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In-Text Citation Rules

What Am I Supposed to Include in an In-Text Citation? Usually, its the last name(s) of the author(s) and the page number .1 But these days, students are often looking at Web pages that dont have either of these details. What do you do if your source doesnt have a named author or it doesnt have page numbers? Most students guess randomly. ome diligent students look it up in a book. But you can also figure it out. !f you understand "hat citations are supposed to do, you can figure out ho" to deal "ith the "eird stuff. #o understand "hat citations do, try looking at them like a reader would. !magine youre reading an article about pollution. !n one paragraph, the article says that ...

Penguin burps are destroying the ozone layer (Smith 19).


$ou think, Really? Thats weird! $ou "ant to kno" more about the environmental impacts of penguin burps. eriously, you cant "ait to tell your friends all about the penguin burp studies. Where the heck did the article get that information? $ou look at the sentence above and say % mith 1&.' But "ho the heck is mith? #here are (illions of miths "orld"ide. )o" do you find more about this source? When ! ask a class full of students this and give them an article to "ork "ith, they instinctively flip to the back of the article "here the full Works *ited or +eference list is. !s that "hat you "ere thinking? !f so, good, #hats the right move. )o"ever, this is usually "hen their -a" drops, because the article ! use invariably has about 1.. sources listed there. /kay, so ho" do you find someone named mith in a list of 1.. sources? $eah, you could -ust stare at it until you find it, but there should be an easier "ay to look up mith, right? 0t this point, most students reali(e the list is in alphabetical order #hey flip to the % ' portion and find % mith' there. $ou think1 Wo!" #r Scott $ that !as prett% ob&ious !s that "hat you "ere thinking? 2ood 33 hold onto that obvious thought1 What have "e learned from this e4ercise? 1. +eference lists can be very long. 5. +eaders e4pect the lists to be in some kind of obvious, logical order. 6. +eaders e4pect the in3te4t citations to tell them where to look in the list. 7ets imagine you keep reading that article, and discover a ne" statement1

Walrus burps are so powerful, theyre affecting the rotation of the arth
1

8or 090, that ans"er "ould include the year of publication.

: ;r. 2raham <2ray= cott, 5..& <updated 5.1>=

(!Stop "i#ing Walruses Soda, Study $d#ises% &')(


Oh, wow I gotta find that source, you think. But this one doesnt give an authors name. o ho" in the unpronounceable name of #hors hammer are you going to find it on that list of 1.. sources? ;esparate, you look for % top' in the Works *ited list, starting in the % ' section. And youre stunned when you find it. Its right there, Stoddard, Jane. No Evidence of Commando Penguins; Plans for Madagascar IX Movie Scra!!ed." Denton Magazine #$ June $%#&' (#). !Stop "i#ing Walruses Soda, Study $d#ises(% The Last Newspaper 1) *uly ')1+, &'( Store*, +en. Penguin +elc, -olume .reatl* /nderestimated in Most 0ecent IPCC 0e!orts." Science News & 1ug. $%#$. #his brings us to lesson ?>1 >. !n3te4t citations are "orthless 33 unless they help readers find the full listing. #hats their -ob. !ts their only -ob. In te!t citations are clues that tell the reader how to find the full listing at the end of the paper. I'()RTA*T+ This principle applies to all citation s%stems+ ',A" A(A" !hate&er @o" think about the strange %hanging' indentation that you see "ith citation listings. )ave you ever "ondered "hy anyone "ould ever "ant to indent that "ay? @o" you kno" the reason1 )anging indentation makes it easier to skim the list for the letter youre looking for. *an you imagine trying to find the above "alrus article in a list of 1.. sources that "as formatted like this? Stoddard, Jane. No Evidence of Commando Penguins; Plans for Madagascar IX Movie Scra!!ed." Denton Magazine #$ June $%#&' (#). Sto! .iving 2alruses Soda, Stud* 1dvises." The Last Newspaper #% Jul* $%#&' +$. Store*, +en. Penguin +elc, -olume .reatl* /nderestimated in Most 0ecent IPCC 0e!orts." Science News & 1ug. $%#$. /r even like this, "ith normal indentation?

: ;r. 2raham <2ray= cott, 5..& <updated 5.1>=

Stoddard, Jane. No Evidence of Commando Penguins; Plans for Madagascar IX Movie Scra!!ed." Denton Magazine #$ June $%#&' (#). Sto! .iving 2alruses Soda, Stud* 1dvises." The Last Newspaper #% Jul* $%#&' +$. Store*, +en. Penguin +elc, -olume .reatl* /nderestimated in Most 0ecent IPCC 0e!orts." Science News & 1ug. $%#$. ure, it helps a little. But the faster you skim that list, the more likely it is that your eyes start catching on the left3 most terms instead of the indented "ords, so your eyes see Commando 'o&ie Ad&ises -reatl% Reports. )anging indentation is much easier on the reader. !ts very easy to skim. !f you understand the above principles, you should be able to pass this self3Aui( easily1 Belo" are five hypothetical sources for "hich there are no named authors. )o" "ould you refer to each of them in an in3te4t citation? %8alsely *onvicted of 0rson and 9ardoned #oo 7ate.' "ews#eat 15 Mar. 5.1>1 11. %8ive ;ie in 8ire.' The $os Angeles Ti%es 1B May 5.111 B6. %Many *ases of 0rson May 2o Undetected.' &all 'treet (ournal 6 0ug. 5.161 01. urtyr *ounty 8ire ;epartment. The 'urtyr )ounty *ire In+estigators ,and#ook. urtyr, *01 *ounty 8ire ;epartment, 1&&B. United tates. ;epartment of the !nterior. )auses of *ire in the -nited 'tates. /011 2111. Washington, ;.*.1 2overnment 9rinting /ffice, 5.1.. !f you arent sure, re3read the e4planation above. !t should click. <)int1 $ou "ill use the same principle for all five ans"ers,= A comment+ !n the !nternet age, "ith hyperlinks that connect one site to another, the above system probably seems archaic or unnecessary. )o"ever, many of the best sources arent available by Web, and even those that are online are often hidden behind pay "alls <unavailable to you unless you pay money=, or else they vanish from the Web overnight, or else their Web address changes. #o help readers find sources, you often need to give them more than a link. 0nd this is one reason citation systems arent likely to vanish completely any time soon. What If There.s 'ore than )ne Author? !f your "orks3cited listing has multiple authors, you provide the same last names in your parenthetical that you do in the full listing. 8or M70 style, they look like this1 o #"o authors1 < mith and Cones D&= o #hree authors1 < mith, Cones, and 2reen D&= o More than three authors1 < mith et al D&=

: ;r. 2raham <2ray= cott, 5..& <updated 5.1>=

What If the Source #oesn.t /a&e (ages? !f your source doesnt have page numbers <note1 %any online sources do ha+e page nu%#ers use the%, when they do3, but it has numbered paragraphs, or numbered sections, or named sections, give us that information instead1 o 0 paragraph number1 <%#he End of oft"are' par. 1.= o 0 section number1 <"anotechnology 4ri%er sect. 1.6= o 0 section name1 <%Why Fitamin ; *ould Be the @e" *,' *onclusion= !f your source has no section names, no section titles, no pages, no numbered paragraphs, then skip the page number part. )o"ever, ask yourself "hether your source is any good. +espected, credible sources often try to make sure they are %citation friendly,' "ith clear information for users. !f your source doesnt have names, page numbers, clearly identified publishers, and that sort of thing, then you should "onder "hether its a good source. Where #o I (ut '% In-Text Citations? !n3te4t citations should follo" any specific use of a source. o 0 Guotation1 mith "rites that %"e can almost clone a person no"' <5&=.
*ote+ We dont mention mith in the parenthetical citation because shes already mentioned in the sentence. !f "e didnt mention her in the sentence, "ed include her in the parenthetical citation, like so1
3ne scientist 4rites t,at 4e can almost clone a !erson no4" 5Smit, $67.

0 9araphrase1 0ccording to Cones, clones "ill not have the memories of the originals on "hich theyre based <11H=. <#his isnt a Auote. But ! still cite the idea, and ! include a page number.= When Auoting, al"ays integrate your Auotation. #o %integrate' means to make the Auote a part of one of your sentences. When you blend the Auotation and your sentence, the result needs to be something that "ould be grammatically correct even if the Auotation "erent a Auotation. o !ntegrated1 #he villain of the short story claims he %"ill shove /fficer tudley through a very small hole, piece by piece if need be' <Ilondike 6=. o WrongJ@ot !ntegrated1 #he villain of the story "ants to kill the hero. %! s"ear to you that before this day is out ! "ill shove /fficer tudley through a very small hole, piece by piece if need be' <Ilondike 6=. o 2rammatically !ncorrect !ntegration1 #he villain of the story "ants to kill the hero, %! s"ear to you that before this day is out ! "ill shove /fficer tudley through a very small hole, piece by piece if need be' <Ilondike 6=. #his version is "rong because the sentence before the Auote is a o
complete sentence, so that the comma at the end of it results in a kind of run3on sentence kno"n as a comma splice.

When Auoting, al"ays put the citation right after the Auotation, "ith -ust a space bet"een them K even if that means putting the citation in the middle of the sentence. o E4ample1 #he ne" spaceplane "ill %take off from conventional run"ays' <Cones 6>= and %glide back to Earth like a glider' <Cones 6H=. When paraphrasing, keep in mind that citations only look back, never for"ard. #hat is, a citation only covers the material immediately before itL it says nothing about the information that comes after it. 0ny ne" information after a citation needs another citation. 0lso remember that the in3te4t citation, "hen used "ith paraphrasing, covers all of the preceding information up to the last paragraph break or the last previous citation 33 whiche+er co%es first.

: ;r. 2raham <2ray= cott, 5..& <updated 5.1>=