, because ithout it the soul cannot feelI but hen death has separated the soul therefrom, the soul lives an incorporeal existence in the cosmos# b# $Cacrob# 3ream of Scipio, I1+G(# .lato says that the soul is a self-moving essenceI Jenocrates defines the soul as a self-moving numberI Aristotle calls it an entelechyI and .ythagoras and .hilolaus, a harmony# c# $Alympiod# ad .lat# .haed# p %9+(# .hilolaus opposed suicide, because it as a .ythagorean precept not to lay do n the burden but to help others carry theirsI namely, that you must assist, and not hinder it# d# $4lem#Strom# 21 p#G22(# It ill help us to remember the .ythagorean .hilolauss utterance that the ancient theologians and divines claimed that the soul is bound to the body as a punishment, and is buried in it as in a tomb# *G# $Arist#/th#/ud# *1'(# As .hilolaus has said, there are some reasons stronger than us# b# $Iambl# ad ;icom# Arithm# %1*9(# I shall later have a better opportunity to consider ho , in raising a number to its s0uare, by the position of the simple component unities, e arrive at MveryN evident propositions, naturally, and not by any la , as says .hilolaus# *9# $Sext# /mpir, Adv#Cath# 81)*1 p# 2''(# Anaxagoras has said ho reason in general is the faculty discerning and DudgingI the .ythagoreans also agree that it is ?eason, not reason in general, but the ?eason that develops in men by the study of mathematics, as .hilolaus used to say and insist that if this ?eason is capable of undestanding All, it is only that its essence is !indred ith this nature, for it is in the nature of things that the similar be understood by the similar# *&# $"aurent#"ydus,de Cens#p %&I 4edrenus --I %&)b(# .hilolaus as therefore right in calling it a decad, because it receives $pun( the Infinite, and .rpheus as right in calling it the branch, because it is the branch from hich issue all the numbers, as do many branches# b# $4edrenus, l#p8*(# .hilolaus as therefore right to say that the number seven as motherless# c# $4edrenus, l#p#*2(# .hilolaus as therefore right to call the spouse of Kronos, the .yad#

:iography of A?4,@-AS M289 :#4#N by 3%AG/;/S "A/?-/S M%'+ A#3#N $6rom 4haignet(
Archytas of -arentum, son of Cnesagoras, or of ,estius, according to Aristoxenus, also as a .ythagorean# It as he ho, by a letter, saved .lato from death threatened by 3ionysius# ,e possessed all the virtues, so that, being the admiration of the cro d, he as seven times named general, in spite of the la hich forbad re-election after one year# .lato rote him t o letters, in response to this one of Archytas1 =Greetings# It is fortunate for you that you have recovered from your illnessI for I have heard of it not only from you, but also from M"amiscusN# I have busied myself about those notes, and too! a trip into "ucania, here I met descendants of Acellus# I have in my possession the treatises on La( and RoyaltyI on !oliness, and on the Origin of 2ll ThingsI and I am sending them to you# -he others could not be discovered# Should they be found, they ill be sent to you#> .lato ans ered1 =Greetings# I am delighted to have received the or!s hich you have sent me, and I ac!no ledge a great admiration for him ho rote them# ,e seems to be orthy of his ancient and glorious ancestors, ho are said to be M-yreansN and among the number of those -roDans ho emigrated under the leadership of "aomedon, MallN orthy people, as the legend proves# -hose or!s of mine about hich you rote me are not in a sufficient state of perfection, but I send them such as they are# :oth of us are in perfect agreement on the subDect of protecting them# ;o use to rene the re0uest# Cay your health improveL> Such are these t o letters# -here ere four Archytases# -he first, of hom e have Dust spo!en# -he second, from Cytilene, as a musicianI the third rote about agricultureI fourth is an author of epigrams# Some mention a fifthI an architect, ho left a treatise on mechanics, beginning as follo s1 -his boo! contains hat I have been taught by the 4arthaginian -eucer# -he musician is said to have made this Do!e# :eing reproached for not advertising himself more, he said1 It is my instrument, hich spea!s for me# Aristoxenus claims that the philosopher Archytas as never van0uished hen he commanded# Ance, overcome by envy, he had been obliged to resign his commandI and his fello -citi5ens ere immediately con0uered# ,e as the first ho methodically applied the principles of mathematics to mechanicsI ho imparted an organic motion to a geometric figure, by the section of the semi-cylinder see!ing t o means that ould be proportional, to double the cube# ,e also first, by geometry discovered the properties the cube, as .lato records in the ?epublic#

S/4-IA; I C/-A.,@SI4A" 6?AGC/;-S $Stob#/c#.hys# %1-K%2(


%# -here are necessarily t o principles of beingsI the one containing the series of beings organi5ed, and finished, the other, of unordered and unfinished beings# -hat one hich is susceptible of being

expressed, by speech, and hich can be explained, both embraces beings, and determines and organises the non-being# 6or every time that it approaches the things of becoming, it orders them, and measures them, and ma!es them participate in the essence and form of the universal# An the contrary, the series of beings hich escape speech and reason, inDures ordered things and destroys those hich aspire to essence and becomingI henever it approaches them, it assimilates them to its o n nature# :ut since there are t o principles of things of an opposite character, the one the principle of good, and the other the principle of evil, there are therefore also t o reasons, the one of beneficent nature, the other of maleficent nature# -hat is hy the things that o e their existence to art, and also those hich o e it to nature, must above all participate in these t o principlesI form and substance# -he form is the cause of essenceI substance is the substrate hich MitN receives the form# ;either can substance alone participate in form, by itselfI nor can form by itself apply itself to substanceI there must therefore exist another cause hich moves the substance of thingsI and forms them# -his cause is primary, as regards substance, and the most excellent of all# Its most suitable name is God# -here are therefore three principles1 God, the substance of things, and form# God is the artist, the moverI the substance is the matter, the moved I the essence is hat you might call the art, and that to hich the substance is brought by the mover# :ut since the mover contains forces hich are selfcontrary, those of simple bodies, and as the contraries are in need of a principle harmoni5ing and unifying them, it must necessarily receive its efficacious virtues and proportions from the numbers, and all that is manifested in numbers and geometric formsI virtues and proportions capable of binding and uniting into form the contraries that exist in the substance of things# 6or, by itself, substance is formlessI only after having been moved to ards form does it become form, and receives the rational relations of order# "i!e ise, if movement exists, besides the thing moved, there must exist a prime moverI there must therefore be three principlesI the substance of things, the form, and the principle that moves itself, and hich by its po er is the firstI not only must this principle be an intelligence, it must be above intelligence, and e call it God# /vidently the relation of e0uality applies to the being hich can be defined to language, and reason# -he relation of ine0uality applies to the irrational beingI and cannot be fixed by languageI it is substanceI that is hy all begetting and destruction ta!e place in substance, and do not occur ithout it# *# In short, the philosophers began only by so to spea! contrary principlesI but above these elements they !ne another superior one, as is testified to by .hilolaus, ho says that God has produced, and reali5ed the finite and infinite, and sho n that at the limit is attached the hole series hich has a greater affinity ith the Ane, and to Infinity, the one that is belo # -hus, above these t o principles they have posited a unifying cause, superior to everything hich, according to Archenetus, is the cause before the cause, and, according to .hilolaus, the universal principle# 2a# 7hich unity are you referring toK Af supreme unity, or of the infinitely small unity that you can find in the partsK -he .ythagoreans distinguished bet een the Bnity and the "onad, as says Archytas I Bnity and the "onad have a natural affinity but yet they differ# 2b# Archytas and .hilolaus indiscriminately call the unity a monad, and monad a unity# -he maDority ho ever add to the same monad, the distinction of first monad, for there is a monad hich is not the first, and hich is posterior to the monad in itself, and to unity#

2c# .ythagoras said that the human soul as a tetragon ith right angles# Archytas, on the contrary, instead of defining the soul by the tetragon, did so by a circle, because the soul is a self-mover, and conse0uently, the prime moverI but this MisN a circle or a sphere# 2d# .lato and Archytas and the other .ythagoreans claim that there are three parts in the soulI reason, courage and desire# G# -he beginning of the !no ledge of beings is in the things that produce themselves# Af these some are intelligible, and others sensibleI the former are immovable, the latter are moved# -he criterion of intelligible things is the 7orldI that of sensible things is sensation# Af the things that do not manifest in things themselves, some are science, the others, opinionI science is immovableI opinion is movable# 7e must, besides, admit these three thingsI the subDect that Dudges, the obDect that is Dudged, and the rule by hich that obDect is Dudged# 7hat Dudges, is the mind, or sensationI that is Dudged, is the logos or rational essenceI the rule of Dudgment is the act itself hich occurs in the beingI hether intelligible or sensible# -he mind is the Dudge of essence, hether it tends to ards an intelligible being, or a sensible one# 7hen reason see!s intelligible things, it tends to ards an intelligible elementI hen it see!s things of sense, it tends to ards their element# ,ence come, those false graphic representation in figures and numbers seen in geometry, those researches in causes and probable ends, hose obDect are beings subDect to becoming, and moral acts, #### physiology or politics# It is hile tending to ards the intelligible element that reason recogni5es that harmony is in the double relationI but sensation alone attests that this double relation is concordant# In mechanics, the obDect of science is figures, numbers, proportionsI -- namely rational proportionsI the effects are perceived by sensationI for you can neither study nor !no them outside of the matter or movement# In short it s impossible to !no the reason of an individual thing, unless you have preliminarily by the mind grasped the essence of the individual thing# -he !no ledge of the existence, and of 0uality, belongs to reason and sensationsI to reason, henever e effect a things demonstration by a syllogism hose conclusion is inevitableI to sensation, hen the latter is the criterion of a things essence# 9# Sensation occurs in the body, reason in the soul# -he former is the principle of sensible things, the latter, of intelligible ones# .opular measures are number, length, the foot, eight and e0uilibriumI the scalesI hile the rule and the measure of straightness in both vertical and longitudinal directions is the right angle# -hus sensation is the principle and measure of the bodiesI reason is the principle and measure of intelligible things# -he former is the principle of beings that are intelligible and naturally primaryI the latter, of sense-obDects, and naturally secondary# ?eason is the principle of our soulI sensation, the principle of our body# -he mind is the Dudge of the noblest thingsI sensation, of the most useful# Sensation as created in vie of our bodies, and to serve themI reason in vie of the soul, and to initiate isdom therein# ?eason is the principle of scienceI sensation, of opinion# -he latter derives its activity from sensible thingsI the former from the intelligible# Sensible obDects participate in movement and changeI intelligible obDects participate in immutability and eternity# -here is no analogy bet een sensation and reasonI for sensations obDect is the sensible, hich moves, changes, and never remains self-identicalI therefore as you can see it, it improves or deteriorate# ?easons obDect is the intelligibleI hose essence is immobility, herefore in the intelligible e cannot conceive of either more nor less, better or orseI and Dust as reason sees the primary being, and the $cosmic( model, so sensation sees the image, and the copied# ?eason sees man in himselfI sensation sees in them the circle of the sun, and the forms of artificial obDects# ?eason is perfectly simple and indivisible, as unity, and the pointI it is the same ith intelligible beings#

-he idea is neither the limit nor the frontier of the bodyI it is only the figure of being, that by hich the being exists, hile sensation has parts, and is divisible# Some beings are perceived by sensation, others by opinion, others by science, and others by reason# -he bodies that offer resistance are sensibleI opinion !no s those that participate in the ideas, and are its images, so to spea!# -hus some particular man participates in the idea of man, and this triangle, in the triangle-idea# -he obDect of science are the necessary accidents of ideasI thus the obDect of geometry is the properties of the figuresI reason !no s the ideas themselves, and the principles of the sciences and of their obDectsI for example, the circle, the triangle, ,and the pure sphere in itself# "i!e ise, in us, in our souls, there are four !inds of !no ledge, pure thought, science, opinion and sensationI t o are principles of !no ledge $thought and sensation(I t o are its purpose, science and opinion# It is al ays the similar hich is capable of !no ing the similarI reason !no s the intelligible thingsI science, the !no able thingsI opinion, conDecturable thingsI sensation, sensible things# -hat is hy thought must rise from things that are sensible, to the conDecturable ones and from these to the !no able, and on to the intelligible and he ho ishes to !no the truth about these obDects, must in a harmonious grouping combine all these means and obDects of !no ledge# -his being established, you might represent them under the image of a line divided into t o e0ual parts, each of hich ould be similarly dividedI if e separate the sensible, dividing it into t o parts, in the same proportion, the one ill be clearer, the other obscurer# Ane of the sections of the of the sensible contains images of things, such as you see reflected in ater, or mirrorsI the second represents the plants and animals of hich the former are images# Similarly dividing the intelligible, the different !inds of sciences ill represent the imagesI for the students of geometry begin by establishing by hypothesis, the odd and the even, figures, three !inds of angles, and from these hypotheses deduce their scienceI as to the things themselves, they leave them aside, as if they !ne them, though they not cannot account for them to themselves or to othersI they employ sensible things as images, but these things are neither the obDect nor the end proposed in their researches and reasoningsI hich pursue only things in themselves, such as the diameter or s0uare# -he second section is that of the intelligibleI obDect of dialectics# It really ma!es no hypotheses, positing principles hence it rises to arrive to the unconditioned, to the universal principleI then, by an inverse movement, grasping that principle, it descends to the end of the reasoning, ithout employing any sensible obDect, exclusively using pure ideas# :y these four divisions, you can also analyse the soulstates, and give the highest the name of thought, reasoning to the second, faith to the third, and imagination to the fourth# &# Archytas, at the beginning of his boo! on Wisdom gives this adviceI in all human things isdom is as superior as sight is to all the other senses of the body, as mind is superior to soul, as the sun is superior to the stars# Af all the senses, sight is the one that extends furthest in its sphere of action, and gives us the most ideas# Cind, being supreme, accomplishes its legitimate operation by reason and reasoningI it is li!e sight, and the po er of the noblest obDectsI the sun is the eye and soul of natural things, for it is through it that they are all seen, begotten, and thoughtI through it the beings produced by root or seed, are fed, developed, and endo ed ith sensation# Af all beings, man is the isestI by farI for he is able to contemplate beings, and to ac0uire !no ledge and understanding of all# -hat is hy divinity has engraved in him, and has revealed to him the system of speech, hich extends to everything, a system in hich are classified all the beings, !inds of being, and the meanings of nouns and verbs# 6or the specialised seats of the voice are the pharynx, the mouth and the nose# As man is naturally organi5ed to produce sounds, through hich nouns and verbs are expressed and formed, li!e ise he is naturally destined to contemplate the notions contained in the

visible obDectsI such, in my vie , is the purpose for hich man has been created, and as bornI and for hich he received from God his organs and faculties# Can is born and is created to !no the essence of universal natureI and precisely the function of isdom is to possess and contemplate the intelligence manifested in the beings# -he obDect of isdom is no particular being, but all the beings, absolutelyI and it should not begin to see! the principles of an individual being, but the principles common to all# -he obDect of isdom is all the beings, as the obDect of sight is all visible things# -he function of isdom is to see all the beings in their totality, and to !no their universal attributesI and that is ho isdom discovers the principles of all beings# ,e ho is capable of analysing all the species, and to trace and group them, by an inverse operation, into one single principle, he seems to me the isest, and the closest to the truthI he seems to have found that sublime observatory from the pea! of hich he may observe God, and all the things that belong to the series and order of divine thingsI being master of this royal road, his mind ill be able to rush for ards, and arrive at the end of the career, uniting principles to the purposes of things, and !no ing that God is the principle, the middle and the end of all things made according to the rules of Dustice and right reason#

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8# As /udemus reports, Archytas used to as! this 0uestion1 If I as situated at the extreme and immovable limit of the orld, could I, or not, extend a and outside of itK -o say I could not, is absurdI but if I can, there must be something, outside of the orld, be it body or spaceI and in hatever manner e reason, by the same reasoning e ill ever return to this limit# I ill still place myself there, and as!, is there anything else on hich I may place my and# -herefore, the infinite existsI if it is a body, our proposition is demonstratedI if it its space, place is that in hich a body could beI and if it exists potentially, e ill have to place it among, classify it among the eternal things, and the infinite ill then be a body and a place# '# -he essence of place is that all other things are in it, hile itself is not in anything# 6or if it as in a place, there ould be a place in a place, and that ould continue to infinity# All other beings must therefore be in place, and place in nothing# Its relation to things is the same as limit to limited thingsI for the place of the entire orld is the limit of all things# )a# Some say that time is the sphere of the orldI such as the sentiment of the .ythagoreans, according to those ho had no doubt heard Archytas give this general definition of time1 =-ime is the interval of the nature of all#> )b# -he divine Iamblichus, in the first boo! of his commentaries on the 4ategories, said that Archytas thus defined time1 =It is the number of movement, or in general the interval of the nature of all#> )c# 7e must combine these t o definitions, and recognise time as both continuous and discrete, though it is properly continuous# Iamblichus claims that Archytas taught the distinction of time physical, and time psychicI so at least Iamblichus interpreted ArchytasI but e must recognise that there, and often else here, he adds to his commentaries to explain matters#

%+# -he general proper essence of =7hen-ness> and time is to be indivisible and insubstantial# 6or, being indivisible, the present time has passed, hile expressing it, and thin!ing of itI naught remains of it, becoming continuously the same, it never subsists numerically, but only specifically# In fact, the actually present time and the future are not identical ith former time# 6or the one has past, and is no moreI the other passes hile being produced and thought# -hus the present is never but a bondI it perpetually becomes, changes, and perishesI but nevertheless it remains identical in its o n !ind# In fact, every present is ithout parts, and indivisibleI it is the term of past time, the beginning to comeI Dust as in a bro!en line, the point here the brea! occurs becomes the beginning of a line, and the end of the other# -ime is continuous, and not discrete as are number, speech and harmony# In speech, the syllables are parts, and distinct partsI in the harmony, they are the soundsI in numberI the unities# -he line, place and space are continuousI if they are divided, their parts form common sections# 6or the line divides into points, the surface into lines, the solid into surfaces# -herefore time is continuous# In fact, there as no nature, hen time as notI and there as no movement, hen the present as not# :ut the present has al ays been, it ill al ays be, and ill never failI it changes perpetually, and becomes an other according to the number, but remains the same according to !ind# -he line differs from the other continua, in that if you divide the line, place, and space, its parts ill subsistI but in time, the past has perished, and the future ill# -hat is hy either time does absolutely not exist, or it hardly exists, and has but an insensible existence# 6or of its parts one, the past, is no moreI the future is not yet, ho then could the present, ithout parts and indivisible, possess true realityK %%# .lato says that the movement is the great and the small, the non-being# the une0ual and all that reduces to theseI li!e Archytas e had better say that it is a cause# %*#7hy do all natural bodies ta!e the spherical formK Is it, as said Archytas, because the natural movement is the proportion of e0ualityK 6or everything moves in proportionI and this proportion of e0uality is the only one hich, hen it occurs, produces circles and spheres because it returns on itself# %2# ,e ho !no s must have learned from another, or have found his !no ledge by himself# -he science that you learn from another, is as you might say, exteriorI hat you find by yourself belongs to ourselves individually# -o find ithout see!ing is something difficult and rareI to find hat one is see!ing is commodious and easyI to ignore, and see! hat you ignore, is impossible# %G# -he .ythagorean opinion about sciences to me seems correct, and they seen to sho an exact Dudgment about each of then# ,aving !no n ho to form a Dust idea of the nature of all, they should have li!e ise seen the essential nature of the parts# -hey have left us certain evident theories about arithmetic, geometry, sphericsI also about musicI for all these sciences seem to be !indred, in fact, the first t o !inds of being are indistinguishable# %9a# 6irst they have seen that it as not possible that there should be any noise, unless there as a shoc! of one body against anotherI they said# -here is a shoc! hen moving bodies meet and stri!e each other# -he bodies moved in the air in an opposite direction and those that are moved ithout e0ual s iftness, -- in the same direction, -- the first, hen overta!en, ma!e a noise, because struc!# Cany of these noises are not susceptible of being perceived by our organsI some because of the slightness of the shoc!, the others because of their too great distance from us, some even because of the very excess of their intensityI for noises too great do not enter into our ears, as one cannot introduce anything into Dars ith too narro an opening hen one pours in too much at a time#

Af the sounds that fall ithin the range of our senses, same, -- those that come 0uic!ly from the bodies struc!, seem shrillI those that arrive slo ly and feebly, seem of lo pitch# In fact, hen one agitates some obDect slo ly and feebly, the shoc! produces a lo pitchI if the aving is MdoneN 0uic!ly and ith energy, the sound is shrill# -his not the only proof of the factI hich e can prove hen e spea! or singI hen e ish to spea! loud and high, e use a great force of breath# So also something thro nI if you thro them hard, they go farI if you thro then ithout energy, they fall near, for they air yields more to bodies moved ith much force, than to those thro n ith little# -his phenomenon is also reproduced in the sound of the voiceI for the sounds produced by an energetic breath are shrill hile those produced by a feeble breath are ea! and lo pitch# -his same observation can be seen in the force of a signal given from any placeI if you pronounce it loud, it can be heard farI if you pronounce the same signal lo , e do not hear it, even from near# So also in flutes, the breath emitted by the mouth and hich presents itself to the holes nearest the mouthpiece, produces a shriller sound, because the impulsive force is greater, further, they are of lo er pitch# It is therefore evident that the s iftness of the movement produces shrillness and slo ness, lo er pitch# -he same thing in seen in the magic tops hich are spun in the mysteriesI those that move slo ly produce a lo pitch, hile those that move 0uic!ly ith force MgiveN a shrill noise# "et us yet adduce the reed1 if you close the lo er opening, and blo into it, it ill produce a certain soundI and if you stop it in the centre, or in the front, the sound ill be shrill# 6or the same breath traversing a long space ea!ens, hile traversing a shorter, it remains of the same po er# After having developed this opinion that the movement of the voice is measured by the intervals, he resumes his discussion, saying, that the shrill sounds are the result of a s ifter movement, the lo er sounds, of a slo er movement, this is a fact hich numerous experiments demonstrate clearly# %9b# /udoxus and Archytas believed that the reasons of the agreement of the sounds as in the numbersI they agree in thin!ing that these reasons consist in the movements, the shrill movement being 0uic!, because the agitation of the air is continuous, and the vibration more rapidI the lo pitch movement being slo , because it is calmer# %&# /xplaining himself about the means, Archytas rites1 In music there are three meansI the first is the arithmetical mean, the second is the geometrical, the third is the subcontrary mean, hich is called harmonic# -he mean is arithmetical, hen the three terms are in a relation of analogical excess, that is to say, hen the difference bet een the first and second is the same as bet een second and thirdI in this proportion, the relation of the greater terms is smaller, and the relation of the smaller is greater# -he geometric mean exists hen the first term is to the second, as the second is to the thirdI here the relation of the greater is identical ith the relation of the smaller# -he subcontrary mean, hich e call harmonic, exists hen the first term exceeds the second by a fraction of itself, identically ith the fraction by hich the second exceeds the thirdI in this proportion, the relation of the greatest terms is greater, and that of the smaller, smaller#

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%8# 7e must first !no that the good man is not thereby necessarily happy, but that the happy man is necessarily goodI for the happy man is he ho deserves praise and congratulationsI the good man deserves only praise# 7e praise a man because of his virtue, e congratulate him because of his success# -he good man is such because of the goods that proceed from virtueI the happy man is such because of the goods that come from fortune# 6rom the good man you cannot ta!e his virtueI sometimes the happy man loses his good fortune# -he po er of virtue depends on nobodyI that of happiness, on the contrary, is dependent# "ong diseases, the loss of our senses cause to fade the flo er of our happiness Mand luc!N#

*# God differs from the good man in that God, not only possesses a perfect virtue, purified from all mortal affection, but enDoys a virtue hose po er is indefectible, independent, as suits the maDesty and magnificence of his or!s# Can, on the contrary, not only possesses an inferior virtue, because of the mortal constitution of his nature, but even sometimes by the very abundance of his goods, no by the force of habit, by the vice of nature, or from other causes, he is incapable of attaining the perfection of the good# 2# -he good man, in my opinion, is he ho !no s ho to act properly in serious circumstances and occasionsI he ill therefore !no ho to support good and bad fortuneI in a brilliant and glorious condition, he ill sho himself orthy if it, and if fortune happens to change, he ill !no ho to accept properly his actual fate# In short, the good man is he ho, in every occasion, and according to the circumstances, ell plays his part, and !no s ho to fit to it not only himself, but also those ho have confidence on him, and are associated ith his fortunes# G# Since amidst the goods, some are desirable for themselves, and not for anything else, and others are desirable for something else, and not for themselves, there must necessarily exist a third !ind of goods, hich are desirable both for themselves and for other things# 7hich are the goods naturally desirable for themselves, and not for anything elseK /vidently, it is happinessI for it is the end on account of hich e see! everything else, hile e see! it only for itself, and not in vie of anything else# Secondly, hich are the goods chosen for something else, and not for themselvesK /vidently those that are useful, and hich are the means of procuring the real goods, hich thus become the causes of the goods desirable for themselvesI for instance, the bodily fatigues, the exercises, the tests hich procure healthI reading, meditation, the studies hich procure virtues, and the 0uality of honesty# "ast, hich are those goods hich are both desirable for themselves, and for something elseK -he virtues, and the habitual possession of virtues, the resolutions of the soul, the actions, and in short anything pertaining to the possession of the beautiful# -hus hat is to be desired for itself, and not for anything itself, this is the only good# ;o hat e see! both for itself and for something else is divided into three classesI the one hose obDect is the soul, the body, and external goods# -he first contains the virtues of the soul, the second the advantages of the bodyI the third, friends, glory, honor and ealth# "i!e ise ith the goods that are desirable only for something elseI one part of them procures goods for the soul, the other hich regards the body, procures goods for itI the external goods furnish ealth, glory, honor and friendship# 7e can prove that it is characteristic of virtue to be desirable for itself, as follo s1 In fact, if the naturally inferior goods, I mean those of the body, are by us sought for themselves, and if the soul is better than the body, it is evident that e li!e the goods of the soul for themselves, and not for the results that they might produce# 9# In human life there are three circumstances1 prosperity, adversity, and intermediary comfort# Since the good man ho possesses virtue and practises it, practises it in these three circumstances, either in adversity, or prosperity, or comfort, since besides in adversity he is unhappy, in prosperity he is happy and in comfort he is not happyI -- it is evident that happiness is nothing else than the use of virtue in prosperity# I spea! here of human happiness# Can is not only a soul, he is also a bodyI the living being is a composite of bothI and man alsoI for if the body is an instrument of the soul, it is as much a part of the man, as the soul# -hat is hy, among the goods, some belong to the man and others belong to his component parts# -he good of man is happinessI amidst its integral parts, the souls goods are prudence, courage, Dustice temperanceI the bodys are beauty, health, good disposition of its members and the perfect condition of its senses# -he ealth, glory, honor, nobility, naturally superfluous advantages of man, and naturally subordinate to the superior goods#

-he inferior goods serve as satellites to the superior goodsI friendship, glory, ealth are the satellites of the body and soulI health, strength and sense-perfection are satellites of the soulI prudence, courage, Dustice, temperance are the satellites of the reason of the soulI reason is the satellite of GodI his is omnipotent, the supreme master# It is for these goods the other must existI toe the army obeys the general, MasN sailors to the pilot, the orld to God, the MsoulN to reason, the happy life to prudence# 6or prudence is nothing that the science of the happy M---eN, or the science of the goods hich belong to M--anN nature# &# -o God belong happiness and the happy lifeIM--N cannot possess but a grouping of science, virtue and prosperity forming a single body# 4all isdom the science for the Gods and MgeniusNI prudence, the science of human things, the science of lifeI for science should be the name of virtues hich rest on reasons and demonstrations, and moral virtue, the excellent habit of the irrational part of the soul, hich ma!es you moveI the name of certain 0ualities corresponding to our habits, namely the names of liberals, of Dust men, and of temperate peopleI and I call prosperity this affluence of goods hich e reM0uireN ithout reason, ithout reason being their cause# -hen since virtue and science depend on us, and prosperity does not depend thereon, since happiness consists in the contemplation and practice of good things, and since contemplation and action hen they meet obstacles, lend us a necessary support hen they go by an easy road, they bring us distraction and happinessI since after all it is prosperity that gives us these benefits, it is evident that happiness is nothing else than the use of virtue in prosperity# 8# Cans relations ith prosperity resemble a healthy and vigorous human bodyI he also can stand heat and cold, raise a great burden, and easily bear many other miseries# '# Since happiness is the use of virtue in prosperity, let us spea! of virtue and prosperity, the latter first# Some goods, such as virtue, are not subDect to excessI for excess is impossible in virtue, for one can never be too decent a manI indeed, virtues measure is duty, and is the habit of duty in practical life# .rosperity is subDect to excess and lac!, hich excesses produce certain evils, disturbing man from his usual mood, so as to oppose him to virtueI this is not only the case ith prosperity, but other more numerous causes also produce this effect# @ou need not be surprised at seeing in the hall certain impudent artists, ho neglect true art, misleading the ignorant by a false pictureI but do you suppose that this race does not exist as regards virtueK An the contrary, the greater and more beautiful virtue is, the more do people feign to adorn themselves ith it# -here are indeed many things hich dishonor the appearance of virtueI first are the deceivers ho simulate it, others are the natural passions hich accompany it, and sometimes t ist the dispositions of the soul into a contrary directionI others are the bad habits hich the body has rooted in us, or have been ingrained in us by youth, age, prosperity, adversity, or a thousand other circumstances# 7herefore e must not at all be surprised at entirely rong Dudgments, because the true nature of our soul has has been falsified ithin us# Eust as e see an artist ho is excellent ma!e errors in or!s e are examiningI or the general, the pilot or the painter and the li!e may ma!e errors ithout our detracting from their talent, so e must not call un orthy him ho has had a moment of ea!ness, nor among the orthy a man ho has done no more than a single actionI but in respect to the evil, e must consider chance, and for the good, of error, and to ma!e an e0uitable and Dust Dudgment, and not regard a single circumstance, or a single period of time, but the hole life# Eust as the body suffers from both excess and lac!, but as nevertheless the excess and so-called superfluities naturally produce the greatest diseases, so the soul suffers of both prosperity and adversity hen they arrive at rong times, and yet the greatest evils come from so-called absolute prosperity that is absolute because li!e ine it intoxicates the reason of the orthy#

)# -hat is hy it is not adversity but prosperity hich is the hardest to stand properly# All men, hen they are in adversity, at least greater part of them, seem moderate and modestI and in good fortune, ambitious, vain and proud# 6or adversity is apt to moderate the soul, and concentrate itI hile on the contrary prosperity excites it and puffs it upI that is hy the retches are docile to advice, and prudent in conduct, hile the happy are bold and venturesome# %+# -here is therefore a measure and limit of prosperityI the one that the orthy man should desire to have as auxiliary in the accomplishment or his actionsI Dust as there is a measure in the si5e of the ship, and in the length of the tillerI hich permits the experienced pilot to traverse an immense extent of sea, and to carry through a great voyage# -he result of excess of prosperity, even among orthy people, is that the soul loses leadership, to prosperityI Dust as too bright, a light da55les the eyes, so too great a prosperity da55les the reason of the soul# /nough about prosperity# %'# I insist that virtue is sufficient to preclude unhappiness, that badness precludes happiness, if e !no ho properly to Dudge of the genuine condition of the soul in these t o conditionsI for the evil is necessarily al ays unhappy, hether in abundance, -- hich he it does not !no ho properly to Dudge use, -- or in povertyI Dust as a blind man is al ays, hether he is in brilliant light or in dar!ness# :ut the orthy man is not al ays happyI for happiness does not consist in the possession of virtue, but its useI Dust as a man ho sees does not see all the timeI he ill not see ithout light# "ife is as it ere divided into t o roadsI the rougher one, follo ed by patient Blysses, and the more agreeable one follo ed by ;estorI I mean that virtue desires the one, but can also follo the other# :ut nature cries aloud that happiness is life desirable in itself, hose state is assured, because one can reali5e ones purposes in it, so that if life is traversed by things one has not desired, one is not happy, ithout ho ever being absolutely unhappy# -herefore be not so bold as to insist that the orthy man is exempt from, sic!ness, and sufferingI dare not to say that he does not !no painI for if the body is allo ed some causes of pain, the soul should also be allo ed some# -he griefs of the insane lac! reason and measure hile those of the ise are contained ithin the measure hich reason gives to everythingI but this so advertised insensibility enervates the character of generosity of virtue, hen it stands trials, great sorro s, hen it is exposed to death, suffering and povertyI for it is easy to support small sorro s# @ou must therefore practice the =metriopathy,> or sorro -standardi5ationI so as to avoid the insensibility Dust as much as the over-sensibility to pain, and not in ords to boast about our strength above the measure of our human nature# %)# 7e might define philosophy as the desire of !no ing and understanding things in themselves, Doined ith practical virtue, inspired and reali5ed by the love of science# -he beginning of philosophy is the science of natureI the middle, practical lifeI and the end, science itself# It is fortunate to have been ell born, to have received a good education, to have been accustomed to obey a Dust rule and to have habits conformable to nature# Ane must also have been exercised in virtue, and have been educated by ise parents, governors and masters# It is fine to impose the role of duty on ones self, to have no need of constraint, to be docile to those ho give us good advice about life, and science# 6or a fortunate disposition of nature, and a good education are often more po erful than lessons to bring us to the goodI its only lac! ould be the efficacious light of reason, hich science gives us# - o rival directions of life contend for masteryI practical and philosophical life# :y far the most perfect life unites them both, and in each different path adapts itself to circumstances# 7e are born for rational activityI hich e call practical# .ractical reason leads us to politicsI the theoretical reason, to the contemplation of the universality of things# Cind itself, hich is universal, embraces the t o po ers necessary to happiness, hich e define as the activ-

ity of virtue in prosperityI it is not exclusively either a practical life hich ould exclude science, nor a speculative life hich ould exclude the practical# .erfect reason inclines to ards these t o omnipotent principles, for hich man is bornI the principle of society and scienceI for if these opposite principles seem mutually to interfere in their development, the political principles turning us a ay from politics, and the speculative principles turning us from speculation, to persuade us to live at rest, nevertheless nature, uniting the ends of these t o movements, sho s them fusedI for virtues are not contradictory and antipathetic mutuallyI than the harmony of virtues no harmony is more consonant# If, from his youth, man has subDected himself to the principles of virtues, and to the divine la of the orld harmony, he ill lead an easy lifeI and if, by his o n inclination, he inclines to ards evil, and has the luc! of meeting better guides, he ill, by rectifying his course, arrive at happiness, li!e passengers favored by chance, finishing a fortunate sea-passage, than!s to the pilotI and the fortunate passage of life is happiness# :ut if by himself he cannot !no his real interests, if he does not have the luc! of meeting prudent directors, hat benefit ould it be if he did have immense treasures K 6or the fool, even if he had for himself all the other elements of luc!, is eternal unhappy# And since, in everything, you must first consider the end, -- for that is hat is done by the pilots ever meditating over the harbor ither they are to land the ship, and the drivers ho !eep their eye on the goal of their trip, the archers and slingers ho consider their obDective, for it is the obDective to ards hich all their efforts must tend, -- virtue must necessarily underta!e an obDective, hich should become the art of livingI and that is the name I give it in both directions it can ta!e# 6or practical life, this obDective is improvementI for the philosophical life, the perfect goodI hich, in their human affairs the sages call happiness# -hose ho are in misery are not capable of Dudging of happiness according to exact ideasI and those ho do not see it, clearly, ould not !no ho to choose it# -hose ho consider that pleasure is the sovereign good are punished therefore by foolishness, those ho above all see! the absence of pain, also receive their punishment, and, to resume all, to define life-happiness as the enDoyment of the body, or in an unreflective state of soul is to expose himself to all the hirl inds of the tempest# -hose ho suppress moral beauty by avoiding all discussion, all reflection about the matter, and see!ing pleasure, absence of pain, simple and primitive physical enDoyments, the irreflective inclinations of body and soul, are not more fortunateI for they commit a double fault, by reducing the good of the soul and its superior functions to the level of that of the body, and in raising the good of the body to the high level due to the good of the soul# :y an exact discernment of these goods, e should outline its proper part for the divine element, and for nature# -hey themselves do not, observe this relation of dignity from the better to the orse# :ut e do so, hen e say that if the body is the organ of the soul, reason is the guide of the entire soul, the mistress of the body, this tent of the soul and that all the other physical advantages should serve only as instruments to the intellectual activity, if you ish it to be perfect in po er, duration and ealth# *+# -hese are the most important conditions to become a sage1 first, you must have received from fate a mind endo ed ith facility to understand, memory, and industryI you must then from youth up exercise your intelligence by the practice of argumentation, by mathematical studies, and the exact sciences# -hen you must study healthful philosophy, after hich you may underta!e the !no ledge of the Gods, of la s, and of human life# 6or there are t o means of arriving at this state !no n as isdom# -he first is to ac0uire the habit of or! that, is intellectual, and the taste for !no ledgeI the other is to see! to see many things, to underta!e business fre0uently, and to !no them either directly at first hand, or indirectly# 6or he ho from youth up has exercised reason by dialectic reasonings, mathematical studies, and exact sciencesI is not yet ready for isdom, any more than he ho has neglected these labors, and has only listened to others, and has plunged himself in business# -he one has become blindI hen the business is to Dudge particular factsI the other, hen he is to Dudge of general deductions# Eust as in calculations you obtain the total by combining

the parts, so also, in business practice, reason can vaguely s!etch the general formulaI but experience alone can enable us to grasp the details and individual facts# *%# Age is in the same relation to youth# @outh ma!es men energetic, age ma!es them prudentI never by imprudence does it let a thought escapeI it reflects on hat it has doneI it considers maturely hat it ought to do, in order that this comparison of the future ith the present, and the present ith the future lead it to good conduct# -o the past, it applies memory, to the present, sensation, and to the future, foresightI for our memory has al ays as obDect the past, foresight the future, and sensation the present# ,e therefore ho ishes to lead an honest and beautiful life must not only have senses and memory, but foresight#

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**#a# -he la s of the ic!ed and atheists are opposed by the un ritten la s of the Gods, ho inflict evils and terrible punishments on the disobedient# It is these divine la s hich have developed and directed the la s and ritten maxims given to men# b# -he relation of la to the soul and human life is identical to that of harmony to the sense of hearing, and the voiceI for the la instructs the soul, and therethrough, the lifeI as harmony regulates the voice through education of the ear# In my opinion, every society is composed of the commander, the commanded, and the la s# Among the latter, one is livingI namely the !ingI the other is inanimate, the ritten letter# -he la is therefore the essentialI through it only is the !ing legitimate, the magistrate, regularly instituted, the commanded free, and the hole community happy# 7hen it is violated, the !ing is no more than a tyrantI the magistrate illegitimate, the commanded becomes a slave, and the hole community becomes unhappy# ,uman acts are li!e a mingled tissue, formed of command, duty, obedience, and force sufficient to overcome resistance# /ssentially, the command belongs to the betterI being commanded to the inferior, and force belongs to bothI for the reasonable part of the soul commands and the irrational part is commandedI both have the force to con0uer the passions# <irtue is born from the harmonious cooperation of bothI and leads the soul to rest and indifference by turning it a ay from pleasures and sorro s# c# "a must conform to nature, and exercise an efficient po er over things, and be useful to the political communityI for if it lac!s one, t o, or all of these characteristics, it is no longer a la , or at least it is no longer a perfect la # It conforms to nature if it is the image of natural rightI hich fits itself, and distributes to each according to his desertsI it prevails, if it harmoni5es ith the men ho are to be subDect theretoI for there are may people ho are not apt to receive hat by nature is the first of goodsI and ho are fitted to practice only the good hich is in relation ith them, and possible for themI for that is ho the sic! and the suffering have to be nursed# "a is useful to the political society if it is not monarchical, if it does not constitute privileged classes, if it is made in the interest of all, and is e0ually imposed on all# "a must also regard the country and the lands, for not all soils can yield the same returns, neither all human souls the same virtues# -hat is hy some establish the aristocratic constitution, hile others prefer the democratic or oligarchic# -he aristocratic constitution is founded on the subcontrary proportion, and is the Dustest, for this proportion attributes the greatest results to the greatest terms, and the smallest to the smallest# -he democratic constitution is founded on the geometrical proportion, in hich the results of the great and small are e0ual# -he oligarchic and tyrannic constitutions are founded on the arithmetical proportion, hich, being the opposite of the subcontrary, attributes to the smallest terms the greatest results, and vice versa#

Such are the !inds of proportions, and you can observe their image in families and political constitutionsI for either the honors, punishments and virtues are e0ually attributed to the great and small, or they are so attributed une0ually, according to superiority, in virtue, ealth or po er# /0ual distribution is the characteristic of democracyI and the une0ual, that of aristocracy and oligarchy# d# -he best la and constitution must be a composite of all other constitutions, and contain something democratic, oligarchic, monarchic and aristocratic, as in "acedemonI for in it the !ings formed the monarchic element, the elders the aristocracy, the magistrates the oligarchy, the cavalry generals and youths the democracy# "a must therefore not only be beautiful and good, but its different parts must mutually compensate# -his ill give it po er and durability and by this mutual opposition I mean that the same magistracy command and be commanded, as in the ise la s of "acedemonI for the po er of its !ings is balanced by the magistrates, this by the elders, and bet een these t o po ers are the cavalry generals and the youths, ho, as soon as they see any one party ac0uire the preponderance, thro themselves on the other side# -he la s first duty is to decide about the gods, the geniuses, the parentsI in short, on all that is estimable and orthyI later, about utility# It is proper that the secondary regulations should follo the best, and that the la s be inscribed, not on the houses and doors, but in the depths of the souls of the citi5ens# /ven in "acedemon, hich has excellent la s, the State is not administered by manifold ritten, ordinances# "a is useful to the political community, if it is not monarchical, and does not serve private interests, if it is useful to all, if it extends its obligation to all, and aims its punishments to shame the guilty, and to brand him ith infamy, rather than to deprive him of his ealth# If, indeed, you are see!ing to punish the guilty by ignominy, the citi5ens ill try to lead a iser and more honest life, so as to avoid the la s punishmentI if it is only by money fines, they ill rate above everything ealth, understanding that it is their best means to repair their faults# -he best ould be that the State should be organi5ed in a manner such that it ould need nothing from strangers, neither for virtue, po er, or anything else# Eust as the right constitution of a body, a house, or an army is to contain, and not to depend on outside sources for the principle of its safetyI for in that ay the body is more vigorous, the house better ordered, and the army ill be neither mercenary nor badly drilled# :eings that are thus organi5ed are superior to othersI they are free, enfranchised from servitude, unless, for their conservation, they need many things, but have only fe needs, easily satisfied# In that ay the vigorous man becomes able to bear heavy burdens, and the athlete, to resist coldI for men are exercised by events and misfortunes# -he temperate man, ho has tested his body and soul, finds any food, drin!, even a bed of leaves, delectable# ,e ho has preferred to live li!e a sybarite among delights, ould finally scorn and reDect the magnificence of the great $.ersian( !ing# "a must therefore deeply penetrate into the souls and habits of the citi5ensI it ill ma!e them satisfied ith their fate, and distribute his deserts to each# -hus the sum, in traversing the 5odiac, distributes to everything on the earth, gro th, food, life, in the proper measure, and institutes this ise legislation hich regulates the succession of the seasons# -hat is hy e call Eupiter nomios, la -giver, from 3emeios, and e call nomeus he ho distributes their food to the sheepI that is hy e call nomoi the verses sung by the citharedians, for these verses impart order to the soul because they are sung according to the la s of harmony, rhythm and measure# *2# -he true chief must not only possess the science and po er of commanding ell, but he must also love menI for it is absurd that a shepherd should hate his floc!, and feel hostile disposition toards those he is educating# :esides he must be legitimateI only thus can he sustain a chiefs dignity# ,is science ill permit him to discern ell, his po er to punish, his !indness to be beneficent, and the la to do everything according to reason# -he best chief ould be he ho ould closest approach the la , for he ould never act in his o n interest, and al ays in that or others, since the la does not exist for itself, but for its subDects#

*G# See *%a# *9#7hen the art of reflexion as discovered, diminished dissensions, and increased concordI those ho possess it feel the pride of predominance yielding to the sentiment of e0uality# It is by reflexion that e succeed in adDusting our affairs in a friendly fashionI through it the poor receive riches, and the rich give to the poor, each possessing the confidence that he possesses, the e0uality of rights# *&# ?eflexion is li!e a rule hich hinders and turns aside the people ho !no ho to reflect from committing inDustices, for it convinces them that they cannot remain hidden if they carry out their purposes and the punishment hich has overta!en those ho have not !no n ho to abstain ma!es them reflect and not become bac!-sliders#

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*8# "ogic, compared ith the other sciences is by far the most successful, and succeeds in demonstrating its obDectives even better than geometry# 7here geometric demonstration fails, the logical succeedsI and logic treats not only ith general classes, but ith their exceptions# *'# In my opinion it is a complete error to insist that about every subDect there are t o contrary opinions hich are e0ually true# -o begin ith, I consider it impossible that, if both opinions are true, they should contradict each other, and that beauty should contradict beauty, and hiteness, hiteness# It cannot be so, for beauty and ugliness, hiteness and blac!ness are contraries# "i!eise, the true is contrary to the false, and you cannot produce t o contrary opinions, either true of falseI the one must be true, at the expense of the falseness of the other# 6or instance, he ho praises the soul of man and accuses his body is not spea!ing of the same obDect, unless you claim that spea!ing exclusive of the heaven you are spea!ing exclusively of the earth# 7hy no, they are not one, but t o propositions# 7hat am I trying to demonstrateK -hat he ho says that the Athenians are s!illful and itty and he ho says they are not grateful, are not supporting contradictory propositions, for contradictories are opposed to each other on the same points, and here the t o points are different# *)# A?4,@-ASS -/; B;I</?SA" ;A-IA;S# 6irst, all !inds of arts deal ith five things1 the matter, the instrument, the part, the definition, the end# -he first notion, the substance, is something self-existent and self-subsistent# It needs nothing else for its essence, though subDect to gro th, if it happens to be something that is bornI for only the divine is uncreated, and veritably self-subsistentI for the other notions are considered in relation to substance hen the latter by opposition to them is termed self-subsisting1 but it is not such, in relation to the divine# -he nine notions appear and disappear ithout implying the ruin of the subDect, the substrate, and that is hat is called the universal accident# 6or the same subDect does not lose its identity by being increased or diminished in 0uantity# -hus, excessive feeding creates excessive si5e and stoutnessI sobriety and abstinence ma!e men lean, but it al ays the same body, the same substrate# -hus also human beings passing from childhood to youth remain the same in substance, differing only in 0uantity# 7ithout changing essence, the identical obDect may become hite or blac!, changing only as regards 0uality# Again, ithout changing essence, the identical man may change disposition and

relation, as he is friend or enemyI and being today in -hebes, and tomorro in Athens changes nothing in his substantial nature# 7ithout changing essence, e remain the same today that e ere yesterdayI the change affected only timeI the man standing is the same as the man sittingI he has changed only in situation1 :eing aimed or unarmed is a difference only of possessionI the stri!er and the cutter are the same man in essence, though not in actionI he ho is cut or struc! O hich belongs to the category of suffering, O still retains his essence# -he differences of the other categories are clearerI those of 0uality, possession, and suffering present some difficulties in the differencesI for e hesitate about the 0uestion of !no ing if having fever, shivering or reDoicing belong to the category of 0uality, possession, or suffering# 7e must distinguish1 if e say, it is fever, it is shivering, it is Doy, it is 0ualityI if e say, he has fever, he shivers, he reDoices, it is possessionI hile possession again differs from suffering, in that the latter can be conceived ithout the agent# Suffering is a relation to the agent, and is understood only by him ho produces itI if e say, he is cut, he is beaten, e express the patientI if e say, he suffers, e express possession# 7e say that $Archytas( has ten, and no more universal notionsI of hich e may convince ourselves by the follo ing division1 the being is in a subDect, $a substance(, or is not in a subDectI that hich is not in a subDect, forms the substanceI that hich is in a subDect or is conceived by itself, or is not conceived by itselfI that hich is not conceived by itself constitutes relation, for relative beings, hich are not conceived by themselves, but hich forcibly import the idea of an other being, are hat is called scheseis, conditions# -hus the term son is associated ith the term farther, that of slave, masterI thus all relative beings are conceived in a necessary bond together ith something else, and not by themselves# -he self-conceivable being is either divisible O hen it is 0uantity, --- or indivisible, hen it constitutes 0uality# -he six other notions are produced by combination of the former# Substance mingled ith 0uantity, if seen in place, constitutes the category of (hereI if seen in time, constitutes that of (hen# Cingled ith 0uality, substance is either active and forms the category of action, or hen passive, forms that of suffering, or, passi'ity# 4ombined ith relation, it is either posited in another, and that is hat is called situation, or it is attributed to somebody else, and then it is possession# As to the order of the categories, 0uantity follo s substance and precedes 0ualityI because, by a natural la , everything that receives 0uality also receives mass, and that it is only of something so determinate that 0uality can be so affirmed and expressed# Again, 0uality precedes relation, because the former is self-sufficient, and the latter by a relationI e first have to conceive and express something by itself before in a relation# After these universal categories follo the others# Action precedes passivity, because its force is greaterI the category of situation precedes that of possession, because being situated is something simpler than being possessedI and you cannot conceive something attributed to another ithout conceiving the former as situated some here# -hat hich is situated is also in a position, such as standing, seated or lying# -he characteristic of substance is more or less-nessI for e say that a man is no more of an animal than a horse, by substance, and not to admit the contraries# -he characteristic of 0uality is to admit more or lessI for e say, more or less hite, or blac!# -he characteristic ofI 0uantity is to admit e0uality or ine0ualityI for a s0uare foot is not e0ual to an acre, and %GG s0# inches e0ual a s0uare footI five is not e0ual to ten, and t ice five is e0ual to ten# -he characteristic of relation is to Doin contrariesI for if there is a father, there is a sonI and if there is a master there is a slave# -he characteristic of hereness is to includeI and of henness it to remainI of situation, to be locatedI of possession, to be attributed# -he composite of substance and 0uantity is anterior to the composite of 0ualityI the composite of substance and 0uality in its turn precedes that of substance and relation# 7hereness precedes hennessI because hereness presupposes the place that is fixed and permanentI henness relates to time and time, ever in movement, has no fixityI and rest is anterior to movement# Action is anterior to passivity, and situation to possession#

%# 4A-/GA?@ A6 SB:S-A;4/# Substance is divided into corporeal and incorporealI the corporeal into bodies animate and inanimate# Animated bodies, into those endo ed ith sensation, and ithout sensation# Senses-bodies into animals and 5oophytes, hich do not farther divide into opposite distinctions# -he animal is divided into rational and irrationalI the rational into mortal and immortalI the mortal into differences of genus, such as man, ox, horse, and the rest# -he species are divided into individuals ho have no abiding value# /ach of the sections that e obtained above by opposite divisions is susceptible of being in turn divided e0ually, until e arrive to the indivisible individuals ho are of no value# *# 4A-/GA?@ A6 PBA;-I-@# -his is divided into seven parts1 the line, surface, the body, the place, the time, the number, and language# Puantity is either continuous or discreteI of continuous 0ualities there are fiveI of the discrete, number and language# In 0uantity, you may distinguish that hich is composed of parts having position relative to each otherI such as line, surface, body and placeI and those hose parts have no position, such as number, language, and timeI for although time is a continuous 0uantity, nevertheless its parts have no positionI because it is not permanent, and that hich has no permanence could not have any position# Puantity has produced four sciences1 immovable 0uantity, geometryI movable continuous 0uantity, astronomyI immovable discrete 0uantity, arithmeticI and the movable, music# 2# 4A-/GA?@ A6 PBA"I-@# -his is divided into hexis or habitI and diathesis or affectionI passive 0uality and passivity, po er and impotence, figure and form# ,abit is affection in a state of energetic tensionI it is the permanence and fixity derived from continuity and the energy of affectionI it is affection become $second( nature, a second enriched nature# Another explanation of habit is the 0ualities given us by nature, and hich are derived neither from affection, nor from the natural progress of the beingI as sight and the other senses# :oth passive 0uality and passivity are increase, intensity, and ea!ening# -o both of these are attributed anger, hate, intemperance, the other vicious passions, the affections of sic!ness, heat and coldI but these are classified at ill under habit and affection, or under passive 0uality and passivity# @ou might say that so far as affection is communicable it might be called habitI so far as it cause a passion, it might be called a passive 0ualityI hich refers both to its permanence and fixity# 6or a modification contained in the measure is called passion# -hus from the one to hom it is communicated, heat may be called a habitI from the cause hich produces the modificationI e may say that it is either the passive 0uality, or the po er of the passionI as hen e say of a child that he is potentially a runner or a philosopher, and, in short, hen at a given moment the being does not have the po er to act, but that it is possible that after the lapse of a certain period of time, this po er may belong to him# Impotence is hen nature refuses itself to the possibility of accomplishing certain actions as hen the man is impotent to fly, the horse to spea!, the eagle to live in ater, and all the natural impossibilities# 6igure is a conformation of a determined characterI form, the 0uality sho ing itself exteriorly by color, or beauty, or ugliness sho ing itself on the surface by color, and in short any form that is apparent, determinate and stri!ing# Some limit figure to inanimate thingsI reserving form to living beings# Some say that the ord figure gives the idea of the dimension of depthI and that the form is applied only to the superficial appearanceI but you have been taught all of that# G# 4A-/GA?I/S A6 ?/"A-IA;# Generally, the relatives are divided into four classesI nature, art, chance and ill# -he relation of father to son is naturalI that of master to disciple, that of artI that of master to slave, that of chanceI and that of friend to friend, and enemy to enemy, that of illI although you might say that these are all natural relations# 9# 4A-/GA?@ A6 7,/?/;/SS# -he simplest division is into six1 up, do n, for ards, bac!ards, right and left# /ach of these subdivisions contains varieties# -here are many differences in

up-ness, in the air, in the stars, to the pole, beyond the poleI and such differences are repeated belo I the infinitely divided places themselves are further subDect to an infinity of differences, but this very ambiguous point ill be explained later# &# 4A-/GA?@ A6 7,/;;/SS# -his is divided in present, past and futureI the present is indivisible, the past is divided into nine subdivisions, the future into fiveI e have already spo!en of them# 8# 4A-/GA?@ A6 A4-IA;# -his is divided into action, discourse and thoughtI action in or! of the hands, ith tools, and ith feetI and each of these divisions is subdivided into technical divisions hich also have their parts# "anguage is divided into Gree!, barbarian, and each of these divisions have their parts, namely, its dialects# -hought is divided into and infinite orld of thoughts, hose obDects are the orlds, other people, and the hypercosmic# "anguage and thought really belong to action, for they are the acts of the reasonable natureI in fact, if e are as!ed1 7hat is Cr# J doingK e ans er, he is chatting, conversing, thin!ing, reflecting, and so on# '# 4A-/GA?@ A6 .ASSI<I-@# .assivity is divided in suffering of the soul, and of the bodyI and each of these is subdivided into passions hich result from actions of somebody else, as for instance, hen somebody is struc!I and passions hich arise ithout the active intervention of someone elseI hich occur in a thousand different forms# )# 4A-/GA?@ A6 SI-BA-IA;# -his is divided into three1 standing, sitting, and lyingI and each of these is subdivided by differences of location# 7e may stand on our feet, or on the tips of our fingersI ith the leg unflexed, or the !nee bentI further differences are e0ual or une0ual stepsI or al!ing on one or t o feet# :eing seated has the same differencesI one may be straight, bent, reversedI the !nees may form an acute or obtuse angleI the feet may be placed over each other, or in some other ay# "i!e ise ith lying do nI prone or head for ards, or to the side, the body extended, in a circle, or angularly# 6ar from uniform are these divisionsI they are very various# .osition is also subDect to other divisions, for an instance, an obDect may be spread out li!e corn, sand, oil, and all the other solidsI that are susceptible of position, and all the li0uids that e !no # ;evertheless being extended belongs to position, as cloth and nets# %+# 4A-/GA?@ A6 .ASS/SIA;S# =,aving> signifies things that e put on, as shoes, arms, coveringsI things hich are put on others, such as a pec!, a bottle, and other vasesI for e say that the pec! has oats, that the bottle has ineI also of ealth and estatesI e say, he has a fortune, fields, cattle and other similar things# 2+# -he order of the categories is the follo ingI in the first ran! is substance, because it alone serves as substrate to all the others, that e can conceive it alone, and by itself, and that the others cannot be conceived ithout itI for all attributes subDect reside therein, or are affirmed thereof# -he second is 0ualityI for it is impossible for a thing to have a 0uality ithout an essence# 2%# /very naturally physical and sensible substance must, to be conceived by man, be either classified ithin the categories, or be determined by them, and cannot be conceived ithout them# 2*# Substance has three differencesI the one consists in matter, the other in form, and the third in the mixture of both# 22# -hese notions, these categories, have characteristics that are common and individual# I say that they are characteristics common to substance, not to receive more or lessnessI for it is not possible to be more or less man, God or antI to have no contraries for man is not the contrary of man, neither god of a godI neither is it contrary to other substances, to exist by oneself, and not to be in another,

as green or blue color is the characteristic of the eye, since all substance depends on itself# All the things that belong to it intimately, or the accidents are in itI or cannot exit ithout itI####0uality is suited by several characteristics of substance, for example, not to be subDect to more or lessness# 2G# It is the property to remain self-identical, one in number, and to be susceptible of the contraries# 7a!ing is the contrary of sleepI slo ness to s iftness, sic!ness to healthI and the same man, identically one, is susceptible of all these differences# 6or he a a!es, sleeps, moves slo ly or 0uic!ly, is ell or sic!, and in short is able to receive all similar contraries, so long as they be not simultaneous# 29# Puantity has three differences1 one consists in eight, li!e bullionI the other in si5e, as the yardI the other in multitude, as ten# 2&# Including its accidents, substance is necessarily primaryI that is ho they are in relation to some thing elseI after the substance come the relations of accidental 0ualities# 28# A common property hich must be added to 0uality, is to admit certain contraries, and privation# -he relation is subDect to more or lessnessI for though a being remain ever the same, to be greater or smaller than anything else is morenessI but all the relations are not susceptible theretoI for you cannot be more or less father, brother, or sonI hereby I do not mean to express the sentiments of both parents, nor the degree of tenderness is held mutually by beings of the same blood, and the sons of the same parentsI I only mean the tenderness hich is in the nature of these relations# 2'# Puality has certain common characters, for example, of receiving the contraries, and privationI more and less affect the passions# -hat is hy the passions are mar!ed by the characteristics of indetermination, because they are in a greater or less indeterminate measure# 2)# ?elation is susceptible of conversion, and this conversion is founded either on resemblance, as the e0ual, and the brother, or on lac! of resemblance, the large and the small# -here are relatives hich are not converted, for instance, science and sensationI for e may spea! of the science of the intelligible, and of the sensation of the sensibleI and the reason is that the intelligible and the sensible can exist independently of science and sensationI hile science and sensation cannot exist ithout the intelligible and the sensibleI######-he characteristic of relatives is to exist simultaneously in each otherI for if e grant the existence of doubleness, the half must necessarily existI and if the half existsI necessarily must the double exist, as it is the cause of the half, as the half is the cause of thy double# G+# Since every moved thing moves in a place, since action and passivity are actuali5ed movements, it is clear that there must be a primary place in hich exist the acting and the passive obDects# G%# -he characteristic of the agent is to contain the cause of the motionI hile the characteristic of the thing done, hich is passive, is to have it in some other# 6or the sculptor obtains the cause of the ma!ing of the statue, the bron5e possesses the cause of the modification it undergoes, both in itself and in the sculptor# So also ith the passions of the soul, for it is in the nature of anger to be aroused as the result of something elseI that it be excited by some other external thing, for example, by scorn, dishonor, and outrageI and he ho acts thus to ards another, contains the cause of his action# G*# -he highest degree of the action, is the actI hich contains three differencesI it may be accomplished in the contemplation of the stars, or in doing, such as healing or constructingI or in action,

as in commanding an army, or in administering the affairs of state# An act may occur even ithout reasoning, as in irrational animal# -hese are the most general contraries# G2# .assion differs from the passive stateI MasN passion is accompanied by sensation, li!e anger, pleasure and fearI hile one can undergo something ithout sensation, such as the ax that melts, or the mud that dries# -hen also the MdeedN done differs also from the passive state, hen the deed done has undergone a certain action, M hiNle everything that has undergone a certain action is not a deed doneI for a thing may be in a passive state as a result of lac! of privation# GG# An the one side there is the agent, on the other, the patientI for example, in nature, God is the being ho actsI matter is the being hich undergoes, and the elements are neither the one nor the other# G9# -he characteristic of possession is to be something adventitious, something corporeal, separated from essence# -hus a veil or shoes, are distinct from the possessorI those are not natural characteristics, nor essential accidents, li!e the blue color of the eyes, and rarefactionI these are t o incorporeal characteristics, hile possession relates to something corporeal and adventitious# G&# Since the signs and the things signified have a purpose, and since the man ho uses these signs and signified things is to fulfill the perfect function of speech, let us finish hat e have said by proving that the harmonious grouping of all these categories does not belong to man in general, but to a certain finite individual# ;ecessarily, it must be a definite man existing some here ho possesses 0uality, 0uantity, relation, action, passivity, location and possession, ho is in a place and time# -he man in himself receives only the first of these expressionsI I mean essence and formI but he has no 0uality, no age, he is not old, he neither does, nor suffers anything, he has no location, he possesses nothing, he is neither in place nor time# All those are only accidents of the physical and corporeal beingI but not of the intelligible, immovable, and indivisible being# G8# Among contraries, some are said to be mutually opposed by convention and nature, as good to evil, the sic! to the ell man, truth to error MandN others, as possession is opposed to privation, such as life and death, sight and blindness, science and ignoranceI others as relatives as the double and the half, the commander and the commanded, the master and the slaveI others, li!e affirmation and negation, as being man and not a man, being honest, and not# G'# -he relatives arise and disappear necessarily simultaneouslyI the existence of the double is impossible, ithout implying that of the half and vice versa# If something becomes double, the half must arise, and if the double is destroyed, the half passes a ay ith it# G)# Af the relatives, some respond to each other in t o sensesI as, the greater, the smaller, the brother, the relative# Athers again respond, but not in the t o senses, for e say e0ually, the science of the intelligible, and the science of the sensible, but e do not say the reciprocal, the intelligible of science, and the sensible of sensation# -he reason is that the obDect of Dudgment can exist independently of him ho Dudges, for instance, the sensible can exist ithout sensation, and the intelligible ithout scienceI hile it is not possible that the subDect hich bears a Dudgment exists ithout the obDect hich he DudgesI for example, there can be no sensation ithout sensible obDect, nor science ithout intelligible obDect# ?elatives hich respond reciprocally are of t o !indsI those that respond indifferently, as the relative, the brother, the e0ualI for they are mutually similar, and e0ual# Some respond reciprocally, but not in-differentlyI for this one is greater than that one, and that one is smaller than this oneI and this one is the father of that one, and that one the son of this one#

9+# -hese opposites divide into !inds hich hang togetherI for of the contraries, some are ithout middle term, and the others have one# -here is no middle term bet een sic!ness and health, rest and movement, a!ing and sleep, straightness and curvedness, and such other contraries# :ut bet een the much and the little, there is a Dust mediumI bet een the shrill and the lo , there is the unisonI bet een the rapid and slo , there is the e0uality of movementI bet een the greatest and the smallest, the e0uality of measure# Af universal contraries there must be one that belongs to hat receives themI for they do not admit any medium term# -hus there is no medium term bet een health and sic!nessI every living being is necessarily sic! or ellI neither bet een a!ing and sleeping, for every living being is either a a!e or asleepI nor bet een rest and movement, for every human being is either at rest or at movement# -he opposites of hich neither of any or both necessarily belong to the subDect that may receive themI have any middle termsI bet een blac! and hite, there is the M----NI and it is not necessary that an animal be blac! or hiteI bet een the great and the small, there is the e0ualI and it is not necessary that a living being be either great or smallI bet een the rough and the soft, there is the gentle, and it is not necessary that a living being be either rough or soft# In the opposites there are three differences1 some are opposed, as the good is to evil, for instance, health to sic!nessI the others li!e evil to evil, as for instance, avarice to lecheryI the others, as being neither the one or the other for instance, as hite is opposed to blac!, and the heavy to the light# Af the opposites, some occur in the genus of generaI for the good is opposed to evil, and the good is the genus of virtues, and evil that of the evils# Athers occur in the genera of species, virtue is the opposite of vice and virtue is the genus of prudence and temperance, and vice is the genus of foolishness and debauch# Athers occur in the species, courage is opposed to co ardliness, Dustice of inDustice, and Dustice and virtue are species of virtue, inDustice and debauch species of vice# -he primary genera, hich e call genera of genera, can be dividedI the last species, hich are the immediate nearest to the obDect, that is sensible, could no longer be genera, and are only species# 6or the triangle is the genus of the rectangle, of the e0uilateral and of the scalene###the species of good###### 9%# -he opposites differ from each other in that for some, the contraries, it is not necessary that they arise at the same time, and disappear simultaneously# 6or health is the contrary of sic!ness, and rest that of movementI nevertheless neither of them arises or perishes at the same time as its opposite# .ossession and privation of production differ in this, that it is in the nature of contraries that one passes from one to the other, for instance, from sic!ness to health and vice versa# It is not so ith possession and privationI you do indeed pass from possession to privation, but the privation doesI not return to possessionI the living, die, but the dead never return to life# In short, possession is the pesistance of hat is according to nature, hile privation is its lac!, and decay# ?elatives necessarily arise and disappear simultaneouslyI for it is impossible for the double to exist ithout implying the half I or vice versa# If some double happens to arise, it, is impossibly that the half should not arise, or if some double be destroyed, that the half be not destroyed# Affirmation and negation are forms of preposition, and they eminently express the true and the false# :eing a man is a true proposition, if the thing exists, and false if it does not exist# @ou could say as much of negation, it is true or false according to the thing expressed# :esides, bet een good and evil there is medium, hich is neither good nor evilI bet een much and little, the Dust measureI bet een the slo and the fast, the e0uality of speedI bet een possession and privation, there is no medium# 6or there is nothing bet een life and deathI bet een sight and blindnessI unless indeed you say that the living ho is not# yet born, but ho is being born, is bet een life and death, and that the puppy ho does not yet see is bet een blindness and sight# In such an expression, e are using an accidental medium, and not according to the true and proper definition of contraries#

?elatives have middle termsI for bet een the master and the slave, there is the free man, and bet een the greatest and the smallest, there is e0ualityI bet een the ide and the narro there is the proper idthI one might li!e ise find be bet een the other contraries a medium, hether or no it has a name# :et een affimation $and negation( there are no contraries, for instance, bet een being a man and not being a man, being a musician and not being a musician# In short, e have to affirm or deny# Affirming is sho ing of something that it is a man, for instance, or a horse, or an attribute of these beings, as of the man that he is a musician, and of the horse, that he is arli!eI e call denying, hen e sho of something that it is not something, not man, not horse, or that it lac!s an attribute of these beings, for instance, that the man is not a musician and that the horse is not arli!eI and bet een this affirmation and this negation, there is nothing# 9*# .rivation, and being deprived is ta!en in three sensesI or one does not at all have at all have the thing, as that the blind man does not have sight, the mute does not have voice, and the ignorant, no scienceI or that one does not have it but partially, as that the man hard of hearing has hearing, and that the man ith sore eyes has sightI or one can say that partially he does not have it, as one says that a man hose legs are croo!ed that he has no legs, and of a man ho has a bad voice, that he has no voice#

:IAG?A.,@ A6 A4/""BS "B4A;BS


.ractically nothing is !no n of the life of Acellus, except that Iamblichus mentions the name of his brother Acillus, and his sister :yndacis, all .ythagorean philosophers# In the biography of Archytas e read his ritings ere preserved by his family, so e may assume he returned home, after studying .ythagoreanism# ,is significance, ho ever, is great, for those letters of .lato itness ho much he sought them, and that he indeed received some of them# Af the boo!s that e have, .hilo Eudaeus reedited the first, in his riting on the 0ncorruptibility of the World# -he second as used, almost ord for ord by Aristotle, in his tract on ,eneration and CorruptionI and the fourth as used ord for ord by Iamblichus in his "ife of .ythagoras# Acellus as therefore much appreciated, and a very useful riter# In his ay, Archytas as almost as useful to Aristotle, in fragments1 &, ', %, %%, %8 $G(, $9(, $' (I ) $*(, $G(, $)(, $%+(I 2*I etc#### -he truth is that .ythagoreanism as bodily adapted by .lato and Aristotle, ho thereby made their fortunes# .ythagoreanism as an unselfish inspirationI and not until these fragments are united has it been possible to pass through .lato and Aristotle, to the real spring of Gree! philosophy# As an instance, .lato rote his -imaeus as an amplification of the boo! of the .ythagoreans M"ocrianN -imaeuss tract hich has been preserved along ith .latos or!s#

I -,/ .@-,AGA?/A;S -?/A-IS/ A; -,/ B;I</?S/


Acellus "ucanus has ritten hat follo s concerning the nature of the universeI having learnt some things through clear arguments from nature herself, but others from opinion, in conDunction ith reason, it being his intention $he( to derive hat is probable from intellectual perception# -herefore it appears to me, that the universe is indestructible and unbegotten, since it al ays as, and al ays

ill beI for if it had a temporal beginning, it ould not al ays have existed1 thus therefore, the universe is unbegotten and indestructibleI for if someone should opine that it as once generated, he ould not be able to find anything into hich it can be corrupted arid dissolved, since that from hich it as generated ould be the first part of the universeI and again, that into hich it ould be dissolved ould be the last part of it# :ut if the universe as generated, it as generated together ith all thingsI and if it should be corrupted, it ould be corrupted together ith all things# -his ho ever is impossible# -his universe is therefore ithout a beginning, and ithout an end1 nor is it possible that it can have any other mode of subsistence# -o hich may be added, that everything hich# has received a beginning of generation, and hich ought also to participate of dissolution, receive t o mutationsI one of hich, indeed proceeds from the less to the greater, and from the orse to the betterI and that from hich it begins change is denominated generation, but that a hich its length it arrives at is called climax# -he other mutation, ho ever, proceeds from the greater to the less, and from the better to the orseI but the end of this mutation is called corruption and dissolution# If therefore the hole and the universe ere generated, and are corruptible they must, hen generated have been changed from the less to the greater, and from the orse to the betterI but hen corrupted, they must be changed from the greater to the less, and from the better to the orse# ,ence, if the orld as generated, it ould receive increase and ould arrive at its consummationI and again, it ould after ards decrease and end# 6or every thing hich has a progression possesses three boundaries, and t o intervalsI the three boundaries are generation, consummation and endI and the intervals are, progression from generation to consummation, and from consolation to end# -he hole, ho ever, and the universe, affords as from itself, no indication of anything of this !indI for neither do e perceive it rising into existence, or becoming to be, nor changing to the better and the greater, nor changing to orse or lessI but it al ays continues to subsist in identical manner, and perpetually remains self-identical# 4lear signs and indications of this are the orders of things, their symmetry, figurations, positions, intervals, po ers, s iftness and slo ness in respect to each otherI and, besides these, their numbers and temporal periods, are clear signs and indications# 6or all such things as these change and diminish, conformably to the course of generationI for things that are greater and better tend to ards consummation through po er, but those that are less and orse decay through the inherent ea!ness of nature# -he hole orld is hat I call the hole universeI for this ord =cosmos> as given it as a result of its being adorned ith all things# 6rom itself it is a consummate and perfect system of all things, for there is nothing external to the universe, since hatever exists is contained in the universe, and the universe subsists together ith this, comprehending in itself all things, both parts and superfluous# -he things contained in the orld are naturally congruous ith itI but the orld harmoni5es ith nothing else, symphoni5ing ith itself# Ather things do not possess self-sub sistence, but re0uire adDustment ith the environment# -hus animals re0uire conDunction ith air for the purpose of respirationI and ith light, in order to seeI and similarly the other senses ith other environment, to function satisfactorily# A conDunction ith earth is necessary for the germination of plants# -he sun, moon, planets and fixed stars li!e ise integrate ith the orld, as parts of its general arrangement# -he orld, ho ever, has no conDunction ith any thing outside of itself# -he above is supported by

the follo ing# 6ire hich imparts heat to others, is self-hotI honey hich is s eet to the taste, is self-s eet# -he principles of demonstrations, hich conclude to things unapparent, are self-evident# -herefore the cause of the perfection of other things is itself perfect# -hat hich preserves and renders permanent other things must itself be preserved and permanent# 7hat harmoni5es must itself be self-harmonic# ;o as the orld is the cause of the existence, preservation and perfection of other things, must itself be perpetual and perfectI and because its duration is everlasting, it becomes the cause of the permanence of all other things# In short, if the universe should be dissolved, it ould be dissolved either into the existent, or nonexistent# As it could not be dissolved into existence, for in this case the dissolution ould not be a corruptionI as being is either the universe, or some part of it# ;or can it be dissolved into nonentity, since being cannot possibly arise from nonbeingI or be dissolved into nonentity# -herefore the universe is incorruptible, and never can be destroyed# If, ho ever, somebody should thin! that it can be corrupted, it must be corrupted either from something external to, or contained in the universe, but it cannot be corrupted by anything external to it, for nothing such exists, since all other things are comprehended in the universe, and the orld is the hole and the all# ;or can it be corrupted by the things it contains, hich ould imply their greater po er# -his ho ever is impossibleI for all things are led and governed by the universe, and thereby are preserved and adDusted, possessing life and soul# :ut if the universe can neither be corrupted by anything externa% to it, nor by anything contained ithin it, the orld must therefore be incorruptible and indestructibleI for e consider the orld identical ith the universe# 6urther, the hole of nature surveyed through its o n totality, ill be found to derive continuity from the first and most honorable bodies, proportionally attenuating this continuity, introducing it to everything mortal, and receiving the progression of its peculiar subsistenceI for the first $and most honorable( bodies in the universe revolve according to the same and similarly# -he progression of the hole of nature, ho ever, is not successive and continuous, nor yet local, but is subDect to mutation# 7hen condensed, fire generates airI air ater, and ater earth# A return circuit of transformation extends bac! ard from earth to fire, hence it originated# ,o ever fruits, and most rooted plants, originate from seeds# 7hen ho ever they fruit and mature, that are again resolved into seed, nature producing a complete circular progression# In a subordinate manner, men and other animals change the universal boundary of natureI for in these there is no periodical return to the first ageI nor is there a transfusion, such as bet een fire and air, and ater and earthI but the mutations of their ages being accomplished in a four-cycled circle, they are dissolved, and reformed# -hese therefore are the signs and indications that the universe hich comprehends $all things( hich, ill al ays endure and be preserved, but that, its parts, and its nonessential additions are corrupted and dissolved# 6urther, it is credible that the universe, ithout a beginning, and ithout end, from s figure, motion, time and essenceI and there, may be concluded that the orld is begotten and incorruptibleI for its figure is circularI and as a circular figure is similar and e0ual on all sides, it is therefore ithout a beginning or an end# 4ircular is also the motion of the universe, but this motion is stable and ithout transition# -ime, li!e ise, in hich motion exists, infiniteI for neither had this a beginning, nor ill it have an end of its revolution# -he universes essence also does not aste else here, and is immutable, because it is not naturally adapted to charge, either from orse to better, or from better to orse# 6rom all these arguments, therefore, it is obviously credible, that the orld is unbegotten and incorruptible# So much about the orld and the universe#

II 4?/A-IA;

Since, ho ever, in the universe there is a difference bet een generation and the generated, and since generation occurs here there is a mutation and egress from things hich ran! as subDects, then must the cause of generation subsist as long as the generated matter# -he cause of generation must be both efficient and motive, hile the recipient must be passive, and moved# -he 6ates themselves, distinguish and separate the impassive part of the orld from that hich is perpetually in motion# 6or the course of the moon is the meeting-line of generation and immortality# -he region above the moon, as ell as the lunar domain, is the residence of the divinitiesI hile sub-lunar regions are the abode of strife and natureI here is change of the generated things, and regeneration of those that have perished# So that part of the orld, ho ever, in hich nature and generation predominate, it is necessary that the three follo ing things be present# In the first place, the body hich yields to the touch, and hich is the subDect of all generated natures# :ut this ill be an universal recipient, a characteristic of generation itself, having the same relation to the things that are generated from it, as ater to taste, silence to sound, dar!ness to light, and the matter of artificial forms to the forms themselves# 6or ater is tasteless and devoid of 0uality, yet is capable of receiving the s eet and the bitter, the tart and the salt# Air also, hich is formless as regards sound, is the recipient of ords and melody# 3ar!ness, hich is ithout color, and ithout form, becomes the recipient of splendor, and of the yello color, and the hiteI but hite pertains to the statuarys art, and the ax sculptors art# Catters relation, ho ever, is different from the sculptors art, for in matter, prior to generation, all things are in capacity, but they exist in perfection hen they are generated, and receive their proper nature# ,ence matter $or a universal recipient( is necessary to the existence of generation# -he second necessity is the existence of contrarieties, in order to effect mutations and changes in 0uality, matter, for this purpose, receiving passive 0ualities, and an aptitude to MtheN participations of forms# 4ontrariety is also necessary in order that po ers hich are naturally mutually repugnant may not finally con0uer, or van0uish each other# -hese po ers are hot and cold, dryness and moistness# In the third place ran! essences1 and those and fire and ater, air and earth, of hich heat and cold, dryness and moistness, are po ers# :ut essences differ from po ers, essences being locally corrupted or generated, as their reasons or forms are incorporeal# Af those four po ers, ho ever, heat and cold subsist as causes and things of an effective natureI but the dry and the moist ran! as matter and things that are passive, though matter is the first recipient of things, for it is that hich is spread under all things in common# ,ence the body, hose capacity is the obDect of sense, and ran!s as a principle, is the first thing hile contraries, such as heat and cold, moistness and dryness, ran! as primary differencesI but heaviness and lightness, density and rarity, are related as things produced from primary differences# -hese amount to sixteen1 heat an cold, moistness and dryness, heaviness and lightness, rarity and density, smoothness and roughness, hardness and softness, thinness and thic!ness, acuteness and obtuseness# Kno ledge of all of these is had by touch, hich forms a DudgmentI hence also any body hatever hich contains capacity for these can be apprehended by touch# ,eat and dryness, rarity and sharpness are the po ers of fireI coldness and moistness, density and obtuseness are those of aterI those of air are softness, smoothness, light, and the 0uality of being attenuatedI hile those of earth are hardness and roughness, heaviness and thic!ness# Af these four bodies, ho ever fire and earth are the intensities of contraries# 6ire is the intensity of heat, as ice is of coldI and if ice is a concretion of moisture and farigidity, fire ill be the fervor of dryness and heat# -hat is hy neither fire nor ice generate anything#

6ire and earth, therefore, are the extremities of the elements, hile ater and air are the media, for they have a mixed corporeal nature# ;or is it possible that there could be only one of the extremes, a contrary thereto being necessary# ;or could there be t o only, for it is necessary to have a medium, as media oppose extremes# 6ire therefore is hot and dry, but air is hot and moistI ater is moist and cold, and earth cold and dry# ,ence heat is common to air and fireI cold is common to ater and earthI dryness to earth and fire, and moisture to ater and air# :ut ith respect to the peculiarities of each, heat is the peculiarity of fire, dryness of earth, moisture of air, and frigidity of ater# -hese essences remain permanent, through the possession of common propertiesI but they change through such as are peculiar, hen one contrary overcomes another# ,ence, hen the moisture in air overcomes the dryness in fire, or hen aters frigidity overcomes airs heat, and earths dryness aters moistness, and vice versa, then are effected the mutual mutations and generations of the elements# -he body, ho ever, hich is the subDect and recipient of mutations, is a universal receptacle, and is in capacity the first tangible substance# :ut the mutations of the elements are effected either from a change of earth into fire, or from fire into air, or from air into ater, or from ater into earth# Cutations is also effected, in the third place, hen each elements contrariness is corrupted, simultaneously ith the preservation of everything !indred and coeval# Generation therefore is effected hen one contrary 0uality is corrupted# 6or fire, indeed, is hot and dry, but air is hot and moist, and heat is common to bothI but the peculiarity of fire is dryness, and of air, moisture# ,ence hen the moisture in air overcomes the dryness in fire, then fire is changed into air# Again, since ater is moist and cold, but air is moist and hot, moisture is common to both# 7aters peculiarity is coldness, and of air, heat# 7hen therefore the coldness in ater overcomes the heat in air, air is altered into ater# 6urther, earth is cold and dry, and ater cold and moistI coldness being common to both# :ut earths peculiarity is dryness, and aters, moisture# 7hen therefore earths dryness overcomes aters moisture, ater is altered into earth# /arths mutation in the ascending alteration occurs in a contrary ay# Ane alternate mutation is effected hen one hole van0uishes anotherI and t o contrary po ers are corrupted, nothing being common to them, at the same time# 6or since firs is hot and dry, hile ater is cold and moist, hen the moisture in ater overcomes the dryness in fire, and aters coldness, fires heatI then fire is altered into ater# Again, earth is cold and dry, hile air is hot and moist# 7hen therefore earths coldness overcomes airs heat, and earths dryness airs moisture, then air is altered into earth# 7hen airs moisture corrupts fires heat, then from both of them ill be generated fireI for airs heat, and fires dryness ill remain, fire being hot and dry# 7hen earths coldness is corrupted, and also aters moisture, then from both of them ill be generated earth# 6or earths dryness and aters coldness ill be left, as earth is cold and dry# :ut hen airs heat and fires heat are corrupted, no element ill be generatedI for in both of these ill remain contraries, airs moisture and fires dryness# Coisture is ho ever contrary to dryness#

Again, hen earths coldness, and that of ater are corrupted, neither thus ill any generation occurI for earths dryness, and aters moisture ill remain# :ut dryness is contrary to moisture# -hus e have briefly discussed the generation of the first bodies, and ho and from hat subDects it is effected# Since, ho ever, the orld is indestructible and unbegotten, and neither had a beginning or generation, nor an end, it is necessary that the nature hich produces generation in another thing, and also that hich generates in itself, should be simultaneously present# -hat hich produces generation in another thing, is the hole superlunary regionI though the more proximate cause is the sun, ho by its comings and goings continually changes the airI from cold to heat, hich again changes the earth, hich alters all its contents# -he obli0uity of the 5odiac, also, is ell placed in respect to the suns motion, for it li!e ise is the cause of generation# -his is universally accomplished by the universes proper orderI herein some things are active, and others passive# 3ifferent therefore is the generator, hich is superlunary, hile that hich generated is sublunaryI and that hich consists of both of these, namely, an overrunning body, and an ever-mutable generated nature, is the orld itself#

III -,/ ./?./-BI-@ A6 -,/ 7A?"3


Cans generation, did not originate from the earth, other animals, or plantsI but the orlds proper order being perpetual, its contained, aptly arranged natures should share ith it never-failing subsistence# As primarily the orld existed al ays, its parts must coexist ith itI and by these I mean the heavens, the earth, and hat is contained bet een themI hich is on high, and is called aerialI for the orld does not exist ithout, but ith and from these# As the orlds parts are con subsistent, their comprehended natures must coexist ith themI ith the heavens, indeed, the sun, moon, fixed stars and planetsI ith the earth, animals and plants, gold and silverI ith the aerial region, spiritual substances and ind, heating and coolingI for it is the property of the heavens to subsist in conDunction ith the natures hich it comprehends, and of the earth to support its native plants and animalsI of the aerial regions, to be consubsistent ith the natures it has generated# Since the therefore in each division of the orld there is arranged a certain genus of animals hich surpasses its fello s, the heavens are the habitat of the gods, on the earth men, and in the space bet een, the geniuses# -herefore the race of men must be perpetual, since reason convinces us that not only are the orlds parts consubsitent ith it, but also their comprehended natures# Sudden destructions, and mutations ho ever ta!e place in the parts of the earthI the sea overflo s on to the land, or the earth sha!es and spits, through the unobserved entrance of ind or ater# :ut an entire destruction of the earths hole arrangement never too! place, nor ever ill# ,ence the story that Grecian history began ith the Argive Inachus is false, if understood to be a first principle, but true, as some mutations of Gree! politicsI for Greece has fre0uently been, and ill again be barbarous, not only from the irruption of foreigners, but from ;ature herself, hich, although she does not become greater or lessI yet is al ays younger, and has a beginning in reference to us# So much about the hole, and the universeI the generation and corruption of natures generated in itI ho they subsist, and for everI one part of the universe consisting of a nature hich is perpetually moved, and another passive oneI the former governing, the latter ever governed#

I< G?A7-, A6 C/;


"a , temperance and piety conspire in explaining as follo s the generation of men from each other, after hat manner, from hat particulars, and ho effected# -he first postulate is that sexual association should occur never for pleasure but only for procreation of children# -hose po ers and instruments, and appetites ministering to copulation ere implanted in man by divinity, not for the sa!e of voluptuousness, but for the perpetuation of the race# Since it as impossible that man, ho is born mortal, should participate in a divine life ere his race not immortal, divinity operated this immortality through individuals, and lent continuousness to man!inds generation# -his is the first essential, that cohabitation should not be effected for mere pleasure# ;ext, man should be considered in connection ith the social organism, a house or city, and especially that each human progeny should or! at the completion of the orld, unless he plans to be a deserter of either the domestic, political or divine <estal hearth# 6or those ho are not entirely connected ith each other for the sa!e of begetting children, inDure the most honorable system of convention# :ut if persons of this description procreate ith libidinous insolence and intemperance, their offspring ill be miserable and flagitious, and ill be execrated by God and geniuses, by men, families and cities# -hose therefore ho deliberately consider these things ought not, in a ay similar to irrational animals, to engage in venereal connections, but should thin! copulation a necessary good# 6or it is the opinion of orthy men that it is necessary and beautiful, not only to fill houses ith large families, and also the greater part of the earth $for man is the most mild and the best of all animals(, but as a thing of the greatest conse0uence, to cause them to abound ith the most excellent men# 6or on this account men inhabit cities governed by the best la s, rightly manage their domestic affairs and if they are able, impart to their friends such political employments as are conformable to the polities in hich they live, since they not only provide for the multitude at large, but especially for orthy men# ,ence many men err ho enter into connubial state ithout regarding the magnitude off the po er of fortune, or public utility, but direct their attention to ealth, or dignity of birth# 6or in conse0uence of this, instead of uniting ith females ho are young and in the flo er of their age, they become connected ith extremely old omenI and instead of having ives ith a disposition according ith, and most similar to their o n, they marry those ho are of an illustrious family, or are extremely rich# An this account, they procure for themselves discord instead of concordI and instead of unanimity, dissensionI contending ith each other for the mastery# 6or the ife ho surpasses her husband in ealth, in birth, or in friends, is desirous of ruling over him, contrary to the la of nature# :ut the husband Dustly resisting this desire of superiority in his ife, and ishing not to be the second, but the first in domestic s ay, is unable, in the management of his family, to ta!e the lead# -his being, the case, it happens that not only families, but cities become miserable# 6or families are parts of cities, hile the composition of the hole and the universe derives its subsistence from its parts# It is therefore, reasonable to admit that such as are the parts, such li!e ise ill be the hole and the all hich consists of things of this !ind# As in fabrics of a primary nature the first structures operate greatly to the good or bad completion of the hole or!I as for instance the manner in

hich the foundation is laid in a house-building, the structure of a !eel in ship-building, and the utterance and closing of voice in musical modulation, so the concordant condition of families greatly contributes to the ell or ill establishment of a polity# -hose therefore ho direct their attention to the propagation of the human species, ought guard against everything hich is dissimilar and imperfectI for neither plants nor animals hen imperfect are prolific, but their fructification demands a certain amount of time, so that hen the bodies are strong and perfect, they may produce seeds and fruits# ,ence it is necessary that boys and girls hile they are virgin should be trained up in exercising and proper endurance, and that they be nourished ith that !ind of food hich is adapted to a laborious, temperate, and patient life# Coreover, in human life there are many things of such a !ind that it is better for the !no ledge of them to be deferred, for a certain time# ,ence a boy should be so tutored as not to see! after venereal pleasure before he is t enty years of age, and then should rarely engage in them# -his ho ever ill ta!e place if he conceives that a good habit of body and continence are beautiful and honorable# -he follo ing la s should be taught in Grecian cities1 that connection ith a mother, or a daughter, or a sister, should not be permitted either in temples or in a public placeI for it ould be ell to employ numerous impediments to this energy# All natural connexions, should be prevented, especially those attended ith anton insolence# :ut such as harmoni5e ith nature should be encouraged, such as are effected ith temperance for the purpose of producing a temperate and legitimate offspring# Again, those ho intend to beget children should providentially attend to the elfare of their future offspring# A temperate and salutary diet therefore is the first and greatest thing to be considered by the ould be begetterI so that he should neither be filled ith unseasonable food, nor become intoxicated, nor subDect himself to any other perturbation hich may inDure the body -habits# :ut above all things he should be careful that the mind in the act of copulation should remain in a tran0uil state, for bad seed is produced from depraved, discordant and turbulent habits# 7ith all possible earnestness and attention, e should endeavor that children be born elegant and graceful, and that hen born, they should be ell educated# 6or it is foolish that those ho rear horses, birds or dog should, ith the utmost diligence render the breed perfect, and from proper food, and hen it is properI and li!e ise consider ho they ought to be disposed hen they copulate ith each other, that the offspring be not the result of chanceI hile men are inattentive to their progeny, begetting them by chanceI and hen begotten, should neglect both their food and education# It is the disregard of these that causes all the vice and depravity, since those born thus ill resemble cattle, ignoble and vile#

A; "A7S $6ragment preserved by Stobaeus, /#.h#'1%&(


As life contains bodies, hose cause is the soul, so harmony, connectedly, comprehends the orld, hose cause is God# "i!e ise concord unites families, hose cause is the la # -herefore there is a certain cause and nature hich perpetually adapts to each other the parts of the orld, hindering their being disordered and unconnected# ,o ever, cities and families continue only for a short timeI as the formerRs constituent matter, and the latterRs progeny contain the cause of dissolution, deriv-

ing their subsistence from a mutable and perpetually passive nature# 6or the destruction of things hich are generated is the salvation of the matter from hich they are generated# -hat nature, ho ever, hich is perpetually moved governsI hile that hich is al ays passive is governedI the capacity of the former being prior, and of the latter posterior# -he former is divine, possessing reason and intellect, the latter being generated, irrational and mutable#

A; 6/"I4I-@
Af animals, some are capable of felicity, hile others are incapable# 6elicity cannot subsist ithout virtueI and, this is impossible to any lac!ing reasonI so that those animals are incapable of felicity ho are destitute of reason# -he blind cannot exercise or practise sight, nor can the irrational attain to the or! and virtue dependent on reason# -o that hich possesses reason, felicity is a or!, and virtue an art# Af rational animals, some are self-perfect, in need of nothing external, either for their existence, or artistic achievement# Such indeed is God# An the contrary those animals are not selfperfect hose perfection is not due to themselves, or ho are in need of anything external# Such an animalI is man# Af not self-perfect animals some are perfect, and others not# -he former derive their subsistence from both their o n proper causes, and from the external# -hey derive it indeed from their o n causes, because they obtain from thence both an excellent natureI and deliberate choiceI but from external causes, because they receive from thence e0uitable legislation, and good rulers# -he animals hich are not perfect are either such as participate of neither of these, or of some one of those, or hose souls are entirely depraved# Such ill be the man ho is of a description different from the above# Coreover, of perfect men there are t o !inds# Some of them are naturally perfect, hile others are perfect only in relation to their lives# Anly the good are naturally perfect, and these possess virtue# 6or the virtue of the MofN anything is a consummation and perfection# -hus the virtue of the eye is the eyes natures M--N consummation and perfection# So mans virtue is mans natures consummation and perfection# -hose also are perfect according to life, ho are not only good, but happy# 6or indeed felicity is the perfection of human life# :ut human life is a system of actionsI and felicity completes actions# <irtue and fortune, also complete lifeI $but only partiallyI virtue according to useI and good fortune according to prosperity# God, therefore, is neither good through learning virtue f rom anyone, nor is he happy through being attended by good fortune# 6or he is good and happy by nature, and al ays as, is and never ill cease to beI since he is incorruptible, and naturally good# :ut man is neither happy nor good by nature, re0uiring discipline and providential care# -o become good, he re0uires virtueI but to become happy, good fortune# An this account, human felicity may be summarily said to consist of these t o things1 praise, and being called happy# .raise indeed, because of virtueI but being called happy, from prosperity# -herefore it possesses virtue, through divine destinyI but prosperity through a mortal allotment# :ut mortal concerns depend on divine ones, and terrestrial on celestial# "i!e ise, subordinate things depend on the more excellent# -hat is hy the good man ho follo s the Gods is happy, but he ho follo s mortal nature is unhappy# 6or to him ho possesses isdom, prosperity is good and usefulI being good, through his !no ledge of the use of itI but it is useful through his cooperating ith actions# It is beautiful, therefore hen prosperity is present ith intellect, and hen, as it e ere sailing ith a prosperous ind, action are performed that tend to ards virtueI Dust as a pilot atches the motions of the stars# -hus he ho does this ill not only follo God, but ill also harmoni5e human ith divine good# -his also is evident, that human life becomes different from disposition and action# :ut it is necessary that the disposition should be either orthy or depravedI and that action should be attended ith either felicity or misery# A orthy disposition indeed participates of virtue, hile a bad one of

vice# 7ith respect to actions, also, those that are prosperous are attended ith felicityI $for they derive their completion by loo!ing to reasonI( but those that are unfortunate, are attended ith miseryI for they are disappointed of their end# ,ence it is not only necessary to learn virtue, but also to possess and use itI either for security, or gro thI $of property, hen it is too small(, or, hich is the greatest thing of all, for the improvement of families and cities# 6or it is not only necessary to have the possession of things beautiful, but also their use# All these things, ho ever, ill ta!e place, hen a man lives in a city that enDoys e0uitable la s# -his is hat is signified by the horn of AmaltheaI for all things are contained in e0uitable legislation# 7ithout this, the greatest good of human nature can neither be effected, nor, hen effected, can be increased and become permanent# 6or this contains both virtue and tendency to ards itI because excellent natures are generated according to it# "i!e ise manners, studies and la s through this subsist in the most excellent conditionI and besides these, rightly-decided reason, and piety and sanctity to ards the most honorable natures# -herefore he ho is to be happy, and hose life is to be prosperous, should live and M or!N in a country governed by e0uitable la s, relin0uishing all la lessness# All the above is necessary for man is a part of society, and according to the same reasoning ill become entirely MimNperfect, if he associates ith others, but not in a becoming manner# 6or some things are naturally adapted to subsist in many things, and not in one thingI others in one thing and not in manyI others both in many and in one, and on this account in one thing because in many# 6or indeed harmony, symphony and number are naturally adapted to be insinuated into many things# ;othing hich ma!es a hole from these parts is sufficient in itself# :ut acuteness of seeing and hearing, and s iftness of feet, subsist in one thing alone# 6elicity, ho ever, and virtue of soul, subsist both in one thing and many, in a hole, and in the universe# An this account they subsist in one thing, because they also subsist in manyI and they subsist in many because, they inhere in the hole and the universe# 6or the orderly distribution of the hole nature of things methodically arranges each particular# -he orderly distribution of particulars gives completion to the hole of things, and to the universe# :ut this follo s from the hole being naturally prior to the part, and not the part to the hole# 6or if the orld as not, neither the sun nor the moon ould exist, not the planets, nor the fixed stars# :ut the orld existing, each of these also exists# -he truth of this may also be seen in the nature itself of animals# 6or if the animal had no existence, there ould be neither eye, mouth, or ear# :ut the animal existing, each of these li!e ise exists# ,o ever, as the hole is to the part, so is the virtue of the hole to that of the part# 6or if harmony did not exist, nor a divine inspection of human affairs, adorned things could no longer remain in good condition# 7ere there no e0uitable legislation in a city, the citi5en could be neither good nor happy# 3id the animal lac! health, neither foot nor hand could be in health# -he orlds virtue is harmonyI the citys virtue is e0uitable legislation, and the bodyRs virtue are health and strength# "i!e ise, each of the parts is adDusted to the hole and the universe# 6or the eye sees on account of the hole bodyI and the other parts and members are adDusted for the sa!e of the hole $body( and the universe#

A; A ?/.B:"I4
I say that the hole of a polity is divided into three partsI the good men ho manage the public affairs, those ho are po erful, and those ho are employed in supplying and procuring the necessaries of life# -he first group is that of the counselors, the auxiliaries, and the mechanical and sordid arts# -he first t o groups belong to the liberal condition of lifeI the third, of those ho labor to procure subsistence# Af these the council is best, the laborers, the orstI and the auxiliaries, a medium bet een the t o# -he council should govern, and the laborers should be governedI and the auxiliaries should both govern and be governed# 6or that hich consults for the general good previously de-

liberates hat ought to be doneI hile that hich is of an auxiliary nature, so far as it is belligerent, rules over the hole mechanical tribeI but it is itself governed in so far as it has previously received advice from others# Af these parts, ho ever, each again receives a triple division# 6or of that hich consults, one part presides, another governs, and another counsels for the general good# 7ith respect to the presiding part, is that hich plans, contrives, and deliberates about hat pertains to the community, prior to the other parts, and after ards refers its counsels to the senate# :ut the governing part is either that hich no rules $for the first time(, or hich has before performed that office# 7ith respect to the third part, hich consults for the general good, this receives the advice of the earlier parts, and by its suffrages and authority confirms hatever it MreferredN to its decisions# In short, those ho provide should refer the communitys affairs to that part hich consults for the general goodI hile the latter part should refer these affairs through the presiding officers to the convention# "i!e ise, of that part hich is auxiliary, po erful and efficacious, one part is of a governing natureI another part is defensive, and the remaining, and greater part, is private and military# It is the governing part, therefore, from hich the leaders of the armies, the officers of the bands, the bands of soldiers, and the vanguard are derivedI and universally all those ho ran! as leaders# -he vanguard consists of the bravest, the most impetuous, and the most daring, the remaining military multitude being gregarious# Af the third part engaged in sordid occupations, and in laboring to procure the necessaries of life, one part consists of husbandmen, and those employed in the cultivation of landI another are artisans, ma!ing such instruments and machines as are re0uired by the occasions of life, and another part travels and bargains, exporting to foreign regions such things as are superabundant in the city, and importing into it other things from foreign countries# -he systems of political society are organi5ed in many such parts# ;ext e must study their adaptation and union# Since, ho ever, the hole of political society may be ell compared to a lyre, as it re0uires apparatus and mutual adDustment, and also because it must be touched and used musicallyI O this is enough# .olitical society is organi5ed by disciplines, the study of customs, and la sI through these three, man is educated, and improved# 3isciplines are the source of erudition, and lead the desires to tend to ards virtue# -he la s, both repelling men from the commissions of crimes, and alluring them by honors and gifts incite them $to virtue(# Canners and studies fashion the soul li!e ax, and through their continued energy impress thereon propensities that become second nature# -hese three should ho ever cooperate ith the beautiful, the useful and the DustI each of these three should if possible aim at all these threeI but if not all of them, it should at least have t o or one of than as its goal, so that disciplines, manners and la s may be beautiful, Dust and advantageous# In the first place, the beautiful in conduct should be preferredI in the second place the Dust, and in the third place the useful# Bniversally the endeavor should be that through these the city may become, in the most eminent degree, consentaneous and concordant ith its parts, and may be free from sedition and hostile contention# -his ill happen if the passions in the youths souls are disciplined, and in things pleasing and painful are led to mediocrity, and if the possessions of men are moderate, and they derive their subsistence from the cultivation of the earth# -his ill also be accomplished, if good men rule over those that are in ant of virtueI s!illful men over those that are anting in s!ill, and rich men over those things that re0uire a certain amount of generosity and expenditureI and if also appropriate honors are distributed to those ho govern in all these in a becoming manner# :ut there are three causes hich are incitements to virtue,O fear desire and shame# "a can produce fear, but custom shameI for those that are accustomed to act ell ill be ashamed to do anything that is base# 3esire is produced by disciplinesI for they simultaneously assign the causes of things and attract the soul, and especially so hen accompanied by exhortation# ,ence the souls of young men should be suffi-

ciently instructed in hat pertains to senates, fello ship and associations, both military and political, but that the tribe of elderly men should be trained to things of this !indI since young men indeed re0uire correction and instruction, but elderly men need benevolent associations, and a mode of living unattended by pain# Since therefore e have said that the orthy man is perfected through three things, customs, la s and disciplines, e must consider ho customs or manners are corrupted usually, and ho they gro permanent# 7e shall then find that customs are corrupted in t o aysI through ourselves, or foreigners# -hrough ourselves indeed, through our flying from pain, hereby e fail to endure laborI or through pursuit of pleasureI hereby e reDect the good, for labors procure good, and pleasures evil# ,ence through pleasures, becoming incontent and remiss, men are rendered effeminate in their souls, and more prodigal# 4ustoms and manners are corrupted through foreigners hen their numbers s amp the natives, and best of the success of their mercantile employmentsI or hen those ho d ell in the suburbs, becoming lovers of pleasures and luxury, their manners spread to the single neighbors# -herefore the legislators, officers and mass of the people should diligently ta!e notice hether the customs of the city are being carefully preserved, and that throughout the hole people# Coreover they should see to the preserving pure of the home race, avoiding crossing ith other nations, and hether the general ealths total remains the same, ithout undue increase# 6or the possession of superfluities is accompanied by the desire of still more of the superfluous# In such ays the customs should be preserved# 7ith respect to disciplines, ho ever, the same legislators and officers, should diligently inspect and examine the sophists, hether they are teaching hat is useful to the la s, to the established political principles, and to the local economy of life# 6or sophistic doctrines may infect men ith no passing, but greatest infelicityI hen they dare ma!e innovations in anything pertaining to human or divine affairs, contrary to the popular vie sI than hich nothing can be more pernicious either ith respect to truth, security or reno n# In addition to this, they introduce into the minds of the general people obscurity and confusion# Af this !ind are all doctrines that teach either that there is no God, or if there is, that he is not affected to ards the human race so as to regard it ith providential care, but despises and deserts it# In men such doctrines produce folly and inDustice, to a degree that is inexpressible# Any anarchist ho has dismissed fear of disobedience to the la s, violates them ith anton boasts# ,ence the necessity of political and traditionally venerable principlesI adapted to the spea!ers disposition, free from dissimulation# -hus hat is said exhibits the spea!erss manners# -he la s ill inevitably introduce security if the polity is organi5ed on lines of natural la s, and not on the unnatural# 6rom a tyranny cities derive no advantage, and very little from an oligarchy# -he first need, therefore, is a !ingdom, and the second is and aristocracy# 6or a !ingdom, indeed, is as it ere an image of God, and hich is ith difficulty preserved and defended by the human soul# 6or it rapidly degenerates through luxury and insolence# ,ence it is not proper to employ it universally, but only so far as i tmay be useful to the stateI and an aristocracy should be liberally mingled ith it, as this consists of many rulers, ho emulate each other, and often govern alternately# -here must ho ever also be democratic elementsI for as the citi5en is part of the hole state, he, also should receive a re ard from it# @et he must be sufficiently restrained, for the common people are bold and rash# :y a necessity of nature, everything mortal is subDect to changesI some improving, others gro ing orse# -hings born, increase until they arrive at their consummation, hereafter they age and perish# -hings that gro of themselves, by the same nature decay into the hidden beyondI and then return to mortality through transformation of gro thI then by repeated decay, retrograde in another circle# Sometimes, hen houses or cities have attained the pea! of supreme happiness in exuberant ealth, they have, through an ebullition of insolent self-satisfaction, through human folly, perished together ith their vaunted possessions#

-hus every human empire has sho n three distinct stages1 gro th, fruition, and destruction# 6or in the beginning, being destitute of goods, empires are engrossed in ac0uisitionI but after they become ealthy, they perish# Such things, therefore, are under the dominion of the gods, being incorruptible, are preserved through the hole of time, by incorruptible naturesI but such things as are under the government of men, being mortalI from mortals receive perpetual disturbance# -he end of selfsatisfaction and insolence is destructionI but poverty and narro circumstances often result in a strenuous and orthy life# ;ot poverty alone, but many other things, bring human life to an end#

A; SA;4-I-@
It is necessary that the la s should not be enclosed in houses, or by gates, but in the manners of the citi5ens# 7hich, therefore is the basic principle of any stateK -he education of the youth# 6or vines ill never bear useful fruit, unless they are ell cultivatedI nor ill horses ever excel, unless the colts are properly trained# ?ecently ripened fruit gro s similar to its surroundings# 7ith utmost prudence do men study ho to prune and tend the vinesI but to things pertaining to the education of their species the behave rashly and negligentlyI though neither ines nor ine govern men, but man and the soul of man# -he nurture of a plant, indeed, e commit to an expert, ho is supposed to deserve no less than t o minae $a day(I but the education of youth e commit to some Illyrian or -hracian, ho is orthless# As the earliest legislators could not render the bourgeoisie stable, they prescribed $in the curriculum( dancing and rhythm, hich instills motion and orderI and besides these they added sports, some of hich induced fello ship, but others truth and mental !eenness# 6or those ho thought that intoxication or gu55ling had committed any crime, the prescribed the pipe of harmony, hich by maturing and refining the manners so-shaped the mind that it became capable of culture# It is ell to invo!e God at the beginning and end both of supper and dinner, not because he is in ant of anything of the !ind, but in order that the soul may be transfigured by the recollection of divinity# 6or since e proceed from him, and participate in a divine nature, e should honor him# Since also God is Dust, e also should act Dustly in all things# In the next place, there are four causes hich terminate all thingsI and bring them to an endI namely nature, la , art and fortune# ;ature is admittedly the principle of all things# "a is the inspective guardian and creator of all things that change manners into political concord# Art is Dustly said to be the mother and guide of things consummated through human prudence# :ut of things hich accidentally happen to the orthy and un orthy, the cause is ascribed to fortune, hich does not produce anything orderly, moderate, or controlled#

4A;4/?;I;G A KI;G3AC
A !ing should be one ho is most DustI and he ill be most Dust ho most closely attends to the la s# 7ithout Dustice it is impossible to a !ingI and ithout la there can be no Dustice# 6or Dustice is such only through la , Dustices effective cause# A !ing is either animated la , or a legal ruler, hence he ill be Dust, and observant of the la s# -here are ho ever three peculiar employments of a !ing1 leading an army, administering Dustice, and orshipping the Gods# ,e ill be able to lead an army properly only if he !no s ho to carry on ar properly# ,e ill be s!illed in administering Dustice and in governing all his subDects only if he has ell learned the nature of Dustice and la # ,e ill orship the gods in a pious and holy manner only if he has diligently considered the nurture and virtue of God##### a good !ing must necessarily be a good general, Dudge and priestI hich things are inseparable from the goodness and virtue of a !ing# It is the pilots business to preserve the shipI the charioteer to preserve the chariotI and the physicians to save the sic!, but it is a !ings or a generals business to save those ho are in danger in battle# 6or a leader must also be a provident in-

spector, and preserver# 7hile Dudicial affairs are in general every bodys interest, this is the special or! of the !ingI ho, li!e a god, is a orld-leader and protector# 7hile the hole state should be generally organi5ed in a unitary manner, under unitary leadership, individual parts should be submissive to the supreme domination# :esides though the !ing should oblige and benefit his subDects, this should not be in contempt of Dustice and la # -he third characteristic of a !ings dignity is the orship of the Gods# -he most excellent should be orshipped by the most excellentI and the leader and ruler by that hich leads and rules# Af naturally most honorable things, God is the bestI but of things on the earth, and human, a !ing is the supreme# As God is to the orld, so is a !ing to his !ingdomI and as a city is to the orld, so is a !ing to God# 6or a city, indeed, being organi5ed from things many and various, imitates the organi5ation of the orldI and its harmonyI but a !ing hose rule is beneficent, and ho himself is animated la , to men outlines the divinity# It is hence necessary that a !ing should not be overcome by pleasure, but that he should overcome itI that he should not resemble, but excel the multitudeI and that he should not conceive his proper employment to consist in the pursuit of pleasure, but rather in the achievement of character# "i!eise he ho rules others should be able first to govern his o n passions# As to the desire of obtaining great property, it must be observed that a !ing ought to be ealthy so as to benefit his friends, relieve those in ant, and Dustly punish his enemies# Cost delightful is the enDoyment of ealth in conDunction ith virtue# So also about the preeminence of a !ingI for since he al ays surpasses others in virtue, a Dudgment of his empire might be formed ith reference to virtueI and not to riches, po er, or military strength# ?iches he possesses in common ith any one of his subDectsI po er, in common ith animals, and military strength in common ith tyrants# :ut virtue is the prerogative of good menI hence, hatever !ing is temperate ith respect to pleasures, liberal ith respect to money, and prudent and sagacious in government, he ill in reality be a !ing# -he people, ho ever, have the same analogy ith respect to the virtues and the vices, as the parts of the human soul# 6or the desire to accumulate the superfluous continues ith the irrational part of the soulI for desire is not rational# :ut ambition and ferocity cling to the irascible partI for this is the furious part of the soul# -he love of pleasure clings to the passionate part, hich is effeminate and yielding# InDustice, ho ever, hich is the supreme vice, is composite and clings to the hole soul# -he !ing should organi5e the ell-legislated city li!e a lyreI first ith himself establishing the Dust boundary and order of "a I !no ing that the peoples proper arrangement should be organi5ed according to this interior boundary, the divinity having given him dominion over them# -he good !ing should also establish proper positions and habits in the delivery of public orations, behaving in a cultured manner, seriously and earnestly, lest he seem either rough or abDect to the multitudeI but sho agreeable and easy manners# -hese things he ill obtain if in the first place his aspect and discourse be orthy of respect, and if appears to deserve the sovereign authority hich he possesses# :ut in the second place, if he proves himself to be benign in behavior to those he may meet, in countenance and beneficence# In the third place, if his hatred of depravity is formidable, by the punishment he inflicts thereon, from his 0uic!ness in inflicting it, and in short from his s!ill and exercise in the art of government# 6or venerable gravity being something hich imitates divinity, is capable of inning for him the admiration and honor of the multitude# :enignity ill render him pleasing and beloved# ,is formidableness ill frighten his enemies, and save him from being con0ueredI and ma!e him magnanimous and confident to his friends# ,is gravity, ho ever, should have no abDect or vulgar elementI it should be admirable, and orthy of the dignity of rule and sceptre# ,e should never contend ith his inferiors or e0uals, but ith those that are greater than himselfI and, conformably to the magnitude of his empire, he should count those pleasures greatest hich are derived from beautiful and great deeds and not those hich arise from sensual gratificationsI separating himself indeed from human passions and approximating the Gods, not through arrogance, but through magnanimity and the invincible preeminence of virtue# ,ence he should invest his aspect and reasonings ith such a gracefulness and maDesty, and also in his mental conceptions and soul-

manners, in his actions, and body motions and gestures, that those ho observe him may perceive that he is adorned and fashioned ith modesty and temperance, and a dignified disposition# A good !ing should be able to charm those ho behold him, no less than the sound of a flute and harmony attract those that hear them# /nough about the venerable gravity of a !ing# I must no mention his benignity# Generally, any !ing ho is Dust, e0uitable and beneficent ill be benign# Eustice is a connective and collective communion, and is that disposition of the soul hich adapts itself to those near us# As rhythm is to motion, and harmony to the voice, so is Dustice to diplomacyI since it is the governors and the governedsR common good, harmoni5ing political society# :ut Dustice has t o fello administrators, e0uity and benignityI the former softening severity of punishment, the latter extending pardon to the less guilty offenders# A good !ing must extend assistance to those in need of itI and be beneficentI and this assistance should be given not in one ay only, but in every possible manner# :esides, this beneficence should not be $hypocritical(, regarding the honor to be derived therefrom, but come from the deliberate choice of the giver# -o ards all men a !ing should conduct himself so as to avoid being troublesome to them, especially to men of inferior ran!, and of slender fortuneI for these, li!e diseased bodies, can endure nothing of a troublesome nature# Good !ings, indeed, have dispositions similar to the Gods, especially resembling Eupiter, the universal ruler, ho is venerable and honorable through the magnanimous preeminence of virtue# ,e is benign, because he is beneficent, and the giver of goodI hence by the Ionic poet $,omer( he is said to be father of men and gods# ,e is also eminently terrible, punishing the unDust, reigning and ruling over all things# In his hand he carries thunder, as a symbol of his formidable excellence# All these particulars remind us that a !ingdom is something resembling the divine#

-,/AG/S A; -,/ <I?-B/S


-he soul is divided into reasoning po er, anger and desire# ?easoning po er rules !no ledge, anger deals ith impulse, and desire bravely rules the souls affections# 7hen these three parts unite into one action, exhibiting a composite energy, then in the soul results concord and virtue# 7hen sedition divides them, then appear discord and vice# <irtue therefore contains three elementsI reason, po er, and deliberate choice# -he souls reasoning po ers virtue is prudence, hich is a habit of contemplating and Dudging# -he irascible parts virtue is fortitudeI hich is a habit of enduring dreadful things, and resisting them# -he appetitive parts virtue is temperanceI hich is a moderation and detention of the pleasures hich arise from the body# -he hole souls virtue is DusticeI for men indeed become bad either through vice, or through incontinence, or through a natural ferocity# -hey inDure each other either through gain, pleasure or ambition# Core appropriately therefore does vice belong to the souls reasoning part# 7hile prudence is similar to good art, vice resembles bad art, inventing contrivances to act unDustly# Incontinence pertains to the souls appetitive part, as continence consists in subduing, and incontinence in failure to subdue pleasures# 6erocity belongs to the souls irascible part, for hen some ennactivated by evil desires is gratified not as a man should be, but as a beast ould be, then this is called ferocity# -he effects of these dispositions also result from the things for the sa!e of hich they are performed# <ice, hailing from the souls reasoning part results in avariceI the irascible parts fault is ambition, hich results in ferocityI and as the appetitive part ends in pleasure, this generates incontinence# As unDust actions are the results of so many causes, so also are Dust deedsI for virtue is a naturally beneficent and profitable as vice is maleficent and harmful# Since, ho ever, of the parts of the soul one leads hile the others follo , and since the virtues and vice subsist about these and in these, it is evident that ith respect to the virtues also, some are leaders and others follo ers, hile others are compounds of these# -he leaders are such as prudenceI the

follo ers being fortitude and temperanceI their composites are such as Dustice# ,o the virtues subsist in and about the passions, so e may call the latter the matter of the former# Af the passions, one is voluntary, and the others involuntaryI pleasure being the voluntary, and pain the involuntary# Cen ho have the political virtues increase and decrease these, organi5ing the other parts of the soul to that hich possesses reason# -he desirable point of this adaptation is that intellect should not be prevented from accomplishing its proper or!, either by lac! of excess# 7e adapt the less good to that hich is more soI as in the orld every part that is al ays passive subsists for the sa!e of that hich is al ays moved# In the conDunction of animals, the female subsists for the sa!e of the maleI for the latter so s, generating a soul, hile the former alone imparts matter to that hich is generated# In the soul, the irrational subsists for the sa!e of the rational part# Anger and desire are organi5ed in dependence on the first part of the soul, the former as a satellite and guardian of the body, the latter as a dispenser and provider of necessary ants# Intellect being established in the highest summit of the body, and having a prospect in that hich is on all sides splendid and transparent, investigates the isdom of real beings# -his indeed is its natural function, to investigate and obtain possession of the truth, and to follo those beings hich are more excellent and honorable than itself# 6or the !no ledge of things divine and most honorable is the principle, cause and rule of human blessedness# -he principles of all virtue are threeI !no ledge, po er and deliberate choice# Kno ledge indeed is that by hich e contemplate and form a Dudgment of thingsI po er is a certain strength of nature from hich e derive our subsistence, and hich gives stability to our actionsI and deliberate choice is as it ere the hands of the soul by hich e are impelled to, and lay hold on the obDects of our choice###7hen the reasoning po er prevails over the irrational part of the soul, then endurance and continence are producedI endurance indeed in the retention of pains, but continence in the absence of pleasures# :ut hen the irrational parts of the soul prevail over the reasoning part of the soul, then are produced effeminacy in flying from pain, and incontinence in being van0uished by the pleasures# 7hen ho ever the better part of the soul prevails, the less excellent part is governedI the former leads, and the latter follo s, and both consent and agree, and then in the hole soul is generated virtue and all the goods# Again, hen the appetitive part of the soul follo s the reasoning, then is produced temperance, hen this is the case ith the irascible, appears fortitudeI and hen it ta!es place in all the parts of the soul, then the result is Dustice# Eustice is that hich separates all the vices and all the virtues of the soul from each other# Eustice is an established order and organi5ation of the parts of the soul, and the perfect and supreme virtueI in this every good is contained, hile the other goods of the soul cannot subsist ithout it# ,ence Dustice possesses great influence both among gods and men# It contains the bond by hich the hole and the universe are held together, and also that by hich the gods and men are connected# Among the celestials it is called -hemis, and among the terrestrials it is called 3iceI hile among men it is called the "a # -hese are but symbols indicative that Dustice is the supreme virtue# <irtue, therefore, hen it consists in contemplating and Dudging, is called prudenceI hen in sustaining dreadful things, is called fortitudeI hen in restraining pleasure, it is called temperanceI and hen in abstaining from inDuring our neighbors, Dustice# Abedience to virtue according to, and transgression thereof contrary to right reason, tend to ards decorousness, and its opposite# .ropriety is that hich ought to be# -his re0uires neither addition or detraction, being hat it should be# -he improper is of t o !inds1 excess and defect# -he excess is over -scrupulousness, and its deficiency, laxity# <irtue ho ever is a habit of propriety# ,ence it is both a climax and a medium of hich are proper things# -hey are media because they fall bet een excess and deficiencyI they are climaxes, because they endure neither increase nor decrease, being Dust hat they ought to be#

Since ho ever the virtue of manners consists in dealing ith the passions, over hich pleasure and pain are supreme, virtue evidently does not consist in extirpating the passions of the soul, pleasure and pain, but in regulating them# ;ot any more does health, hich is an adDustment of the bodily po ers, consist in expelling the cold and the hot, the moist and the dry, but in adDusting them suitably and symmetrically# "i!e ise in music, concord does not consist in expelling the sharp and the flat, but in exterminating dissonance by concord arising from their adDustment# -herefore it is the harmonious adDustment of heat and cold, moisture and dryness hich produces health, and destroys disease# -hus by the mutual adDustment of anger and desire, the vices and other passions are extirpated, hile virtue and good manners are induced# ,o the greatest peculiarity of the virtue of manners in beauty of conduct is deliberate choice# ?eason and po er may be used ithout virtue, but deliberate choice cannot be used ithout itI for deliberate choice inspires dignity of manners# 7hen the reasoning po er by force subdues anger and desire, it produces continence and endurance# Again hen the reasoning force is dethroned violently by the irrational parts, then result incontinence and effeminacy# Such dispositions of the soul as these are half-perfect virtues and vices# 6or $according to its nature( the reasoning po er of the soul induces health, hile the irrational induces disease# So far as anger and desire are governed and led by the souls rational part, continence and endurance become virtuesI but in so far as this is effected by violence, involuntarily, they become vices# 6or virtue must carry out hat is proper not ith pain but pleasure# So far as anger and desire rule the reasoning po er there is produced effeminacy and incontinence, hich are vicesI but in so far as they gratify the passions ith pain, !no ing that they are erroneous in conse0uence of the eye of the soul being healthy, so far as this is the case, they are not vices# ,ence it is evident that virtue must voluntarily do hat is proper, as the involuntary implies pain and fear, hile the voluntary implies pleasure and delight# -his may be corroborated by division# Kno ledge and the perception of things are the province of the rational part of the soulI hile po er pertained to the irrational part, hose peculiarity is in an ability to resist pain, or to van0uish pleasure# :oth of these, the rational and the irrational, subsists deliberate choice, hich consists of intention and appetite, intention pertaining to the rational part, and appetite to the irrational# ,ence every virtue consists in a mutual adaptation of the souls parts hile, both ill and deliberate choice subsist entirely in virtue# In general, therefore, virtue is a mutual MadaptationN of the irrational part of the soul to the irrational to the irrational# <irtue, ho ever, is produced through pleasure and pain stri!ing the right resultance of propriety# :ut propriety is that hich ought to be, and the improper, hat ought notI####### -he fit and the unfit are to each other as the e0ual and the une0ual, as the ordered and the disorderedI of, hich the t o former are finite, and the t o latter are the infinite $limit and infinity are the t o great principles of things, belo the universal ineffable cause(# An this account the parts of the une0ual are referred to the middle, but not to each other# An angle greater than a right angle is called obtuseI the acute one being less than it# $In a circle( also, the right line is greater than the radius, dra n from the centre# Any day beyond the e0uinox is greater is greater than it# Averheat or undercold produce diseases# Averheatedness exceeds moderation, hich over-coldness does not reach# -he same analogy holds good in connection ith the soul# :oldness is an excess of propriety in the endurance of things of a dreadful natureI hile, timidity is a deficiency# .rodigality is an excess of proper expenditure of moneyI hile illiberality is its excess# ?age is an excess of the proper use of the souls irascible part, hile insensibility ii the corresponding deficiency# -he same reasoning applies to the opposition of the other dispositions of the soul# Since ho ever virtue is a habit of propriety, and a medium of the passions, it should be neither holly passive, nor immoderately passive# Impassivity causes unimpelledness of the soul and lac! of enthusiasm for the beautiful in conduct, hile immoderate passivity perturbs the soul, and ma!es it inconsiderate# 7e should then, in virtue, see passions as shado and outline in a pictureI hich depend on animation and delicacy,

imitation of the truth and contrast of coloring# -he souls passions are animated by the natural incitation and enthusiasm of virtue, hich is generated from the passions, and subsisting ith them# Similarly, harmony includes the sharp and the flat, and mixtures consist of heat and cold, and e0uilibrium results from eight and lightness# -herefore, neither ould it be necessary nor profitable to remove the passions of the soul1 but they must be mutually adDusted to the rational partI under the direction of propriety and moderation#

HA"/B4BS -,/ "A4?IA; .?/6A4/ -A ,IS "A7S


All inhabitants of city or country should in the first place be firmly persuaded of the existence of divinities, as result of their observation of the heavens and the orld and the orderly arrangement of their contained beings# -hese are not the productions of fortune or of men# 7e should reverence and honor them as causes of every reasonable good# 7e should therefore prepare our souls so they may be free from vice# 6or the gods are not honored by the orship of a bad man, nor through sumptuousity of offerings, nor ith the tragical expense of a depraved manI but by virtue, and the deliberate choice of good and beautiful deeds# All of us, therefore, should be as good as possible, both in actions and deliberate choiceI if he ishes to be dear to divinity# ,e should not fear the loss of money more than that of reno nI such a one ould be considered the better citi5en# -hose ho do not easily feel so impelled, and hose soul is easily excited to inDustice, are invited to consider the follo ing# -hey, and their fello residents of a house should remember that there are Gods ho punish the unDust, and should remember that no one escapes the final liberation from life# 6or in the supreme moment they ill repent, from remembering their unDust deeds, and ishing that their deeds had been Dust# /veryone, in every action should be mindful of this time, as if it ere presentI hich is a po erful incentive to probity and Dustice# Should any one feel $tempted by ( the presence of an evil genius, tempting him to inDustice, he should go into a temple, remain at the altar, or in sacred groves, flying from inDustice as from an impious and harmful mistress, supplicating the divinities to cooperate ith him in turning it a ay from himself# ,e should also see! the company of men !no n for their probity, in order to hear them discourse about a blessed life and the punishment of bad men, that he may be deterred from bad deeds, dreading none but the avenging geniuses# 4iti5ens should honor all the Gods according to the particular countrys legal rites, hich should be considered as the most beautiful of all others# 4iti5ens should, besides obeying the la s, sho their respect for the rulers by rising before them, and obeying their instructions# Cen ho are intelligent, and ish to be saved should, after the Gods, geniuses and heroes most honor parents, la s, and rulers# "et none love his city better than his country, the indignation of hose gods he ould thus be excitingI for such conduct is the beginning of treachery# 6or a man to leave his country and reside in a foreign land, is something most afflicting and unbearableI for nothing is more !indred to us than out natal country# ;or let anyone consider a naturali5ed citi5en an implacable enemyI such a person could neither Dudge, nor govern properly, for his anger predominates over his reason# "et none spea! ill either of the hole city, or of a private citi5en# "et the guardians of the la s !eep a atchful eye over offenders, first by admonishing them, and if that is not sufficient, by punishment# Should any established la seem unsatisfactory, let it be changed into a better oneI but hichever remain should be universally obeyedI for the brea!ing of

established la s is neither beautiful nor beneficialI though it is both beautiful and beneficial to be restrained by a more excellent la , as if van0uished thereby# -ransgressors of established la s should ho ever be punished, as promoting anarchy, hich is the greatest evil# -he magistrates should neither be arrogant, nor Dudge insultingly, nor in passing sentence regard friendship, or hate, being partial, thus deciding more Dustly, and being orthy of the magistracy# Slaves should do hat is Dust through fear, but free men, through shame, and for the sa!e of beauty in conduct# Governors should be men of this !ind, to arouse reverence# Anyone ho ishes to change any one of the established la s, or to introduce another la , should put a halter around his nec!, and address the people# And if from the suffrages it should appear that the established la should be dissolved, or that a ne la should be introduced, let him not be punished# :ut if it should appear that the preexisting la is better, or, that the ne proposition is unDust, let him ho ishes to change an old, or introduce a ne la , be executed by the halter#

4,A?A;3AS -,/ 4A-A;/A; .?/6A4/ -A ,IS "A7S


6rom the Gods should begin any deliberation or performanceI for according to the old proverb1 =God should be the cause of all our deliberation and or!s#> 6urther, e should abstain from base actions especially on account of consulting ith the godsI for there is no communication bet een God and the unDust# ;ext, everyone should help himself, inciting himself to the underta!ing and performance of such things as are conformable to his abilitiesI for it seems sordid and illiberal for a man to extend himself similarly to small and great underta!ing# @ou should carefully avoid rushing into things too extensive, or of too great importance# In every underta!ing you should measure your o n desert and po er, so as to succeed and gain credit# A man or oman condemned by the city should not be assisted by anybodyI anyone ho should associate ith him should be disgraced, as similar to the condemned# :ut it is ell to love men ho have been voted approved and to associate ith themI to imitate and ac0uire similar virtue and probity, thus being initiated in the greatest and most perfect of the mysteriesI for no man is perfect ithout virtue# Assistance should be given to an inDured citi5en, hether he is in his o n, or in a foreign country# :ut let every stranger ho as venerated in his o n country, and conformably to the proper la s of that country, be received or dismissed ith auspicious cordiality, calling to mind hospitable Eupiter, as a God ho is established by all nations in common, and ho is the inspective guardian of hospitality and inhospitality# "et the older men preside over the younger, so that the latter may be deterred from, and ashamed of vice, through reverence and fear of the form# 6or here the elders are shameless, so also are their children and grand children# Shamelessness and impudence result in insolice and inDusticeI and of this the end is death# "et none be impudent, but rather modest and temperateI for he ill thus earn the propitiousness of the Gods, and for himself, achieve salvation1 no vicious men is dear to the divinities# "et every one honor probity and truth, hating hat is base and false# -hese are the indications of virtue and vice#

6rom their very youth children should therefore be accustomed $to orthy manners(I by punishing those ho love falsehood, and delighting those ho love the truth, so as to implant in each hat is most beautiful, and most prolific of virtue# /ach citi5en should be more anxious for a reputation for temperance than for isdom, hich pretense often indicates ignorance of probity, and pusillanimity# -he pretense to temperance should lead to a possession of itI for no one should feign ith his tongue that he performs beautiful deeds, hen destitute or orthless and good intentions# Can should preserve !indness to ards their rulers, obeying and venerating them as if they ere parentsI for hoever cannot see the propriety of this ill suffer the punishment of bad counsels from the geniuses ho are the inspective guardians of the seat of empire# ?ulers are the guardians of the city, and of the safety of the citi5ens# Governors must preside Dustly over their subDects in a manner similar to that over their o n children, in passing sentences on others, propitiating hatred, and anger# .raise and reno n is due the rich ho have assisted the indigentI they should be considered saviors of the children and defenders of their country# -he ants of those ho are poor through bad fortune should be relievedI but not the ants resulting from indolence or intemperance# 7hile fortune is common to all men, indolence and intemperance is peculiar to bad man# "et it be considered as a orthy deed to point out anyone ho has acted unDustly, in order that the state may be saved, having many guardians of its proprieties# "et the informer be considered a pious man, though his information affect his most familiar ac0uaintanceI for nothing is more intimate or !indred to a man than his country# ,o ever let not the information regard things done through involuntary ignorance, but of such crimes as have been committed from a previous !no ledge of their enormity# A criminal ho sho s enmity to the informer should be generally hated, that he may suffer the punishment of ingratitude, through hich he deprives himself of being cured of the greatest of diseases, namely, inDustice# 6urther, let contempt of the Gods be considered as the greatest of ini0uities, also voluntary inDury to parents, neglecting of rulers and la s, and voluntary dishonoring of Dustice# "et him be considered as a most Dust and holy citi5en ho honors these things, and to the rulers indicates the citi5ens that despise them# "et it be esteemed more honorable for a man to die for his country, than through a desire of life to desert it, along ith probityI for it is better to die ell than to live basely and disgracefully# 7e should honor each of the dead not ith tears or lamentations, but ith good remembrance, and ith an oblation of annual fruits# 6or hen, e grieve immoderately for the dead, e are ungrateful to the terrestrial geniuses# "et no one curse him by hom he has been inDuredI praise is more divine than defamation# ,e ho is superior to anger should be considered a better citi5en than he ho therethrough offends# ;ot praise orthy, but shameful is it to surpass temples and palaces in the sumptuousness of his expense# ;o thing private should be more magnificent and venerable than things of a public nature#

"et him ho is a slave to ealth and money be despised, as pusillanimous and illiberal, being impressed by sumptuous possessions, yet a tragical and vile life# -he magnanimous man foresees all human concerns, and is not disturbed by any accident of fortune# "et no one spea! obscenelyI lest his thoughts lead him to base deeds, and defile his soul ith impudence# .roper and lovely things it is ell and legal to advertiseI but such things are honored by being !ept silent# It is base even to mention something disgraceful# "et every one dearly love la ful ife and beget children by her# :ut let none shed the seed due his children into any other person, and let him not disgrace that hich is honorable by both nature and la # 6or nature produced the seed for the sa!e of producing the children, and not for the sa!e of lust# A ife should be chaste, and refuse impious connection ith other men, as by so doing she ill subDect herself to the vengeance of the geniuses, hose office it is to expel those to they are hostile from their houses, and to produce hatred# ,e ho gives a step-mother to his children should not be praised, but disgraced, as the cause of domestic dissension# As it is proper to observe these mandates, let him ho transgresses them be subDected to political execration# -he la also orders that these introductory suggestions be !no n by all citi5ens, and should be read in festivals after the hymns to Apollo called paens, by him ho is appointed for this purpose by the master of the feast, so that these precepts may germinate in the minds of all ho hear them#

4A""I4?A-I3AS A; -,/ 6/"I4I-@ A6 6ACI"I/S


-he universe must be considered as a system of !indred communion or association# :ut every system consists of certain dissimilar contraries, and is organi5ed ith reference to one particular thing, hich is the most excellent, and also ith a vie to benefit the maDority# 7hat e call choir is a system of musical communion in vie of one common thing, a concert of voices# 6urther, a ships construction-plan contains many dissimilar contrary things, hich are arranged ith reference to one thing hich is best, the pilot and the common advantage of a prosperous voyage# ;o a family is also a system of !indred communion, consisting of dissimilar proper partsI organised in vie of the best thing, the father of the family, the common advantage being unanimity# In the same manner as a 5ither, family re0uires three things1 apparatus, organi5ation, and a certain manner of practice, or musical use# An apparatus being the composition of all its parts, is that from hich the hole, and the hole system of !indred communion derives its consummation# A family is divided into t o divisionsI man and the possessionsI hich latter is the thing governed, that affords utility# -hus also, an animals first and greatest parts are soul and bodyI soul being that hich governs and uses, the body being that hich is governed, and affords utility# .ossessions indeed are the adventitious instruments of human life, hile the body is a tool born along ith the soul, and !indred to it# Af the persons that complete a family, some are relatives, and others only attracted ac0uaintances#

-he !indred are born from the same blood, or race# -he affinities are an accidental alliance, commencing ith the communion of edloc!# -hese are either fathers or brothers, or maternal and paternal grandfathers, or other relatives by marriage# :ut if the good arising from friendship is also to be referred to a family, O for thus it ill become greater and more magnificent, not only through an abundance of ealth and many relations, but also through numerous friends, O in this case it is evident that the family ill thus become more ample, and that friendship is s social relation essential to a family# .ossessions are either necessary or desirable# -he necessary subserve the ants of lifeI the desirable produce an elegant and ell-ordered life, replacing many other MnecessariesN# ,o ever, hatever exceeds hat is needed for an elegant and ell-ordered life are the roots of antonness, insolence and destruction# Great possessions s ell out ith pride, and this leads to arrogance, and fastidiousness, conceiving that their !indred, nation and tribe do not e0ual them# 6astidiousness leads to insolence, hose end is destruction# 7herever then, in family or city there is a superfluity of possessions, the legislator must cut off and amputate the superfluities, as a good husbandman prunes luxurious leafage# In the familys domestic part there are three divisions1 the governor, the husbandI the ifeI and the auxiliary, the offspring# 7ith respect to practical and rational domination, one !ind is despotic, another protective, and another political# -he despotic is that hich governs ith a vie to the advantage of the governor, and not of the governed, as a master rules his slaves, or a tyrant his subDects# :ut the guardians domination subsists for the sa!e of the governed, and not the governor1 as the masseurs rule the athletes, physicians over the sic!, and preceptors over their pupils# -heir labors are not directed to their o n advantage, but to the benefit of those they governI those of the physician being underta!en for the sa!e of the sic!, that of the masseurs for the sa!e of exercising somebody elses body, and those of the erudite for the ignorant# .olitical domination, ho ever, aims at the common benefit of both governors and governed# 6or in human affairs, according to this domination are organi5ed both a family and a cityI Dust as the orld and divine affairs are in correspondence# A family and a city stand in a relation, analogous to the government of the orld# 3ivinity indeed is the principle of nature, and his attention is directed neither to his o n advantage, nor to private good, but to that of the public# -hat is hy the orld is called cosmos, from the orderly disposition of all things, hich are mutually organi5ed of the most excellent, hich is God, ho, according to our notions of him, is a celestial living being, incorruptible, and the principle and cause of the orderly disposition of the holes# Since therefore the husband rules over the ife, he rules ith a po er either despotic, protective or political# 3espotic is out of the 0uestion, as he diligently attends to her elfareI nor is it protective entirely, for he has to consider himself also# It remains therefore that he rules over her ith a political po er, according to hich both the governor and governed see! the common advantage# ,ence edloc! is established ith a vie to the communion of life# -hose husbands that govern their ives despotically are by them hatedI those that govern them protectively are despisedI being as it mere appendages and flatterers of their ives# :ut those that govern them politically are both admired and beloved# :oth these ill be effective if he ho governs exercises his po er so that it may be mingled ith pleasure and venerationI pleasure at his fondness, but veneration at his doing nothing vile or abDect# ,e ho ishes to marry ought to ta!e for a ife one hose fortune is conformable to his o n, neither above nor beneath, but of e0ual property# -hose ho marry a oman above their condition have to contend for the mastershipI for the ife, surpassing her husband in ealth and lineage,

ishes to rule over himI but he considers it to be orthy of him, and unnatural to submit to his ife# :ut those ho marry a ife beneath their condition subvert the dignity and reputation of their family# Ane should imitate the musician, ho having learned the proper tone of his voice, moderates it so as to be neither sharp nor flat, nor bro!en, nor strident# So edloc! should be adDusted to the tone of the soul, so that the husband and ife may accord, not only in prosperity but also in adversity# -he husband should be his ifes regulator, master and preceptor# ?egulator, in paying diligent attention to his ifes affairsI master, in governing, and exercising authority over her, and preceptor in teaching her such things as are fitting for her to !no # -his ill be specially effected by him ho, directing his attention to orthy parents, from their family marries a virgin in the flo er of her youth# Such virgins are easily fashioned and docileI and are naturally ell disposed to be instructed by, and to fear and love their husbands#

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A oman should be a harmony of prudence and temperance# ,er soul should be 5ealous to ac0uire virtueI so that she may be Dust, brave, prudent, frugal, and hating vain-glory# 6urnished ith these virtues, she ill, hen she become a ife act orthily to ards herself, her husband, her children and her family# 6re0uently also such a oman ill act beautifully to ards cities, if she happens to rule over cities and nations, as e see is sometimes the case in a !ingdom# If she subdues desire and anger, there ill be produced a divine symphony# She ill not be pursued by illegal loves, being devoted to her husband, children and family# 7omen fond of connections ith outside man come to hate their families, both the free members, and the slaves# -hey also plot against their husbands, falsely representing them as the calumniators of all their ac0uaintance, so that they alone may appear benevolentI and they govern their families in a ay such as may be expected from lovers of indolence# Such conduct leads to the destruction of everything common to husband and ife# -he body should also be trained to moderation in food, clothes, baths, massage, hairdressing and De elry adornment# Sumptuous eating, drin!ing, garments and !eepsa!es involve them in every crime, and faithlessness to their husband and everybody else# It is sufficient to satisfy hunger and thirst, and this from easily accessible thingsI and protect themselves from the cold by garments of the simplest description# It is 0uite a vice to feed on things brought from distant countries, and bought at a great price# It is also great folly to search after excessively elegant garments, made brilliant ith purple or other precious colors# -he body itself demands no more than to be saved from cold and na!edness, for the sa!e $of( propriety, and that is all it needs# Cens opinions, combined ith ignorance, demands inanities and superfluities# ;o oman should be decorated ith gold, nor gems from India, nor any other country, nor plait her hair artistically, nor be perfumed ith Arabian perfumes, nor paint her face so that it may be more hite or more red, nor give a dar! tinge to her eyebro s and her eyes, nor artificially dye her gray hair, nor bathe continually# A oman of this sort is hunting a spectator of female intemperance# -he beauty produced by prudence, and not by these particulars, pleases omen that are ell born# ;either should she consider it necessary to be noble, rich b--- in a great city, glory, have glory, and the friendship of reno ned or royal men# -he presence of such should not cause her annoyance, but should they be absent, she should not regret themI their absence ill not hinder the prudent oman from living properly# ,er soul should not anxiously dream about them, but ignore them# -hey are really more harmful than beneficial, as they mislead to misfortuneI inevitable are treachery, envy and calumny, so that their possessor cannot be free from perturbation#

She should venerate the Gods, thereby hoping to achieve felicity, also by obeying the la s and sacred institutions of her country# After the gods, she should honor and venerate her parents, ho cooperate ith the gods in benefiting their children# Coreover she ought to live ith her husband MlegallyN and !indly, claiming nothing as her o n property, but preserving and protecting his bedI this protection contains all# things# In a be---ring manner she should bear any stro!e of fortune that may stri!e her husbandI hether he is unfortunate in business, or ma!es ignorant mista!es, is sic!, intoxicated, or has connection ith other omen# -his last is a privilege granted to men, but not to omen, since they are punished for this offence# She must submit to the la ith e0uanimity, ithout Dealousy# She should li!e ise patiently bear his anger, his parsimony, complaints he may ma!e of his destiny, his Dealousy, his accusations of here and hatever other faults he may inherit from his nature# All these she should cheerfully endure, conducting herself to ards him ith prudence and modesty# A ife ho is dear to her husband, and ho truly performs her duty to ards him, is a domestic harmony, and loves the hole of her family, to hich also she conciliates the benevolence of strangers# If ho ever she loves neither her husband nor her children, nor her servants, nor ishes to see any sacrifice preserved, then she becomes the herald of every !ind of destruction, hich she li!e ise prays for, as being an enemy, and also prays for the death of her husband, as being hostile to him, in order that she may be connected ith other menI and in the last place she hates hatever her husband loves# :ut a ife ill be a domestic harmony if she is full of prudence and modesty# 6or then she ill love not only her husband, but also her children, her !indred, her servants, and the hole of her family, among hich she numbers her possessions, friends, fello citi5ens, and strangers# -heir bodies she ill adorn ithout any superfluous ornaments, and ill both spea! and hear such things only as are beautiful and good# She should conform to her husbands opinion in respect to their common life, and be satisfied ith those relatives and friends as meet his approbation# Bnless she is entirely devoid of harmony she ill consider pleasant or disagreeable such things hich are thought so by her husband#

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.arents ought not to be inDured either in ord or deedI and hatever their ran! in life, small or great, they should be obeyed# 4hildren should remain ith them, and never forsa!e them, and almost to submit to them, even hen they are insane, in every allotted condition of soul or bad body, or external circumstances, in peace, health, sic!ness, riches, poverty, reno n, ignominy, class, or magistrates ran!# Such conduct ill be isely and cheerfully adopted by the pious# ,e ho despises his parents ill both among the living and the dead be condemned for this crime by the Gods, ill be hated by men, and under earth ill, together ith the impious, be eternally punished in the same place by Eustice, and the subterranean Gods, hose province it is to inspect things of this !ind# -he aspect of parents is a thing divine and beautiful, and a diligent observance of them is attended by a delight such that neither a vie of the sun, nor of all the stars hich s ing around the illuminated heavens, is capable of producing any spectacle greater than this# -he Gods are not envious in a case li!e this# 7e should reverence parents both hile living and dead, and never oppose them in anything they say or do# If ignorant of anything through deception or disease, their children should console and instruct, but by no means hate them on this account# 6or no greater error or inDustice can be committed by men than to act impiously to ards their parents#

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After divinity and geniuses, the greatest respect should be paid to parents and the la sI not fictitiously, but in reality preparing ourselves to an observance of, and perseverance in, the manners and la s of our country, though they should be in a small degree orse than those of other countries#

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:ut after these things follo the honors hich should be paid to living parents, it being right to discharge the first, the greatest, and the most ancient of all debts# /very one, li!e ise, should thin! that all hich he possesses belongs to those ho begot and nurtured him, in order that he may be ministrant to their ant to the utmost of his ability, beginning from his propertyI in the second place, discharging his debt to them from things pertaining to his bodyI and in the third place, from things pertaining to his soulI thus ith usury repayingK the cares and pains hich his no very aged parents besto ed on him hen he as young# -hrough the hole of life, li!e ise, he should particularly employ the most respectful language in spea!ing to his parentsI because there is a most severe punishment for light and inged ordsI and ;emesis, the messenger of Eustice, is appointed to be the inspector of everything of this !ind# 7hen parents are angry therefore, e should yield to them, and appease their anger, hether it is seen in ords or deedsI ac!no ledging that a father may reasonably be very much enraged ith his son, hen he thin!s that he has been inDured by him# An the parents death, the most appropriate and beautiful monuments should be raised to themI not exceeding the usual magnitude, nor yet less than those hich our ancestors erected for their parents# /very year, also, attention ought to be paid to the decoration of their tombs# -hey should li!e ise be continually remembered and reverenced, and this ith a moderate but appropriate expense# :y al ays acting and living in this manner e shall each of us be re arded according to our deserts, both by those Gods and those natures that are superior to us, and shall pass the greatest part of our life in good hope#

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-he perfect life of man falls short indeed of the life of God, because it is not self-perfect, but surpasses that of irrational animals, participating as it does of virtue and felicity# 6or neither is God in ant of external causes, -- as he is naturally good and happy, and is perfect from himselfI -- nor any irrational animal# 6or brutes being destitute of reason, the are also destitute of the sciences pertaining to actions# :ut the nature of man partly consists of his o n proper deliberate choice, and partly is in ant of the assistance derived from divinity# 6or that hich is capable of being fashioned by reason, hich has an intellectual perception of things beautiful and base, can from earth erect itself and loo! to heaven, and ith the eye of intellect can perceive the highest God, -- that hich is capable of all this li!e ise receives assistance from the Gods# :ut in conse0uence of possessing ill, deliberate choice, and a principle of such a !ind as enables it to study virtue, and to be agitated by the storms of vice, to follo , and also to apostaci5e from the

Gods, -- it is li!e ise able to be moved by itself# ,ence it may be praised or blamed, partly by the Gods, and partly by man, according as it applies itself 5ealously either to virtue or vice# 6or the hole reason of the thing is as follo s1 3ivinity introduced man into the orld as a most ex0uisite being, to be honored reciprocally ith 3ivinity, and as the eye of the orderly systemati5ation of everything# ,ence also man gave things names, himself becoming the character of them# ,e also invented letters, through these procuring a treasury of memory# ,e imitated the established order of the universe, by la s and Dudicial proceedings, organi5ing the communion of cities# 6or no human or! is more honorable in the eyes of the orld, nor more orthy of notice by the Gods, than proper constitution of a city governed by good la s, distributed in an orderly fashion throughout the state# 6or though by himself no man amounts to anything, and by himself is not able to lead a life conforming to the common concord, and to the proper organi5ation of a state, yet he is ell adapted to the perfect system of society# ,uman life resembles a properly tuned and cared for lyre# /very lyre re0uires three things1 apparatus, tuning, and musical s!ill of the player# :y apparatus e mean preparation of all the appropriate partsI the strings, $the plectrum( and other instruments cooperating in the tuning of the instrument# :y tuning e mean the adaptation of the sounds to each other# -he musical s!ill is the motion of the player in consideration of the tuning# ,uman life re0uires the same three things# Apparatus is the preparation of the physical basis of life, riches, reno n, and friends# -uning is the organi5ing of these according to virtue and the la s# Cusical s!ill is the mingling of these accord ing to virtue and the la s, virtue sailing ith a prosperous ind, ith no external resistance# 6or felicity does not consist in being driven from the purpose of voluntary intentions, but in obtaining theI nor in virtue lac!ing attendants and serversI but in completely possessing its o n proper po ers hich are adapted to actions# 6or man is not self-perfectI he is imperfect# ,e may become perfect partly from himself, and partly from some external cause# "i!e ise, he may be perfect either according to nature or to life# According to nature he is perfect, if he becomes a good manI as the virtue of everything is the climax and perfection of the nature of that thing# -hus the virtue of the eyes is the climax and perfection of their natureI and this is also true of the virtue of the ears# -hus too the virtue of man is the climax and perfection of the nature of man# :ut man is perfect according to life hen he becomes happy# 6or felicity is the perfection and completion of human goods# ,ence, again, virtue and prosperity become parts of the life of man# <irtue, indeed is a part of him so far as he is soulI but prosperity, so far as he is connected ith bodyI but both parts of him, so far as he is an animal# 6or it is the province of virtue to us in a becoming manner the goods hich are conformable to natureI but of prosperity to impart the use of them# -he former indeed imparts deliberate choice and right reasonI but the latter, energies and actions# 6or to ish hat is beautiful in conduct, and to endure things of a dreadful nature, is the proper business of virtue# :ut it is the hole of prosperity to render deliberate choice successful and to cause actions to arrive at the desired end# 6or a general con0uers in conDunction ith virtue and good fortune# -he pilot sails ell in conDunction ith art and prosperous indsI the eye sees ell in conDunction ith acuteness of vision, and light# So the life of man reaches its perfection through virtue itself, and prosperity#

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Since men live but for a very short period, if their life is compared to the hole of time, they ill, as it ere, ma!e a most beautiful Dourney, if they pass through life ith tran0uillity# -his they ill best possess if they ill accurately and scientifically !no themselves, namely that they are mortal and of a fleshly nature, and that they have a body hich is corruptible, and can be easily inDured, and hich is exposed to everything most grievous and severe, even to their latest breath# In the first place, let us observe those things hich happen to the bodyI such as pleurisy, pneumonia, phrensy, gout, strangury, dysentery, lethargy, epilepsy, ulcers, and a thousand other diseases# :ut the diseases that can happen to the soul are much greater and direr# 6or all the ini0uitous, evil, la less and impious conduct in the life of man, originates from the passions of the soul# 6or through unnatural immoderate desires many have become subDect to unrestrained impulsesI and have not refrained from the most unholy pleasures, arising from connections ith daughters and even mothers# Cany have even destroyed their fathers and offspring# :ut hat is the use to continue detailing externally impending evils, such as excessive rain, draught, violent heat, and coldI so that fre0uently from the anomalous state of the air, pestilence and famine arise, follo ed by manifold calamities ma!ing hole cities desolate# Since therefore many such calamities impend, e should neither be elated by the possession of orldly goods, hich might rapidly be consumed by the irruption of some small fever, nor ith hat are conceived to be prosperous external circumstances, hich from their o n nature fre0uently decay 0uic!er than they arose# 6or all these are uncertain and unstable, and are found to have their existence in many and various mutationsI and no one of them is permanent, or immutable, or stable, or indivisible# 4onsidering these things ell, and also being persuaded that if hat is present and is imparted to us, is able to remain for the smallest portion of time, it is as much as e ought to expectI e shall then live in tran0uillity, and ith hilarity, generously bearing hatever may befall us# ;o many people imagine that all they have and hat they receive from fortune and nature is better than it is, not reali5ing hat it is in realityI but such as it is able to become hen it has arrived at its highest excellence# -hey then burden the soul ith many and, great, and nefarious stupid evils, hen they are suddenly deprived of these transitory goods# -hat is ho they lead a most bitter and miserable life# :ut this ta!es place in the loss of riches, or the death of friends and children, or in the privation of certain other things, hich by them are conceived to be possessions most honorable# After ards, eeping and lamenting, they assert of themselves, that they alone are most unfortunate and miserable, not remembering that these things have happened, and even no happen to many othersI nor are they able to understand the life of those that are no in existence, and of those that have lived in former times, nor to see in hat great calamities and aves of evils many of the present times are, and of the past have been involved# -herefore considering ith ourselves that many ho have lost their property have after ards on account of this very loss been saved, since thereafter they might either have fallen into the hands of robbers, or into the po er of a tyrantI that many also ho have loved certain persons, and have been extremely benevolently disposed to ards them, but have after ards hated them extremely, O considering all these things, of hich history informs usI and learning li!e ise that many have been destroyed by their o n children, and by those they have most dearly loved, and comparing our o n life ith that of those ho have been more unhappy that e have been, and ta!ing into account general human vicissitudes, that happen to others beside ourselves, e shall pass through life ith greater tran0uillity# A reasonable man il% not thin! the calamities of others easy to be born, but not his o nI since he sees that the hole of life is naturally exposed to many calamities# -hose ho ever ho eep and lament besides not being able to recover hat they have lost, or recall to life those that are dead, impel the soul to still greater perturbationsI in conse0uence of its being filled ith much depravity# :eing ashed and purified, e should do our best to ipe a ay our inveterate stains, by the reasonings of philosophy# -his e shall accomplish by adhering to prudence and tolerance, being satisfied

ith our present circumstances, and not aspiring after too many things# Cen ho gather a great abundance of external things do not consider that enDoyment of them terminates ith this present life# 7e should therefore use the present goodsI and by the assistance of the beautiful and venerable results of philosophy e shall be liberated from the insatiable desire of depraved possessions#

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Cans virtue is the perfection of his nature# :y the proper nature of his virtue, every being becomes perfect, and arrives at the climax of its excellence# -hus the virtue of the horse is that hich ma!es the best of the horses nature# -he same reasoning applies to details# -hus the virtue of the eyes is acuteness of visionI and this is the climax of the eyes nature# -he virtue of the ears is acuteness of hearingI and this is the MauralN natures climax# -he virtue of the feet is s iftnessI and this is the pedal natures climax# /very virtue, ho ever, should include these three things1 reason, po er, and deliberate choice# ?eason indeed, Dudges and contemplatesI po er prohibits and van0uishesI and deliberate choice loves and enDoys propriety# -herefore to Dudge and contemplate pertain to the intellectual part of the soulI to prohibit and van0uish are the peculiarity of the irrational part of the soulI and to love and enDoy propriety includes both rational and irrational parts of the soulI for deliberate choice consists of the discursive energy of reason, and appetite# Intention therefore, pertains to the rational, but appetite to the irrational parts of the soul# 7e may discern the multitude of the virtues by observing the parts of the soulI also the gro th and nature of virtue# Af the souls parts, t o ran! first1 the rational and the irrational# It is by their rational that e Dudge and contemplateI by the irrational e are impelled and desire# -hese are either consonant or discordant, their strife and dissonance being produced be excess or defect# -he rational parts victory over the irrational produces endurance and continence# 7hen the rational leads, the irrational follo s, both accord, and produce virtue# -hat is hy endurance and continence are generally accompanied by painI for endurance resists pain and continence pleasure# ,o ever, incontinence and effeminacy neither resist nor van0uish pleasure# -hat is hy men fly from good through pain, but reDect it through pleasure# "i!e ise praise and blame, and everything beautiful in human conduct, are produced in these parts of the soul# -his explains the nature, of virtue# "et us study virtues !inds and parts# Since the soul is divided into t o parts, the rational and the irrational, the latter is also divided into t o, the irascible and appetitive part# :y the rational e Dudge and contemplateI by the irrational e are impelled and desire# -he irascible part defends us, and revenges incidental molestationsI the appetitive directs and preserves the bodys proper constitution# So e see that the numerous virtues ith all their differences and peculiarities do little more than conform to the distinctive parts of the soul#

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Such is the mutual relation of prudence and prosperity# .rudence is explainable and reasonable, orderly and definite# .rosperity is unexplainable, and irrational, disorderly, and indefinite# In origination and po er, prudence is prior to prosperityI the former governing and defining, the latter being governed and definedI but they are mutually adDusting, concurring in the same thing# 6or that hich limits and adDusts must be explainable and reasonable, hile that hich is limited and adDustedI is

naturally unexplainable and irrational# -hat is ho the reason of the infinites nature, and of the limiter subsists in all things# Infinites are al ays naturally disposed to be limited and adDusted by things possessing reason and prudence for in the relation to the latter, the former stand as matter and essence# :ut finites are self-adDusted and self-limited, being causal and energetic# -he mutual adDustment of these natures in different things produces a variety of adDusted substances# 6or in the comprehension of the hole of things, the mutual adDustment of both the moving and the passive, is the orld# -here is no other possible ay of salvation for the hole and the universe, than by the adDustment of the things generated to the divine, and of the ever passive to the ever moved# -he similar adDustment, in man, of the irrational to the rational part of the soul is virtue, for this cannot exist in case of mutual strife bet een the t o# So also in a city, the mutual adDustment of the governors to the governed produces strength and concord# Governing is the specialty of the better natureI hile being governed is more suited to the subordinate part# -o both are common strength and concord# A similar mutual adDustment exists in the universe and in the familyI the former being a resultance of allurements and erudition ith reason, the latter of pains and pleasures, prosperity and adversity# Cans constitution is such that he needs changes, or! and rest, sorro and gladeness, prosperity and adversity# Some things dra the intellect to ards isdom, and industry, and !eep it thereI others relax and delight, rendering the intellect vigorous and prompt# Should one of these elements prevail, then mans life becomes one-sided, exaggerating sorro and difficulty, or levity and smoothness# ;o all these should be mutually adDusted by prudence, hich discerns and distinguishes in actions the elements of limitation and infinity# -hat is hy prudence is the mother and leader of the other virtues# 6or it is prudences reason and la hich organi5e and harmoni5e all other virtues# Summari5ing1 -he irrational and explainable are to be found in all thingsI the latter defines and limits, the former is defined and bounded# -he resultance of both is the proper organisation of the hole and the universe# God fashioned man in a ay such as to declare that not through the ant of po er or deliberate choice, that man is incapable of impulsion to beauty of conduct# In man as implanted a principle such as to combine the possible ith the desirableI so that hile man is the cause of po er and of the possession of good, God is that of reasonable impulse and incitation# So God made man tend to heaven, gave him an intellective po er, implanted in him a sight called intellect, hich is capable of beholding God# 6or ithout God, it is impossible to discover hat is best and most beautifulI and ithout intellect e cannot see God, since every mortal natures establishment implied a progressive loss of intellect# It is not God, ho ever, ho effected this, but generation, and that impulse of the soul hich lac!s deliberate choice#

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I thin! that the Dustice hich subsists among men may be called the mother and nurse of the other virtues# 7ithout it no man can be temperate, brave, nor prudent# In conDunction ith elegance it is the harmony and peace of the hole soul# -his virtues strength ill become more manifest if e compare it to the other habits# -hey have a partial utility, and refer to one thing onlyI hile this refers to a multitude, nay, to hole systems# It conducts the hole orld government and is called providence, harmony, and vengeance $3i!e(, by the decrees of a certain !ind of geniuses# In a city it is Dustly called peace, and e0uitable legislation# In a house, it is the concord bet een husband and ifeI the !indliness of the servant to ards his master, and the anxious care of the master for his ser-

vant# In the body, li!e ise, hich to all animals is the first and dearest thing, it is the health and holeness of each part# In the soul it is the isdom that depends from science and Dustice# As therefore this virtue disciplines and saves both the hole and parts of everything, mutually tuning and familiari5ing all things, it surely deserves, by universal suffrages, to be called the mother and nurse of all things#

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A !ing should be a ise manI thus ill he be honored in the same manner as the supreme divinity, hose imitator he ill be# As the supreme is by nature the first !ing and potentate, so ill a !ing be, by birth and imitation# As the former rules in the universe, and in the hole of things, so does the latter in the earth# 7hile the former governs all things eternally, and has a never-failing life, possessing all isdom in himself, so the latter ac0uires science through time# :ut a !ing ill imitate the 6irst God in the most excellent manner, if he ac0uires magnanimity, gravity, and the restriction of his ants to but fe things, to his subDect exhibiting a paternal disposition# 6or it is because of this especially that the 6irst God is called the father of both Gods and men, because he is mild to everything that is subDect to him, and never ceases to govern ith providential regard# ;or is he satisfied ith being the Ca!er of all things, but he is the nourisher and preceptor of every thing beautiful, and the legislator to all things e0ually# Such also ought to be a !ing ho on earth rules over men# ;othing is beautiful, that lac!s a director, or ruler# Again, no !ing or ruler can exist ithout isdom and science# ,e therefore ho is both a sage and a !ing ill be an imitator and legitimate minister of God#

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Cany arguments apparently prove that every beings nature is adapted to the orld and the things it contains# /very animal thus conspiring $into union and consent( and having such an organi5ation of its parts, it follo s, through the attractive progress of the universe around it, an excellent and necessary evolution hich produces the general ornamentation of the orld, and the peculiar permanence of every thing it contains# ,ence it is called the $ornamental( kosmos, and is the most perfect being# 7hen e study its parts, e find them many, and naturally different# 6irst, a being ho is the best, both from its native alliance to the orld, and in its particular divinity $containing the stars called planets, forming the first and greatest series(# Second is the nature of the geniuses, in the sublunar region, here bodies move in a right line# -hird, in the earth, and ith us, the best being is man, of hom the divinest is a !ing, surpassing other men in his general being# 7hile his body resembles that of other men, being made of the same physical matter, he as molded by the best sculptors, ho used him as the archetype# ,ence, in a certain respect, a !ing is one and aloneI being the production of the supernal !ing, ith hom he is al ays familiarI being beheld by his subDects in his !ingdom as a splendid light# A !ingdom has been said to resemble an eagle, the most excellent of inged animals, ho unda55led, stares at the sun # A !ingdom is also similar to the sun, because it is divineI and because of its exceeding splendor cannot be seen ithout difficulty, except by piercing eyes, that are genuine#

6or the numerous splendors that surround it, and the blac! eye-clouds it produces in those that ga5e at it, as if they had ascended into some foreign altitude, demonstrates that their eyes are spurious# -hose ho ever ho can safely arrive thither, either because of their familiarity there ith, or their alliance ith it can, use it properly# A !ingdom, therefore, is something pure, genuine, uncorrupted and because of its preeminence, divine and difficult of access# ,e ho is established therein should naturally be most pure and $thin!( clearly, that by his personal stains he may not obscure so splendid an institutionI as some persons defile the most sacred places, and the impure pollute those they meet# :ut a !ing, ho associates ith the $best(, should be undefiled, realising ho much diviner than other things are both himself and his prerogativesI and from the divine exemplar of hich he is an image, he should treat both himself and his subDects orthily# 7hen other men are delin0uents, their most holy purification causes them to imitate their rulers, hether la s or !ing# :ut !ings ho cannot on earth find anything better than their o n nature to imitate, should not aste time in see!ing any model other or lo er than God himself# ;o one ould long search for the orld, seeing that he exists in it, as a part of itI so the governor of others should not ignore him by hom he also is governed# :eing ruled is the supreme ornament, inasmuch as there is nothing rulerless in the universe# A !ings manners should also be the inspiration of his government# -hus its beauty ill immediately shine forth, since he ho imitates God through virtue ill surely be dear to him hom he imitatesI and much more dear ill he be to his subDects# ;o one ho is beloved by the divinity ill be hated by menI# since neither do the stars, nor the hole orld hate God# 6or if they hated their ruler and leader, they ould never obey him# :ut it is because he governs properly that human affairs are properly governed# -he earthly !ing, therefore, should not be deficient in any of the virtues, distinctive of the heavenly ruler# ;o as an earthly !ing is something foreign external, inasmuch as he descends to men from the heavens, so li!e ise his virtues may be considered as or!s of God, and to descend upon him from divinity# @ou ill find this true, if you study out the hole thing from the beginning# An earthly !ing obtains possession of subDects by an agreement, hich is the first essential# -he truth of this may be gathered from the state of affairs produced by the destruction of the unanimity among citi5ens, hich indeed is much inferior to a divine and royal nature# Such natures are not oppressed by any such povertyI but, conforming to intellect, they supply the ants of others, assisting them in common, being perfect in virtue# :ut the friendship obtaining in a city, and hich possesses a certain common end, imitates the concord of the universe# ;o city could be inhabited ithout an institution of magistrates# -o effect this, ho ever, and to preserve the city, there is a necessity of la s, a political domination, and a governor and the governed# All this happens for the general good, for unanimity, and the consent of the people in harmony ith organic efficiency# "i!e ise, he ho governs according to virtue, is called a !ing, and is so in realityI since he possesses the same friendship and communion ith his subDects, as divinity possesses ith the orld, and its contained natures# All benevolence, ho ever, ought to be exerted, in the first place, indeed, by the !ing toards his subDectsI second, by the subDects to ards the !ingI and this benevolence should be similar to that of a parent to ards his child, of a shepherd to ards his floc!, and of the la to ards the la -abiding# 6or there is one virtue pertaining to the government, and to the life of men# ;o one should, through indigence, solicit the assistance of others, hen he is able to supply himself ith hat nature re0uires# -hough $in the city( there is a certain community of goods, yet every one should live so as to be self-sufficientI and the latter re0uires the aid of none others in his passage through life# If therefore it is necessary to lead an active life, it is evident that a !ing, though he should also consume

other things, ill nevertheless be self-sufficient# 6or have friends through his o n virtueI and in using these, he ill not use them by any virtue other than that by hich he regulates his o n life# 6or he must follo a virtue of this !ind, since he cannot procure anything more excellent# God, indeed, needing neither ministers nor servants, nor employing any mandate, and neither cro ning nor proclaiming those that are obedient to him, or disgracing those that are disobedient, thus administers so great an empire# In a manner to me appearing most orthy of imitation, into all things he instills a most 5ealous desire to participate in his nature# As he is good, the most easy possible communication thereof is his only or!# -hose ho imitate him find that this imitation enables them to accomplish everything else better# Indeed this imitation of God is the self-sufficiency of everything elseI for there is an identity, and no difference bet een the virtues that ma!e things acceptable to God, and those that imitate himI and is not our earthly !ing, in a similar manner self-sufficientK :y assimilating himself to one, and that the most excellent nature, he ill beneficently endeavor to assimilate all his subDects to himself# Such !ings, ho ever, as to ards their subDects use violence and compulsion entirely destroy in every individual of the community a readiness to imitate him# 7ithout benevolence, no assimilation is possibleI since benevolence particularly effaces fear# It is indeed much to be desired that human nature should not be in ant of persuasionI hich is the relic of human depravity, of hich the temporal being called man is not destitute# .ersuasion, indeed, is a!in to necessityI inasmuch as it is chiefly used on persons flying from necessity# :ut persuasion is needless ith beings such as spontaneously see! the beautiful and good# Again, a !ing alone is, capable of effecting human perfection, that through imitation of the good man may pursue propriety and lovelinessI and that those ho are corrupted as if by intoxication, and ho have fallen into an ignorance of the good by bad education, may be strengthened by the !ings elo0uence, may have their diseased minds healed, and their depravitys da5edness expelled, may become mindful of an intimate associate, hose influence may persuade them# -hough originating from undesirable seeds, yet $this royal influence( is the source of a certain good to humans, in hich language supplies our deficiencies, in our mutual converse# ,e ho has a sacred and divine conception of things ill in reality be a !ing# .ersuaded by this, he ill be the cause all good, but of no evil# /vidently, as he is fitted for society, he ill become Dust# 6or communion or association consists in e0uality, and in its distribution# Eustice indeed precedes, but communion participates# 6or it is impossible for a man to be unDust, and yet distribute e0ualityI or that he should distribute e0uality, and yet not be adapted to association# ,o is it possible that he ho is self-sufficient should not be continentK 6or sumptuousness is the mother of incontinence, and this of anton insolence, and from this an innumerable host of ills# :ut self-sufficiency is not mastered by sumptuousness, nor by any of its derivative evils, but itself being a principle, it leads to all things, and is not led by any# -o govern is the province of God, and also of a !ing, $on hich account indeed, he is called self-sufficient(I so to both it pertains not to be governed by any one# /vidently, these things cannot be effected ithout prudence, and it is manifest that the orlds intellectual prudence is God# 6or the orld reveals graceful design, hich ould be impossible ithout prudence# ;or is it possible for a !ing ithout prudence to possess these virtuesI I mean Dustice, continence, sociability and !indred virtues#

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;either divinity, nor anyone possessing the least isdom ill ever advise anyone to neglect his parents# ,ence e cannot have any statue or temple hich ill be considered by divinity as more precious than our fathers and grandfathers hen gro n feeble ith age# 6or he ho honors his parents by gifts ill be recompensed by GodI for ithout this, divinity ill not pay any attention to the prayers of such parents for their children# Aur parents and progenitors images should by us be considered much more venerable and divine than any inanimate images# 6or our parents, ho are divine images that are animated, hen they are continually adorned and orthily honored by us, pray for us, and implore the Gods to besto on us the most excellent giftsI and do the contrary hen e despise themI neither of hich occurs ith inanimate images# ,ence he ho behaves orthily to ards his parents and progenitors, and other !indred, ill possess the most orthy of all statues, and the best calculated to endear him to divinity# /very intelligent person, therefore, should honor and venerate his parents, and should dread their execrations and unfavorable prayers, !no ing that many of them ta!e effect# ;ature having disposed the matter thus, prudent and modest men ill consider their living aged progenitors a treasure, to the extremity of lifeI and if they die before the children have arrived there, the latter ill be longing for them# Coreover, progenitors ill be terrible in the extreme to their depraved or stupid offspring# -he profane person ho is deaf to these considerations ill by all intelligent persons be considered as odious to both Gods and men#

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7oman ought to be holly good and modestI but she ill never be a character of this !ind ithout virtue, hich renders precious hatever contains it# -he eyeRs virtue is sightI the earRs, hearing# A horses virtue ma!es it goodI hile the virtue of man or oman ma!es them orthy# A omans principal virtue is temperance, herethrough she ill be able to honor and love her husband# Some, perhaps may not thin! that it becomes a oman to philosophi5e, any more than it is suitable for her to ride on horsebac!, or to harangue in public# :ut I thin! that hile there are certain employments speciali5ed to each sex, that there are some common to both man and oman, hile some belong to a sex only preferentially# Cale avocations are to lead an army, to govern and to harangue in public# 6emale avocations are to guard the house, to stay at home, to receive and minister to her husband# ,er particular virtues are fortitude, Dustice and prudence# :oth husband and ife should achieve the virtues of the body and the soulI for as bodily health is beneficial to both, so also is health of the soul# -he bodily virtues, ho ever, are health, strength, vigor of sensation and beauty# 7ith respect to the virtues, also some are peculiarly suitable to men, and others to omen# 6ortitude and prudence regard the man more than they do the omenI both on account of the bodily habits, and the soul-po erI but temperance peculiarly belongs to the oman# It ould be ell to !no the number and 0uality of the things through hich this virtue is ac0uirable by omen# I thin! that they are five# 6irst, temperance comes through the sanctity and piety of the marriage bed# Second, through body-ornamentsI thirds, through trips outside the house# 6ourth, through refraining from celebrating the orgies and mysteries of 4ybele# 6ifth, in being cautious and moderate in sacrifices to the divinities# Af these, ho ever, the greatest and most comprehensive cause of temperance is undefiledness in the marriage bedI and to have connexion ith none but her husband# :y such la lessness she acts unDustly to ards the Gods ho preside over nativities, changing them from genuine to spurious assistants to her family and !indred# In the second place, she acts unDustly

to ards the gods ho preside over nature, by hom she and all her !indred solemnly s ore that she ould la fully associate ith her husband in the association of life, and the procreation of children# -hird, she inDures her country, in not observing its decrees# It is frivolous and unpardonable, for the sa!e of pleasure and ay ard insolence, to offend in a matter here the crime is so great that the greatest punishment, death, is ordained# All such insolent conduct ends in death# :esides, for this offence there has been discovered no purifying remedyI hich might turn such guilt into purity beloved by the divinity, for God is most averse to the pardoning of this crime# -he best indication, of a omans chastity to ards her husband is her childrens resemblance to their father# -his suffices about the marriage bed# As to body-ornaments, a omans garments should be hite and simple and not superfluous# -hey ill be so if they are neither transparent nor variegated, nor oven from sil!, inexpensive, and hite# -his ill prevent excessive ornamentation, luxury, and superfluity of clothesI and ill avoid the imitation of depravity by others# ;either gold nor emeralds should ornament her bodyI for they are very expensive, and exhibit pride and arrogance to ard the vulgar# :esides, a city governed by good la s, and ell organi5ed, should adDust all its interests in an e0uable legislationI hich therefore ould expel from the city the De elers ho ma!e such things# A oman should, besides, illuminate her face, not by po der or rouge, but by the natural glo from the to el, adorning herself ith modesty, rather than by art# -hus she ill reflect honor both on herself and her husband# As to gadding, omen should chiefly go out of their houses to sacrifice to the municipal tutelary divinity, for the elfare of her husband and her !indred# ;either should a oman go out from her house at da n or dus!, but openly hen the forum is full of peopleI accompanied by one, at most t o servants, to see something, or to shop# As to sacrifices of the gods, they should be frugal, and suited to her abilityI she should abstain from celebration of orgies, and the 4ybelean sacred rites performed at home# 6or the municipal la forbids them to omen# Coreover, these rites lead to intoxication and insanity# A family-mistress, presiding over domestic affairs, should be temperate and undefiled#

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/very virtue is perfected, as as sho n in the beginning, by reason, deliberate choice, and po er# /ach of these, ho ever, is by itself not a part of virtue, but its cause# Such, therefore, as have the intellective and gnostic part of virtue $the theoretic virtues(, are called s!illful and intelligentI but such, as have its ethical and preparatory parts, are called useful and e0uitable# Since, ho ever, man is naturally adapted to act unDustly from exciting causes, these are three1 the love of pleasure of corporeal enDoyments, avarice in the accumulation of ealth, and ambition in surpassing e0uals or fello s# ;o it is possible to oppose to these such things as procure fear, shame, or desire in menI fear through the la s, shame through the Gods, and desire through the energies of reason# ,ence youth should be taught from the very first to honor the Gods and the la s# 6ollo ing these, every human or!, and every !ind of human life, by the participation of sanctity and piety1 ill sail prosperously over the sea $of generation(#

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%# -o neglect things of the smallest conse0uence is not the least thing in human life# *# -he sage and the contemner of ealth most resemble God#

2# 3o not investigate the name of God, because you ill not find it# 6or everything called by a name receives its appellation from that hich is more orthy than itself, so that it is one person that calls, and another that hears# 7ho is it, therefore, ho has given a name to GodK -he ord ,od is not a name of his, but an indication of hat e conceive of him# G# God is a light incapable of receiving its opposite $dar!ness(# 9# @ou have in yourself something similar to God, and therefore use yourself as the temple of God, on account of that hich in you resembles God# &# ,onor God above all things, that he may rule over you# 8# 7hatever you honor above all things, that hich you so honor ill have dominion over you# :ut if you give yourself to the domination of GodI you ill thus have the dominion over all things# '# -he greatest honor hich can be paid to God is to !no and imitate him# )# -here is not any thing, indeed, much holly resembles GodI nevertheless the imitation of him as much as possible by an inferior nature is grateful to him# %+# God indeed, is not in ant of any thingI the ise man is in ant of God alone# ,e, therefore ho is in ant of but fe things, and the necessary, emulates him ho is in ant of nothing# %%# /ndeavor to be great in the estimation of divinityI but among men avoid envy# %*#-he sage hose estimation ith man as but small hile he as living, ill be reno ned hen he is dead# %2# 4onsider lost all the time in hich you do not thin! of divinity# %G# A good intellect is the choir of divinity# %9# A bad intellect is the choir of evil geniuses# %&# ,onor that hich is Dust, on this very account that it is Dust# %8# @ou ill not be concealed from divinity hen you act unDustly, nor even hen you thin! of acting so# %'# -he foundation of piety is continence, but the summit of piety is love to God# %)# 7ish that hat is expedient and not hat is pleasing may happen to you# *+# Such as you ish your neighbor to be to you, such also be to your neighbors# *%# -hat hich God gives you none can ta!e a ay# **# ;either do, nor even thin!, of that hich you are un illing# God should !no # *2# :efore you do anything, thin! of God, that his light may precede your energies#

*G# -he soul is illuminated by the recollection of God# *9# -he use of animal food is indifferent, but it is more rational to abstain from them# *&# God is not the author of any evil# *8# @ou should not possess more than the use of the body re0uires# *'# .ossess those things that no one can ta!e a ay from you# *)# :ear that hich is necessary, as it is necessary# 2+# As! of God things such as it is orthy of God to besto # 2%# -he reason that is in you is the light of your life# 2*# As! from God those things that you cannot receive from man# 22# 7ish that those things hich labor ought to precede, may be possessed by you after labor# 2G# :e not anxious to please the multitude# 29# It is not proper to despise those things of hich e shall be in ant after the dissolution of the body# 2&# 3o not as! of dignity that hich, hen you have obtained, you cannot perpetually possess# 28# Accustom your soul after $it has conceived all that is great of ( divinity, to conceive something great of itself# 2'# /steem precious nothing hich a bad man can ta!e from you# 2)# ,e is dear to divinity, ho considers those things alone precious, hich are to be so by divinity# G+# /verything superfluous is hostile# G%# ,e ho loves that hich is not expedient, ill not love that hich is expedient# G*# -he intellect of the sage is al ays ith divinity# G2# God d ells in the intellect of the ise man# GG# -he ise man is al ays similar to himself# G9# /very desire is insatiable, and therefore is al ays in ant# G&# -he !no ledge and imitation of divinity are alone sufficient to beatitude# G8# Bse lying as poison# G'# ;othing is so peculiar to isdom as truth#

G)# 7hen you preside over men, remember that divinity presides over you also# 9+# :e persuaded that the end of life is to live conformably to divinity# 9%# 3epraved affections are the beginning of sorro s# 9*# An evil disposition is the disease of the soulI but in Dustice and impiety is the death of it# 92# Bse all men in a ay such as if, after God, you ere the common curator of all things# 9G# ,e ho uses badly man!ind, badly uses himself# 99# 7ish that you may be able to benefit your enemies# 9&# /ndure all things, in order that you may live conformably to God# 98# :y honoring a ise man, you ill honor yourself# 9'# In all your actions, !eep God before your eyes# 9)# @ou may refuse matrimony, in order to live in incessant presence ith God# If, ho ever you !no ho to fight, and are illing to, ta!e a ife, and beget children# &+# -o live, indeed, is not in our po erI but to live rightly is# &%# :e un illing to entertain accusations against a man studious of isdom# &*# If you ish to live successfully, you ill have to avoid much, in hich you ill come out only second best# &2# S eet to you should be any cup that 0uenches thirst# &G# 6ly from intoxication as you ould from insanity# &9# ;o good originates from the body# &&# /stimate that you are suffering a great punishment hen you obtain the obDect of corporeal desireI for desire ill never be satisfied ith the attainments of any such obDects# &8# Invo!e God as a itness to hatever you do# &'# -he bad man does not thin! that there is a providence# &)# Assert that your true man is he ho in you possesses isdom# 8+# -he ise man participates in God# 8%# 7herever that hich in you is ise resides, there also is your true good# 8*# -hat hich is not harmful to the soul does not harm the man#

82# ,e ho unDustly expels from his body a ise man, by his ini0uity confers a benefit on his victimI for he thus is liberated from his bonds# 8G# Anly through soul-ignorance is a man saddened by fear of death# 89# @ou ill not possess intellect till you understand that you have it# 8&# ?eali5e that your body is the garment of your soulI and then you ill preserve it pure# 88# Impure geniuses let not the impure soul escape them# 8'# ;ot to every man spea! of God# 8)# -here is danger, and no negligible one, to spea! of God even the things that are true# '+# A true assertion about God is an assertion of God# '%# @ou should not dare to spea! of God to the multitude# '*# ,e ho does not orship God, does not !no him# '2# ,e ho is orthy of God is also a god among men# 'G# It is better to have nothing, than to possess much, and impart it to no one# '9# ,e ho thin!s that there is a God and that he protects nothing, is no hit better than he ho does not believe there is a God# '&# ,e best honors God ho ma!es his intellect as li!e God as possible# '8# 7ho inDures, none has none to fear# ''# ;o one ho loo!s do n to the earth is ise# ')# -o lie is to deceive, and be deceived# )+# ?ecogni5e hat God is, and that in you hich recogni5es God# )%# It is not deathI but a bad life, hich destroys the soul# )*# If you !ne ,im by hom you ere made, you ould !no yourself# )2# It is not possible for a man to live conformably to 3ivinity, unless he acts modestly, ell and Dustly# )G# 3ivine isdom is true science# )9# @ou should not dare to spea! of God to an impure soul# )&# -he ise man follo s God, and God follo s the MsoulN of the ise man#

)8# A !ing reDoices in those he governs, and therefore God reDoices in the ise man# ,e ho governs li!e ise, is inseparable from those he governsI and therefore God is inseparable from the soul of the ise man, hich ,e defends and governs# )'# -he ise man is governed by God, and on this account is blessed# ))# A scientific !no ledge of God causes a man to use but fe ords#

%++# -o use many ords in spea!ing of God obscures the subDect# %+%# -he man ho possesses a !no ledge of God ill not be very ambitious# %+*# -he erudite, chaste and ise soul is the prophet of the truth of God# %+2# Accustom yourself al ays to loo! to the 3ivinity# %+G# A ise intellect is the mirror of God# $ -hese sentences ere preserved by ?ufinus, a 4hristian riter, ho ould not have ta!en the trouble to do so unless indeed their intrinsic orth had been as great as it is# (

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%+9# As e live through soul, it must be said that by the virtue of this e do live ellI Dust as because e see through# the eyes, e see ell through their virtues# %+&# It must not be thought that gold can be inDured by rust, or virtue by baseness# %+8# 7e should beta!e ourselves to virtue as to an invisible temple, so that e may not be exposed to any ignoble insolence of soul, ith respect to our communion ith, and continuance in life# %+'# 7e should confide in virtue as in a chaste ifeI but trust to fortune as to an inconsistent mistress# %+)# It is better that virtue should be received accompanied by poverty, than ealth ith violenceI and frugality ith health, than veracity ith disease# %%+# An overabundance of food is harmful to the bodyI but the body is preserved hen the soul is disposed in a becoming manner# %%%# It is as dangerous to give po er to a depraved man, than a s ord to a madman# %%*# As it is better for a part of the body that contains purulent decay to be burned, than to continue as it is, thus also is it better for a depraved man to die, than to continue to live# %%2# -he theorems of philosophy are to be enDoyed, as much as possible, as if they ere ambrosia and nectar# 6or the resultant pleasure is genuine incorruptible and divine# -hey are also capable of producing magnanimity, and though they cannot ma!e us eternal, yet they enable us to obtain a scientific !no ledge of eternal natures#

%%G# If vigor of sensation is, as it is, considered to be desirable, so much more strenuously should e endeavor to obtain prudenceI for it is, as it ere, the sensitive vigor of the practical intellect, hich e contain# And as through the former e are not deceived in sensible perceptions, so through the latter e avoid false reasonings in practical affairs# %%9# 7e shall properly venerate 3ivinity if e purify our intellect from vice, as from a stain# %%&# A temple should, indeed, be adorned ith giftsI but our soul ith disciplines# %%8# As the lesser mysteries are to be delivered before the greater, thus also discipline must precede philosophy# %%'# -he fruits of the earth, indeed, appear annuallyI but the fruits of philosophy ripen at all seasons# %%)# As he ho ishes the best fruit must pay most attention to the land, so must the greatest attention be paid the soul, if it is to produce fruits orthy of its nature#

6?AC S-A:A/BS
%*+# 3o not even thin! of doing hat ought not to be done# %*%# 4hoose rather to be strong in soul, than in body# %**# :e sure that laborious thing contribute to virtue, more than do pleasurable things# %*2# /very passion of the soul is most hostile to its salvation# %*G# .ythagoras said that it is most difficult simultaneously to al! in many paths of life# %*9# .ythagoras said that e must choose the best lifeI for custom ill ma!e it pleasant# 7ealth is a ea! anchorI glory, still ea!erI and similarly ith the body, dominion, and honor# 7hich anchors are strongK .rudence, magnanimity and fortitudeI these can be sha!en by no tempest# -his is the la of God, that virtue is the only thing strong, all else is a trifle# $-aylor thin!s that this and the next six sentences are rongly attributed to Socrates, and are by 3emocrates or 3emophilus(# %*&# All the parts of human life, Dust as those of a statue, should be beautiful# %*8# As a statue stands immovable on its pedestal, so should a man on his deliberate choice, if he is orthy# %*'# Incense is for the Gods, but praise to good men# %*)# Cen unDustly accused of acting unDustly should be defended, hile those ho excel should be praised# %2+# It is not the sumptuous adornment of the horse that earns him praise, but the nature of the horse himselfI nor is the man orthy merely because he o ns great ealth, but he hose soul is generous#

%2%# 7hen the ise man opens his mouth, the beauties of his soul present themselves to vie as the statues in a temple $ hen the gates are opened(# %2*# ?emind yourself that all men assert that isdom is the greatest good, but that there are fe ho strenuously endeavor to obtain this greatest good# O .ythagoras# l22# :e sober, and remember to be disposed to believeI for these are the nerves of isdom# --/picharmus# %2G# It is better to live lying on the grass, confiding in divinity and yourself, than to lie on a golden bed ith perturbation# %29# @ou ill not be in ant of anything, hich is in the po er of 6ortune to give or ta!e a ay# O .ythagoras# %2&# 3espise all those things hich you ill not ant hen liberated from the bodyI and exercising yourself in those things of hich you ill be in ant, hen liberated from the body, be sure to invo!e the Gods to become your helpers# O .ythagoras# %28# It is as impossible to conceal fire in a garment, as a base deviation from rectitude in time# $3emophilus, rather than Socrates(# %2'# 7ind increases fire, but custom, love# Ibidem# %2)# Anly those are dear to divinity ho are hostile to inDustice# $3emocritus or 3emophilus(# %G+# :odily necessities are easily procured by anybodyI ithout labor or molestationI but those things hose attainment demands effort and trouble, are obDects of desire not to the body, but to depraved opinion# $Aristoxenus the .ythagorean(# %G%# -hus spo!e .ythagoras of desire1 -his passion is various, laborious and very multiform# Af desires, ho ever, some are ac0uired and artificial, hile others are inborn# 3esire is a certain tendency and impulse of the soul, and an appetite of fullness, or presence of sense, or of an emptiness and absence of it, and of non-perception# -he three best !no n !inds of depraved desire are the improper, the unproportionate, and the unseasonable# 6or desire is either immediately indecorous, troublesome or illiberalI or if not absolutely so, it is improperly vehement and persistent# Ar, in the third place, it is impelled at an improper time, or to ards improper obDects #O Aristoxenus# %G*# .ythagoras said1 /ndeavor not, to conceal your errors by ords, but to remedy them by reproofs# %G2# .ythagoras said1 It is not so difficult to err, as not to reprove him ho errs# %GG# As a bodily disease cannot be healed, if it is concealed or praised, thus also can neither a remedy be applied to a diseased soul, hich is badly guarded and protected# O .ythagoras# %G9# -he grace of freedom of speech, li!e beauty in season, is productive of greater delight# %G&# -o have a blunt s ord is as improper as to use ineffectual freedom of speech# %G8# As little could you deprive the orld of the sun, as freedom of speech from erudition#

%G'# As one ho is clothed ith a cheap robe may have a good body-habit, thus also may he hose life is poor possess freedom of speech# %G)# .ythagoras said1 .refer those that reprove, to those that flatterI but avoid flatterers as much as enemies# %9+# -he life of the avaricious resembles a funeral ban0uet# 6or though it has all desirable elements, no one reDoices# %9%# .ythagoras said1 Ac0uire continence as the greatest strength and health# %9*# S;ot fre0uently man from man,Q is one of the exhortations of .ythagorasI by hich obscurely he signifies that it is not proper fre0uently to engage in sexual connections# %92# .ythagoras said1 A slave to his passions cannot possibly be free# %9G# .ythagoras said that intoxication is the preparation for insanity# %99# An being as!ed ho a ine-lover might be cured of intoxication .ythagoras said1 SIf he fre0uently considers hat ere his actions during intoxication#> %9&# .ythagoras said that unless you had something better than silence to say, you had better !eep silence# %98# .ythagoras said, that rather than utter an idle ord, you had better thro a stone in vain# %9'# .ythagoras said1 SSay not fe things in many ords, but much in fe %9)# /picharmus said1 S-o men genius is a divinity, either good or evil#> %&+# An being as!ed ho a man ought to behave to ards his country hen it had acted unDustly toards him, .ythagoras said, SAs to a mother#Q %&%# -raveling teaches a man frugality, and self-sufficiency# -he s eetest remedies for hunger and eariness are bread made of mil! and floury on a bed of grass# $3emocritus, probably 3emocrates or 3emophilusI also the next one(# %&*# /very land is e0ually suitable as a residence for the ise manI the orthy souls fatherland is the hole orld# %&2# .ythagoras said that into cities entered first, luxuryI then being gluttedI then lascivious, insolence, and last destruction# %&G# .ythagoras said that as the best city hich contained the orthiest men# %&9# .ythagoras added to 3emophiluss maxim that Syou should do those things that you Dudge to be beautiful, though in doing them you should lac! reno nI for the rabble is a bad Dudge of a good thing#Q -he ords, S-herefore despise the reprehension of those hose praise you despise#Q %&&# .ythagoras said that those ho do not punish bad men, are really ishing that good men be inDured# ords#>

%&8# .ythagoras said1 S;ot ithout a bridle can a horse be governed, and no less riches ithout prudence#Q %&'# -he prosperous man ho is vain is no better than the driver of a race on a slippery road# $SocratesK .robably 3emocrates, or 3emophilus(# %&)# -here is no gate of ealth so secure but that may open to the opportunity of 6ortune# $3emocritusK .robably 3emocrates or 3emophilus(# %8+# -he unrestrained grief of a torpid soul may be expelled by reasoning# $3emocrates, not 3emocritus(# %8%# .overty should be born ith e0uanimity by a ise man# $Same(# %8*# .ythagoras1 Spare your life, lest you consume it ith sorro and care# %82# .havorinus in spea!ing of Ald Age, said1 ;or ill I be silent as to this particular, that both to .lato and .ythagoras, it appeared that old age as not to be considered ith reference to an egress from the present life, but to the beginning of a blessed one#

6rom 4"/C/;- A6 A"/JA;3?IA, Strom# 21 G%9#


%8G# .hilolaus said that the ancient theologians and priests testified that the soul is united to the body by a certain punishment, and that it is buried in this body as a sepulchre# %89# .ythagoras said that S7hatever e see hen a a!e is death, and hen asleep is a dream#Q

/-,I4A" 6?AGC/;-S $preserved by S-A:A/BS(


$,is 4ommentary of the Golden <erses is ordy and commonplace, and therefore is here omitted(

I 4A;3B4- -A7A?3S -,/ GA3S


4oncerning the Gods e should assume that they are immutable, and do not change their decrees, from the very beginning they never vary their conceptions of propriety# -he immutability and firmness of the virtues e !no , and reason suggests that it must transcendently obtain ith the Gods, and be the element hich to their conception imparts a never-failing stability# /vidently no punishment hich divinity thin!s proper to inflict is li!ely to be remitted# 6or if, the Gods changed their decisions, and omitted to punish someone hom they had designed to punish, for the orld could be neither beautifully nor Dustly governedI nor can e assign any probable reason for repentance $on their part(# ?ashly, indeed, and ithout any reason, have poets ritten ords such as the follo ing1 SCen bend the Gods, by incense and libation, :y gentle vo s, and sacrifice and prayer, 7hen they transgress and stray from hat is right#Q $,omer, Iliad, ix1G)9-8(

And1 =6lexible are een the Gods themselvesL> Ibidem# $G)2(# ;or is this the only such expression in poetry# ;or must e omit to observe, that though the Gods are not the causes of evil, yet they connect certain persons ith things of this !ind, and surround those ho deserve to be afflicted ith corporeal and external hindrancesI not through any malignity, or because they thin! it advisable that men should struggle ith difficulties, but for the sa!e of punishment# 6or as in general, pestilence and draught, rains-torms, earth0ua!es and the li!e, are indeed for the most part produced by natural causes, and yet are sometimes caused by the Gods, hen the times are such that the multitudes, ini0uity needs to be punished publicly, and in common, li!e ise in particular the Gods sometimes afflict an individual ith corporeal and external difficulties, in order to punish him, and convert others to hat is right# -he belief that the Gods are never the cause of any evil, it seems to me, contributes greatly to proper conduct to ards the Gods# 6or evils proceed from vice alone, hile the Gods are of themselves the causes of good, and of any advantageI though in the meantime e slight their beneficence, and surround ourselves ith voluntary evils# -hat is hy I agree ith the poet ho says1 S-hat mortals blame the Gods##### as if they ere the causes of their evilsL -hough not from fate, :ut for their crimes they suffer oeLQ $,omer, Adyssey, i#2*-2G( Cany arguments prove that God is never in any ay the cause of evilI but ill suffice to read $in the first boo! of the ?epublic( the ords of .lato, Sthat as it MisN not the nature of heat to refrigerate, so the beneficent cannot harmI but the contrary#Q Coreover, God being good, and from the beginning replete ith every virtue, cannot harm nor cause evil to any oneI on the contrary imparting good to all illing to receive itI besto ing on us also such indifferent things as flo from nature, and hich result in accordance ith nature# :ut there is only one cause of evil#

II .?A./? 4A;3B4- -A7A?3S AB? 4AB;-?@


After spea!ing of the Gods, it is most reasonable, in the second place, to sho ho e should conduct ourselves to ards our country# 6or God is my itness that our country is a sort of secondary divinity, and our first and greatest parent# -hat is hy its name is, for good reason, patris, derived from pater, a fatherI but ta!ing a feminine termination, to be as it ere a mixture of father and mother# -his also explains that our country should be honored e0ually ith our parentsI preferring it to either of them separately, and not even to it preferring both our parentsI preferring it besides to our ife, children and friendsI and in short to all things, under the Gods# ,e ho ould esteem, one finger more than five ould be considered stupidI inasmuch as it is reasonable to prefer five to oneI the former despising the most desirable, hile the latter, among the five preserves also the one finger# "i!e ise, he ho prefers to save himself rather than his country, in addition to acting unla fully, desires an impossibility# An the contrary, he ho to himself prefers his country is dear to divinity, and reasons properly and irrefutably# Coreover it has been observed that though someone

should not be a member of an organised society, remaining apart therefrom, yet is it proper that he should prefer the safety of society to his o nI for the citys destruction ould demonstrate that on its existence depended that of the individual citi5en, Dust as the amputation of the hand involves the destruction of the finger, as an integral part# 7e may therefore dra the general conclusion that general utility cannot be separated from private elfare, both at bottom being identical# 6or hatever is beneficial to the hole country is common to every single part, inasmuch as ithout the parts the hole is nothing# <ice versa, hatever redounds to the benefit of the citi5en extends also to the cityI the nature of hich is to extend benefits to the citi5en# 6or example, hatever is beneficial to a dancer, must, in so far as he is a dancer, be so also to the hole choric ballet# Applying this reasoning to the discursive po er of the soul, it ill shed light on every particular duty, and e shall never omit to perform hatever may by us be due to our country# -hat is the reason hy a man ho proposes to act honorably by his country should from his soul remove every passion and disease# -he la s of his country should, by a citi5en, be observed as $precepts of( a secondary divinity, conforming himself entirely to their mandates# ,e ho endeavors to transgress or ma!e any innovation in these la s should be opposed in every ay, and be prevented therefrom in every possible ay# :y no means beneficial to a city, is contempt of existing la s, and preference for the ne # Incurable innovators, therefore, should be restrained from giving their votes, and ma!ing precipitate innovations# I therefore commend the "ocrian legislator Haleucus, ho ordained that he ho intended to introduce a ne la should do it ith a rope around his nec!, in order that he might be immediately strangled unless he succeeded in changing the ancient constitution of the state, to the very great advantage of the community# :ut customs hich are truly those of the country, and hich, perhaps are more ancient than the la s themselves, are, no less than the la s, to be preserved# ,o ever, the customs of the present, hich are but of yesterday, and hich, have been every here introduced only so very recently are not to be dignified as the institutes of our ancestors, and perhaps they are not even to be considered customs# Coreover, because, custom is an un ritten la , it has as sanction the authority of a very good legislator, namely, common consent of all that use itI and perhaps on this account its authority is next to that of Dustice itself#

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After considering the Gods and our parents, hat person deserves to be mentioned more than, or prior to our parentsK -hat is hy e turn to ards them# ;o mista!e, therefore, ill be made by him ho says that they are as it ere secondary or terrestrial divinities, since, on account of their proximity, they should, in a certain not blasphemous sense, be by us more honored than the Gods themselves# -o begin ith, the only gratitude orthy of the name is a perpetual and unremitting promptness to repay the benefits received from themI since, though e do our very utmost, this ould yet fall short of hat they deserve# Coreover, e might also say that in one sense our deeds are to be counted as theirs, because e ho perform them ere once produced by them# If, for instance, the or!s of .hidias and other artists should themselves produce other or!s of art, e should not hesitate to attribute these latter deeds also to the original artistsI that is hy e may Dustly say that our performances are the deeds of our parents, through hom e originally derived our existence# In order that e may the more easily apprehend the duties e o e them, e should !eep in mind the underlying principle, that our parents should by us be considered as the images of the GodsI and, so help MtoN heaven, images of the GodsI domesticK, ho are our benefactors, our relatives, our creditors, our lords, and our most stable friends# -hey are indeed most stable images of the gods, possessing a li!eness to them hich no artist could possibly surpass# -hey are the guardian divinities of the home, and live ith usI they are our greatest benefactors, endo ing us ith benefits of the

greatest conse0uence, and indeed besto ing on us not only all e possess, but also such things as they ish to give us, and for hich they themselves pray# 6urther, they are our nearest !indred, and the causes of our alliance ith others# -hey are also creditors of things of the most honorable nature, and repay themselves only by ta!ing hat e shall be benefited by returning# 6or to a child hat benefit can be so great as piety and gratitude to his parentsK Cost Dustly, too, are they our lords, for of hat can e be the possession in a degree greater than of those through hom e existK Coreover, they are perpetual and spontaneous friends and auxiliaries, affording, us assistance at all times and in every circumstance# Since, besides, the name of parent is the most excellent of names, hich e apply even to the divinities, e may add something further to this conceptionI namely, that children should be persuaded that they d ell in their fathers house, as if they ere ministers and priests in a temple, appointed and consecrated for this purpose by nature herself, ho entrusted to their care a reverential attention to their parents# If e are illing to carry out the dictates of reason, e shall readily attend to both !inds of affective regard, that regarding the, body and the soul# @et reason ill sho us that to the body is to be paid less regard than to the soul, although e shall not neglect the former very necessary duties# 6or our parents, therefore, e should obtain liberal food, and such as is adapted to the ea!ness of old ageI besides this, a bed, sleep, massage, a bath, and proper garmentsI in short, the necessaries of the body, that they may at no time experience the ant of any of these, by this, imitating their care for the nurture of ourselves, hen e ere infants# Aur attention to them should parta!e of the prophetic nature, hereby e may discover hat special bodily necessity they may be longing, ithout pressing it to us# ?especting us, indeed, they divined many things, hen our desires could be expressed by no more than inarticulate and distressful cries, unable to express the obDects of our ants clearly# :y the benefits they formerly conferred upon us, our parents became to us the preceptors or hat e ought to besto upon them# 7ith respect to our parents souls, e should in the first place, procure for them diversion, hich ill be obtained especially if e associate ith them by night and day, ta!ing al!s, being massaged, and living by their side, unless some thing necessary interferes# 6or Dust as those ho are underta!ing a long Dourney desire the presence of their families and friends to see them off, as if accompanying a solemn procession, so also parents, verging on the grave, enDoy most of all the sedulous and unremitting attention of their children# Coreover, should our parents at any time, as happens often, especially ith those hose education as deficient, their conduct should be reprehensible, they should indeed be corrected but not as e are accustomed to do ith our inferiors or e0uals, but as it ere ith suggestivenessI not as if they had erred through ignorance, but as if they had committed an oversight through inattention, as if they ould not have erred, had they considered the matter# 6or reproof, especially if personal, is to the old bitter# -hat is hy their oversights should be supplemented by mild exhortation, as by an elegant artifice# 4hildren, besides, reDoice their parents by performing for them servile offices such as ashing their feet, ma!ing their bed, or ministering to their ants# -hese necessary servile attentions are all the more precious hen performed by the dear hands of their children, accepting their ministrations# .arents ill be especially gratified hen their children publicly sho their honor to those hom they love and very much esteem# -hat is hy children should affectionately love their parents !indred, and pay them proper attention, as also to their parents friends and ac0uaintances# -hese general principles ill aid us to deduce many other smaller filial duties, hich are neither unimportant nor accidental# 6or since our parents are gratified by the attention e pay to those they love, it ill be evident that as e are in a most eminent degree beloved by parents, e shall surely much please them by a proper attention to ourselves#

I<

A; 6?A-/?;A" "A</
-he first admonition therefore, is very MclearN and convincing, and obligatory generally, being MsaneN and self-evident# ,ere it is1 Act by everyone, in the same manner as if you supposed yourself to be him, and him to be you# A servant ill be ell treated by one ho considers ho he ould li!e to be treated by him, if he as the master, and himself the servant# -he same principle might be applied bet een parents and children, and vice versaI and in short, bet een all men# -his principle, ho ever, is peculiarly adapted to the mutual relation of brothersI since no other preliminary considerations are necessary, in the matter of conduct to ards ones brother, than promptly to assume that e0uable mutual relation# -his therefore is the first precept, to act to ards ones brother in the same manner in hich he ould thin! it proper for his brother to act to ards him# :ut someone ill say, I do not transgress propriety, and am e0uitableI but my brothers manners are rough and brus0ue# -his is not rightI for, in the first place, he may not be spea!ing the truthI as excessive vanity might lead a man to extol and magnify his o n manners, and diminish and vilify hat pertains to others# It fre0uently happens indeed, that men of inferior orth prefer themselves to others ho are far more excellent characters# Second, though the brother should indeed be of the rough character mentioned above, the course to ta!e ould be to prove oneself the better by van0uishing his boorishness by Myour orthinessN -hose ho conduct themselves orthily to ards moderate, benignant men are entitled to no great than!sI but transform to graciousness the stupid vulgar man, he deserves the greatest applause# It must not be thought impossible for exhortation to ta!e mar!ed effectI for in men of the moat impossible manners there are possibilities of improvement, and of love and honor for their benefactors# ;ot even animals, and such as naturally are the most hostile to our race, ho are captured and dragged off in chains, and confined in cages, -- are not beyond being tamed by appropriate treatment, and daily food# 7ill not then the man ho is a brother, or even the first man you meet, ho deserves attention far greater than a brute, be rendered gentle by proper treatment even though he should never entirely lose his boorishness# In our behavior, therefore, to ard every man, and in much greater degree to ards a brother, e should imitate Socrates ho to a person ho cried out against him, SCay I die, unless I am revenged on you,Q ans ered, SCay I die, if I do not ma!e you my friendLQ So much then for external fraternal relations# 6urther, a man should consider that in a certain sense his brothers are part of him, Dust as my MeyesN are part of meI also my legs, my hands, and other parts of me# 6or the relation of brothers to a family social organism $are the same as members a body(# If then the eyes and the hands should receive a particular soul and intellect, they ould because of the above mentioned communion, and because they could not all perform their proper offices ithout the presence of the other members atch over the interests of the other members M ithN the interest of a guardian genius# So also, e ho are men, and ho ac!no ledge that e have a soul, should, to ards our brothers, omit no proper offices# Indeed, more naturally adapted for MmutualN assistance than parts of the bodyI are brothers# -he eyes, being mutually adDusted, do see hat MisN before them, and one hand cooperates ith the otherI but the mutual adaptation of brothers is far more various# 6or they accomplish things hich are mutually profitable, though at the greatest intervening distanceI and they ill greatly benefit each other though their mutual difference be immeasurable# In short, it must be considered MthatN our life resembles nothing so much as a prolonged conflict, hich arises partly from the strife in the nature of things, and partly through the sudden unexpected blo s of fortuneI but most of all through vice itself, hich abstains neither from violence, fraud, or evil stratagems# ,ence nature, as being not ignorant of the purpose for hich she generated us, produced each of us as it ere accompanied by an auxiliary# ;o one, therefore, is alone, nor does he derive his origin from an oa! or a roc!, but from parents, in conDunction or ith brothers, relatives, and other intimates# ,ere reason for us performs a great

or!, conciliating to us strangers, ho are no relatives of ours, furnishing us ith many assistants# -hat is the very reason hy e naturally endeavor to allure and ma!e every one our friend# ,o insane a thing it therefore is to ish to be united to those ho naturally have nothing suitable to procure our love, and become as familiar as possible ith them, voluntarilyI and yet neglect those illing helpers and associates supplied by nature herself, ho are called brothersL

< A; CA??IAG/
-he discussion of marriage is most necessary, as the hole of our race is naturally socialI and the most fundamental social association is that effected by marriage# 7ithout a household, there could exist no citiesI and households of the unmarried are most imperfect, hile on the contrary those of the married are most complete# -hat is hy in our treatise on -amilies, e have sho n that the married state is to be preferred by the sageI hile a single life is not to be chosen except under peculiar circumstances# $.ythagoras and Socrates ere married, hile .lato, .lotinus and .roclus ere not(# -herefore, inasmuch as e should imitate the man of intellect, so far as possible, and as for him marriage is preferable, it is evident it ill be so also for us, except if hindered by some exceptional circumstance# -his is the first reason for marriage# /ntirely apart from the model of the sage, ;ature herself seems to incite us thereto# ;ot only did she ma!e us gregarious, but adapted us to sexual intercourse, and proposed the procreation of children and stability of life as the one and universal or! of edloc!# ;o ;ature Dustly teaches us that a choice of such things as are fit should be made so as to accord ith hat she has procured for us# /very animal, therefore, lives in conformity to its natural constitution, and so also every plant in harmony ith its la s of life# :ut there obtains this difference1 that the latter do not employ any reasoning or calculation, in the selection of the things on hich they lay hold, using alone nature, ithout participating in soul# Animals are dra n to investigate hat may be proper for them by imaginations and desires# -o us, ho ever, ;ature gave reason, to survey everything else, and, together ith all things, nay, prior to all things, to direct its attention to ;ature itself, so as to tend toards her, as a glorious aim, in an orderly manner, that by choosing everything consonant ith her, e might live in a becoming manner# 6ollo ing this line of argument, he ill not err in saying that a family ithout edloc! is imperfectI for $nature( does not conceive of the governor ithout the governed, nor the governed ithout a governor# ;ature therefore seems to me to shame those ho are averse to marriage# In the next place, marriage is beneficial# 6irst, because it produces a truly divine fruit, the procreation of children, ho are, as parta!ing of our nature, to assist us in all our underta!ings, hile our strength is yet undiminishedI and hen e shall be orn out, oppressed ith old age, they ill be our assistants# In prosperity they ill be the associates of our Doy, and in adversity, the sympathetic diminishers of our sorro s# Carriage is beneficial not only because of procreation of children, but for the association of a ife# 7hen e are earied ith our labors outside of the home, she receives us ith officious !indness, and refreshes us by her solicitous attentions# ;ext, she induces a forgetfulness of molestations outside of the house# -he annoyances in the forum, the gymnasium or the country, and in short all the vicissitudes of our intercourse ith friends and ac0uaintances, do not disturb us so obviously, being obscured by necessary occupationsI but hen released from these, e return home, and our mind has time to reflect, then, availing themselves of this opportunity these cares and anxieties rush in upon us, to torment us, at the very moment hen life seems cheerless and lonely# -hen comes the ife as a great solace, and by ma!ing some in0uiry about external affairs, or by referring to, and together considering some domestic problem, she, by her sincere vivacity inspires him ith pleasure and delight# It is needless to enumerate all the help a ife can be in festivals, hen sacrificing vic-

timsI or during her husbands Dourneys, she can !eep the household running smoothly, and direct at times of urgencyI in managing the domestics, and in nursing her husband hen sic!# Summari5ing, in order to pass through life properly, all men need t o thingsI the aid of relatives, and !indly sympathy# :ut nothing can be more sympathetic then a ifeI nor anything more !indred, than children# :oth of these are afforded by marriageI ho therefore could e find anything more beneficialK Also beautiful is a married life, it seems to me# 7hat relation can be more ornamental to a family, than that bet een husband and ifeK ;ot sumptuous edifices, not alls covered ith marble plaster, not pia55as adorned ith stones, hich are indeed admired by those ignorant of true goodsI not paintings and arched myrtle al!s, nor anything else hich is the subDect of astonishment to the stupid, is the ornament of a family# -he beauty of a household consists in the conDunction of man and ife, united to each other by destiny, and consecrated to the gods presiding over nuptial births, and M---Nes, and ho harmoni5e, and use all things in McommonN for their bodies, or even their very soulsI li!e ise exercise a becoming authority over their house and servantsI ho are properly solicitous M-----Nt the education of their childrenI and to the necessaries of life pay an attention hich is neither excessive or negligent, but moderate and appropriate# 6or, as the most admirable ,omer says, hat can be better and more excellent, =-han hen at home the husband and ife, "ive in entire unanimityL> $Adyssey, 81%'2(# -hat is the reason hy I have fre0uently ondered at those ho conceive that life in common ith a oman must be burdensome and grievous# -hough to them she appears to be a burden and molestation, she is not soI on the contrary, she is something light and easy to be borne, or rather, she possesses the po er of charming a ay from her husband things burdensome and grievous# ;o trouble so great is there hich cannot easily be borne by a husband and ife ho harmoni5e, and are illing to endure it in common# :ut hat is truly burdensome and unbearable is imprudence, for through it things naturally light, and among others a ife, become heavy# -o many, indeed, marriage is intolerable, in reality not from itself, or because such an association as this ith a oman is naturally insufferable, but hen e marry the rong person, and, in addition to this, are ourselves entirely ignorant of life, and unprepared to ta!e a ife in a ay such as a free-born oman ought to be ta!en, than indeed it happens that this association ith her becomes difficult and intolerable# <ulgar people do marry in this ayI ta!ing a ife neither for the procreation of children, nor for harmonious associationI being attracted to the union by the magnitude of the do er, or through physical attractiveness, or the li!eI and by follo ing these bad counselors, they pay no attention to the brides disposition and# manners, celebrating nuptials to their o n destruction, and ith cro ned doors introduce to themselves instead of a ife, a tyrant, hom they cannot resist, and ith hom they are unable to contend for chief authority# /vidently, therefore, marriage becomes burdensome and intolerable to many, not through itself, but through these causes# :ut it is not ise to blame things hich are not harmful, nor to ma!e our o n deficient use of these things the cause of our complaint against them# Cost absurd, besides, is it feverishly to see! the auxiliaries of friendship, and achieve certain friends and associates, to aid and defend us in the vicissitudes of life, ithout see!ing and endeavoring to obtain the relief, defence and assistance afforded us by ;ature, the gods, and the la s, through a ife and children# As to a numerous offspring, it is generally suitable to nature and marriage that all, or the maDority of the offspring be nurtured# Cany dissent from this, for a not very beautiful reason, avariciousness, and the fear of poverty as the greatest evil# -o begin ith, in procreating children, e are not only begetting assistants, nurses for our old age, and associates in every vicissitude of lifeI O e do not

ho ever beget them for ourselves alone, but in many ays also for our parents# -o them our procreation of children is gratifyingI because, if e should suffer anything calamitous prior to their decease, e shall, instead of ourselves, leave our children as the support of their old age# -hen for a grandfather it is a beautiful thing to be conducted by the hands of his grandchildren, and by them to be considered as orthy of every attention# ,ence, in the first place, e shall gratify our o n parents by paying attention to the procreation of children# In the next, e shall be cooperating ith the ardent ishes and fervent prayers of those ho begot us# -hey ere solicitous about our birth from the first, there through loo!ing for an extended succession of themselves, that they should leave behind them children of children, therefore paying attention to our marriage, procreation, and nurture# ,ence, by marrying and begetting children e shall be, as it ere, fulfilling a part of their prayersI hile, acting contrari ise, e shall be destroying the obDect of their deliberate choice# Coreover, it ould seem that everyone ho voluntarily, and ithout some prohibiting circumstance avoids marriage and the procreation of children, accuses his parents of madness, as having engaged in edloc! ithout the right conception of things# ,ere e see an unavoidable contradiction# ,o could that man live ithout dissension, ho finds a pleasure in living, and illingly continues in life as one ho as properly brought into existence by his parents, and yet conceives that for him procreation of offspring is something to be reDectedK 7e must remember that e beget children not only for our o n sa!e, but, as e have already stated, for our parentsI but further also for the sa!e of our friends and !indred# It is gratifying to see children hich are our offspring on account of human !indness, relatives, and security# "i!e ships hich, though greatly agitated by the aves, are firmly secured by many anchors, so do those ho have children, or hose friends or relatives have them, ride at anchor in port, in absolute security# 6or this reason, then, ill a man ho is a lover of his !indred, and associates, earnestly desire to marry and beget children# Aur country also loudly calls upon us to do so# 6or after all e do not beget children so much for ourselves, as for our country, procuring a race that may follo us, and supplying the community ith successors to ourselves# ,ence the priest should reali5e that to the city he o es priestsI the ruler, that he o es rulersI the orator, that he o es oratorsI and in short, the citi5en, that he o es citi5ens# So it is gratifying to a choric ballet that those ho compose it should continue perenniallyI and as an army loo!s to the continuance of its soldiers, so the perpetuation of its citi5ens is a matter of concern to a city# A city ould not need succession ere it only a temporary grouping, of duration commensurate ith the life-time of any one manI but as it extends to many generations, and if it invo!es a fortunate genius may endure for many ages, it evidently necessary to direct its attention not only to its present, but also to its future, not despising our natal soil, nor leaving it desolate, but establishing it in good hopes for our posterity#

<I 4A;3B4- -A7A?3S AB? ?/"A-I</S


3uties to relatives depend on duties to our immediate families, the arguments for hich apply also to the former# /ach of us is, indeed, as it ere circumscribed by many circles, larger and smaller, comprehending and comprehended, according to various mutual circumstances# -he first and nearest circle is that hich every one describes about the centre of his o n mind, herein is comprehended the body, and all its interests1 this is the smallest circle nearly touching the centre itself# -he second and further circle hich comprehends the first, is that hich includes parents, brethren, ife, and children# -he third greater circle is the one containing uncles, aunts,

grandfathers, and grandmothers and the children of brothers and sisters# :eyond this is the circle containing the remaining relatives# ;ext to this is the circle containing the common people, then that hich comprehends our tribe, then that of all the citi5ensI then follo t o further circlesI that of the neighboring suburbs, and those of the province# -he outermost and greatest circle is that hich comprehends the hole human race $as repeated .ope, in his /ssay on Can(# In vie of this, he ho strives to conduct himself properly in each of these connections should, in a certain respect, gather together the circles into one centre, and al ays endeavor to transfer himself from the comprehending circles to the several particulars hich they comprehend# -he lover of his !indred, therefore, should conduct himself in a becoming manner to ards his parents and brothersI also, according to the same analogy, to ards the more elderly of his relatives of both sexes, such as grandfathers, uncles and auntsI to ards those of the same age as himself, as his cousinsI and to ards his Duniors, as the children of his cousins# -his summari5es his conduct toards his !indred, having already sho n ho he should act to ards himself, his parents and brothersI and besides these, to ards ife and children# -o hich must be added that those ho belong to the third circle should be honored similarly to theseI and again, !indred similarly to those that belong to the third circle# 6or benevolence must someho fade ay from those ho are more distant from us by bloodI though at the same time e should endeavor, to effect a mutual assimilation# -his distance ill moderate if through the diligent attention hich e pay to them e shorten the bond connecting us ith each# Such then are the most comprehensive duties to ards our !indred# It might be ell to say a ord about the general names of !indred, such as the calling of cousins, uncles and aunts by the names of brothers, fathers and mothersI hile of the other !indred, to call some uncle, others the children of brother and sisters, and others cousins, according to the difference in age, for the sa!e of the emotional extension derivable from names# Such name-extension ill manifest our sedulous attention to these relatives, and at the same time ill incite and extend us in a greater degree to the contraction of the above circles# 7e should ho ever remember the distinction bet een parents that e made above# 4omparing parents, e said that to mother as due more love, but to the father more honor# Similarly, e should sho more love to those connected ith us by a maternal alliance, but more honor to those connected ith us by an alliance that is paternal#

<II A; /4A;ACI4S
-o begin ith, e must mention the !ind of labor hich preserves the union of the family# -o the husband are usually assigned rural, forensic and political activitiesI hile to the mother belong spinning of ool, ma!ing of bread, coo!ing, and in short, everything of a domestic nature# ;evertheless, neither should be entirely exempt from the labors of the other# 6or sometimes it ill be proper, hen the ife is in the country, that she should superintend the laborers, and act as maDor-domoI and that the husband should sometimes attend to domestic affairs, in0uiring about, and inspecting hat is doing in the house# -his Doint participation of necessary cares ill more firmly unite their mutual association# 7e should not fail to mention the manual operations, hich are associated ith the spheres of occupations# 7hy should the man meddle ith agricultural laborsK -his is generally admittedI and though men of the present day spend much time in idleness and luxury, yet it is rare to find any unilling to engage in the labor of so ing and planting, and other agricultural pursuits# Cuch less

persuasive perhaps, ill be the arguments hich invite the man to engage in those other occupations that belong to the oman# 6or such men as pay great attention to neatness and cleanliness ill not conceive ool-spinning to be their businessI since, for the most part vile, diminutive men, delicate and effeminate apply themselves to the elaboration of ool, through an emulation of feminine softness# :ut it does not become a man, ho is manly, to apply himself to things of this !ind1 so that perhaps neither shall I advise such employments to those ho have not unmista!ably demonstrated their modesty and virility# 7hat therefore should hinder the man from sharing in the labors pertaining to a oman, hose past life has been such as to free him from all suspicion of absurd and effeminate conductK 6or is it not thought that more domestic labors pertain to man than to omen in other fieldsK 6or they are more laborious, and re0uire corporeal strength, such as to grind, to !nead meal, to cut ood, to dra ater from a ell, to carry large vessels from one place to another, to sha!e coverlets and carpets, and such li!e# It ill be 0uite proper for men to engage in such occupations# :ut it ould be ell if the legitimate or! of a oman be enlarged in other directions, so that she may not only engage ith her maid-servants in the spinning of ool, but may also apply herself to other more virile occupations# It seems to me that breadma!ing, dra ing ater from a ell, the lighting of fires, the ma!ing of beds, and such li!e, are labors suited to a free-born oman# :ut to her husband a ife ill seem much more beautiful, especially if she is young, and not yet orn out by the bearing of children, if she becomes his associate in the gathering of grapes, and collecting the olivesI and if he is verging to ard old age, she ill render herself more pleasing to him by sharing ith him the labor of so ing and plo ing, and hile he is digging or planting, extending to him the instruments he needs for his or!# 6or hen by the husband and ife a family is governed thus, in respect to necessary labors, it seems to me that it ill be conducted in the best manner#

-ICA/BS "A4?IBS, -he -eacher of .lato, on -,/ SAB" A;3 -,/ 7A?"3 I CI;3, ;/4/SSI-@, 6A?C & CA--/?
-imaeus the "ocrian asserted this1 O that of all the things in the Bniverse, there are, t o causes, $one( Cind, $the cause( of things existing according to reasonI $the other( ;ecessity, $the cause( of things $existing( by $some( force, according to the po er of the bodiesI and that the former of these is the nature of the good and is called God, and the principle of things that are bestI but hat accessory causes follo , are referred to ;ecessity# As regards the things in the Bniverse, there are 6orm, Catter, and the perceptibleI hich is, as it ere, a resistance of the t o othersI and that 6orm is unproduced, and unmoved, and stationary and of the nature of the same, and perceptible by the mind, and a pattern of such things produced, as exist by a state of changeI for that some such thing as this is 6orm, spo!en of and conceived to be# Catter, ho ever, is a mold, and a mother and a nurse, and procreative of the third !ind of beingI for receiving upon itself the resemblances, and as it ere remolding them, it perfects these productions# ,e asserted moreover that Catter, though eternal is not unmovedI and though of itself it is formless and shapeless, yet it receives every !ind of formI and that hat is around bodies, is divisible, and parta!es of the nature of the differentI and that Catter is called by the t in names of .lane and Space# -hese t o principles, then, are opposite to each, otherI of hich 6orm relates to a male po er, and a fatherI hile matter relates to a female, and a mother# :eing three, they are recognisable by three mar!s1 6orm, by mind, according to !no ledgeI Catter by a spurious !ind of reason-

ing, because of its not being mentally perceived directly, but by analogy and their productions by sensation and opinion#

II 4?/A-IA; A6 -,/ 7A?"3


:efore the heavens, then, there existed through reason, 6orm and Catter, and the God ho develops the best# :ut since the older surpasses the younger and the ordered surpasses the orderless, the deity being good, on seeing that Catter receives 6orm, and is altered in every ay, but ithout order, the necessity of organi5ing it, altering the undefined to the defined, so that the differences bet een bodies might be similarly related, not receiving various turns at hap-ha5ard# ,e therefore made this orld out of the hole of Catter, laying it do n as a limit to the nature of being, through its containing in itself all the rest of things, being one, only-begotten, perfect, endued ith soul and reason, for these 0ualities are superior to the soul-lees and the irrational, O and of a sphere li!e bodyI for this is more perfect than the rest of forms# 3esirous then of ma!ing a very good production, he made it a deity, created and never to be destroyed by any cause other than the God, ho had put it in order, if indeed he should ever ish to dissolve it# :ut on the part of the good there is no rushing for ard to the destruction of a very beautiful production# Such therefore being the orld, it continues ithout corruption and destruction, being blessed# It is the best of things orderedI since it has been produced by the best cause, that loo!s not to patterns made by hand, but to 6orm in the abstract, and to /xistence, perceived by the mind to hich the created thing, having been carefully adDusted, has become the most beautiful, and to be not rongly underta!en# It is MeverNperfect according to the things perceived by sense because the pattern perceived by mind contains MinN itself all the living things perceived by mindI he left out of itself nothing, as being the limit MofNthe things perceived by mind, as this orld is MofN those perceived by sense# As being solid, and perceptible by touch and sight, it has a share of earth and fire, and of the things bet een them, air and aterI and it is composed of bodies all perfect, hich are in it as holes so that no part might ever be left out of it, in order that the body of the Bniverse might be altogether self-sufficient, uninDured by corruption ithout or ithinI for apart from these there is nothing else, for the things combined according the best proportions and ith e0ual po ers, neither rule over, nor are ruled by each other in turn, so that some receive an increase, others a decrease, remaining indissolubly united according to the very best proportions#

III .?A.A?-IA;S A6 -,/ 7A?"3-4AC:I;A-IA;


6or henever there are any three terms, ith mutually e0ual intervals, that are proportionate, e then perceive that, after the manner of an extended string, the middle is to the first, as is the third to itI and this holds true inversely and alternately, interchanging places and orderI so that it is impossible to arrange them numerically ithout producing an e0uivalence of results# "i!e ise the orlds shape and movement are ell arrangedI the shape is a sphere self similar on all sides, able to contain all shapes that are similarI the movement endlessly exhibits the change dependent on a circle# ;o as the sphere is on every side e0uidistant from the centre, it is able to retain its poise hether in movement or at restI neither leaving its poise, nor assuming another# Its external appearance be-

ing exactly smooth, it needs no mortal organs such as are fitted to, and present in all other living beings, because of their ants# -he orld-souls element of divinity radiates out from the centre, entirely penetrating the hole orld, forming a single mixture of divided substance ith undivided formI and this mixture of t o forces, the same and the different, became the origin of motionI hich indeed as not accomplished in the easiest ay, being extremely difficult# ;o all these proportions are combined harmonically according to numbersI hich proportions ere scientifically divided according to scale hich reveals the elements and the means of the souls combination# ;o seeing that the earlier is more po erful in po er and time than the later, the deity did not ran! the soul after the substance of the body, but made it older, by ta!ing the first of unities, 2'G $%* x %& (Mx *KN# Kno ing this first, e can easily rec!on the double and the triple and all the terms together, ith the complements and eighths, must amount to %%G,&) and li!e ise the divisions $sum of the tone se0uences of 2& tones, amounting to 2'G x *8, the perfect cube(#

I< ."A;/-A?@ ?/<A"B-IA;S A;3 -IC/


God the eternal, the chief ruler of the Bniverse, and its creator is beheld alone by the mindI but e may behold by sight all that is produced this orld and its parts, ho many soever they M----N in heavenI hich as being ethereal, must be MdividedN into !inds, some relating to sameness, others to difference# Sameness dra s in ard all that is ithout, along the general east ard movement from the 7est# 3ifference dra s from ithin all self-moved portions from 7est to /ast, fortuitously rolling around and along by the superior po er of sameness# -he differents movement being divided in harmonical proportion, assumes the order of MsevenN circles ;earest to the earth, ,the Coon revolves in a monthI hile beyond her the Sun completes his revolution in a year# - o planets run a Mco---Ne0ual ith that of the Sun1 Cercury, and Euno, also called <enus and "ucifer, because shepherds and people generally are not s!illful in sacred astronomy, confusing the estern and eastern rise# -he same star may shine in the 7est hen follo ing the Sun at a distance great enough to be visible in spite of solar splendorI and at another time in the /ast, hen, as herald of the day it rises before the Sun, leading it# :ecause of its MrunningN together ith the sun, <enus is "ucifer fre0uently but not al aysI for there are planet and stars of any magnitude seen above the hori5on before sunrise, herald the day# :ut the three other planets, Cars, Eupiter and Saturn have their peculiar velocities and different years, completing their course hile ma!ing their periods of effulgence, of visibility, of obscuration and eclipse, causing accurate rising and settings# Coreover they complete their appearances conspicuously in /ast or 7est according to their position relative to the Sun, ho during the day speeds est ard, hich during the night it reverses, under the influence of samenessI hile its annual revolution is due to its inherent motion# In resultance of these t o !inds of motion it rolls out a spiral, creeping according to one portion, in the time of a day, but, hirled around under the sphere of the fixed stars, according to each revolution of dar!ness and day# ;o these revolutions are by men called portions of time, hich the deity arranged together ith the orld# 6or before the orld the stars did not existI and hence there as neither year, nor periods of seasons, by hich this generated time is measured, and hich is the representation of the ungenerated time called eternity# 6or as this heaven has been produced according to an eternal pattern, $the orld of ideas(, O so according to the pattern of eternity as our orld-time created simultaneously ith the orld#

<

-,/ /A?-,S 4?/A-IA; :@ G/AC/-?I4 6IGB?/S


-he /arth, fixed at the centre, becomes the hearth of the gods, and the boundary of dar!ness and day, producing both settings and risings, according to the occultations produced by the things that form the boundary, Dust as e im prove our sight by ma!ing a tube ith our closed hand, to exclude refraction# -he /arth is the oldest body in the heavens# 7ater as not produced ithout /arth, nor air ithout moistureI nor could fire continue ithout moisture and the materials that are inflammableI so that the /arth is fixed upon its balance as the root and base of all other substances# Af produced things, the substratum is Catter, hile the reason of each shape is abstract 6ormI of these t o the resultance is /arth, and 7ater, Air and 6ire# -his is ho they ere created# /very body is composed of surfaces, hose elements are trianglesI of hich one is right-angled, and the other has all une0ual sides, ith the greater angle thrice the si5e of the lesserI hile its least angle is the third of a right angle, and the middle MoneN is double of the leastI for it is t o parts out of threeI hile the greatest is a right angle, being one and a half greater than the middle one, and the triple of the least# ;o this une0ual MsidedN triangle is the half of a e0uilateral triangle, out into t o e0ual parts by a line let do n from apex to that base# ;o in each of these triangles there is a right angleI but in the one, the t o sides about the right angle are e0ual, and in the other, all the sides are une0ual# ;o let this be called a scalene triangleI hile the other, the half of the s0uare, is the principle of the constitution the /arth# 6or the s0uare produced from this scalene triangle is composed of four half s0uares and from such a s0uare is produced the cube, a MbodyN the most stationary and steady in every ayI having six sides and eight angles, and on this account MtheN/arth is a body the heaviest and most difficult MtoN be moved and its substance is inconvertible because it has no affinity ith a triangle of any !ind# Anly the /arth has as peculiar element Mthe--N s0uare and this is the element of the three other substances, 6ire, Air and 7ater# 6or hen the half triangle is put together six times, it produces a solid e0uilateral triangleI the exemplar of the MpyramidN, hich has four faces ith e0ual angles, hich is the form of 6ire, as the easiest to be moved and composed of the finest particles# After this ran!s the octohedron, ith eight faces and six angles, the element of Air, and the third is the icosahedron, ith t enty faces and t elve angles, the element of 7ater, composed of the most numerous and heaviest particles# -hese then, as being composed of the same element, are transmuted# :ut the deity has made the dodecahedron, as being the nearest to the sphere, the image of the Bniverse# 6ire then, by the fineness of its particles, passes through all thingsI and Air through the rest of things, ith the exception of 6ireI and 7ater through the /arth# All things are therefore full, and have no vacuum# -hey cohere by the revolving movement of the Bniverse, and are pressed against, and rubbed by, each other in turn, and produce the never-failing change from production to destruction#

<I 4A;4?/-IA; A6 -,/ /"/C/;-S


:y ma!ing use of these the deity put together this orld, sensible to touch through the particles of /arth, and to sight through those of 6ireI hich t o are the extremes# -hrough the particles of Air and 7ater he has conDoined the orld by the strongest chain, namely, proportionI hich restrains not only itself but all its subDects# ;o if the conDoined obDect is a plane surface, one middle term is sufficientI but if a solid, there ill be need of t o# 7ith t o middle terms, therefore, he combined t o extremesI so that as 6ire is to Air, Air might be to 7ater, and 7ater to /arthI and by alternation, as 6ire is to 7ater, Air might be to /arthI and by inversion as /arth is to 7ater, 7ater might be to Air, and Air to 6ireI and by alternation, as /arth is to Air, so 7ater might be to 6ire# ;o

since all are e0ual in po er, their ratios are in a state of e0uality# -his orld is then one, through the bond of the deity, made according to proportion# ,o each of these substances possesses many formsI 6ire, those of 6lame, and :urning and "uminousness, through the ine0uality of the triangles in each of them# In the same manner, Air is partly clear and dry, and partly turbid and foggyI and 7ater partly flo ing and partly congealed, according as it is Sno , ,oar-frost, ,ail or IceI and that hich is Coist, is in one respect flo ing as honey and oilI but in another is compact, as pitch and axI and of compact-forms there are some fusible, as gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and steelI and some friable, as sulphur, pitch, nitre, salt, alum, and similar metals#

<II 4AC.ASI-IA; A6 -,/ SAB"


After putting together the orld, the deity planned the creation of living beings, subDect to death, so that, himself being perfect, he might perfectly or! it out according to his image# -herefore he mixed up the soul of man out of the same proportions and po ers, and after ta!ing the particles and distributing them, he delivered themK over to ;ature, hose office is to effect change# She then too! up the tas! of or!ing out mortal and ephemeral living beings, hose souls are dra n in from different sources, some from the Coon, others from the Sun, and others from various planets, that cycle ithin the 3ifference, -- ith the exception of one single po er hich as derived from Sameness, hich she mixed up in the rational portion of the soul, as the image of isdom in those of a happy fate# ;o of the soul of man one portion is rational and intellectualI and another irrational and unintellectual# Af the logical part, the best portion is derived from Sameness, hile the orse comes from 3ifferenceI and each is situated around the head, so that the other portions of the soul and body may minister to it, as the uppermost of the hole tabernacle# Af the irrational portion, that hich represents passion hangs around the heart, hile desire inhabits the liver# -he principle of the body, and root of the marro is the brain, herein inheres leadershipI and from this, li!e an effusion, through the bac!-bone flo s hat remains, from hich are separated the particles for seed and reasonI hile the marro s surrounding defences are the bones, of hich the flesh is the covering and concealment# -o the nerves he united Doints by ligatures, suitable for their movement# Af the internal organs, some exist for the sa!e of nourishment, and others for safetyI of communications, some convey outside movements to the interior intelligent places of perception, hile others, not falling under the po er of apprehension, are unperceived, either because the affected bodies are too earthli!e, or because the movements are too feebleI the painful movements tend to arouse ;ature, hile the pleasurable lull ;ature into remaining ithin itself#

<III S/;SA-IA;S
Amongst the senses, the deity has in us lit sight to vie the obDects in the heavens, and for the reception of !no ledgeI hile to ma!e us capable to receive speech and melody, he has in us implanted hearing, of hich he ho is deprived thereof from birth ill become dumb, nor be able to utter any speech, and that is hy this sense is said to be related closest to speech# #As many affections of the body as have a name are so called ith reference to touchI and others from relation to their seat# -ouch Dudges of the properties connected ith life, such as armth, coldness, dryness, moisture, smoothness, roughness, and of things, that they are yielding, opposing, hard, or soft#

-ouch also decides of heaviness or lightness# ?eason defines these affections as being centripetal and centrifugalI hich men mean to express hen they say belo , and middle# 6or the centre of a sphere is belo , and that part lying above it and stretching to the circumference, is called up ardness# ;o hat is arm appears to consist of fine particles, causing bodies to separateI hile coldness consists of the grossness of the particles, causing a tendency to condense# -he circumstances connected ith the sense of taste are similar to those of touch# 6or substances gro either smooth or rough by concretion and secretion, by entering the pores, and assuming shapes# 6or those that cause the tongue to melt a ay, or that scrape it, appear to be roughI hile those that act moderately in scraping appear brac!ishI hile those that inflame or separate the s!in are acridI hile their opposites, the smooth s eet, are reduced to a Duicy state# Af smelling, the !inds have not been definedI for, because of their percolating through narro pores, that are too stiff to be closed or separated, things seem to be s eet-smelling or bad-smelling from the putrefaction or concoction of the earth and similar substances# A vocal sound is a percussion in the air, arriving at the soul through the earsI the pores $or communications( of hich reach to the liverI and among them is breath, by the movement of hich hearing exists# ;o of the voice and hearing, that portion hich is 0uic! is acuteI hile that hich is slo , is graveI the medium being the most harmonious# 7hat is much and diffused, is greatI hat is little and compressed, is smallI hat is arranged according to musical proportions is in tune, hile that hich is unarranged, and unproportionate, is out of tune, and not properly adDusted# -he fourth !ind of things relating to the senses is the most multiform and various, and they are called obDects of sight, in hich are all !inds of colors, and an infinity of colored substances# -he principle are four1 hite, blac!, brilliant $blue( and red, out of a mixture of hich all other colors are prepared# 7hat is hite causes the vision to expand, and hat is blac! causes it to contractI Dust as armth expands, and cold contracts, and hat is rough contracts the tasting, and hat is sharp dilates it#

IJ ?/S.I?A-IA;
It is natural for the covering of animals that live in the air to be nourished and !ept together by the food being distributed by the veins through the hole mass, in the manner of a stream, conveyed as it ere by channels, and moistened by the breath, hich diffuses it, and carries it to the extremities# ?espiration is produced through there being no vacuum in natureI hile the air, as it flo s in, is inhaled in place of that hich is exhaled, through unseen pores such as those through hich perspiration -drops appear on the s!inI but a portion is excreted by the natural armth of the body# -hen it becomes necessary for an e0uivalent portion to be reintroduced, to avoid a vacuum, hich is impossible, for the animal ould no longer be concentrating, and single, hen the covering had been separated by the vacuum# ;o in lifeless substances, according to the analogy of respiration, the same organi5ation occurs# -he gourd, and the amber, for instance, bear resemblance to respiration# ;o the breath flo s through the body to an orifice out ards, and is in turn introduced through respiration by the mouth and nostrils, and again after the manner of the /uripus, is in turn carried to

the body, hich is expended according to the expiration# Also the gourd, hen the air ithin is expelled by fire, attracts moisture to itselfI and amber, hen the air is separated from it, receives an e0ual substance# ;o all nourishment comes as from a root from the heartI and from the stomachI as a fountainI and is conveyed to the body, to hich, if it be moistened by more than hat flo s out, there is said to be an increaseI but if less, by a decayI but the point of perfection is the boundary bet een these t o, and is considered to exist in an e0uality of efflux and influxI but hen the Doints of the system are bro!en, should there no longer exist any passage for the breath, or the nourishment not be distributed, then the animal dies#

J 3ISA?3/?S
-here are many things hurtful to life, hich are causes of death# Ane !ind is disease# Its beginning is disharmony of the functions, hen the simple po ers, such as heat, cold, moisture or dryness are excessive or deficient# -hen come turns and alterations in the blood, from corruption, and the deterioration of the flesh, hen asting a ay, should the turns ta!e place according to the changes, to hat is acid, or brac!ish, or bitter, in the blood, or asting a ay of the flesh# ,ence arise the production of bile, and of phlegm, diseased Duices, and the rottenness of li0uids ea! indeed, unless deeply seatedI but difficult to cure, hen their commencement is generated from the bones, and painful, if in a state of inflammation of the marro # -he last of disorders are those of the breath, bile and phlegm, hen they increase and flo into situations foreign to them, or into places inappropriate for them, by laying hold, of the situation, belonging to hat is better, and be driving a ay hat is congenial they fix themselves there, inDuring the bodies, and resolving them into the very things# -hese then are the sufferings of the bodyI and hence arise many diseases of the soulI some from one faculty, and some from another# Af the perceptive soul the disease is a difficulty of perception, of the recollecting, a forgetfulness of the appetitive part, a deficiency of desire and eagernessI of the affective, a violent suffering and excited madnessI of the rational, an indisposition to learn and thin!# :ut of ic!edness the beginnings are pleasure and painsI desires and fears, inflamed by the body, mingled ith the ind and called by different names# 6or there loves and regrets, desires let loose, and passions on the stretch, heavy resentments, and appetites of various !inds, and pleasures immoderate# .lainly, to be unreasonably disposed to ards the affections is the limit of virtue, and to be under their rule is that of viceI for to abound in them, or to be superior to them, places us in a good or bad position# Against such impulses the temperaments of our bodies is greatly able to cooperate, hether 0uic! or hot, or various, by leading us to melancholy or violent le dnessI and certain parts, hen affected by a catarrh, produce itchings and forms of body more similar to a state of inflammation than one of healthI through hich a sin!ing of the spirits and a forgetfulness, a stillness and a state of fear are itnessed#

JI 3IS4I."I;/
Important, too, are the habits in hich persons are trained, in the city or at home, and their daily food, by luxury enervating the soul, or fortifying it for strength# 6or the living out of doors, and single fare, and gymnastic exercises, and the morals of companions, produce the greatest effect in the ay of vice and virtue# -hese causes are derived from our parents and the elements, rather than

ourselves, provided that on our part there be no remissness, by !eeping aloof from acts of duty# -he animal cannot be in good condition unless the body possesses the better properties under its controlI namely, health and correct perception, and strength and beauty# ;o the principles of beauty are a symmetry as regards its parts, and as regards the soul# 6or nature has arranged the body, li!e an instrument to be subservient to, and in harmony ith, the subDects of life# -he soul must li!e ise be brought into harmony ith its analogous good 0ualities, namely, in the case of temperance, as the body is in the case of healthI and in that of prudence, as in the case of correct perceptionI and in that of fortitude, as in the case of vigor and strengthI and in that of Dustice, as in the case of beauty# ;ature, of course, furnishes their beginningsI but their continuation and maturation result from carefulnessI those relating to the body, through the gymnastic and medical arts, those to the soul through instruction and philosophy# 6or these are the po ers that nourish and give a tone to the body and soul by means of labor and gymnastic exercise, and pureness of dietI some through drug medication applied to the body, and others through discipline applied to the soul by means of punishments and reproachesI for by the encouragement they give strength and excite to an on ard, movement, and exhort to beneficial deeds# -he art of the gymnasium trainer, and its nearest approach, that of the medical man, do, on application to the body, reduce their po ers to the utmost symmetry, purifying the blood, and e0uali5ing the breath, so that, if there ere there any diseased virulence, the po ers of blood and breath may be vigorousI but music, and its leader, philosophy, hich the la s and the gods ordained as regulators for the soul, accustom, persuade and partly compel the irrational to obey reason, and the t o irrational, passion and desire, to become, the one mild, and the other 0uiet, so as not to be moved ithout reason, nor to be unmoved hen the mind incites either to desire or enDoy somethingI for this is the definition of temperance, namely, docility and firmness# Intelligence and philosophy the highest in honor, after cleansing the soul from false opinions, have introduced !no ledge, recalling the mind from excessive ignorance, and setting it free for the contemplation of divine thingsI in hich to occupy oneself ith self-sufficiency, as regards the affairs of a man, and ith an abundance, for the commensurate period of life, is a happy state#

JII ,BCA; 3/S-I;@


;o he to hom the deity has happened to assign some hat of a good fate, is, through opinion, led to the happiest life# :ut if he be morose and indocile, let the punishment that comes from la and reason follo himI bringing ith it the fears ever on the stretch, both those that originate in heaven or ,adesI ho that punishments inexorable, are belo laid up for the unhappy, as ell as those ancient ,omeric threats of retaliation for the ic!edness of those defiled by crime $Adyssey, xii 98%-9))(# 6or as e sometimes restore bodies to health by means of diseased substances, if they ill not yield to the more healthy, so if the soul ill not be led by true reasoning, e restrain it by false# Strange indeed ould those punishments be called since, by a change, the souls of co ards enter into bodies of omen, ho are inclined to insulting conductI and those of the blood-stained ould be punished by being introduced into the bodies of ild beastsI of the lascivious, into the bodies of so s and boarsI of the light-minded and frivolous into shaper and aeronautic birdsI and of those ho neither do learn or thin! of nothing, into the bodies of idle fish# An all these matters, ho ever, there has, at a second period, been delivered a Dudgment by ;emesis, or 6ate, together ith the avenging deities that preside over murderers, and those under the earth in ,ades, and the inspectors of human affairs, to hom God, the leader of all, has entrusted the administration of the orld hich is filled ith gods and men, and the rest of the living beings hich by

the demiurgic creator according to the best model of an unbegotten, eternal and mentally-perceived form#

6I;IS#