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IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 13, NO.

2, FEBRUARY 2013

563

Rough-Set-Based Feature Selection and Classication for Power Quality Sensing Device Employing Correlation Techniques
Sovan Dalai, Member, IEEE , Biswendu Chatterjee, Member, IEEE , Debangshu Dey, Member, IEEE , Sivaji Chakravorti, Senior Member, IEEE , and Kesab Bhattacharya, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract In this paper, we present a scheme of rough-setbased minimal set of feature selection and classication of power quality disturbances that can be implemented in a generalpurpose microcontroller for embedded applications. The developed scheme can efciently sense the power quality disturbances by the features extracted from the cross-correlogram of power quality disturbance waveforms. In this paper, a stand-alone module, employing microcontroller-based embedded system, is devised for efciently sensing power quality disturbances in real time for in situ applications. The stand-alone module is developed on a PIC24F series microcontroller. Results show that the accuracy of the proposed scheme is comparable to that obtained in ofine analysis using a computer. The method stated here is generic in nature and can be implemented for other microcontroller-based applications for topologically similar problems. Index Terms Cross-correlogram, microcontroller, power quality disturbance, rough set theory, stand-alone module.

I. I NTRODUCTION N ELECTRICAL network the power signals are contaminated with different types of power quality disturbances like sag, swell, transients, harmonics etc. These disturbances are injected into the line due to electrical hazard like short circuit of a live part, switching of heavy load etc. Moreover, lightning strikes etc. introduce the transients in the power signal. In addition to these, usage of nonlinear electronic loads, solid state converters also introduce the notches, harmonics and transients in the power signals. If these disturbances are not corrected properly they can cause failure or malfunction of different equipment connected to the user end. To improve the quality of the power signals it is important to sense and classify various Power Quality (PQ) disturbances. Researchers have proposed different methods for automatic detection and classication of power quality events based on simulated or software generated data [1][8]. In recent past, wavelet transform [1][3] has been extensively used for power quality event classication. Gaing [1] classied seven types of
Manuscript received July 2, 2012; accepted September 8, 2012. Date of publication September 17, 2012; date of current version January 11, 2013. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Prof. Paul C.-P. Chao. The authors are with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India (e-mail: sovandalai@yahoo.co.in; biswenduc@ gmail.com; debangshudey80@gmail.com; s_chakravorti@ieee.org; kesab@ ieee.org). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/JSEN.2012.2219144

power quality events by considering large number of features using wavelet and probabilistic neural network. He et al [3] have also classied seven types of power quality events with the help of wavelet based self-organizing learning array system using eleven features. However, in all such analyses large memory and high speed processors are required to handle the requisite computational burden that necessitates the use of a computer. The present trend in developing sensing devices is to use microcontroller, instead of computer. The prime advantage of microcontroller based instruments is that, they can easily accommodate new features by modifying their rmware instead of changing the entire hardware. This facility encourages the user to use embedded system instead of computer based system which was the usual practice in the past [9], [10]. As a consequence, the recent developments are inclined towards low cost, microcontroller based standalone modules for different in-situ real-life applications [11], [12]. In microcontroller based embedded systems, the software algorithm plays a major role in proper functioning of the modules. Also with increasing advancement of such standalone modules, more and more features are being incorporated into them demanding the inclusion of mathematical and logical operations that was earlier only possible with computers. Thus with the development of software, emphasis is given to t the complex mathematical operations into the embedded processors without lowering its speed of operation to an unacceptable level. This paper presents the scheme of Rough Set based optimal or, minimal set of feature selection and classication of power quality disturbances that can be implemented in a general purpose microcontroller for embedded applications. The problem in hand is addressed in two different stages. The rst one is to extract several features from the recorded signal and in the second stage optimal number of these features are selected and classied using suitable classication algorithm. Correlation based method is used for feature extraction because of its low computational burden, which is desirable for microcontroller based system, as it has limited space in program memory. Moreover, the real-time applications demand less computational time for instantaneous response. Hence, this correlation based technique is used successfully for feature extraction of different types of signals like electroencephalogram (EEG) [13], speech recognition [14], impulse voltage of transformer winding [15] etc. with reasonable accuracy.

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IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 13, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013

Another added advantage of the correlation technique is that it minimizes the effect of uncorrelated random noise present in the signal while extracting features from correlogram. For selecting an optimal set of extracted features as well as to classify them, Rough-Set based approach is used in this work. The Rough Set Theory (RST) is appropriate where the knowledge of features is limited or it contains redundant information. RST minimizes the data of a decision support system keeping required information intact [16]. It is important to reduce the number of extracted feature to an optimum one so that time required during online operation is minimum. That is why RST is proposed in this work, as it is well suited for such problems [17][20]. It is worth mentioning here that nding the optimal set of attributes in RST is a NPhard problem [21]. NP-hard (non-deterministic polynomialtime hard), n computational complexity theory, is a class of problems that are, informally, at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP. Hence, in practice some heuristics based approach are used to reduce computational complexity and sub-optimal solutions are considered in place of optimal one. In the present work maximal discernible heuristics, detailed in [22], is used. Therefore it can be said that the set of features chosen by RST is the minimal or, sub-optimal set. Therefore, in the proposed scheme Rough Set method is not only used as a classier, but also to select a minimal set of features removing dispensable information, thereby reducing the computational burden. These sub-optimal sets of features are extracted from the signal in the standalone module from PQ disturbance in real time. So for in-situ applications, the standalone module extracts only reduced set of features. In this way the scheme not only reduces the computational time but also saves the program memory space. The results, which are obtained from the developed standalone module are comparable with the results reported in literatures [1][8]. Hence, the contribution of the present work can be summarized as, to propose a RST based method for minimal or, sub-optimal set of feature selection and classication that is effective for a standalone PQ disturbance sensing module using general purpose microcontroller. II. H ARDWARE S TRUCTURE OF THE D EVELOPED M ODULE The stand alone system for power quality monitoring is developed as a compact module with its heart being a PIC24F series microcontroller, which has a 16-bit data bus having a modied Harvard architecture with an enhanced instruction set. The whole system is designed on the basis of a single analog input channel and is suitable for automatic long-duration power quality monitoring. The system is exible and the operations are controlled through software. This would allow future upgradations and modications without the necessity of making major changes in hardware of the module. The system has a provision to be connected to a computer through the RS232 link. This allows communications between a PC and the developed PQ monitoring system for the purpose of post processing of any relevant data, if required. The schematic of the PQ monitoring unit is shown in Fig. 1. This schematic is explained in subsequent paragraphs.

The main component of the data acquisition system is the PIC24F series microcontroller that is clocked by an 8 MHz crystal oscillator which is internally multiplied by 2 to generate instruction cycle of duration 0.0625 s. It has got 44 K words of program memory and 8 K of data memory. It is chosen for this application because of its low-power consumption, comparatively low-cost and inbuilt 10-bit A/D converter facilitating direct analog inputs to be fed at its pin. This ADC works according to the principle of Successive Approximation (SAR) conversion with Conversion speeds of up to 500 kSps. Another advantage of this ADC is the voltage reference input which can be adjusted externally during the design phase. With a 3.3 V reference supply; the ADC has a resolution as low as 3.22 mV. A low power quad op-amp IC1 (IC LM324) is used here as analog signal preprocessing in conjunction with the A/D converter to sample signals directly from the power line. Three of the four op amps are used in the circuit board. The IC LM336 is for a precision 2.5 V voltage reference that is needed for scaling the signal. Input from power line is divided by the potential divider consisting of the resistor R2 and R3 which brings downs the peak value of power line voltage within 1 V. IC1 performs the addition of reference of +1V with the input signal to map the input voltage within 0 to 2V. This is essential because the A/D converter of the microcontroller cannot accept any negative value. To ensure optimum circuit design and minimum power consumption, the ports of the microcontroller are used effectively. The scaled voltage from the operational amplier (IC1) is fed to the port B pin (RB0/AN0) that is congured to accept analog input. The parallel master port (PMP) of the microcontroller is programmed as data line output to a 16 2 alpha-numeric backlit LCD based on Hitachi HD44780 microcontroller. The display is congured to show the status of the input power quality, i.e. sag swell etc. One pin of port A (RA3) of the microcontroller is programmed to drive a relay as output through a transistor TR1. The contacts of the relay could be used according to the convenience of the user. Two pins of port F (RF5/U2Tx and RF4/U2Rx) that is internally connected to the UART engine of the microcontroller is kept for communication with PC using serial interface. Another pin of port A (RA2) is connected to a LED for annunciation purpose. Line RA2 is capable of sourcing 20 mA current that is used for directly driving this indicator LED. The status LED is lit when a logic 0 is placed on this port and is turned off by logic 1. The reset pin on the microcontroller is active low and is normally held to a positive voltage by a 1 k pull-up resistor. Pressing the tact switch SW1 shorts the reset pin of the microcontroller to ground thereby causing total system reset. Serial interfacing between the developed board and PC is implemented using the MAX3232 level shifter IC6 which is used to convert 0 3.3 V voltages at which the microcontroller operates; to 10 V needed by the computer for its RS232 communication purposes. Only three RS232 lines are used for serial communication in this application. RF5, RF4 and ground from the microcontroller are connected to the controlling

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Fig. 1.

Schematic of hardware structure.

computers RS232 Transmit Data (Tx), Receive Data (Rx) and logic Ground lines, respectively. The terminals from IC6 are terminated into a 9 pin socket for easily connecting the serial communication wire to the module. The photograph of developed PQ monitoring module is shown in Fig. 2. III. C ORRELATION BASED F EATURE E XTRACTION Correlation is a mathematical operation that closely resembles convolution. There are two different methods in correlation: cross-correlation and autocorrelation. In cross-correlation [13][15], two different signals were compared to measure the degree to which the two signals are similar. Autocorrelation is the cross-correlation of a signal with itself. In the initial stage of this work, features are extracted using both autocorrelation and crosscorrelation techniques. However it was observed that features based on crosscorrelation method give better performance as compared to that of autocorrelation based features. Due to constraint of space, details of the above comparison are not presented in this paper. A part from being a simple algorithm to be implemented in a general purpose microcontroller, another advantage of using cross correlation technique is that, it can minimize the effect of random uncorrelated noise present in the signal. It means that, if two signals are contaminated with random uncorrelated

Fig. 2.

Developed stand-alone PQ monitoring module.

noise, then the effect of that noise will not be reected in the crosscorrelogram of these two signals as crosscorrelation coefcient value for random uncorrelated noise are very small [23].

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IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 13, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013

TABLE I P OWER Q UALITY E VENTS PQ Events D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 Descriptions Pure Sag Pure Swell Momentary Interruption (MI) Harmonics Sag with harmonic Swell with harmonic Notch Oscillatory transient Flicker Impulsive transient(Spike)

1.5 1

Amplitude (pu)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2


Normal Harmonics

Fig. 4. Cross-correlogram of a normal PQ signal and signal with harmonics.

3) A3 = 4) A4 =

N n = N

n . Rn

Rmax N n = N n . Rn
N n = N Rn N n = N |n |. Rn N n = N Rn

; ; ; ;

Time (s)
Fig. 3. Waveforms of a normal PQ signal and a signal with harmonics.

5) A5 = 6) A6 = 7) A7 = 8) A8 = 9) A9 =

N 2 n = N n . Rn N n = N Rn

N n = N

The crosscorrelation [23] of two signals X (n ) (reference signal) and Y (n ) (PQ disturbance signal) is given by equation (1). N m 1 X n+m X n , m 0 x y (m ) = R (1) n=0 x y ( m ) , m < 0 . R xy The index m represents time shift parameter (or lag) and R indicates crosscorrelation sequences. If the total number of samples is represented by N then the resultant cross correlation sequence has (2 N 1) number of coefcients. Different types of feature can be extracted from each crosscorrelogram according to the need of the problem. The PQ events that are studied in this paper are given in Table I. These signals are generated according to IEEE Std.1159-1995 [24] with the help of MATLAB software. Normal power frequency signal along with a typical PQ disturbance (harmonics) are shown in Fig. 3. The corresponding crosscorrelogram is given in Fig. 4. For classication and identication of PQ disturbances some features are extracted from crosscorrelogram of each PQ events. For simplicity, Rn is considered as the n t h cross correlation coefcient of a particular PQ event. The details of the features (A1 through A12 ) are given below. 1) A1 = Maximum value of the cross-correlation coefcient; 2) A2 = Index of maximum value;

Rn (2 N +1) ;

10) A10 = features are extracted from signal itself. They are 11) A11 = Variance of the signal(Y ); 12) A12 =
N n = N

( Rn A7 )2 ; (2 N +1) N 3 ( R A ) n 7 n = N ; 2 N ( A8 )3 N 4 ( R A ) n 7 n = N ; Two 2 N (A8 )4

N n = N

= mean value of the signal and Ys = standard where Y deviation of the signal. The physical signicance of A3 , A4 , A5 , A6 , A7 , A8 , A9 , A10 and A12 are equivalent width, centroid, absolute centroid, root mean square width, mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis of correlation coefcient and kurtosis of signal respectively. Choice of suitable feature for a particular problem may be considered as a combination of trial and error and use of prior experience. Similar features gave good performance in [13][15]. So these features are chosen primarily. However one may consider some other features depending upon the problem in hand. In the proposed scheme sub-optimal numbers of features are chosen using Rough Set Theory (RST) from these features. Result show that the selected 12 features are found to be suitable enough for PQ disturbance classication with reasonable accuracy.

(Y Y )4 2 N (Ys )4

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TABLE II D ECISION TABLE C ONSIDERED FOR RULE G ENERATION Object 1 2 101 102 201 202 302 303 304 401 402 503 504 601 602 799 800 899 900 999 1000 Condition Attributes A6 A7 A8 0.498 0.364 0.485 0.514 A5 0.998 0.528 0.998 1 0.998 0.998 0.495 0.998 0.999 0.999 0.898 0.945 1 1 0.353 0.352 0.498 0.532 0.278 0.232 0.364 0.765 0.766 0.765 0.765 0.765 0.765 0.765 0.363 0.363 0.765 0.463 0.158 0.155 0.998 0.464 0.320 0.304 0.724 0.754 0.971 0.387 0.431 0.973 0.974 0.674 0.678 0.972 0.972 0.973 0.947 0.973 0.998 0.999 0.963 0.961 0.405 0.475 0.825 0.775 0.515 0.515 0.384 0.751 0.752 0.821 0.821 823 0.526 0.517 0.524 0.527 0.507 0.508 0.968 0.968 0.434 0.415 0.646 0.582 Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 D4 D5 D5 D6 D6 D7 D7 D8 D8 D9 D9 D10 D10

A1 0.795 0.795 0.798 0.796 0.974 0.976 0.641 0.794 0.795 0.798 0.798 0.641 0.795 0.861 0.862 0.987 0.978 0.756 0.743 0.846 0.847

A2 0.793 0.793 0 0 0.002 0.795 0.003 0 0 0.795 0.795 0.413 0.002 1 1 0.408 0.692 0.485 0.521 0.443 0.463

A3 0.495 0.495 0.495 0.495 0.973 1 0.696 1 0.696 0.788 0.788 0.998 0.797 0.574 0.974 0.725 0.724 0.395 0.355 0.695 0.665

A4 0.673 0.673 0.678 0.678 0.675 0.676 0.674 0.676 0.522 0.521 0.521 0.674 0.673 0.399 0.399 0.994 0.994 0.664 0.537 0.605 0.624

A9 1 1 0.943 0.898 0.993 1 0.785 0.784 0.745 0.998 0.998 0.678 0.645 0.943 0.939 0.045 0.045 0.789 0.767 0.112 0.156

A10 0.999 0.999 0.898 0.875 0.997 1 0.576 0.573 0.768 0.999 0.999 0.867 0.823 0.981 0.981 0.835 0.836 0.876 0.885 0.843 0.835

A11 0.382 0.382 0.752 0.752 0.112 0.083 0.584 0.58 0.58 0.234 0.234 0.733 0.749 0.536 0.556 0.616 0.703 0.432 0.441 0.532 0.541

A12 0.551 0.349 0.349 0.551 0.942 0.987 0.039 0.039 0.037 0.568 0.568 0.04 0.349 0.349 0.038 0.783 0.891 0.247 0.254 0.543 0.745

IV. ROUGH S ET T HEORY FOR S UB -O PTIMAL F EATURE S ELECTION AND D ECISION RULE G ENERATION The extracted features from the cross-correlation sequences are classied using Rough-Set based approach. The effectiveness of the Rough set theory is that, it can reduce a data table keeping fruitful information intact [16]. In the present problem, there exists no prior knowledge about which features are suitable and optimum to classify the PQ disturbances. Hence, the data table that is obtained after feature extraction may contain superuous or redundant information. RST is suitable for this type of problem [17][20]. For example, RST has been efciently used for various application like fault identication of transformer [17], condition monitoring of distribution feeder [18], data mining for semiconductor manufacturing [19], fraud detection in electrical energy consumers [20] etc. RST is capable of removing redundant features (called dispensable attributes) and thereby keeps minimal or, sub-optimal number of features (called indispensable attributes). RST was rst introduced by Pawlak [25] for classication of data tables. Details of the RST are explained in [16][22], [25].

In RST decision table is represented mathematically by a information function W = U, Q, V, f . Here U is the nite set of objects and Q is the set of attributes. Also Vq V =
qQ

where Vq is the domain of the attribute q and f denotes the total decision function as, f : U Q V . The normalized decision table after feature extraction is shown in Table II. Each row of the decision table represents an object (e.g. PQ disturbance information) and each column represents an attribute (features extracted). Therefore in the present problem 12 features (A1 A12 ) are the 12 condition attributes and the type of PQ disturbance is the decision attribute. If the table is having a large number of attribute values i.e. card(V q ) is very high for some q Q , then there is a very low chance of classifying a new object by the rules generated directly from the table. Here, card() means cardinality operator, which means number of elements of a set. Therefore, discretization of the decision table is required for large real-valued decision table. Discretization of a data table indicates some partitioning

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TABLE III R EDUCED D ISCRETIZED D ECISION TABLE C ONSIDERED


FOR

TABLE IV T RUNCATED D ECISION TABLE FOR I LLUSTRATION Object Condition Attributes A4 A6 A12 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 0 1 3 0 0 Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D7 D7

RULE G ENERATION Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 D4 D5 D5 D6 D6 D7 D7 D8 D8 D9 D9 D10 D10

Object 1 2 101 102 201 202 302 303 304 401 402 503 504 601 602 799 800 899 900 999 1000

A1 1 1 1 1 3 3 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2

Condition Attributes A2 A4 A6 A12 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 0 1 3 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 3 0 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 0 0 1 2 1 3 3 0 1 3 3 0 0 1 0 4 3 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 3

1 2 101 102 601 602

Pawalk [16], [25] introduced the concept of approximation in RST for classication. If Z is the any rough set then P Z and P Z are called P -lower and upper approximation of Z and dened as P Z = {x Z | I p (x ) Z } and P Z = {x Z | I p (x ) Z = } respectively. This indiscernibility relation can reduce a decision table. In RST reduct and core is used for the reduction of decision table. Reduct is dened as a minimum subset of attributes that has equal capability to identify the indiscernible object when full set of attributes is used. Core can be explained as the set of relations occurring in every reduct, i.e. cor e( P ) r educt ( P ). One can produce the decision rules by using the reduct and core. For a given subset of attributes P Q , an attribute q P is dispensable in the set P if and only if, Ip = I(p{q}) ; otherwise, q is indispensable. If every element in P is indispensable then P is called independent otherwise dependent. Let P Q and T Q have the equivalence relation in U. The P -positive region of T is dened as P O S P (T ) =
Z IT

PZ

of the attribute values. Present problem is formulated based on Maximal Discernible (MD) heuristics. The detailed mathematical formulation is omitted here for brevity as it is discussed in elaborately in [22]. An essence of that can be found in the following paragraphs. The part of the discretized reduced decision table is shown in Table III. In RST, for specic attributes, different objects are called indiscernible if they are characterized by similar information. Let P Q and x k , xl U . Then x k and xl are indiscernible by the set of attributes P in W , if and only if f (x k , q ) = f (x 1 , q ), q P . An elementary set is the set of all indiscernible objects with respect to specic attributes. An equivalence relation on U for P Q is called P -indiscernibility relation and it is denoted as I p . In Table III, the attributes A4 generates elementary sets like {1, 2, . . . , 102, 103, . . ., 201, 202, . . ., 302, 303, . . ., 503, 504, . . ., 899, . . ., 999, 1000}, {. . ., 304, . . ., 401, 402, . . .., 900}, {. . ., 601, 602, . . .} and {. . ., 799, 800} etc because all the elements of each of these sets are having same attribute value. For example, the objects of the set {1,2, . . . , 102, 103,. . ., 201, 202, . . ., 302, 303, . . ., 503, 504, . . ., 899, . . ., 999, 1000} are indiscernible with respect to attribute A4 as the attribute value for all of them is equal to 1.

it indicates the set of the objects that can correctly classied into T -elementary set generated by IT using the knowledge expressed by I p . If q P and P O S P (T ) = P O S( P {q }) (T ) then q is T -dispensable in P , otherwise q is T -indispensable in P . If the set of attributes H ( H P ) is a T -independent in P and P O S H (T ) = P O S P (T ), then H is called T -reduct of P. To explain the above definitions, a part of Table III (with highlighted bachground) is used as Table IV. For example, P = {A4 , A6 , A12 } and T = {T ype o f P Q di stur bance} i.e. decision attribute, then I p = {1}, {2}, {101, 102}, {601} and {602}; IT = {1, 2}, {101, 102} and {601, 602}. Also P O S P (T ) = {1, 2, 101, 601, 602}. If the attribute remove from the P is A4 then P O S( P { A4 }) (T ) = {1, 2, 101, 601, 602}. It clearly indicates that P O S( P { A4 }) (T ) = P O S P (T ) so attribute A4 is T -dispensable in P . Similarly attributes A6 removes, it gives P O S( P {A6 }) (T ) = {1, 2, 601, 602} = P O S P (T ) so attribute A6 is T -indispensable in P . Again removing attributes A12 gives P O S( P {A12 }) (T ) = {1, 101, 601} = P O S P (T ). Therefore the attributes A12 is T -indispensable in P . Thus, the set {A6 , A12 } is the T -reduct of P . Thus Table IV is simplied or reduced and it is given in Table V. In Table V - indicates the dispensable condition. The attribute values (A6 = 1 A12 = 2) (A6 = 1 A12 = 1), (A6 = 3 A12 = 1) and (A6 = 0 A12 = 1) (A6 = 0 A12 = 0) are indicates

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TABLE V R EDUCED F ORM OF TABLE IV Object 1 2 102 103 503 504 Condition Attributes A4 A6 A12 1 1 3 3 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 TABLE VI D ECISION RULES O BTAINED FROM TABLE V Decision Rule No. 1 2 3 Statement of the Rule IF (A6 = 1A12 = 2)(A6 = 1A12 = 1) (A6 = 3A12 = 1) (A6 = 0A12 = 1)(A6 = 0A12 = 0 THEN Type of disturbance is D1 Type of disturbance is D2 Type of disturbance is D7 Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D7 D7

1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0

Amplitude (pu)

0.05

0.1 Time (S)


Voltage sag.

0.15

0.2

Fig. 5.

1.5 1
Amplitude (pu)

0.5 0

-0.5 -1

the characteristics of the decision class (i.e. disturbance class) D1, D2 and D7 respectively. and are logical AND and OR operator respectively. These attribute values are called reduct. Intersections of these reduct values for each of the decision class will give the core for the respective classes. For example the decision class D2 the intersection of (A6 = 3 A12 = 1) and (A6 = 1 A12 = 1) gives the core values A6 = 3 and A12 = 1. But for the decision class D1 and D7 have no such core values. This reduced Table V can be used to generate the decision rules in IF_THEN format. Table VI shows the decision rules which is obtained from reduct and core values. It is worth mentioning that Table VI shows only decision rules using only a part of the complete data table. Hence, the actual rules obtained from complete data table are different from them. In a nutshell, RST is a tool for extracting knowledge from a data table. The theory is developed by Z . Pawlak [16], [25]. By the method described in [16], [25], it can eliminate superuous information called dispensable attributes and thus can reduce the data table. This is achieved in two steps: In the rst step the real valued data table is discretized, i.e., values of extracted features (called attributes) are mapped between different integral values and dispensable attributes are removed. This is done by Maximal Discernible (MD) heuristics which is discussed in details in [22]. In the second step, the core knowledge is encoded in the form of IF_THEN decision rules form the reduced data table. This process is described in [16], [25]. V. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION In the present work, signals i.e., PQ disturbances are generated in two ways-i) using simulation software; ii) employing suitable electrical switching circuit. The sample waveforms captured from switching circuits are given in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively.

-1.5 0

0.05

0.1 Time (s)


Harmonics.

0.15

0.2

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

Scheme of unknown PQ event identication.

Fig. 7 represents the training and testing procedure of developed PQ sensing module. In training phase, the minimal set of features is selected using software generated signals employing RST. After that, the rule base is generated depending on the minimal features in the form of IF_THEN rules. This rule base is programmed into the developed PQ sensing module. In the testing phase, developed module is tested with both real life power signals and the signals obtained from switching circuit of different electrical components. In this phase the PQ sensing module utilizes the developed and programmed rule base for nding out the PQ event. Altogether 1250 software generated data les, 125 for each class (D1-D10), are used for feature extraction and rule

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TABLE VII S IMPLIFIED F ORM OF THE D ECISION TABLE Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Condition Attributes A2 A4 A6 A12 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 0 1 3 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 2 1 3 3 0 1 3 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 0 4 3 1 0 4 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 3 3 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 3 Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D2 D2 D3 D3 D3 D3 D4 D4 D4 D4 D5 D6 D6 D6 D6 D6 D7 D7 D7 D8 D8 D8 D8 D8 D9 D9 D10 D10 D10 Similar Cases 115 010 110 010 003 002 095 025 004 001 101 016 005 003 125 105 016 003 001 001 112 008 005 109 007 004 003 002 113 012 101 019 006

TABLE VIII PARAMETERS OF THE D ECISION RULES Decision Rule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Strength 0.092 0.008 0.088 0.008 0.002 0.002 0.076 0.020 0.003 0.001 0.081 0.013 0.004 0.025 0.100 0.084 0.013 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.090 0.006 0.004 0.087 0.006 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.090 0.010 0.081 0.015 0.005 Coverage 0.920 0.080 0.880 0.080 0.024 0.016 0.760 0.200 0.032 0.008 0.808 0.128 0.040 0.250 1.000 0.840 0.128 0.024 0.008 0.008 0.896 0.064 0.040 0.872 0.056 0.032 0.024 0.016 0.904 0.096 0.808 0.152 0.048 Decision Attribute D1 D1 D2 D2 D2 D2 D3 D3 D3 D3 D4 D4 D4 D4 D5 D6 D6 D6 D6 D6 D7 D7 D7 D8 D8 D8 D8 D8 D9 D9 D10 D10 D10

A1 1 1 1 1 0 1 3 3 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2

generation (i.e. training phase) for the developed module. These feature values are shown in Table II. So the data table used for rule generation is having 1250 rows and 13 columns excluding the column of object index. Twelve columns consist of extracted features (A1 - A12 ), which are the condition attributes and the last column is for decision attribute i.e., the type of PQ disturbances. The following steps are followed for decision rule generation: Step 1: Data table is discretized and dispensable attributes are removed following the methodology stated in the previous section. It was found that the attributes (i.e. features) A1 , A2 , A4 , A6 , and A12 , are indispensable and the remaining attributes are dispensable. Using the concepts of reduct and core the number of feature is minimized. The reduced discretized table is shown in Table III. Step 2: Reduct values are obtained and decision rules are generated. The sample computation for reduct and core values is described earlier. Simplied form of Table III is shown in Table IV. This table is used to generate the decision rules. To evaluate the relative goodness of the decision rules, two parameters are used strength and coverage. These parameters

are dened as | Q ( X ) f ( X )| |U | | Q ( X ) f ( X )| . Coverage = | f ( X )| Strength = (2) (3)

From the above equation, strength of a rule may be described as the fraction of total cases satisfying the rule considering all decision classes and coverage is the fraction of total cases satisfying the rule considering each decision class. It is evident from Table VII that rule number 1 (row number 1 of Table VII) may be represented as: IF (A1 = 1 A2 = A4 = 1 A6 = 1 A12 = 2) THEN PQ disturbance is D1. Similarly rule 2 also states about PQ disturbance D1 as: IF (A1 = 1 A2 = A4 = 1 A6 = 1 A12 = 2) THEN PQ disturbance is D1. Hence, combining these two rules PQ disturbance D1 can be classied as: IF (A1 = 1 A2 = 2 A4 = 1 A6 = 1 A12 = 2) (A1 = 1 A2 = 1 A4 = 1 A6 = 1 A12 =1) THEN PQ disturbance is D1. It is also clear from Table VII that four decision rules are obtained for

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TABLE IX M ODIFIED F ORM OF TABLE VI C ONSIDERING C ORE VALUES Decision Rule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Condition Attributes A2 A4 A6 A12 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 0 4 3 2 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 Decision Attribute D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
Event D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11

TABLE XI C LASSIFICATION R ESULTS OF THE T ESTED S IGNAL


D1 123 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 D2 0 124 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 D3 0 0 123 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 D4 0 0 0 121 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 Overall D5 D6 D7 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 120 0 0 0 119 0 2 0 121 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 accuracy 97.1% D8 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 119 0 3 0 D9 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 121 0 0 D10 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 119 0 D11 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 125

A1 1 1 3 0 1 1 2 3 1 -

TABLE XII TABLE X D ECISION RULES BASED ON THE S IMULATED S IGNAL Decision Rule No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Statement of the Rule IF (A1 = 1 A4 = 1 A12 = 2) (A1 = 1 A2 = 0 A6 = 3 A12 = 1) (A1 = 3 A2 = 0 A4 = 1) (A1 = 0 A4 = 1 A12 = 0) (A1 = 1 A2 = 2 A6 = 1 A12 = 2) (A1 = 1 A2 = 0 A6 = 3 A12 = 0) (A1 = 2 A6 = 0 A12 = 1) (A1 = 3 A2 = 1 A6 = 4) (A1 = 1 A4 = 1 A12 = 1) (A2 = 1 A6 = 3 A12 = 2) ELSE THEN Type of disturbance is D1 Type of disturbance is D2 Type of disturbance is D3 Type of disturbance is D4 Type of disturbance is D5 Type of disturbance is D6 Type of disturbance is D7 Type of disturbance is D8 Type of disturbance is D9 Type of disturbance is D10 The signal is Normal (D11) C OMPARISON OF R ELATIVE C OMPUTATIONAL T IME OF D IFFERENT M ETHODS Method DWT & Wavelet transform [4] S-transform & Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) [6] Wavelet packet & SVM [5] Wavelet transform & Neural fuzzy [8] Wavelet transform & Neural network [2] Proposed method Classication Accuracy (%) 98.18 93.2 97.25 96.50 94.37 97.10 RCT(pu) 2.22 1.82 1.64 1.62 1.53 1.00

decision class D2 and D3. Similarly for other decision classes some time there is one or more than one decision rules. The number of similar cases gives an idea that the importance of all the rules for a particular decision class is not same. To judge this, strength and coverage of each rule is computed according to equation 2 and 3 [22] and given in Table VIII. Higher the value for strength and coverage higher will be the goodness or weightage of the rule. Step 3: Observing Table VII, rules 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33 are straightaway removed as their strength and coverage factor are low. For rest of the rules it is observed that considering intersection of reduct values i.e., core values make the decision rules simpler. To illustrate this, the modied form of Table VII considering core values only shown in Table IX. Hence, the nal decision rules are generated using core values in

IF THEN format and they are shown in Table X. These decision rules are programmed in the microcontroller. To judge the performance of the decision rules 1375 test signals are captured from real life power line as well as signal generated using the switching circuit of different electrical component. These signals are directly fed to the developed module from the output of the arbitrary waveform generator. It is worth mentioning here that the algorithm programmed within the microcontroller now extracts only the indispensable or, minimal features (A1, A2 , A4 , A6 and A12 ) instead of all the twelve features considered initially. Hence, the computational burden is reduced. The extracted features values are then checked with the decision rules coded previously to sense and classify the PQ disturbances. A confusion matrix is given in Table XI to analyze the performance quantitatively. The diagonal elements of Table XI represent correctly classied PQ events. Off-diagonal elements represent the number of misclassications. The overall accuracy of classication is the ratio of correctly classied events to that of the total number of events. The overall classication accuracy obtained based on test signals is 97.1% which could be taken as reasonable for classication of PQ disturbances in real life raw data (i.e. without denoising the data). The performance of the proposed method is compared with the classication accuracy obtained in papers [2], [4][6] and [8].

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TABLE XIII P ERFORMANCE OF THE P ROPOSED M ETHOD W ITH D IFFERENT N OISE C ONTAMINATIONS SNR (db) 50 40 30 Real life raw data Classication Accuracy (%) 96.72 94.44 92.36 97.10

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In papers [4], [6] and in proposed method, analysis is performed on raw-data. The comparison is shown in Table XII. The proposed method has reasonable classication accuracy compared to the other methods. It is also evident from Table XII that the proposed method takes relatively smaller computation time in comparison with the methods mentioned in the papers [2], [4][6] & [8]. The relative computational Time (RCT) for a particular scheme, mentioned in Table XII, is computed as, RC T = Computati on ti me f or a par ti cular scheme Mi ni mum computati on ti me consi deri ng all schemes

(keeping software platform, number of PQ disturbances and all other conditions same for all the algorithms). The RCT suggests that low computational time means lesser will be the burden on the processor and memory. As stated earlier, that cross-correlation based feature extraction can minimize the effect of random uncorrelated noise present in the signal; the performance of the proposed scheme is also judged with different levels of noise contamination in the signal. In Table XIII, results show that the performance of the scheme exhibit acceptable accuracy even with the presence of noise. The rst three rows of Table XIII represent simulated data while the fourth row represents real life raw data (with noise). However, with respect to both classication accuracy and RCT the proposed methods gives efcient performance, somewhat better than the methods reported in [2], [4][6] & [8]. VI. C ONCLUSION A novel approach based on Rough set theory for power quality disturbance sensing is implemented in a general purpose microcontroller. Crosscorrelation technique is used in this module as feature extraction tool because it minimizes the effect of random noise present in the signal and also offers low computational burden. For effective utilization of program memory space of the microcontroller, the Rough set theory is used as classication tool. Rough set theory is not only used as classier but is also used as an optimizer to select a suboptimal set. Results show that the developed module can be used effectively to sense power quality disturbances for insitu applications with reasonable accuracy. The method stated here is generic in nature and can be implemented in other microcontroller based applications for topologically similar problems.

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[23] J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles Algorithms and Applications, 3rd ed. New Delhi, India: Prentice-Hall, 1995. [24] IEEE Recommended Practices for Monitoring Electric Power Quality, IEEE Standard 11591995, 1995. [25] Z. Pawlak, Rough set theory and its applications, J. Telecommun. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 710, Mar. 2002. Sovan Dalai (M12) received the B.E.E. from B.E. College (Deemed University), Kolkata, India, and the M.E.E. degree from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in 2000 and 2003, respectively, both in engineering. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University. His current research interests include power quality event detection, smart metering, and condition monitoring related to high-voltage systems.

Sivaji Chakravorti (SM00) received the B.E.E., M.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in 1983, 1985, and 1993, respectively. He is currently a Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University. In 1984, he was engaged in research with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, as an INSA Visiting Fellow. He was with Technische Universitt Mnchen, Munich, Germany, as a Humboldt Research Fellow. He was a Development Engineer with Siemens AG, Berlin, Germany. He was a Humboldt Research Fellow in ABB Corporate Research, Ladenburg, Germany, and a US-NSF Guest Scientist with Virginia Tech, Blacksburg. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 research papers and has authored a book. His current research interests include computer-aided design and optimization of insulation systems, condition monitoring of large electrical equipments, and signal conditioning in high-voltage systems. Dr. Chakravorti is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and an IEEE PES Distinguished Lecturer.

Biswendu Chatterjee (M12) received the M.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in 2004 and 2009, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University. His current research interests include data acquisition and condition monitoring related to highvoltage systems.

Debangshu Dey (M10) received the B.E.E, M.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in 2003, 2005, and 2009, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University. His current research interests include condition monitoring of electrical equipments, intelligent instrumentation, signal conditioning and applications of optimization, and computational intelligence in electrical measurements.

Kesab Bhattacharya (SM12) received the B.E.E., M.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in 1982, 1984, and 2000, respectively. He is currently a Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University. His current research interests include electrostatic eld computation, optimization techniques, partial discharge, and condition monitoring of electrical equipment related to high-voltage systems.