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KELTRON (Kerala State Electronics Development Corporation Limited )

First State Electronics Development Corporation in India.Fully owned by Kerala. Incorporated in 1972. Commenced Commercial Operations in 1973 KELTRON is a leader in the electronic goods industry. The products manufactured are mainly for Government companies, Indian Navy, Government departments and many other private companies. KELTRON undertakes manufacturing work by utilizing the spare capacity in different Manufacturing Centers. Government of

In this technology driven era, knowledge is not just about studying the theoretical aspects, but also understanding the practical views and implementing it. Industrial training program aims to achieve industrial exposure and practical skills. The training program was conducted at KELTRON EQUIPMENT COMPLEX (KEC), KARAKULAM. This industry belongs to Keltron group of companies, a Government undertaking company situated at Karakulam which is 14 kms away from

Thiruvananthapuram city, is definitely a leader in the electronic goods industry. The products they manufactured are mainly for government companies, Indian Navy, government departments and many other private companies. The company has been certified ISO 9001-2008 for design, manufacture and supply of electronic systems.

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1) To study in detail the entire structure and functioning of the company. 2) To learn about product manufacturing and various steps involved in it. 3) To understand about the functioning of each department. 4) To get to know what is happening inside an electronics industry.


Electronics and Information Technology is the fastest growing segment of Indian industry both in terms of production and exports. Today, the electronics industry is completely deli censed with the exception of aerospace and defense electronics, and along with the liberalization in foreign investment and export-import policies of the entire economy, this sector is attracting considerable interest not only as a vast market but also as potential production base by international companies. In recent times, software development and IT enabled services have emerged as a niche opportunity for India in the global context. The Government is taking all necessary steps to make India, a Global Information Technology Superpower and a frontrunner in the age of Information Revolution. The Government has announced promotion of Information Technology as one of the five top priorities of the country and constituted a National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development.

The electrical power industry provides the production and delivery of electrical power (electrical energy), often known as power. or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid. Many households and businesses need access to electricity, especially in developed nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations. Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity in order to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide

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sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because of this aspect of the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as infrastructure.

The electrical power industry is commonly split up into four processes. These are electricity generation such as a power station, electric power transmission, electricity distribution and electricity retailing. In many countries, electric power companies own the whole infrastructure from generating stations to transmission and distribution infrastructure. For this reason, electric power is viewed as a natural monopoly. The industry is generally heavily regulated, often with price controls and is frequently governmentowned and operated. The nature and state of market reform of the electricity market often determines whether electric companies are able to be involved in just some of these processes without having to own the entire infrastructure, or citizens choose which components of infrastructure to patronize. In countries where electricity provision is deregulated, end-users of electricity may opt for more costly green electricity. All forms of electricity generation have positive and negative aspects. Technology will probably eventually declare the most preferred forms, but in a market economy, the options with less overall costs generally will be chosen above other sources. It is not clear yet which form can best meet the necessary energy demands or which process can best solve the demand for electricity. There are indications that renewable energy and distributed generation are becoming more viable in economic terms. A diverse mix of generation sources reduces the risks of electricity price spikes.


India is the fifth largest economy in the world and has the largest GDP Among emerging economics .Owing to its large population, the potential consumer demand is almost unlimited and consequently under appropriate condition, strong growth performance can be expected. In fact, the liberalization of the economy in 1991 has led to rapid growth. The electronics industry, in particular, is emerging as one of the most important industry in the Indian market

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REPORT The electronic industry in India dates back to the early 1960s .Electronics was initially restricted to the development and maintenance of the fundamental communication system including radio broadcasting, telephonic and telegraphic communication, and augmentation of defense capabilities. Until 1984, the electronic sector was primarily government owned. The late 1980s witnessed a rapid growth of the electronic industry due to sweeping economic changes, resulting in the liberalization and globalization of the country. The economic transformation was motivated by two compelling factors the determination to boost economic growth and to accelerate the development of export oriented industries, like the electronics industry.


KELTRON : Spearheading a revolution

Today, we live in a technology-driven world where speed, flexibility, intellectual capital development, and networks have become the basis of value creation - as connectivity and interactive technologies pervade all business activity. In this technologydriven environment, Keltron finds the assimilation, adoption and integration of technology in creating innovative solutions as the very basis of survival. Keltron's success has been in making technology work rather than inventing it. Keltron has been a catalyst in making electronics work in almost every aspect of our daily life, since 1973. Keltron's strength lies in the stable foundation and experience built over the years, its strong human capital, its nation-wide network and its agility to adapt itself to change. With over a 30-year long track record as a manufacturer of sophisticated electronic devices and systems, Keltron presents itself in the global market as a one-stop-shop for manufacturing, system integration, and after-sales-support in India.

Strategic Vision
To be a world-class, growth-oriented electronics corporation specialized in providing quality, market-focused products, services and cost-effective system solutions to a large clientele. To attain leadership position in the knowledge industry by training and utilizing the rich knowledge Page 4

REPORT capital available in Kerala, and creating a wide technology horizon for the development of knowledge wares and intelligent systems. Mission
spearheading an electronics revolution in Kerala.


KELTRONS history is a saga of innovation in electronics. From being a pioneer in 1973, to the role of a trend-setter today, Keltron has been the catalysis for the development of electronics industry in Kerala. The tag line launching a State-owned electronics enterprise, more than a quarter century ago, read spearheading an electronics revolution in Kerala. Within five years of its inception, Keltron had set up a production centre in every district of the State. More than 5,000 people were engaged directly or indirectly by Keltron for the manufacture of electronic goods. The model of a State-owned electronics corporation was so successful that several other States in India followed suit; launching their own electronics corporations. A quarter century later, Keltron after having contributed substantially to the industrialization of the State, set about transforming Trivandrum, the capital city of Kerala, into one of the major electronics hubs of the country.

In June 1973 Mr. K.P.P.Nambiar joined Kerala State Electronics Development Corporation Limited (KELTRON) as its first Chairman and Managing Director and its first employee. KELTRON, the brand name Mr. Nambiar gave to the company, was the first autonomous Corporation in the State sector in India and this example was emulated by several state Governments in the country. He led the position as Chairman and Managing Director from June 1973 to September 1983 and Executive Chairman from September 1983 to February, 1985.

A strong infrastructure, enterprising team of people, innovative operational methods, accent on quality and customer-orientation are the core competencies of the organization which has made things happen all these years. Large Pool of Experienced Technical Manpower Keltrons expertise in high quality manufacturing is the direct result of the highly skilled, multi-disciplinary team of Page 5

REPORT graduate engineers, project managers and a skilled workforce with a proven track record in complex precision manufacturing. Currently, Keltron employs a work force of 2000 of which 400 are Engineers who possess extensive hands-on experience in technology integration and adoption, hightech manufacturing operations and in managing turn-key projects. Man power at Space Electronics section has been specially trained at Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in high-reliability soldering, harnessing and QC. Keltron also provides technical manpower to major organizations like ONGC and VSSC ,and collaborators like Hitachi, Japan. Country-wide Sales Network.

Keltron has an All India Sales Network in place with full-fledged Marketing Offices in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Trivandrum to provide the quickest possible service to customers. Technology Support At the moment, Keltron has an arrangement with C-DAC, a research and development organization under the Government of India, which is located in the Keltron campus, for technology development and adaptation. An in-house research and department facility along with a full-fledged Knowledge Centre is in the pipeline and will be implemented shortly. Strong Infrastructure and Manufacturing Experience Since its inception in 1973, Keltrons forte has always been high quality manufacturing. During the past 36 years, Keltron has churned out a whole range of electronic products, electro-mechanical and high precision modules and sub assemblies for different industry segments. Over the years, Keltron has built up a strong infrastructure spread over 7,00,000 sq ft of built-up area. Equipped with computer-based facility for system design & engineering, and software development tools for embedded systems, Keltron today is fully geared to offer integrated manufacturing solutions.

QUALITY Ensuring quality is a continuous on-going process at all production units. Each facility has a Quality Department whose business is to see that all quality norms are strictly adhered to in the manufacturing process. The manufacturing centers at Trivandrum, Aroor (Near Cochin), Kannur and Kuttipuram (In Malappuram) are ISO 9001:2008 certified. Inspectorate of Naval Armament (SINA-T), has implemented their customized quality systems at Keltron Equipment Complex, Trivandrum. The manufacturing plants for Capacitors, Crystals & Resistors have been granted LCSO approval. In order to meet the stringent quality requirements of ISRO, ESD-control measures have been strictly adopted at the specified areas.

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KELTRON undertakes manufacturing work by utilizing the spare capacity in different Manufacturing Centers. KELTRON EQUIPMENT COMPLEX, Trivandrum KELTRON COMMUNICATION COMPLEX, Trivandrum KELTRON CONTROLS, Alleppey (Near Cochin) KELTRON LIGHTING DIVISION, MOODADI,Calicut KELTRON ELECTRO CERAMICS LIMITED, Malappuram KELTRON COMPONENT COMPLEX, Kannur

KELTRON EQUIPMENT COMPLEX - Five strategic business units.






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Each Strategic Business Units has separate Marketing, Planning ,Engineering and Production Department while Human Resources , Purchase, Finance, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP),Central dispatch departments (CDS) and Plant & Services are the same.

Organization structure

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Echo Sounders Electromagnetic Logs Processor Based Ground Mines Under Water Telephones XBT Probes Controllable Torpedo Decoy Systems Transducers Sonar Simulators Steering Gear Control systems


Module assembly for Launch vehicles like PSLV, GSLV and satellites INSAT, GSAT and IRS Search Rescue Beacon


Access Control System Flight Information Display System Radio Networking Terminals TV Receive Only Terminals (TVRO ) Direct Reception Systems (DRS ) TVRO Signal Generators Stereo Consoles/ Announcers Consoles Digital master Slave Clock, GPS clock

POWER ELECTRONICS GROUP (PEG) High capacity Uninterrupted Power Supply System(UPS) 10 KVA To 600 KVA
Rectifiers Battery Chargers High Capacity Voltage Stabilizers AC & DC Distribution Boards

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REPORT Energy Savers High Frequency Transformers


State Level Agency for IT application for election Voters Identity Cards - EPIC for various States ID cards for various applications ID cards for handicapped persons ID cards for Traders registered with Commercial Taxes Department Ration Cards for Public Distribution Systems SMART Card solutions Bar Coded Card Solutions


Power Electronics industry deals with design, development, manufacture and innovation of power supply units which is necessary for all electronic devices and equipments irrespective. Keltron has marked its presence in the power electronics sector and possess high competitive potential with Technology developed by in-house R&D as well as with technology outsourced from M/s ABB Switzerland and C-DAC Trivandrum Power Electronics Group of Keltron Equipment Complex, Karakulam designs,manufactures, assembles and supplies power circuits,power supply units and components such as: Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)- (10 KVA - 1000 KVA capacity) battery chargers High capacity voltage stabilizers Rectifiers High frequency transformers Solar inverters AC & DC distribution boards Energy savers etc.

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This department has got several sub- departments like Marketing, Engineering, Planning, Purchase, Stores, Fabrication shops, plating shop, Transformer Assembling shop, Tool Room and Equipment assembling Shop, testing & Quality assurance department and dispatch department. Keltron was the company to design and develop 90 KVA UPS in the country for Kalapakkam Power Plant. Company also succeeded in designing and developing 600 KVA UPS qualifying seismic parameters. The products like PCBs, Fabricators, transformers etc. are assembled and packed at the production unit itself. The transformer assembly is carried out at the winding shop. They have several processes done in this unit they are winding, insulation, assembling, varnishing & drying and testing of the product is done after the final assembling. The fabrication work are carried out at fabrication shops which consist certain jobs like, cutting, punching, bending, painting etc. of raw material using different machines like shearing machine, bending machine etc.

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UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (UPS) KEC has the facility to manufacture UPS within a wide range of power from 10KVA 1000KVA and battery backup of even 24 hours. IGBT based design give high efficiency and reliability to UPS. Electronic paralleling with active control, fault diagnosis system etc. are some of the features that provides excellent performance. Market of this IGBT based UPS & inverters include various kind of power stations, large industries, oil and pipe line projects, petro-chemical industries, hospitals, electronic & printed media etc. where large amount of backup power and less distorted electricity signal are vital. Rectifier/charger, Inverter and Static switch carry out the main functional stages of ups. The three classifications of according to the system configuration are Off-line, On-line & Line interactive. The major sections of UPS manufacturing are Mechanical assembling Transformer winding, PCB assembling and Testing, Equipment assembling Section Mechanical Section:This section does all the mechanical work associated with the UPS, like making the cabinet , welding, painting, etc. The materials used in this section are of India standards. CRCA sheets are mainly used in all the mechanical works like cutting, bending, joining, etc.

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Electroplating:Electroplating is the process of coating one metal over the other. Three materials are required for this process anode, cathode and electrolyte. When current is passed through the electrolyte the cathode degrades and forms a coating on the anode. Electroplating is done to prevent corrosion and rusting of metal plate. Depending upon the cathode and electrolyte, we get different color coating on the anode. Examples of different kind of electroplating are Gold, silver, nickel-chromium etc. Keltron have developed its own color plating. Assembling section: This is the final section in the manufacture of the UPS. The transformer winding section produces transformers as per the requirements. The PCB section manufactures the PCBs for the UPS. The mechanical section produces the mechanical assemblies to accommodate all the above products. The assembling section does the job of fitting all these parts to form the UPS. NPCIL, NTPC, EIL, BHEL, GTRE, SCT, Indian Navy, Mathrubhumy Daily etc. are some of the major customers of Keltron UPS.


Special Products Group is established for design, development, manufacture and supply of electronics equipments. SPG unit deals mainly with defense project . This unit deals with Marketing, Planning, Designating, a production are undertaken by the department. At present the unit is working on projects from Indian Navy. Manufacture of Processor Based Ground Mines for Navy for the first time in the country with the technology from NSTL, Manufacture of Steering Gear Control System, with technology from Brown Brothers UK, for Delhi and Kora class ships of Indian Navy, Design, development and manufacture of Echosounder, EMLog, RTU etc. for Naval ships, Engineering and manufacture of Under Water Telephone with the technology from NPOL etc. are some of the prestigious projects executed under SPG.


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A medium power compact system designed for communication between surface vessels and between surface vessel and submarine using water as the acoustic medium through transfer speech, digital data and Morse code. This equipment is designed by NPOL and has SSB lower side band transmission. ECHO-SOUNDER

It is a navigational system which detects depth of sea and plots the profile of seabed using dual frequency ultrasonic sounding technique. Sounding frequencies are 33 KHz and 210 KHz. It can measure from 35cm. Built in fault diagnosis system and shallow water depth settings are some of the features of echo-sounder.

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The PGBM is an advanced ground mine designed for selectively attacking enemy surface ship or submarine. It can be laid either by surface ship or submarine in depth of water up to 300 M. the mine works under software control. It detonates the target by acoustic, magnetic or pressure or a combination of these influences by the target.a PGBM pre-setter is used for presetting and monitoring mine performance and setting the operational data of the mine before launching.

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC LOG This equipment measures the speed and distance travelled by a ship using the principle of electro-magnetic induction. This solid state micro-processor based equipment can measure distance range from 0 to 99999.9KM and speed from 0 to 60 knots. The transducer is fitted on the front edge of the marine. To input the speed and distance measurements to other ship borne equipments in the required format a Retransmission Unit (RTU) can be used. STEERING GEAR CONTROL SYSTEM SGCS are used to move the ship in the desired directions in the sea by controlling the rudder position. The technology courtesy is to Brown Brothers, UK. 3G UNDERWATER WIRELESS ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (3G UWACS) 3G UWAC is based on SDR architechture. This system incorporates advanced modulation and coding techniques in addition to data recording and analysis features.

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ANGLE POSITION INDICATOR Designed by NPOL Cochin for the purpose of measuring the synchro /resolver angle SEARCH AND RESCUE BEACON This beacon is designed for emergencies of sea going fisherman. In case of emergency fisherman can alert the nearest rescue team by clicking thr button or dousing the beacon in sea water. This actions will activate the device and send an sos signal. The satellite network will pick up the signal and alert the local user terminals


This division is established for the manufacture, supply and integration of broadcast equipments, attendance &access control system and security system. The electronic equipment for Security System Group, which are usually, customized products with respect to the demand of the customers. The main products of these units are closed circuit television (CCTV), Intelligence Data Capture Systems, Global Position System (GPS), GPS master slave clock etc.
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Preservation project of the large collection of valuables in Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple is under taken by SSG in the most scientific way. CCTV and surveillance monitoring system at Parliament house, Prime Ministers Residence etc. was installed by SSG. Doordarsan, AIR, Vizag steel plant, Sterlite Industries ETC. are some of the prominent customers of Keltron security equipments. Keltrons Attendance Data Management system has been installed at major industrial establishments in the country. RFID, magnetic, barcode entry control system include the products and services of SSG. GPS master slave clock installations include installations at Kerala secretariat and Legislative Assembly. Keltron implemented the punching card attendance management system at Secretariat. XBT probe expendable bathy thermograph is also developed by SSG for Indian Navy, which can measure the temperature of sea water up to a depth of 450M. Keltron is successful in the design, development and marketing of various type of metal detectors. SSG also design and develops special products and services on customer request. BROAD EQUIPMENT PRODUCTS Integrated Receiver Decoder Multifunction stereo Graphic Equalizer CD player


IDCP offers solution using various types of ID Cards (SMART Cards, RFID Cards, Bar Coded Cards etc) for different applications (Voters Identity, Employee Identity, Traders Identity, Beneficiary Identity, Vehicle Detection & Identification, Driving License, Electronic Number Plate for vehicles, Ration Cards tec). It is the State Level Agency (SLA) for Election Department in Kerala .


1. Human Resources Department 2. Management Information System

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3. Enterprise resource planning (ERP). 4. Finance Department 5. Purchase Department 4. Store Department 6. Marketing Department


The Chief General Manager (CGM) is the head of KEC. There are six General Managers for the six groups of KEC. The employee hierarchy goes down as General Managers Deputy General Managers, Managers ,Engineers, Officers, Deputy Officers, Workmen etc.

Key Functions of HR Department Recruitment Apprentices contract Employees Establishment Promotion/Increments Performance Appraisal Transfer/Deputation Resignation/Retirement/Termination Time Office Function Attendance Records Leave Management

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Pay-roll system Welfare Function Uniforms Canteen Medical Claim/ Medical Check-up Welfare Schemes Statutory Function ESI (Employees State Insurance) Factories & Boilers IR& Trade Union Management

KELTRON has following categories of employees:Permanent Employees Contract Employees Casual Employees Apprenticeship Trainees


Finance is considered to the lifeblood of any business. Financial management is closely linked with all other areas of management. Further, the firms attitude towards other areas of management largely depends on its financial position. Usually a firm having a comfortable financial position may give flexibility to the other management

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functions such as personnel, production and marketing. The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interrelated

Financial management is that management activity which is concerned with the planning and controlling of firms financial resources. Finance is one of important and essential part of ever organization. The four important managerial functions are investment decision, financing, dividend, liquidity decision.

The finance department of KEC is common to all the departments of that organization. This makes the finance department more tight than the other departments, timely entering of all the things is well carried out by this department. This department is mainly engaged in recording the cash receipts and payments, demand drafts and other cash transactions, which will take place in the organization. The department is fully computerized and there fore all the transaction is interred in to the book of accounts kept for that purpose. For the immediate functioning there are mainly four groups they areCASH & COMPILATION GROUP PURCHASE ACCOUNT AND COSTING GROUP SALES ACCOUNTS GROUP PAY ROLL GROUP

Functions Providing and interpreting financial information; Business modeling and forecasting; Monitoring performance and efficiency; Analyzing change and conducting risk assessment; Participating in strategic planning, and formulating long-term business plans; Researching and reporting on factors influencing business performance; Pricing and competitor analysis;

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Developing complex finance models; Assessing the financial implications of new or existing ventures; Conducting reviews and evaluations for cost-reduction opportunities; preparing accounts and reconciling balance sheets; overseeing budgetary control; monitoring cash flow; Maintain relationship with outside agencies like financial institutions, stock exchanges, tax authorities etc.

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT Purchase department is in charge of purchasing all raw materials required for production packing materials, spare parts for machines and also purchase of sundry items. KEC has got a separate purchase department which meets the needs of the three production departments and thus helps the right product at the right time. The purchase department KEC handles the procurement, spare of supply to the customers, capital equipments, general items like stationery consumables, tools, maintenance and repair items and also issues service sub contract order for the three SBUs -SPG-PEG-SSG The department holds a 17 member team to facilitate the ease of communication, coordination and consolidation. All units are done by one group. The indigenous procurement is done by two groups one for electric and electronic and other for mechanical, capital and general purchase. There are mainly three group leaders who uses the assistance of the supporting staff for carrying out the purchase function effectively


Warehousing is normally the largest operation in the plant in terms of area, special attention should be focused on maintaining cleanliness, freedom from infestation, and orderliness and maintained within acceptable temperature limits. The entire warehousing area should be cleaned as often as necessary to maintain sanitary conditions. Storage area should be of sufficient capacity to allow orderly storage of the various categories of materials and products; starting and packing materials,

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intermediate, bulk, and finished products, products in quarantine, released, rejected and returned products.

Storage area in an organization should be designed and adapted to ensure good storage conditions. There should normally be a separate sampling area for starting materials. If the sampling is performed in the storage area, it should be conducted in such a way as to prevent contamination or cross contamination. Segregated area is to be provided for the storage of rejected, returned materials or products. Highly active materials or products are stored in safe and secure areas. There are mainly two stores. One is the raw material store and the other is the packing material and the finished goods store. In the raw materials store, the received materials are collected and categorize them according to the usage and character. Then sampling is done in the materials for getting approval for production.


Production is the conversion of raw materials into finished products and is also spoken as the manufacture of goods. Production in same laboratories consists of the creation and maintenance of a clearly defined organization and makes effective and co-coordinated use of personnel, land, buildings and equipment including the management of inventory assets. All the activities are performed in accordance with the highest standards and at the lowest total cost.

Before a new product can be marketed or an existing product significantly improved, the production department together with research, product development, sales and marketing departments must define and agree upon costs, profits, marketing dates and product quality.

Production operations follow clearly defined procedure; they must comply with the principle of good manufacturing practice in order to obtain products of the requisite quality and be in accordance with the relevant manufacturing and marketing authorizations.
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Marketing Department

KELTRON market its products through the marketing branches situated in important cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai , Chennai, Calcutta, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Trivandrum , Lucknow and Bangalore. The demand for the product is identified, the quotation for the same is given to the concerned manufacturing units and the required products are manufactured. The corporate office co-ordinates all the activities of the different branches.

Management Information System

Management Information System MIS, of an organization undertakes the planning and co-ordination of finance, monthly performance reports etc. MIS prepares report on expected monthly income, monthly budget and actual monthly income. MIS acts as a communication hub between production centers and corporate head offices and other external agencies and provides monthly performance reports and prepares expected market by analyzing recent market scenarios. MIS of KEC sends monthly performance report to Economics & Statics Dept Govt. of Kerala, Director of Industries Govt. of Kerala, Dept. of Electronics Govt. of India, National Samples and services Organization, CMA Bangalore. CMA prepares report on development of Electronics technology based on such reports from various companies.


Generation of summary of performance Generation of monthly performance report Generation of annual survey report Monthly production return note to various Govt. bodies

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Generation of sales and profit per employees.

DESPATCH SECTION There is a separate section for the dispatch of the finished products in Keltron Equipment Complex, Karakulam. KEY FUNCTIONS OF DESPATCH SECTION Recipient, checking and documentation of input document Preparation of delivery challan Finalization of Transporter Preparation of Despatch Document Despatch goods Forwarding dispatch document to marketing department Forwarding freight bill with proof of delivery document to Finance Department Monthly revenue report to Finance department Taking care of Central Excise formalities

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an enterprise-wide information system designed to coordinate all the resources, information, and activities needed to complete business processes such as order fulfillment or billing. An ERP system supports most of the business system that maintains in a single database the data needed for a variety of business functions such as Manufacturing, Supply Chain Management, Financials, Projects, Human Resources and Customer Relationship Management.

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An ERP system is based on a common database and a modular software design. The common database can allow every department of a business to store and retrieve information in real-time. The information should be reliable, accessible, and easily shared.

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