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Energy efficiency and use

ASSIGNMENT 1

Nasim Mammadov H00112921 | Energy Studies | February 4, 2014

Calculation
SPACE HEATING

Worchester BOSCH boiler 9/14CBi GC. The 9/14CBi appliance requires a maximum of 1.62 m3/h of natural gas (G20), 0.63 m3/h propane (G31). 230V - 50Hz. Load 125 watts. My gas meter records gas consumption in cubic meters. Now we should convert it to kWh. The correction factor (1.02264) takes into account changes in the volume of gas based on temperature and pressure. It is generally of the order of 1.02264. The calorific value (CV) is a measurement of the amount of energy contained in the gas. CV is usually quoted in mega joules per cubic meter (MJ/m3). Gas delivered for domestic uses will have a CV of between 37.5 MJ/m3 and 43 MJ/m3. We will take it as 39.4, but it might be change. [1] The table below shows my gas consumption record for previous year:

Months Gas usage (m3)

January 211

February 239

March 204

April September October 154 175 211

November 205

December 246

Total 1645

Table 1. The annual gas consumption (m3)


( ) ( )

The flat has been shared by 2 people, then the number divided by two:

Shower. The heat capacity of water measures how much energy is required to heat it up, is 4200 J/litre/C. So the energy required to heat up the water by 40 C is given below: [2]

So, taking a shower uses about 1.4 kWh, then average usage is twice a week at home: ( )

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This formula is the general formula to estimate an appliance's energy use: ( ) 1 kilowatt (kW) = 1,000 Watts The annual consumption multiplied in kWh per year (that calculated above) by local utility's rate per kWh consumed to calculate the annual cost to run an appliance. [3] ( )

ELECTRICITY APPLIANCES

Table 2 Household energy consumption

Carbon Footprint Ltd - Household Energy Consumption. 2014. Carbon Footprint Ltd - Household Energy Consumption. [ONLINE]

Available at:http://www.carbonfootprint.com/energyconsumption.html. [Accessed 04 February 2014].

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Lighting
Current bulb Quantity wattage 1 1 3 2 1 1 Hours/on Total kWh day Annual usage (kWh) 0.02 0.5 3.65 0.03 4 43.8 0.045 0.5 8.2125 0.03 1 10.95 0.03 1 10.95 0.015 Total: Table 3. The estimation of annual electricity usage in my house (kWh) 0.1 0.5475 78.11

Entryway Living room Bathroom Kitchen Bedroom Storage room

20 30 15 15 30 15

By knowing, the annual energy usage in my house, I can estimate my personal electricity usage:

Vacuum Cleaner, Cylinder with 1.8 kWh motor. Considering that, I use vacuum cleaner 2 hours per month the annual electricity usage is:

Washing machine, estimated 100 washes per year EU energy label A-rated gives an average consumption at 40C using a 2kg load to be 0.63 kWh [4]

Hair dryer, 600 W

Laptop: Sony VAIO 40 W ( )

Kettle, 2200 W

Kettle is shared, so my personal electricity usage is:

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Toaster, 1200 W

Toaster is shared, again my personal electricity usage is:

Fridge, freezer, 0.04 kWh (A++) [5]

Electric oven, Emerges B200, 2200 W We are using electric oven for daily cooking, since time shortage as a student we are cooking 5 times a week and each time the electric oven works about 60 minutes. Then,

Electric oven is shared, again my personal electricity usage is:

Smartphone The energy consumption of smartphones so small that not negligible and doesnt affect our communal bills. A typical smartphone uses about 5 Watts of electricity while charging, when the device is plugged in but fully charged, that number drops close to zero.

TRANSPORT

The following formula shows energy used per day for any type of transport.

I am driving a car as a daily transport, so calculations will be based on automobile energy consumption. Automobile fuels are all hydrocarbons with the calorific value which can be calculated. The calorific value of car fuel is 3000KJ per 100 g, or about 8 kWh per kg.

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Then we need to turn fuels into energy per unit volume, for petrol it is 10 kWh per litre. Considering that my average daily drip is 40 km then:2

By knowing, the energy used per day, the annual energy consumption can be estimated, considering that I am driving an automobile averagely 250 day of a year.

Furthermore, I am using a public transport also. The bus is the most common public transport I am using among them, so the calculations will based on a bus fuel consumption. Fuel consumption achieved during the double deck vehicle route test cycle was 24.18 l/100 km under identical conditions, carried out by an independent evaluation facility. [7] It means double deck vehicle consumes 1 litre fuel for 4 km distance, then by using the same technique we can estimate the energy consumption by thinking my average daily trip with bus is 20 km then:

Air travel As an international student from Azerbaijan I am making at least two intercontinental trip per year by plane. The plane which carrying out is Airbus A320 family with 30030 litres of fuel carries 220 passengers and the distance to destination (London-Baku flight) is about 2480 miles (4000 km). From previous calculations we know that fuels calorific value is 10 kWh per litre. So the energy cost of one full-distance roundtrip on such a plane, if divided equally among the passengers, is:3
2 David JC MacKay, 2009. Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air. Edition. UIT Cambridge Ltd. Page 29

David JC MacKay, 2009. Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air. Edition. UIT Cambridge Ltd. Page 35

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Now the all calculations are done for each device that consume energy. Additionally, my travel footprint including trips abroad, daily transport and commuting are calculated by using given formulas and converted to kilo Watt per hour. The table below shows all energy consumptive devices and activities I am using with detailed calculations. Now, we can calculate personal annual energy usage for further calculations.

Device and activities Boiler Shower Lighting Vacuum cleaner Washing machine Hair dryer Laptop Kettle Toaster Fridge, freezer Electric oven Smartphone Car Bus Plane

Units Gas usage (m^3)

kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh

Quantity 1645 30 L water (40 C) 9 bulbs 1.8 0.63 0.6 0.04 2.2 1.2 0.04 2.2 0.005 33.3 50

Time year

12 hours/ month 150 washes/year 12 hours/year 6 hours/day 0.5 hours/day 0.2 hours/day 24hours/365 days 5 hours/week 2 hours/365 days 200 days/year 200 days/year 2 roundtrips/year Total

Annual usage 9787.5 146 39.1 43.2 94.5 7.2 87.6 200.1 43.8 350.42 286 3.65 8333.3 10000 10355 39777.37

Units KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh KWh

Table 4. My estimated annual personal energy usage (kWh)

Now by using the data given in the carbon trust fact Sheet CTL018 we should convert this figure to kg of CO2 and to tonnes of burning oil. Energy conversion factors
( )

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Using factors given above we can estimate total kg of CO2:4 Energy conversion factors

Fuel Grid electricity Natural gas Grid electricity LPG 1301.57 9787.5

Number of units 0.44548 0.18404 5.39421 0.21452 6.28578 1.4929

Conversion factor kWh kWh therms kWh therms litres tonnes kWh litres tonnes kWh tonnes kWh tonnes kWh litres tonnes kWh litres tonnes kWh tonnes kWh

Units 579.8234036 1801.2915 579.8234036

KgCO2e

LPG Gas oil

3427.2 0.27176 2.9343

Gas oil Fuel oil

3232.7 0.26876

Burning oil

3164.9 0.24555 3100.1 0.24512 2.6008

Diesel

Diesel Petrol 39777.37 Petrol Industrial coal

3005.8 0.23394 2.2144 2339.1 0.31304

9305.517938

9305.517938

Wood pellets Total kgCO2e 11686.63284

0 0

http://www.carbontrust.com/media/18223/ctl153_conversion_factors.pdf
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By knowing that 1 tonne of oil equivalent (TOE) is 11.360 kWh. So we can estimate my annual TOE by operation shown below ( )

Official numbers says that the average UK per capita consumption is about 4 TOE, then it shows that my calculated number is slightly lower than this.

(a) Identify one item of energy saving equipment which you could incorporate in your house/flat/room to replace one of your existing items mentioned above.

In my case replacement of my old, inefficient boiler might significantly help energy savings. Boiler efficiency has an important influence on heating related energy costs and carbon emissions. A boiler is a device in which a fossil fuel is burnt and the heat produced is transferred to water. For most types of conventional boiler, efficiency drops dramatically below about 30% of rated capacity. [8]
(b) Estimate the installed cost of the item and the annual savings (energy and financial) which would result.

My yearly gas usage 19.575 kWh is significantly higher than the national average (15.000 kWh). My old boiler Worchester BOSCH boiler 9/14CBi GC running at below 67% efficiency. The table can be found on the right, and boiler should sit at G on that scale. New boilers aren't cheap and prices vary greatly based on the different brands, sizes and types available. Typically new boiler prices range from close to 500 all the way to 2,000, so it's important to do simple calculations before purchasing it. The boiler with 91% efficiency costing 1400, the calculation below shows how much I could expect to save on a typical gas bill and how long it would take to pay for itself. My yearly gas usage is 19575 kWh with old G boiler (67% efficient) is converting only 67% of the gas used for hot water/heat into usable energy

This shows the heat/hot water demand requiring 13115.25 kWh of usable energy. By dividing the amount of usable energy required as calculated by the efficiency rating of my new A band boiler (91%), you get the new total amount of gas used for heat/hot water in the dwelling when using a Band A boiler.

To work out the cost of the new usable energy amount as calculated above, we need to multiply the new figure by the unit cost per /kWh of gas.

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To calculate my saving, I need subtract the new total from my current gas bill ( )

(c) Hence estimate the simple payback period.

(d) Why have you not installed this equipment? (Note: if you live on Campus or rent a room, imagine you own the flat etc. when answering this question).

The cost of a new, A Band Boiler ( 1400) is matter of concern to me the replacing my boiler. My low student budget doesnt allow to replace it with new one. Currently , UK government launched the new government grant, where free boilers supplied and installed to certain eligible people with income below 15,860 per year. Furthermore, the energy companies are tempting to change the old boilers with new ones by different long-term offers. In the future I might take the advantage of these schemes.

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References

1.

Convert Gas Meter Readings to kWhs. 2014. Convert Gas Meter Readings to kWhs. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.energylinx.co.uk/gas_meter_conversion.html. [Accessed 03 February 2014]. David JC MacKay, 2009. Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air. Edition. UIT Cambridge
Ltd.

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Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy. 2014. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy. [ONLINE] Available at:http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/estimating-appliance-and-home-electronic-energy-use. [Accessed 04 February 2014]. Carbon Footprint Ltd - Household Energy Consumption. 2014. Carbon Footprint Ltd - Household Energy Consumption. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.carbonfootprint.com/energyconsumption.html. [Accessed 04 February 2014]. Electricity Usage . 2014. Electricity Usage . [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.t2c.org.uk/savingenergy/electricity-usage/. [Accessed 04 February 2014]. . 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.carbontrust.com/media/18223/ctl153_conversion_factors.pdf. [Accessed 04 February 2014]. Fuel consumption of prototype NB4L - a Freedom of Information request to Transport for London WhatDoTheyKnow . 2014. Fuel consumption of prototype NB4L - a Freedom of Information request to Transport for London - WhatDoTheyKnow . [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/fuel_consumption_of_prototype_nb . [Accessed 04 February 2014]. New boiler: What's the real cost of a new boiler?. 2014. New boiler: What's the real cost of a new boiler?. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.uswitch.com/boilers/guides/new-boiler-cost/. [Accessed 05 February 2014]. Robert A. Ristinen, 1998. Energy and the Environment. 1 Edition. Wiley.

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