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5.1 Elemental ratio analysis 5.1.1 Elemental breakdown 5.1.2 Ratio estimates 5.1.3 Accuracy and confidence levels 5.1.4 Sampling and sample size 5.2 Performance sampling studies 5.3 Time standard development studies

Learning Outcome
Upon successful completion of this topic, the student will be able to: Perform:
Analyze elemental ratio Element breakdown The accuracy and confidence levels Calculate sample size Developing time standard

Work Sampling
Work sampling was developed in England by L.Tippet in the 1930s. Labor standard is set using output and percentage (%) of time worker spend on tasks. Involves observing worker at random time over a long period.

Work Sampling
Work Sampling is a technique of getting idea about utilization of machines or human beings through a large number of instantaneous observations taken at random time intervals intervals. . The ratio of observations of a given activity to the total number of observations approximates the percentage of time that activity is in that state of action/inaction

Need of Work Sampling

Need of work sampling
For efficient controlling/organization it is necessary to have complete picture of production or non production time of machine & workers in work area area. . This can be done by direct and continuous observation of shop floor However, it would be impossible to do so unless large number of people are employed which would be unrealistic

Need of Work Sampling

Need of work sampling (Cont (Cont) )
There for, alternative approach is to have a glance at the state of given shop floor at a moment. moment . Support we get 80% 80% working & 20% 20% idle. idle . If this action is repeated at difference time intervals during a day, we may say with some confidence that at any time there will be 80% 80% machine working and 20% 20% idle.

Basis of Work Sampling

When sample size is large enough and observation are made random, there will be quite high probability that these observations reflect real situation with certain error Thus, work sampling is based on probability which means the extent to which an event is likely to occur occur. .

Advantages Work Sampling

Less expensive than time study Observers need little training Studies can be delayed or interrupted with little impact on results Worker has little chance to affect results Less intrusive

Disadvantages Work Sampling

Does not divide work elements as completely as time study Can yield biased results if observer does not follow random pattern Less accurate than time study, especially when job element times are short

Work Sampling Procedure

The work sampling procedure can be summarized in five steps steps: :
1. Take a preliminary sample to obtain estimates of parameter values 2. Compute the sample size required 3. Prepare a schedule for random observations at appropriate times 4. Observe and record worker activities 5. Determine how workers spend their time

Work Sampling Formula

To determine the number of observations required, management must decide upon the desired confidence level and accuracy accuracy. . Determining the sample size
z2 p(1 - p) n= h2
where n = z = p = h = required sample size standard normal deviate for desired confidence level estimated value of sample proportion acceptable error level in percent

Example : tossing of coin

Take 5 coins Toss each of the coin in one set Count number of time a given combination of head and tail is obtained
Combination : 0 No. head and 5 No. of tail Combination : 1 No. head and 4 No. of tail Combination : 2 No. head and 3 No. of tail Combination : 3 No. head and 2 No. of tail Combination : 4 No. head and 1 No. of tail Combination : 5 No. head and 0 No. of tail

Repeat tossing for 100 time of a set of five coins

Combination Heads (p) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Tails (q) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total

No. of Combinations 3 17 30 30 17 3 100

Proportional distribution of head and tail (100 tosses of the coins)

Effect of Sample Size

If we considerably increase the number of tosses and in each case toss a large number of coins at a time, we can obtain a smoother curve curve. . This curve is called the curve of normal distribution Basically, this curve tells us that, in the majority of cases, the tendency is for the number of heads to equal the number of tails in any one series of tosses

Typical case: Basis of work sampling

For example, if 500 instantaneous observation taken at random intervals over a few weeks show that a lathe operator was doing productive work in 365 observations and in the remaining 135 observations he was found idle for miscellaneous reasons reasons. . Then it can be reliably taken that the operator remains idle (135 135/ /500 500) ) X 100 = 27% 27% of the time time. .

Number of samples and accuracy

The accuracy of the result depends on the number of observations observations. . However, in most applications there is usually a limit beyond which greater accuracy of data is not economically worthwhile. worthwhile . Work sampling can be very useful for establishing time standards on both direct and indirect labor jobs jobs. .

Sampling for standard time

Step 1. Define the problem - Describe the job for which the standard time is to be determined. - Unambiguously state and discriminate activities of operator on the job that would entitle him to be in working state. - This would imply that when operator will be found engaged in any activity other than those required would entitle him to be in Not Working state

Sampling for standard time

Step 2. Design the sampling plan - Estimate satisfactory number of observations to be made. - Decide on the period of study, e.g. two days, one week, etc - Prepare detailed plan for taking the observations. - Plan will include observation schedule, exact method of observing, design of observation sheet, route to be followed, particular person to be observed at the observation time, etc.

Sampling for standard time

Step 3. Contact the persons concerned and take them in confidence regarding conduct of the study. Make the observations at the predecided random times about the working/ not working state of the operator - When operator is in working state, determine his performance rating. - Record these information on the observation sheet.

Step 4.

Number of observation in w/s

Large number of observations results in more accurate finding but the same time consuming and costly costly. . A cost benefit the following methods are used for estimation of the number of observations to be made made. . Based on judgment judgment. . The study person can decide the necessary number of observations based on his judgment judgment. .

Work Sampling
Estimate employees idle 25% of the time Sample should be accurate within 3% Wants to have 95.45% confidence in the results


z2 p(1 - p) h2


n z p h

= = = =

required sample size 2 for a 95.45% confidence level estimate of idle proportion = 25% = .25 acceptable error of 3% = .03
= 833 observations

(2)2 (.25)(.75) (.03)2

Work Sampling Time Studies


Telephone sales 12%

Sales in person 20%

Travel 20% Paperwork 17% Lunch and personal 10% Meetings and other 8%

Telephone within firm 13%

Figure S10.3

Work Sampling Time Studies

Assembly-Line AssemblyEmployees Startup/pep talk 3% Breaks and lunch 10% Dead time between tasks 13% Productive work 67% Unscheduled tasks and downtime 4% Cleanup 3%

Figure S10.3