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This is certified that this report submitted by Miss KALAYARASE. B. PILLAI Seat No. DPGD JL09/1180 a student of final year of DPGD HR as a part of Final Year Project Work as prescribed by the Welingkar Institute of Management for the subjects H.R. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT and that, I instructed / guide them for the said work from time to time and I found it to be satisfactorily progressive. And that the said work has been assessed by me and I am satisfied that the name is upto standard envisage for the level of the course. And that the said work may be promote to external examiner.

_____________ ___________ (Principal) V. IYER (Project Guide)

_________________ ________________ (Internal Examiner) (External Examiner)


We take an immense pleasure in Submitting this report of group project on H.R. Training & Development successfully. If helped us to check the feasibility of the theories learnt with in the Welingkars Academy.

It is indeed a moments of greats pleasure & immense satisfaction for us to express a sense of profound gratitude & is debtebness to all the people who have contributed in making our projects a enriching experience.

We are very thankful to our respected H.O.D. _______________________ & our project guide ___________________ and all the staff member who inspired us and provided continuous help and meticulous attention during the project with immense respect and deep gratitude we express our sincere acknowledge to them.

And at last but not the least I am thankful to fellow group member and for their co-operation.



The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now a days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization.

To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened.

HR role is now: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training



It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improves the efficiency and effectiveness of organization.

It is concerned with improving the existing skills and exploring the potential skills of the individual i.e. upgrading the employees skills and extending their knowledge. Therefore, training is a key to optimizing utilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills.

Training and Development referred to as:

Acquisition and sharpening of employees capabilities that is required to perform various obligations, tasks and functions.

Developing the employees capabilities so that they may be able to discover their potential and exploit them to full their own and organizational development purpose Developing an organizational culture where superior subordinate relationship, team work, and collaboration among different sub units are strong and contribute to organizational wealth, dynamism and pride to the employees.

DEVELOPMENT DEFINED It helps the individual handle future responsibilities, with less emphasis on present job duties.

INTRODUCTION OF TRAINING TRAINING-DEFINED It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it

Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.



Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

Development of Human Resources Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

Development of skills of employees Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of.

Productivity Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

Team spirit Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Organization Climate Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

Quality Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

Healthy work environment Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.

Health and Safety Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

Morale Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

Image Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

Profitability Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies

Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan.

Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives, 1.Trainer 2.Trainee 3.Designer 4.Evaluator

Trainer The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

Trainee The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.

Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainees mind that actually helps in gaining attention.

Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.

Designer The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then hell buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal

language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.

Evaluator It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.

Training As Consultancy Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives.

Estimation of Training Outsourcing It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education.


Training Courses that Consultancies Offer The various courses that consultancies offer are: Business Training Courses o Management Development

Conflict Management Managing Diversity

Project Management Stress Management Time Management Senior Management Workshops o Sales Negotiation Skills Sales Technique o Customer Care Customer Care Training Managing Customers o Human Resource HR Administration Induction Training Recruitment & Selection Successful Appraising Personal Development Courses o Workshops on: Assertive Skills Building Confidence Coping with Change Interview Techniques Maximize Potential o One to One Coaching Focused entirely on personal objectives Move forward at individual pace

Material used in tailor made to specific development Need A strict code of confidentiality

Importance of Training Consultancies It helps in enhancing companys image It helps in strengthening the team spirit It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load It helps in improving the work relations It helps in developing focused and inspired staff It leads to greater chances of success

Consultants can provide help on following areas: Management Development Team Building Leadership Health & Safety Training Interpersonal Skills Sales Training Example: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.

Identifying training and development needs I can do that... Fundamental to the delivery of any path project is the development of the team and the professional development of all individuals. At all levels there is an expectation that the skills, attitudes and knowledge required to deliver successful projects will be gained while these projects develop.

This section looks at how project managers can identify the skills and knowledge required to successfully deliver a competent project as well as provide the training and development required for both themselves and the project team. The intention here is to give an overview, as there are training and development texts that cover this subject in much more detail. You should start with an analysis of the training and development that is required. The starting point and the subsequent steps can be represented in The Training Cycle or The Systematic approach to Training and Development. This is a widely recognised and used model of the processes involved in professional development.

\ This is a good place to point out that when setting any objectives for training we should be using the standard management practice of using SMART objectives.

SMART You will notice that the above objectives are specific in that they explain a number of individual tasks. They are measurable in that you can determine if the tasks have been completed by checking against the targets, e.g. 2000 words, four bridges, grid reference, and so on. They are achievable in that resources are available to complete the project. For example, is there sufficient time for completion and does the candidate have access to a computer? They should be realistic. Clearly projects have to be set at an appropriate level and be relevant to the development of the individual. We have to ask whether the person presently has the skills to carry out the project, does he/she need training or can they learn by completing the project? Finally, the project should be time-bound in that you have to set time targets for completion, and possibly for reviewing progress.

If you are able to set SMART objectives it makes the job of evaluation and review much easier.


The need for staff training can be idenitifed in a number of ways, such as during interviews, through feedback from colleagues, by competence or knowledge tests, by observing work taking place, or from appraisal documents or CVs. Skills and knowledge audits and a SWOT analyses are well-known techniques that can be used for self-assessment as well as for identifying the needs of individuals and groups.

SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE AUDIT A brainstorming session will identify the skills, knowledge and understanding required to carry out a particular task. Skills that the project team leader might suggest are listed in the table below. By comparing the exisiting skills and knowledge of the team members with the recommended ones, you can determine what training is required. Such an audit might produce the following conclusions:


SKILLS Level required Current level Development needs Project design Degree or HNC level management and review SVQ level 4 Supervisory management plus some specific project training A more advanced course in management skills Planning and reviewing Management Level 4 S/NVQ Management Level 4 S/NVQ As above Staff management Management Level 4 S/NVQ Management Level 4 S/NVQ None required Team briefing Management Level 4 S/NVQ Management Level 4 S/NVQ As above Effective presentation Ability to present projects to community groups Not confident in presenting to groups There is a need for a specific course followed up with exposure to group presentations Report writing Professional quality reports Already presents high quality reports None required Assessment skills Vocational Assessor Award Holds Skills Assessor Award To work towards the D33 Team skills Management Level 4 S/NVQ Management Level 4 S/NVQ None required Training of trainers 3- to 4-day course Already holds three relevant training units None required

KNOWLEDGE Level required Current level Development needs Management of Health and Safety NEBOSH level Already holds Management Level 4 S/NVQ and has attended specific training None required Safety in construction legislation NEBOSH level As above As above Employment legislation Management Level 4 S/NVQ Management Level 4 S/NVQ Updating courses when available Appraisal system and how it works Specific knowledge and use of the system Has carried out appraisals in other organisations Specific coaching only required Environmental legislation Full knowledge of relevant environmental legislation Has full knowledge through personal research None required

Do not be over specific about each and every aspect of the job, and do not use vague expressions: communication skills, for example, may cover questioning, listening and talking to a group. You should attempt to be as clear and concise as possible about the skill or knowledge required.

SWOT Another simple self-assessment tool is the SWOT analysis or analysis of STRENGTHS,

WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS. This can be used on its own or with the skills and knowledge analysis. It is a good technique for helping staff identify their own training needs with or without support.

THE PROJECT TEAM LEADER Strengths Weaknesses I have a strong background in management techniques. I have not worked to any degree with groups of manual workers. I have used a pc competently in previous jobs. I am unfamiliar with project management software.

I have a NEBOSH Certificate. Health and safety training did not cover construction regulations. Opportunities Threats There will be a number of candidates selected for a higher level qualification in Project Management. Lack of project management skills can hamper progress. Growth in the path industry may mean that there are more higher level jobs available. Other candidates may have worked with manual workers I need to improve my leadership skills.

Whatever technique is used, it is best to include this in a personal development plan (PDP). This is very often carried out as a part of an appraisal process.


Development issue Reason for Development Method and date for achieving objective Review date and comments 1. Training and assessment skills To fulfil role in training and developing my team to meet the required job standards. Attend training course leading to the Certificate for Skills Trainers and assessors by August 2002. 2. Report writing To improve my knowledge of standard report writing techniques. Attend a short course when available by September 2002. 3. Project management To enable me to fully understand and manage projects. To attend an introductory course by June 2002 with a view to commencing a certificate course in early 2003.

The above techniques can lead to individual development plans. It is standard practice to compile these individual plans and to produce composite plans for a department or specific group. These, in turn, can then be combined with plans from other groups to form an organisational training needs analysis.

WE CAN ALL DO THAT The department, organisational or team training needs analysis should be set out in a similar way to the PDP. However, simply compiling a list of team members training needs may result in a list of

individually identified needs and not a plan that suits the organisation or the project team. Sometimes, individuals may push for expensive training that is not a priority for the team as a whole, or inappropriate or costly training may be prioritised badly.

It is the role of the manager or team leader to analyse the identified needs in order to determine the priorities for the team as a whole and to decide in which order these needs can be met, given that there are always budgetary constraints.

In order to do this the manager or team leader has to understand a basic principle of team working:

None of us works in isolation, although we sometimes would like to think we can, every action we take, every thing we say has possible consequences for others in the organisation or in the team.

Focusing on getting the job done may be detrimental to other team members and affect how the team works. Pushing others to achieve difficult targets is well known to have a demotivating effect on all.

Focusing on individuals, through favouritism for example, may be detrimental to the team spirit and affect how the task is carried out.

Focusing on keeping the whole team happy may be detrimental to individual team members and affect teamwork.

It is the aim of everyone in an organisation to achieve a balance and to encourage and support individuals so that a strong team can be built while ensuring that the task is being carried out.

It is up to the team leader or manager to ensure that there is a maximum overlap so that individuals work well within the team and that the team works well together to complete the task.

Team leaders have a major role in facilitating this through their management and communication skills. Individual training needs must be analysed and prioritised to benefit the team. It could be beneficial in the long term to allow individuals to undertake a costly MBA, but it could be more productive to fund an in-house programme leading to six or seven members of staff achieving an N/SVQ in an appropriate skills area.

Once a list of needs have been determined a timescale for achieving them has to be set down. An example of a team training needs analysis is shown below.

NORTH HIGHLAND PATH TEAM TRAINING NEEDS PROGRAMME IMMEDIATE PRIORITIES Need Who? Why? Target date Risk assessment Full team To comply with law ASAP Basic H and S J Kerr I Smith Team targets // SHORT TERM Next month Survey techniques J Kerr P Weir Identified gap through analysis // MEDIUM TERM 23 months Interpersonal skills I Smith D Stewart Identified through appraisal Team development Full team Identified through team discussion // LONGER TERM SVQ In Administration Admin team To support training and identify further gaps // If the manager or team leader does this, then the team development plan is more specific to the needs of the team, more cost-effective and more likely to take the team forward in its task. The next stage is to deliver the training.


We carry out all services relating to Training and Development programs for our client organisations like:

Training needs analysis and development needs analysis

Designing a training strategy to underpin corporate strategy

Audit of the training function

Designing learning and development systems tailored to the company's specific needs

Evaluating the effectiveness of training programmes

Prioritizing of the training budget

Surveys in the area of corporate training


The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now a days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization.

To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1) Active involvement in employee education 2) Rewards for improvement in performance 3) Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4) Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training. 5) Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training MODELS OF TRAINING Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).

THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organizations requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below.

Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.


1. System Model. 2. Instructional System Development Model. 3. Transitional Model.

1. Systematic Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:

Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.

Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying

Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.

Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.

Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

2. Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.

2. PLANNING This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

3. DEVELOPMENT This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.

4. EXECUTION This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.

5. EVALUATION The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.


Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed

Vision focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.

Mission explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.

Values is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.

METHODS OF TRAINING There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.

Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning

The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: Lectures. Demonstrations Discussions Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.

The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: Games and Simulations. Behavior- Modeling. Business Games

Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.

Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD Management Development

The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.

Management development method is further divided into two parts: 1. On the JOB Training. 2. Off the JOB Training.

Training in Global Business World With the expansion of the organization, Human Resource job in no longer limited to their native country but has extended worldwide. Localization is a key to successful expansion that helps in improving upon workforce connections, doing the wok effectively and efficiently, and reducing global turnover.

As the organizations are expanding globally, training has become quite an essential ingredient to improve performance. However, unavailability of budget necessary to achieve goals results the training function to be at the bottom of priority list. Besides that, managers do not fully adapt according to the local environment for the transfer of training. Very often, managers use minimum of locally suitable resources or the most critical material like employee handbooks.

Training success in various countries requires cross cultural literacy i.e. understanding of how cultural differences across nations can affect the way training is given. At the same time, different cultures may or may not be supportive in the transfer of training, in the sense that cultural factor may lower or raise the cost of training.

CASE STUDY A very brilliant marketing professional went to Arab for the sale of his companys soft drink. But he came back with no results.

When asked about the failure of the mission, he answered that he prepared three cartoons.

Cartoon-1- Displaying a man looking exhausted and tired, is walking in desert in scorching heat. Cartoon-2- Displaying the same man opening bottle and drinking the soft drink. Cartoon-3- Displaying the man feeling alive and refresh again.

Though, his strategy was good, unfortunately fails because he was unaware that Arab people read from right to left.

Moral here is localization is a key to success.

There are some major barriers in the transfer of training when it comes to giving training in other countries. Culture Values and Norms Attitude Age, Gender, and Professional Status. Language Spoken Unspoken Social Structure Individual Group Assumptions.

Training Culture Communicating the information to different people from different Training cultures and different nationalities can give rise to many problems. Many simple things that seem simple and straightforward

to communicate become difficult when it comes to communicating in different environment. Giving training in ones own culture is quite different from giving training in different culture. Being a good trainer is not the only requirement but understanding socio-economic and cultural backgrounds has now become an important part.

Values, norms, attitude are the building blocks of Training culture. Values means what a group of people believes to be good, bad, right, or wrong. Norms means the social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior.

Attitude disposes a person to act in a certain way toward something in a certain situation. A trainer giving training in different culture has to keep these things in mind before delivering content.

Instances: A good case that concerns attitude towards time in different cities: People are very punctual in United States. People from US tend to come little early for any meeting, or when invited for dinner, party to someones home because in their culture it is considered to be polite to arrive on time.

In Great Britain, people tend to come late for any appointment. If called at 5 P.M., that means come at 5.30 or 6 P.M.

Even for Argentineans, coming on exact time is far too early.

For instance, In US, if the trainer gets late for a scheduled training session it is treated as a breach of etiquette. And it may result in loss of trainers respect and failure in transfer of training.

Age, Gender, and Professional Status Different cultures give different regard to age, gender, and professional qualification. For example, in Japan, people give high regard to older people. Older people are regarded as having greater knowledge, skills, wisdom, and abilities. Respect in the sense that people are more willing to listen to and seriously consider the information. In such a culture, a young trainer might have to work harder to gain attention and face problems in executing the program and transfer of training.

Similarly, some countries are also biased about the gender. Like in Gulf countries, womens role is limited to households only. In such a culture, it is not possible for women trainers to undergo training programs because people will not be as receptive as in other culture.

Same is with high professional status - the higher the qualification of the trainer, the more will be the importance attached to the information.

Language Problem in Training and Development Language comprises of both spoken and unspoken means of communication. Bestest of the best training program will fail if trainer is not well versed in communicating trainees language. Language is one of the most important ingredients of culture.

Spoken Language Trainees receiving training prefer to speak in their own language and trainer being able to speak the local language can help establishing rapport among trainees, which may be very important for the transfer of training. Language is one of the major barriers when it comes to giving training in cross-cultural environment. Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people (shown below), followed buy English and Hindi.

Percentage of the people speaking their first language Unspoken Language means non-verbal communication, a very important part of communication. It is a communication that uses body movements and gestures such as, raising eyebrows, smiling, hand movements, facial expressions, etc. A failure to understand unspoken language can lead to a failure of communication because body language is not the same in every culture.

For instance, raising eyebrows is a sign of recognition in most cultures, but in some cultures, its not. Similarly, making a circle with the thumb and forefinger is a friendly gesture in the US, but it is obscene invitation in Turkey and Greece. Also, thumbs up gesture is used to indicate that its fine in the US and Europe, but it is vulgar gesture in Greece.

Another case of unspoken language is the amount of distance between the persons talking to each other. In Latin America, the distance adopted by parties in a business discussion is 3 to 5 feet while in the US, it is 5 to 8 feet.

In the training context, if the trainer gives training in Latin America and maintains a much larger distance than desired in their training culture, then in turn, it may result in a regrettable lack of rapport between the trainer and the trainee.

Therefore, using the right body language is very important in cross-cultural training.

Global Training Class Social Structure Social Structure refers to basic social organization. It consists of many aspects such as, the degree to which the social organization laid emphasis on the individual, as opposed to the group.

Individualism Some countries emphasizes on individual achievement. Western countries emphasize on individual performance, this in turn, leads to high level of creativity, high degree of managerial mobility, entrepreneurial activity, etc. On the other hand, encouraging individualism also make it difficult to work in teams. It may be difficult for them to co-operate which may serve as an obstruction in smooth flow of training.

Group In most of the countries, group is the primary unit of organizations. Like in Japan, the social status of an individual is determined as much as in by standing of the group. This may lead to better cooperation; on the other hand it suppresses entrepreneurial activity, individual creativity, etc. This in turn, may result, in loss of recognition of individual achievement at work after training.

Therefore, trainer has to keep in mind the factor of the individual and the group while giving training because encouraging a particular individual in Japan might be considered as impolite or vice-versa.

Assumptions We all make assumptions every day. It may be positive or negative, good or bad. Assumptions influence our attitudes, perceptions. Most people see what they want to see and believe what they want to believe. It some times leads to coinciding and some time clashes. This tendency to make assumptions and forming attitudes regarding certain things can be a big problem in a cross cultural training. Differences in assumptions can some times be very problematic. As an example, trainer may believe that if the trainees do not question, they understand the content. On the other hand, trainees may believe that if they will ask question, the trainer might think they are dull. TRAINING SCENARIO IN INDIAN INDUSTRY With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is considered as more of retention tool than a cost.

Today, human resource is now a source of competitive advantage for all organizations. Therefore, the training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. With increase in competition, every company wants to optimize the utilization of its resources to yield the maximum possible results. Training is required in every field be it Sales, Marketing, Human Resource, Relationship building, Logistics, Production, Engineering, etc. It is now a business effective tool and is linked with the business outcome.

With increase in awareness of corporate training in Indian Industry, a gradual shift from general to specific approach has been realized.

According to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies), the IT corporate training market is expected to reach Rs 600 crore in 2010 from Rs 210 Crore in 2006.

In Indian market, 50% of the training companys revenue comes from the retail training and rest from other segments.

On the other hand, in many organizations training is regarded as non-essential or a need based activity. Some organizations start a training department in order to look modern. In fact, some organizations are headed by unwanted employees rather than employees of outstanding merit. While some organizations do not have a separate budget to hire highly qualified trainers for training and development.

Training and Development in Retail-FMCG Sector: Retail/FMCG Sector is the most booming sector in the Indian economy and is expected to reach US$ 175-200 billion by 2016. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased. Lack of skilled workers is the major factor that is holding back the retail sector for high growth. The sector is facing the severe shortage of trainers. Also, the current education system is not sufficiently prepared to address the new processes, according the industry majors.


Some of the training programs that are given in the retail sector are: Sales Training On-the-Job Training Seminars/Workshops Customer Relationship Management Online Course Group Study Computer-Based Training Self-Directed Training Training Institutes for Retail management

Some of the institutes for retail management are: Indian Retail School

Loyola Institute of Business Administration (LIBA) S P Jain Centre of Management Institute for Integrated Learning in Management (IILM) Welingkar Institute of Management, Centre for Retail Studies K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies & Research Mudra Institute of Communications Amity Business School

Training in Banking and Insurance Sector Favorable economic climate and number of other factors such as, growing urbanization, increasing consumerism, rise in the standard of living, increase in financial services for people living in rural areas, etc has increased the demand for wide range of financial products that has led to mutually beneficial growth to the banking sector and economic growth process. This was coincided by technology development in the banking operations.

Today most of the Indian cities have networked banking facility as well as Internet banking facility. Some of the major players in the banking sector are State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, etc.

In the Insurance sector also, rapid expansion has created about 5 lakh job opportunities approximately in the past five years. These openings are mainly in the field of insurance advisors or marketing agents. The eligibility criteria for these jobs is graduation with some experience in marketing or become insurance agents after completing school but this needs some relevant training.

Earlier there were no training programs as such for insurance agents but on-the-job training only that was given once the new agent was appointed. But now the scenario has been changed, with the coming up of big players like ICICI Life Insurance, ICICI Lombard, HDFC Life Insurance, Tata AIG General Insurance, etc in this sector, people who've had some formal training are preferred while recruitment because it can be helpful in the insurance field.

However, only the insurance degree in this field does not guarantee success. To be successful an agent must have strong interpersonal, networking, and communication skills.

Number of opportunities in Banking and Insurance sector has increased than ever before. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players like ICICI, HDFC, UTI, Bajaj Allianz, etc in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased.

Training and Development in Automobile Sector The Indian automobile sector is growing at a rate of about 16% per annum and is now going to be a second fastest growing automobile market in the world. The sector is going through a phase of rapid change and high growth. With the coming up of new projects, the industry is undergoing technological change. The major players such as, Honda, Toyota, Bajaj, Maruti are now focusing on mass customization, mass production, etc. and are expanding their plants.

According to National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Indias auto making capacity is expected to become 15 million units by the end of the year 2007 exceeding the yearly demand of about 7 million units.

This rapid expansion is because of growing urbanization, rise in the standard of living of consumers, easy availability of finance, liberalization, privatization, and globalization of Indian Industry. This rapid expansion has created lots of job opportunities. Interested one in this sector has to specialize in automobile/mechanical engineering. Currently, Automobile in India is retaining around 10 million employees and is expected to employ more people in near future. Unorganized sector in employing 67% people while, organized sector is employing only 33% people, which is a major drawback for automobile sector.

With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players in the sector, the focus is more on the skilled employees and the need of human resource development has increased. The companies are looking for skilled and hard working people who can give their best to the organization. Various companies are opening training institutes to train interested ones in this sector, like Toyota has recently opened Toyota Technical Training Institute (TTTI) near Bangalore that will offer 4 courses in automobile assembly, mechatronics (a combination of mechanical and industrial electronics), automobile weld and automobile

paint. TTTI will provide both a high standard of education and training in automotive technology as well as employment opportunities.

Training and Development in Telecom Sector Telecom is one of the fastest growing sectors in India with a growth of 21% and revenue of Rs 86,720 crore in the year 2006. The sector is expected to grow over 150% by 2012. With increase in competition between the major players like BSNL, MTNL, Hutchison Essar, BPL, Idea, Bharti Tele services, Tata, etc, the requirement for mobile analysts, software engineers, and hardware engineers for mobile handsets has increased. However, holding an engineering degree is not enough to survive in the Telecom Sector. There is constant need of updating of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. With this rapid growth in Telecom Sector, the need for trained professionals in bound to rise and so is the training need. The total training market in Telecom Sector is estimated to be Rs 400 crore.

Many top players are spending a huge amount on training and development, for example BSNL alone spends more than 100 crore on training and development of its employees through the Advanced Level Telecommunications Training Centre (ALTTC) and 43 other regional training institutes. Reliance has also established Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology. In addition to that, Bharti has also tied-up with IIT Delhi for the Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and Management.

With the increase in competition, availability of huge amount of information through internet, magazines, newspapers, TV, etc, and increased awareness among customers, the demand to impart proper training in non-technological areas like customer care and marketing has increased too.

Rapid technological changes, network security threat, mobile application development, growing IP deployment in the sector have brought back the training and development in the priority catalog.

Training and Development in KPO Sector

KPO is Knowledge Processing Outsourcing, not to be confused with BPO, which is Business Processing Outsourcing. KPO is about providing knowledge based services in the areas like market research,

business research, financial research, legal services, etc., while BPO is about providing customer care services, technical support, tele-sales etc. KPO market is expected to grow from US $ 1.3 billion in the year 2003 to US $ 17 billion in the year 2010. KPO sector is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 49.5% till 2010. According to the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), But according to Rocsearch, a UK based research firm, KPO sector will be able to reach 100,000 employees only instead of 250,000 employees. Therefore, to fill the demand and supply gap training has now become an important tool like every other technical industry.

With the expected increase in number of employees, training has become the core of KPO industry as well. No matter how much qualified the person is he needs to be trained on processes. As the name itself implies, knowledge, this sector requires high level of functional know-how as well as domain know-how. There is a constant need of well-planned training programs as the work profile requires understanding of market research objectives and methodologies. This sector requires behavioral training as well as training to handle stress because of odd working hours.

If a person is committed to deliver quality, and is willing to learn with positive attitude then definitely KPO is the right place to work for him.

Training and Development in Pharmaceutical Sector India Pharmaceutical market is valued at about US $8 billion and is expected to reach to US $12 billion by 2010. Indian pharmaceutical market is 2% of worlds pharmaceutical market. In the last two years, 3900 new generic products have been launched because of which its market value has been increased to about US $355 million.

Growth in Pharmaceutical Sector This rapid growth has also increased the training need of the sector.

Training Areas Brand Protection Contamination Control

Drug Verification Supply Chain Visibility Recall Management Shrinkage Reductions Preferred Training Methods

Some of the preferred training methods are: Web based training Class room training Workshops On-the-job training


Hospitality sector is growing at a very fast rate in India. The sector is growing at a rate of approximately 8%. This sector can be classified into hotel industry, travel and tourism, restaurants, pubs, clubs and bars, contract catering, and aviation. Other than that, opportunities also exist in universities, sporting venues, exhibition centers and smaller events management companies.

The major challenge of this sector is shortage of skilled employees along with the challenge of attrition rate. Skilled chefs and managers are in great demand. Managers require huge range of competencies such as, people management, viable skills, business insights, analytic skills, succession planning, and resource development in order to get success in this sector. In addition to that, employees are not enough trained on Business Etiquettes, Courtesy, and Business Communication. Hospitality is all about handling people. So an employee must have right attitude, tolerance, and listening skills in order to move up the hierarchy. There is still a long way to go to inculcate good public relation, interpersonal skills.

With the increase in competition due to the coming up of major players like Four Seasons, Shangri-La, Aman Resorts, etc the need to train employees has increased more than ever before. The major players

are now strategizing to increase the turnover of the customers by training their employees on Communication, Dining and Business etiquettes, etc. Some of the essentials required by this sector are: Good infrastructure Trained trainer Quality of content Certification of training course Effective Training evaluation Training and Development Programs are available for the following areas: Food Production Food and Beverage Service Front Office Housekeeping TRAINING IN HOSPITALITY SECTOR

Training Providers Training Partners Hospitality Handbooks Air Hostess Academy (AHA) British Institute of Air Hostess Training Frankfinn Air Hostess Academy Hi-Fly Aviation Academy Chetna Consultancy Services Skill Tree India Hi-Fly Aviation Academy

Sierra Training Ltd Finesse Savvy Icon Consultancy & Education Ltd Hospitality Training Topics Food, Restaurants, Hotels and Hospitality Bar Tending Restaurant management Culinary skills Food preparation and safety Leadership and Chain Management Hotel and Restaurant Health and Safety Training Courses and Programs Certificate in Catering Operations Certificate in Tourism Skills Certificate in Hospitality Certificate in Fast Food & Snack Bar Management Certificate in Healthy Eating & Food Hygiene Certificate in Guest House Operations Certificate in Guest House Operations ServSafe Manager Certification Bar Service Catering Services Food Service Kitchen Skills Beverage Service

Basic Skills for the guest services Accommodation Services (Laundry, Housekeeping, self-catering ) Career for Trainers in Hospitality Sector Preferred Educational Qualification

Some of the educational qualifications required by the trainers are:

Education UG - Any Graduate - Any Specialization PG - Any PG Course - Any Specialization PG - MBA/PGDM - HR/marketing/ operations/strategy Graduate/Diploma - Hotel Management and MBA Diploma in Hotel Management, Catering Technology & Applied Nutrition MBA/PGDM - HR/Industrial Relations

Nature of Work :

Providing training to aspirant Cabin Crews & Air Hostesses on Language Training on Business etiquettes, Courtesy, Business communication Training on personality development Training on time management Training Courtesy Crew members for restaurant operations that is for Dine-in, Delivery and product Providing behavioral training Training need analysis Arranging and implementing training Making training calendar

Training content development Training evaluation Training evaluation Preparing training budgeting Develop and deliver training to internal and external technical support teams Implement new and existing training projects and initiatives Consistently review and improve training quality and effectiveness To implement and monitor the company's 'Training for future' program Customizing training content Skills and Attributes Required Should have very good oral and written communication skills Should have had experience in making training and development content Language skills Right attitude and listening skills Dedication and Tolerance Should know to deal with people & good interpersonal and public relation skills Should be presentable Proficiency in English and Hindi Must have effective vendor management, negotiation and relationship management skills Proficiency in computer applications Excellent networking skills, with the ability to build rapport Ability to work well under pressure Ability to think out of the box and drive change and innovation Variation of Salary with Experience

Salary offered to the trainers according to the relevant experience fall in the range of:

Training and Development in IT/Software Development Industry

The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87 billion by 2008. In 2006, it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%. IT sector is expected to generate 2.3 million jobs by 2010, according to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Service Companies)

With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like SAP, the need of human resource development has increased.

According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review, there is a direct link between training investment of the companies and the market capitalization. Those companies with higher training investment had higher market capitalization. It clearly indicates that the companies which have successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with effective results. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance, which in turn, helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource.

With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many companies have now started their own learning centers. As an example, Sun has its own training department. Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of My Learning that offers access to its vast learning resources to its employees. Companies are investing in both the technical training, which has always been an essential part in IT industry, as well as in managerial skills development. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs. As an example, some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of the companys overall revenue.

Areas Covered in Training Programs in IT/Software Development Industry

The specific areas where training is given in IT/Software Development sector are: Computer Manufacturing EDP/ E- Commerce Designing Maintenance Service Operating jobs, Computer operators, Data Entry System Developing /Programming /Software Engineering Networking

Application Programming Research and Development in Peripheral Integration Product Quality Control and Reliability Testing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Database Warehousing and Management

Training Courses in Software Development Industry B. Tech BCA BSc. (H) Computer Science M. Tech MCA MSc. (H) Computer Science M.E. in Computer Technology & Applications

Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Application (P.G.D.C.A) Preferred Training Methods

Some of the training methods of training are: Computer Based Training Internet Based Learning Lectures Labs On-the-job (OTJ) Training Distant Learning E-Books Mentoring Coaching Job Rotation

Career Opportunities For Trainers in Software Development Industry Preferred Educational Qualification MBA/PGDM/PGDBM in HR / Administration / IR Education UG - B.Tech/B.E. Computers BCA MCA B Sc. (H) Computer Science/ M Sc Computer Science Any PG Course - Any Specialization A post graduate in HR from a reputed Institute specializing in Training and Development

Skills and Attributes Required Skills and attributes required to become a successful trainer are: Technical very sound Presentable Good in making relationship with managers Can handle queries of employees/IT Professionals Verbal / Written communication skills Excellent interpersonal skills Ability to lead and mentor team members Presentation and networking skills Should be computer savvy Excellent coaching and mentoring skills

Nature of Work Training need Analysis: A Protocol to gather and review the inputs on the performance of the hires serving the initial months of the employment. To design different Technical training modules based on the need for the same Advanced Training: Content designing and Session Scheduling to be done Work with technical managers to gauge current technical levels and align courses to deliver set target levels Propose budget and spending plan for technical and soft skill Ensure ROI for training Identification of training needs of employees by use of the appraisal data Consolidation and preparation of training calendar Conduct service excellence and behavioral modules for employees Continuously conduct and monitor feedback after the program Prepares weekly/monthly and annual training reports

Tracks the mandatory training requirements for the entire division and informs the participants on the compliance Takes care of trainees needs during the training Designing and developing instructional material for training courses that support company's goals Manage team member/s by assigning tasks and set goals based on work load

Emerging Scenario in IT Industry

With the rapid expansion in IT/ITES sector, now there is enough scope of IT training courses and institutes. IT sector is soon going to face a huge shortfall of skilled employees, if the growth in the software industry goes by as expected. According to recent report of NASSCOM (The National Association of Software and Services Companies) on software industry, the IT services sector will see a shortfall of 2,35,000 people by 2008. IT spending in the global business world is expected to grow by 6 to 7 % in the next 3 years, which will be enough to give boost to the IT training sector.

This huge IT spending is largely because of uptake in IT recruitment. According to a recent IDC report, India alone spends $216 million, i.e. 21% of the total spending of IT training in the region, and is expected to be one of the largest contributors in the coming years. This is largely because India alone accounts for 60 % of the total Asia-Pacific demand for IT professionals.

Currently, the IT training market is valued at Rs 100 crore, and is expected to reach Rs 500 crore over the next 3 years.

The major factor that is responsible for growth in IT sector is the e-governance initiatives introduced by central government and various other state governments.

Now there is a notable shift from long-term course to short-term training certifications. Due to this, the focus is now on hiring professionals with expertise in particular domains. The demand has largely for JAVA and .NET professionals. And on the NETWORKING end, network storage and Linux demand is taking a toll.

Variation Of Salary with Experience in IT Industry

The following tables describes the salary offered to the trainers according to the experience & variation of Salary with Experience in Software Services Industry

In Software Services Industry Salary offered to the trainers according to the relevant experience fall in the range of:

Variation of Salary with Experience in BPO/KPO/ITES Sector Salary offered to the trainers according to the relevant experience fall in the range of:

Training and Development in BPO Industry BPO is Business Process Outsourcing. It is an agreement between two parties for specific business task. The BPO industry is growing at an annual growth rate of 14% and is expected to cross $310 billion by 2008. Job seekers prefer BPOs over other sectors because it is providing high paying jobs to graduates/undergraduates. To deliver desired services to customer, who is 10,000 miles away, it is important to have good amount of business knowledge and required expertise. The various reasons behind the increasing training need in the BPO industry are:

1. BPO industry is expected to generate 1.1 million jobs by 2008, and 6 million jobs by 2015, which is why training need has increased more than ever before.

2. High attrition rate in this sector reason being unsatisfied employee, monotonous work, neglected talent, inadequate know-how, etc 3. Coming up of high profile BPOs Training has become a major tool to retain employees. People working in BPO sector face the problem of night shift, job stress that results in de motivation. Well designed training program with clear career path increases the job satisfaction among the young professionals and help them in becoming efficient and effective at the work place. Therefore, organizations have to handle such challenges of meeting training needs, although, the sector is taking a lot of initiatives in conducting training for new joinees. Companies are now aligning business goals with training costs. But what more important is, is the development of the skills of middle management. Various BPOs have an elaborate training infrastructure that includes Computer-Based Training rooms, and specially trained and qualified inhouse trainers. The companies are now busy designing training programs for their employees. These companies try identifying the strengths and weaknesses and are emphasizing more on their personalities, problemsolving skills, and leadership skills. With constant change in processes, technologies, techniques, methods, etc, there is a constant need of updation, training and development the BPO employees to consistently deliver customer goals.


PLAYERS IN BPO Training Programs in BPO Training Programs In BPO. Areas Covered in Training Programs

The specific areas where training is given in BPO sector are:

Customer Care Technical Support Payroll Maintenance

Publishing Sales and Telemarketing Finance and Accounting Human Resources Intellectual Property Research and Documentation.

Role of Organization in Training and Development Demand for Training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field.

But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it's a foremost duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture, climate, responsibilities of organization, etc.

Trainee Role Of Trainee in Transfer of Training The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. The whole training program is developed for the trainees only. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of training because one participant's attitude regarding the training influence the other participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to realize the training objectives.

Participant's willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms their own perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during the program, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the participant.

Some personal factors that affect the trainee's learning are:

Family Situation Personal Problems Relation between the training program and personal objective Level of self esteem Benefits expected from training Comfort level with the trainer Learning style of trainee KSA of trainee Previous training experiences Desire for professional growth and development Some environmental factors that affect the trainee's learning are: Relationship with colleagues and subordinates Training team Trainer team Training objective Content of training Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies Environment in the program Composition of training group Infrastructure i.e. eating facilities, tea/coffee breaks

No matter how good the training program is, in the end it is the participant only who decides whether to change his behavior or not. Trainees do not change their behavior merely because someone tells them to do. They change when they feel there is a need of it. They do it with their own learning style. The trainer and the organization can only try to remove the mental blocks of the trainee, rest depends on trainee itself.

Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer

The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is the trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee, motivate the trainee to learn, delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. Besides all that, a lot depends on personality of trainer also.

The major competencies that are required to be present in a trainer are: Presentation Skills Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation, etc. Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts, etc Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills, flexible, accepting the share of accountability, etc

Trainers Skills

The skills that need to be present in a trainer are: Training Design Evaluating the training program Training need analysis Worksheet design Exercises design Role of Trainer

FACILITATION OF TRAINING Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of motivation, required KSAs, and expectations towards training i.e.

Motivation If the trainee is not motivated to learn, no learning is likely to occur no matter how good the training methods are, or how talented the trainees are. Therefore, it is important to intervene before training and provide them the information about the learning outcome that they can expect and how the learning outcome will help in achieving the objectives. This increases the motivation to learn and to be successful in training.

Positive expectations matter a lot in a training program. If the trainee perceives the training as waste of time, and waste of resources, no learning is likely to occur. No learning is possible with negative perception. On the other hand, if the trainee believes and expects that the training would help him to improve upon his professional skills and would further help him in achieving his personal goals, the probability of training to meet the objective increases.

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) It is important that the selected trainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if the methods and contents of the training is good but the candidates do not have the right KSAs, the training program will fail. Also the training methods would not be effective if the candidates are lacking the desired skills. Therefore, proper selection technique is must that would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful in training.

Facilitation of Training Through Organization Intervention

Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. These forces also hold back the transfer of training, and learning. Therefore, it is important

to keep in check those forces. For the successful transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support, peer support, reward system, climate and culture.

PEERS SUPPORT Peer support can also help in transfer of training, for example, if the trainee is the only one who is receiving training in the department then probably the experienced peers might put pressure on trainee to forget the training and work. This situation also hampers in transfer of training. However, this situation can be avoided by involving the entire department in training,

SUPERVISOR SUPPORT can affect their employees learning in number of ways, for example, if the trainee is motivated to learn and receives full support from their supervisor, then this support in turn encourages the employee to learn as much as possible. Also, supervisor can also reduce the negative factors of training, such as, the work that piles up during training that makes the employee uncomfortable and employees negative perception about the training program, also by encouraging the learning culture in the organization.

TRAINER SUPPORT can also have a positive impact on the transfer of training. Gone are the days, when the trainers role used to get over once the training program is done. Trainers role is now extended to the work place also. Besides training, trainers role is to keep a check on how trainees are performing and help them and discuss with them if they encounter any problem in the workplace.

CLIMATE Apart from supervisor support, peers support, trainer support, Climate factor also comprises of company polices, attitude of upper management towards employee, towards training. If these factors are positive then the climate will also support the transfer of training. It is the organizations foremost duty to make the employees realize through these factors that adequate amount of time and resources are spent on them for their professional and personal development.

CULTURE also have the impact over the transfer of training. If the culture of the organization provides enough opportunities to its employees to implement what they have learnt in the workplace and provide them variety of others factors such as, social support, challenging jobs, etc then the likelihood of the transfer of training increases.

REWARD SYSTEMS If the learning outcome that helps in achieving the objectives is linked to reward system then the probability of the success of training would increase.

Role of Organization in Training and Development An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both.

The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: To hire new people training as a means of training new recruits To Expand When the company wants to increase its headcount To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date To enhance the performance of employees Organization's name to be a part of training unit

Demand for Training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field.

But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it's a foremost duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture, climate, responsibilities of organization, etc.

TARGET AUDIENCE With a huge number of organizations recognizing the worth of giving training across the complete value chain, respondents were asked to point out who the receivers were of the outsourced training. Ninety three percent of review participants revealed that their organizational employees were the audience of outsourced training program. Nineteen percent of the review participants said it was their clients or regular consumers. Sixteen percent mentioned that they provided outsourced training to their associates, partners or allies, and 5 % said they avail training programs for their suppliers.

The majority of review participants revealed that they provide outsourced training to internal employees, there appears to a strong number also using training outsourcing to reach partners, associates, or allies and customers, or clients. According to IDC, this represents a considerable break for both buyers and sellers of outsourcing function.

Internal Employees 93% Customers 19% Partners 16% Suppliers 5% Top 20 Training Providers

The Top 20 Training Providers list includes those leaders in the outsourcing industry that have recognized knowledge, skill, know-how and quality in providing educational services to a range of clients.

The List is shown below: S.NO. COMPANY NAME

1. Accenture Learning 2. RWD Technologies 3. Geo Learning 4. General Physics - GP 5. NIIT, Ltd. 5. Element K

6. Adayana 7. IBM Learning Solutions 8. Delta College 9 Raytheon Professional Services 10. Affiliated Computer Services, Inc. (ACS 11. Aptech Worldwide Corporation 12. Convergys 13. Global Knowledge 14. Intrepid Learning Solution 15. Innovatia 16. Skill Soft 17. Lionbridge 18. Expertus 19. Knowledge Pool 20. Development Dimensions International


Training and Development at Godrej "Many Indian companies have increased their emphasis on training tremendously. I think it is absolutely essential to spend a lot of money on training and continuous improvement. In our group every employee has to undergo at least five days of training a year."



In January 2002, Godrej Industries Ltd. (GIL) bought a 26% stake in "Personalitree Academy Ltd." Personalitree provided interactive soft skills training programmes online to corporates. Personalitree's training modules have since been a part of Godrej's training and development initiatives.

It all started in 1996 with the break-up of the joint venture between Godrej Soaps Ltd (GSL) and Proctor and Gamble (P&G). Post break-up, GSL was bereft of a distribution system and had to start from scratch. As part of the rebuilding exercise, GSL recruited about 250 new employees who had to be aligned with its corporate culture. In 1997, GSL conducted a Total Quality Management (TQM) workshop for all its 5000 employees to help them connect to their job.

Parivartan2 was launched in September 2000 in GSL to train new as well as existing employees on various aspects of the business and to motivate them. In 2001, new initiatives like Young Entrepreneurs Board (YEB), Red and Blue Teams, Mentoring and Reverse Mentoring were introduced in the Godrej Group, (Godrej) to encourage the involvement of youth in strategic decision-making. In early 2002, a need was felt among the top brass of Godrej to instil a performance- driven culture in the company. In addition to upgrading the talents of existing employees, Godrej had to train new recruits.

Thus, Godrej developed a comprehensive and innovative training programme for management trainees and named it Godrej Accelerated Learning Leadership and Orientation Programme (GALLOP).

The objective of GALLOP was to develop a newcomer into a professional by giving him or her exposure to various departments and inculcate in him or her, a sense of belonging.

Later, in September 2002, GIL introduced Spark, a training programme for managers to help them become effective coaches. Towards the end of 2002, E-gyan was introduced in GIL to increase the learning potential of employees.

In January 2003, a special HR programme on honing the interpersonal and negotiation skills of officerlevel employees was launched in GIL. Further, in October 2003, an English language training programme was held for floor workers of Godrej and Boyce Manufacturing Company Ltd (GBML), so that they could follow all instructions issued in that language independently.

Background Note The Godrej story started in 1897, when Ardeshir Burjorji Godrej (Ardeshir) gave up his legal practice and started manufacturing locks in a small shed at Lalbaug near Mumbai. Thus was GBML born. His brother, Phirozshah Godrej (Phirozshah), carried on the pioneering work and in 1905 GBML built its first safe, thus entering the security equipment business.

GBML expanded its range of products by manufacturing office equipment, typewriters, tool-room equipment, etc. In the early 1920s, GBML started making soaps from vegetable oils and incorporated GSL in 1928.

In 1958, GBML started manufacturing refrigerators, its first home appliance product. GSL ventured into animal feed in 1971 to help dairy and poultry farmers rear healthier livestock. Godrej Pacific commenced operations in 1982 as the Electronic Business Equipment (EBE) Division of GBML.

In 1985, GBML ventured into Computer Aided Designing services as part of its EBE division. In 1990, Godrej Properties & Investments Limited (GPIL) was incorporated to provide meticulously planned townships. In 1991, the Godrej group entered the processed food and edible oil segment by incorporating Godrej Foods Ltd (GFL).

The animal feed division was spun off into a distinctly focused animal- feed and agricultural input company in 1991-92 and was named Godrej Agrovet Limited (GAVL). In 1993, GBML entered into a joint venture with General Electric (GE), US and Godrej-GE Appliances was formed.

It went on to manufacture washing machines and air conditioners. GE exited from the joint venture in 2001 and the appliances business became a division of GBML. In 1993, Godrej entered into a manufacturing and marketing alliance with Proctor & Gamble (P&G). A new company P&G-Godrej Ltd, with each company holding 50%, was incorporated.

The entire distribution network of Godrej was transferred to this company and the joint venture was entrusted with the task of marketing both Godrej and P&G's toilet soap and detergents brands.

The EBE division was spun off into Geometric Software Solutions Ltd in 1994 to offer complete solutions to customers. In 1994, Godrej ventured into the insecticide market through GSL, which bought 75% stake in Transelektra Domestic Products Pvt Ltd (TDPL), the manufacturer of the "Good Knight" brand.

In 1995, Godrej entered into a joint venture with the US multinational, Sara Lee and the new concern was called Godrej-Sara Lee. The venture was the world's largest manufacturer of mosquito repellents. In August 1996, P&G-Godrej Ltd, terminated the arrangement and Godrej re-took charge of marketing its soap & detergent brands but without a distribution network of its own.

In 1999, GSL sold 22.5 per cent of its shareholding in Godrej-Sara Lee to the group holding company GBML for Rs 994.7 million. Godrej Infotech Ltd was incorporated in 1999 to offer software solutions. In March 2001, GSL got de-merged and its consumer products division came to be known as Godrej Consumer Products Ltd (GCPL)...


Total Quality Management (TQM) Workshops Godrej started total quality management (TQM) workshops in 1995, to inculcate a `positive work culture' in the company. In 1997, all the 5,000 employees of GSL were put through a three-day workshop as part of the "visioning" session of TQM...

'Parivartan' In 2000, 'Parivartan' was launched in GSL with the objective of motivating employees as well as imparting knowledge about the sales functions of GSL. A team of 18 senior executives from all divisions spanning sales, logistics and HR were called on to provide necessary inputs...

Economic Value Added (EVA) Training In 2001, Godrej introduced Economic Value Added (EVA) in all its group companies. An extensive training program was undertaken for various managerial and officer levels. Over 500 employees were trained to manage EVA by making appropriate decisions involving investments and/or trade-offs between the income statement and the balance sheet. This training programme was conducted by Stern Stewart, New York based management consultancy who had pioneered the concept of EVA...

GALLOP GALLOP was instituted in early 2002 as a structured and organised induction-training programme at Godrej. GALLOP aimed at nurturing the new recruits into leaders and dynamic performers through this one-year programme. The programme started with an induction speech by the chairman, followed by the speeches by the CEOs of all the group companies. The trainees were rotated in four departments other than their primary department including a compulsory sales stint. This mandatory rotation in sales enabled the trainees to get a hands-on experience in understanding the market...

SPARK The objective of the Spark programme, initiated by GIL in September 2002, was to "train the trainers". The training programme was aimed at equipping the managers to become successful coaches. GIL, in association with a Delhi-based HR consultant, conducted a host of workshops to enable the managers assume the role of a coach...

E-GYAN E-Gyan was the e-learning initiative of GIL launched in the second half of 2002. It was an attempt to move away from traditional training methods of workshops and help sharpen the intellect of the employees by self- learning initiatives. Initially, Satyam Education Services Ltd was the content provider and rendered the entire gamut of learning resources through its e-learning portal Internal communication measures like 'enrolment on a first-come-first-serve basis' and 'be the first egyanee' were circulated...

CRITICISMS One criticism against the training and development programs at Godrej was that there were no measurement techniques to judge the effectiveness of the programs. For example, no specific measures were developed to determine the extent to which the interpersonal and negotiation skills training aided the employees to develop a more robust business concept...


Key Benefits of EVA CASE STUDY 2 Training and Development - The GE Way "Great people build great companies. Talent development is not a slogan at GE, it is a way of life."1

- Jack Welch, Chief Executive Officer (1981-2001), General Electric Co. in 2005. "Developing leaders, developing people takes three things. It takes leadership commitment, it takes disciplined processes and it takes commitment to people. It works for us." 2

- Bob Corcoran, Chief Learning Officer, General Electric Co. in 2004. "There is reason to believe that they are a better training ground than we are."3

- Nitin Nohria, Professor, Harvard Business School in 2003, commenting on GE's ability to develop managerial talent.

INTRODUCTION In 2005, General Electric Company4 (GE) was one of the world's biggest conglomerates with a presence across 160 countries, 11 varied businesses and employee strength of around 307,000. Some of its businesses were large enough to make it to the Fortune 500 list on their own. GE had not only survived successfully for 133 years5 but had also consistently generated great value for its shareholders, despite its size. GE was the only company with a continuous listing in the Dow Jones Industrial Average6 since the original index was constructed in 1896. GE had won many accolades as the world's most respected company7 in appreciation of its people management and sustained profitability.

One of the factors that contributed to the company's success was its ability to train and develop its multinational, diverse workforce in a successful manner. GE was one of the first companies to establish a management development center to train and develop its employees. During the 1980s, this center put the company on a growth trajectory that very few corporations could match. It inspired many other renowned companies like Boeing Co., Home Depot and Toyota Motors to model their training centers on the one at GE.

In the media, GE has been referred to as a "captain-of-industry university" or "the leadership factory" in recognition of its ability to produce exceptional leaders who went on to became CEOs at other Fortune 500 companies. Analysts acknowledged the fact that GE went far beyond imparting traditional training. It 'nurtured talent' to bring out the latent potential in its employees through proper grooming.

The Work-Out Program that GE developed to train its employees created such an impact that later other companies began to approach GE to try and develop similar programs for their employees. GE businesses like GE Consumer and Industrial were certified by professional associations as authorized providers of education and training for their respective areas of expertise. GE spent around $1 billion on in-house Training and Development (T&D) every year. In addition, GE invested over $38 million annually for reimbursement of tuition fees for employees who enrolled for outside degree programs.

GE was chosen as the best company for executive development in a survey conducted by Executive Development Associates8 for the year 2005 (Refer Exhibit II).

T&D Initiatives at GE World's First Corporate University Although on-the-job-training had been used at GE since the 1920s, formal corporate training took shape during Ralph Cordiner9 (Cordiner)'s tenure as CEO. On taking up this position in 1950, Cordiner started restructuring the company, decentralizing it by breaking it up into various departments.

He felt decentralization would make the company more manageable in times of rapid growth. As a result of decentralization, GE had more than 100 divisions where earlier there were just eight major units. A general manager was appointed for each division, to oversee the division's overall working.

As a result of the decentralized structure, the company faced another challenge. The new breed of managers needed to be trained to enable them to handle their divisions successfully. Therefore, establishment of a corporate training center for GE executives became the logical next step.

Cordiner had envisioned a radically new approach to train executives for complex management responsibilities. To make this a reality, he sent a team of executives to look at business schools and universities around the world. However, the team found that none of these schools would be able to meet their requirements.

So, finally, Cordiner decided that GE would establish its own facility. The management development center was set up in the year 1956, at Crotonville10, in the village of Ossining, New York. It was the world's first corporate university and a major milestone in the area of T&D for the company...

EXCERPTS FOCUS ON E-LEARNING GE had started implementing on-line training way back in the year 1998. While it was analyzing the return on investment for one of its courses at GE Aircraft Engineering , the company discovered that the three-day course cost the company $47 an hour in terms of productivity loss per customer and $1,500 for travel and living expenses incurred on participants who had to be flown in from various locations to GE Transportation's Cincinnati headquarters.

The existing training facility also needed a revamp and was estimated to cost $4.5 million. It was at this point that the company decided to implement an online course instead.

Later, when the company assessed the effectiveness of the online program, it turned out that employees were able to absorb nearly the same learning in a three hour online course.

It saved the time employees spent away from work. In addition, the company did not have to incur any additional costs for travel and related expenses...

The Impact GE was recognized for its ability to maximize the value of the enterprise's intellectual capital by producing exceptional leaders.

Analysts observed that GE never experienced any dearth of good leaders to take over the reins as and when the need arose.

Experts pointed out that another key benefit of GE's focus on training was that it brought global consistency to all its businesses. As Rick Kennedy, manager, media relations, GE Aircraft Engines, remarked, "Despite the company's size, everyone has a common set of objectives to work from and it's very effective." GE had been able to use its diversity to transform itself into a learning organization where employees could develop themselves continuously. The on-the-job rotational assignments that the company offered enabled employees to get tremendous exposure across its varied business segments and divisions and gave them unmatched practical exposure to sharpen their managerial capabilities...

Exhibits Exhibit I: GE's Distinguished Alumni Exhibit II: Top Companies for Executive Development Exhibit III: Crotonville's Mission Exhibit IV: Various T&D Programs at Major Businesses of GE Exhibit V: Financial Management Program Exhibit VI: Information Management Leadership Program Exhibit VII: Edison Engineering Development Program Exhibit VIII: Operations Management Leadership Program Exhibit IX: Distinguished FMP Graduates Exhibit X: Experienced Commercial Leadership Program Exhibit XI: Human Resource Leadership Program


Employee Training and Development at Motorola Few companies take their commitment to employability of people more seriously than Motorola."1

- Sumantra Ghoshal, Christopher a Bartlett & Peter Moran2 in Sloan Management Review.

"Training and a strong learning ethic are embedded parts of Motorola's culture...The corporation learned some time ago that dollars spent on training programs not only empowered their employees but provided the necessary skills for the company's marketplace dominance."3

- James Borton, Columnist, Asia Times. Top Training Company in the World For nearly eight decades, the US based Motorola Inc. (Motorola) has been recognized as one of the best providers of training to its employees in the world. Motorola began training its employees' right in 1928, the year of its inception, on the factory floor as purely technical product training.

Training, at that time, just meant teaching new recruits how to handle the manufacturing equipment to perform various predetermined tasks assigned to them. But by the 1980s, Motorola had emerged as a model organization in the corporate world for employee education, training and development.

The innovative training programs of Motorola turned training into a continuous learning process. In the 1980s, the training initiatives of the company culminated in the setting up of the Motorola Education and Training Center, an exclusive institute to look after the training and development requirements of Motorola's employees.

The institute was later elevated to the status of a university - Motorola University - in 1989. These training experiments became such a resounding success that employee productivity improved year after year and quality-wise Motorola's products became synonymous with perfection.

Leading companies all over the world visited Motorola's headquarters to study the high-performance work practices of the company. They discovered that Motorola's success was built on the strong foundations of corporate-wide learning practices and that Motorola University was the cornerstone of corporate learning.

In recognition of its excellent training and development practices, the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)4 named Motorola the 'Top Training Company' and conferred on Robert Galvin (Galvin), the former CEO of the company, its 'Champion of Workplace Learning and Performance Award'

for the year 1999. Speaking on Motorola's training initiatives and Galvin's contribution, Tina Sung, President and CEO of ASTD, said, "Galvin is a true champion of employees being an integral part of the organizational success. He set the corporate standard for investing in education and has demonstrated that training and development pay off in productivity, performance and quality."5

Background Note Motorola was founded in 1928 when the Galvin brothers, Paul and Joseph, set up the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Its first product was a "battery eliminator," which allowed the consumers to operate radios directly using household current instead of batteries.

In the 1930s, the company successfully commercialized car radios under the brand name "Motorola," a word which suggested sound in motion by combining "motor" with "Victrola6." In 1936, Motorola entered the new field of radio communications with the product Police Cruiser, an AM automobile radio that was pre-set to a single frequency to receive police broadcasts.

In 1940, Daniel Noble (Noble), a pioneer in FM radio communications and semiconductor technology, joined Motorola as director of research. Soon, the company established a communication division followed by a subsidiary sales corporation, Motorola Communications and Electronics in 1941.

The Motorola trademark was so widely recognized that the company's name was changed from Galvin Manufacturing Corporation to Motorola Inc. in 1947.

Motorola entered the television market in 1947. In 1949, Noble launched a research & development facility in Arizona to explore the potential of the newly invented transistor. In 1956, Motorola became a commercial producer and supplier of semiconductors for sale to other manufacturers.

The company began manufacturing integrated circuits and microprocessors in a bid to find customers outside the auto industry. In 1958, Motorola opened an office in Tokyo, to promote customer and supplier relations with Japanese companies...


Motorola had started training its employees' way back in the 1920s, and the importance of training continued to grow. Till the early 1980s, Motorola had its own standard employee development activities in which training was the key element

During those days, when people were recruited for manufacturing, the company looked for three essential qualities in the employees - the communication and computational skills of a seventh grader; basic problem solving abilities both in an individual capacity and as a team player; and willingness to accept work hours as the time it took to achieve quality output rather than regular clock hours.

The quality of the output was the primary consideration for Motorola, and employees were expected to make full efforts to achieve quality. Most of the employees learned their job through observing the seniors at work and learning through the trial and error method. The training lessons imparted to them involved techniques to improve their communication skills and sharpen their calculation skills...

THE MOTOROLA UNIVERSITY After conducting various training experiments that spanned a few decades, Motorola came to understand that training involved more than designing and implementing one particular program for a set of employees. To keep improving performance, training should be a continuous learning process involving each and every person in the organization. Normally, training was an ad hoc measure, whereas education gave the recipient a vision. Education was viewed as an investment rather than a cost. Therefore, Motorola decide to elevate MTEC to the status of a university in 1989...


Motorola University created a new internal institute named College of Learning Technologies (CLT) to develop educational delivery systems through satellite, Internet and virtual classrooms.

This department was responsible for providing innovative learning via virtual classrooms, online experiences, use of CD-ROMS and through multimedia such as video and satellite conferences. The university placed a large selection of courses and training materials on its intranet , available around the world at any time to its employees...

EXHIBITS Exhibit I: Highlights of the Five-Part Curriculum Exhibit II: List of Courses Offered by Motorola University Exhibit III: Executive Education Profile of Motorola in the 1990s Exhibit IV: A Brief Note on Kirkpatrick Evaluation Levels Exhibit V: Motorola's Individual Dignity Entitlement Program Exhibit VI: Highlights of Motorola's Self-Directed Learning Program


As indicated from the variety of topics discussed, Human Resource Management covers a wide range of topics. Todays special library manager has a lot of jobs to accomplish. As a manager, one must be familiar with the laws regarding todays work environment, and keep up to date on the new laws that develop. They must also be an effective communicator to able to delegate responsibility, and alleviate conflict. They have to deal with hiring new employees, and terminating bad ones. Effective Human Resource Managers strive to make the work environment a healthy one, in every conceivable way.

You have almost reached the end of the module on Human Resource Management For Health. Clearly, we have not exhausted the topic. Many topics were introduced, but could have been elaborated in much greater depth. Many topics could have been added, were it not for the lack of space and time. We had to make choices. We tried to aim for a mix of understanding the importance of HR Management in the context of developments in the health sector and of gaining some knowledge and skills that will help

you in your day-to-day practice as a human resource manager. The challenges facing HR managers in the health sector today are serious and seemingly endless: HIV/AIDS, brain drain, low morale, transformation fatigue, to name just a few examples. We have not spent much time discussing these challenges per se. This would probably warrant another full module. However, many of the topics covered in this module are influenced by or influence these challenges. For example, motivation plays a crucial role in lifting low morale. So does a good supervisory system. Thorough staff induction and development can go a long way to reducing role conflict.

Before we let you go, we want you to spend another two to three hours working with the HRM assessment tool we introduced in Unit 1 Session 4 (Task 2) and reflecting on the key challenges we face in human resources in South Africa specifically, but also in other African countries today. We recently wrote an overview article for the South African Health Review, which talks to these challenges. The article focuses on Human Resource Development in general, but you will see that most topics relate directly to HR Management.


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10) Cornell Web site. (1999). 11) Learn 3 Rules for effective communication, 5 traits youll need as a manager, 10 motivating factors, and more. (1997). Career Development Handbook. Nursing, 27, 58-60.