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1. Assume that a generation is approximately 25 years. If each female has, on average, x children who survive into adulthood (half of whom are female), estimate how the population would change over time for different values of x. Compare your calculations with the estimated historical size of the world population reported on the US Census website. Given this comparison, what do you think is the approximate historical value of x? 2. (a) Given a solar constant of S = 1368 W m2 , estimate the maximum ux of energy from the Sun in Glasgow (latitude 55 50 N) on June 22 and December 22.

Figure 1: Impact of solar radiation on the Earth. (b) The current rate of energy consumption in the world is estimated to be 12 109 toe, where 1 toe = 41.868 109 J. Estimate the surface area required to supply the energy consumption of the world using photovoltaic cells with a conversion efciency of 10%. List any other assumptions made. (c) What are the practical problems associated with replacing the use of fossil fuels with solar energy?

3. Given that the solar constant of the Earth is S = 1368 W m2 , determine the solar constant of Venus and the temperatures of the Earth and Venus. The Stefan-Boltzmann constant is = 5.670373 108 W m2 K4 . Use the data provided in the table below. Earth Venus 9 distance from Sun / m 149.598262 10 108.209475 109 diameter / m 6.37100 106 6.0518 106 albedo () 0.306 0 .7 emissivity () 0.612 0.01 4. Potential of wind power: Assuming that the half of the Earth that is illuminated by the Sun is at a temperature TH and the dark half of the Earth is at a temperature TC , estimate the amount of power (useful work) that can be generated from this temperature difference as a function of TH . What is the maximum power (useful work) that can be generated, and what percentage is this of the total solar energy that falls on the Earth? This is an estimate for the potential work that can be extracted from wind power. Recall that the efciency of a Carnot (reversible) engine operating between temperatures TH and TC is = 1 TC /TH . Take the solar constant to be S = 1368 W m2 and the background temperature of space to be 0 K. 5. Within the Malthusian economic model, explain the impact on the population N and average per capita income y of (i) the declaration of a war which then becomes ongoing, (ii) an increase in taxes, and (iii) the development of a new technology that makes food production more efcient. Be sure to include diagrams of the birth rate, death rate, and total population with per capita income in your discussion. 6. If the average birthrate of a population has been approximately equal to the average deathrate over many generations, estimate the expected life expectancy at birth of a person if the birthrate is 50 births per 1000 people per year. What happens to the life expectancy if the birthrate/deathrate increases?

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