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Sustainability Indicators in Watershed Management

B.K. Kakade and N.G. Hegde Proc. of the National Workshop on Watershed approach for managing degraded land in India - challenges for the 21st century: GOI !"I! O!I 1##$. : 2#%-&'2. 1. Introduction (India is poor )ecause rural India is poor and *ural India is poor )ecause the farmer li+ing in the rural area is poor,- said .ahatma Gandhi. /ate !r. .ani)hai !esai further added ( 0he farmer is poor )ecause his resources are not managed and utilised properly,. 0he economy of a nation depends to a significant e1tent on the natural resources and their management. 0he a+erage annual rainfall in India is around 112 cm and in terms of +olume- it is in the order of &3' million mm 4.5 ha-m of 6hich 12& . ha-m is lost in e+aporation- 173 . ha-m is runoff and the rest of the $' . ha-m goes into the su)soil annually. While a)out 2& . ha-m gets a)sor)ed in the top layer of the soil- there)y contri)uting to soil moisture- the remaining &3 . ha-m accounts for the ground 6ater from rainfall. 8ccording to *aghunath 41#$35- the a+erage annual ground 6ater recharge from rainfall and seepage from canals and irrigation systems is in the order of 73 . ha-m of 6hich 2'9 is e1tracta)le economically. 0he present utilisation of ground 6ater is appro1imately 1& . ha-m and a)out 12 . ha-m is a+aila)le for further e1ploitation and utilisation. 8griculture in India is hea+ily dependent on *ainfed "arming :ystems. Out of a)out &2$ . ha of geographical area in the country- the net culti+ated area is around 122.2 m ha of 6hich a)out ound &&.&9 423.2 . ha5 is under irrigation. 8)out %79 of the total foodgrain is produced from the irrigated area 6hile the remaining 229 is contri)uted )y #%.$ . ha. rainfed areas 4:arkar1##35. 0his data re+eals that the rain 6ater inflo6 is good )ut its utilisation is poor. On the other hand- the dependency on rainfed agriculture is +ery high. ;ence the strategy to meet the increasing demand of agricultural produce is to initiate microle+el 6atershed planning. Watershed de+elopment pro+ides an opportunity for optimum utilisation of land and 6ater resources and increasing the crop yield )y o+er t6o folds. 8part from the area under agricultural landsthere are +ast stretches of denuded forests- o+ergra<ed pastures and )arren lands. It is estimated that a)out 1'' .. ha 6astelands are presently lying underutilised or idle- and posing a threat to agriculture and en+ironment. Watershed de+elopment pro+ides an opportunity generate employment and income through the de+elopment of these 6astelands. ;ence an area co+ered under a micro or macro 6atershed is the most logical unit for de+elopment. It is also con+enient for +illage le+el planning as in many cases the +illage )oundaries match 6ith micro-6atershed )oundaries of a)out %'' ha to 1''' ha. 0he giant programme of (National Watershed !e+elopment Programme "or *ainfed 8reas, launched )y the Go+ernment of India has emphasi<ed such planning. ;o6e+er- the

implementation of the programme at +illage le+el is a comple1 phenomenon- as the 6atershed pro=ect has to deal 6ith >people? 6ho are an integral part of the +illage de+elopment. 0o ensure success and sustaina)ility of 6atershed de+elopment- se+eral key factors such as creation of a6areness in the community a)out the pro=ecttheir in+ol+ement in planning and implementation- )uilding of local institutions for pro=ect management in future ha+e to )e addressed. @ased on the field e1perience of @8I"- methodologies and mechanism to ensure the sustaina)ilty of the 6atershed de+elopment programme are presented in this paper. 2. Programme Planning and Designing 0he 6atershed de+elopment should )e a programme for the people- )y the people and of the people. 0he people should )e in+ol+ed in all the stages - from planning and designing to implementation and post-pro=ect management- 6ithout assistance from any e1ternal agency. 8t the same time- all the +illage groups 6ithin the 6atershed ha+e to )e in+ol+ed to make it essentially a people?s programme. 2.1 Integrated Approach

"or ensuring people?s participation- the programme should )e need )ased. ;ence the primary step should )e to initiate a Participatory *ural 8ppraisal 4P*85 and identify the pro)lems and priorities of the community. 0he priorities of the people in the immediate future can )e different from their long term needs as 6ell as the de+elopment priorities reAuired to conser+e the natural resources for en+ironmental protection and sustaina)le li+elihood. 0his can )e )alanced through an entry point programme- 6here all the mem)ers of the community come together for a common cause and sol+e their immediate pro)lems. !uring this process- they 6ill also esta)lish trust in the pro=ect implementing agency and interest in tackling their long term pro)lems. 8lthough the primary o)=ecti+e of the 6atershed de+elopment programme is to conser+e and de+elop 6ater resources- it is necessary to address other related issues such as efficient use of 6ater- optimum use of land )ased on the land capa)ilities- de+elopment of 6astelands for forage and forestry and tap other opportunities such as li+estock de+elopment - acAuaculture- postproduction processing and marketing of the produce. :uch an integrated programme can enhance the )enefits of the programme and sustain the interest of the community. 8s the 6atershde de+elopment programme is primarily focused to help the 6eaker sections of the society in drought prone areas- the aim should )e to pro+ide adeAuate opportunities for gainful employment- 6hich in turn 6ould help the poor families to come out of po+erty. 2.2 Micro-Planning

In case the target community identifies 6atershed de+elopment as a priority for de+elopment- the ne1t step is micro-planning- 6hich consists of the follo6ing components: 8nalysis of the priority needs of the community through household le+el socio-economic sur+eysB 8 detailed engineering sur+ey of the 6atershed for planning soil and 6ater conser+ation measuresB Planning for 6ater resource de+elopment through detailed hydrological and geo-hydrological sur+eys and 6ater )alance study- taking into consideration all the e1isting information of the areaB /anduse classification- documentation of the e1isting cropping pattern and planning for appropriate cropping systems )ased on the land producti+ityusing locally a+aila)le inputs and indigenous kno6ledgeB Preparation of action plan- estimation of the resources and finance de+elopment of infrastructure of local organisations is needed for pro=ect implementationB Planning for off-farm acti+ities )y studying the local resources- indigenous skills- a+aila)ility of inputs- market a+aila)ility- infrastructure support- and special eAuipment reAuired for alternate cropping patterns and processing of the produce.

8fter studying the a+aila)le resources in the area- the pro=ect is designed 6ith an aim for conser+ation- de+elopment and sustaina)le utilisation of natural resources )y the local community. 2.3 ptimum !tilisation o" Water and #and $esources

@8I" has adopted an integrated approach 6hile promoting sustaina)le de+elopment considering the resource poor family as the unit. While undertaking 6atershed de+elopment- @8I" ensures that all the families settled in the catchment 6ill )e )enefited and their land 6ill )e treated for soil and 6ater conser+ation and )rought under producti+e +egetal co+er. 0he programme aims at the de+elopment of degraded 6astelands through promotion of tree )ased farming systems- 6ith 6atershed de+elopment as an integral component. While the steep sloppy and shallo6 lands are conser+ed 6ith grass co+er- marginally producti+e and )arren lands are used for de+eloping agri-horti-forestry crops. 0echnical guidance and critical inputs are pro+ided to small families for con+erting '.% - 1.' ha degraded land o6ned )y them into producti+e orchards of mango- cashe6 or other fruit crops adapted to local agro-climatic situations. While horticultural species are the main crops on )arren 6astelands and marginally producti+e agricultural fields- o+er %'' to 1''' multipurpose forestry species are planted on )unds and )orders to ser+e as 6ind)reaks as 6ell as a source of fuel- fodder and tim)er. 0he inter-space is utilised for gro6ing cereals and +egeta)les for immediate income generation. 8+aila)ility of 6ater is critical for the esta)lishment of orchards on such lands.

In Cansda taluka of Calsad district in Gu=arat- this programme has created in a ma=or impact )y checking seasonal migration of the participating families in &3 +illages. 8daptation of Integrated "arming :ystems and /o6 Input :ustaina)le 8griculture has helped the participating families to utilise their traditional skills and to reduce the cost of agricultural production. Dnder this programme- each participating family is a)le to earn a net annual income of *s. 12''' to 1%''' after a gestation period of %-7 years. With the reha)ilitation of the poor on their producti+e farms- these families are no6 adding li+estock to their assets for enhancing their income. :ome of the families generate a)out 2'9 of their net income from li+estock. "ood processing and marketingpromotion of off-farm acti+ities are the off-shoot of this programme. Indeed 6ater resource de+elopment is a critical component of this programme )ut this alone 6ould not ha+e attracted or sustained the interest among the participating families. While pri+ately o6ned marginal and 6astelands are utilised for hortisil+iculture- community 6astelands and denuded forests need to )e de+eloped under the community forestry or Eoint "orest .anagement programme. Gi+en an option- the community 6ould prefer to plant non-6ood forest produce species or tim)er species instead of fuel and forage species. 0his is )ecause of the scope for generating regular production and )etter demand and higher +alue for the produce. ;o6e+er- the selection of tree species is dependent on the soil producti+ity and moisture a+aila)ility. Non-6ood forest produce and tim)er species can perform 6ell in good soils 6ith assured moisture supply and generate sustaina)le higher income. :uch plantations on 6astelands can )e economically +ia)le apart from many indirect )enefits. 0he same is not true for fuel6ood plantations and therefore it is difficult to sustain the interest of the communityin non-+ia)le acti+ities. 2.% &on'uncti(e !se o" Water $esources Fon=uncti+e use of surface 6ater and ground 6ater resources 6hen )uilt in the pro=ect design can achie+e greater results- as o+er %'9 of the +illages in India suffer from 6ater shortage and a)out 3%9 of the pota)le 6ater sources do not meet the W;O safety standards. 0he decentralised 6ater resource de+elopment measures adopted for consumpti+e uses in 6ater deficit areas are digging of farm ponds in the 6atershed area. 8iming for ensured supply of drinking 6ater could )e a point of attraction for sustaining the interest of the community- in case it is difficult to achie+e it through the entry point acti+ity. *oof top 6ater har+est- conser+ation of natural springs- desilting of percolation tanksdeepening of the e1isting 6ells can also help to augment the 6ater resources to some e1tent- particularly until ne6 6ater conser+ation measures are designed to har+est ma1imum rain 6ater in the 6atershed. 0he 6ater conser+ed in the 6ater )oth on the surface and underground should )e used optimally to co+er ma1imum area under agricultural production- )y using micro-irrigation systems and other 6ater conser+ation de+ices.

2.) Addressing Problems o" Wea*er Sections 0he 6atershed de+elopment should address the pro)lems of the 6eaker sections of the society- particularly the 6omen- landless and )ack6ard classes- as they are often left out of the programme. With the introduction of any ne6 acti+itythere is a feeling that the 6omen ha+e to share more 6ork- leading to increased )urden on them. 0his is true as the men come for6ard and make se+eral commitments- and as a result- the 6omen feel o)liged to fulfill those commitments- putting in hard la)our. ;ence it is ad+isa)le to reduce their hea+y 6orkloads. In a 6atershed de+elopment pro=ect area at 8kole- roof top 6ater har+esting- spring and 6ell de+elopment 6ere taken up to pro+ide safe drinking 6ater at closer locations. 0his helped to sa+e their time other6ise spent on fetching 6ater from long distances. @etter Auality drinking 6ater reduced the incidence of 6ater )orne diseases and ultimately drudgery. In a fe6 +illages 6here 6omen had to use traditional stone grinders as there 6as no flour mill in the +icinity- a :elf ;elp Group4:;G5 of 6omen 6as moti+ated to install and operate a flour mill and conser+e their energy and time. 8s a result- 6omen could attend the meetings of the Gram :a)ha and take interest in +arious de+elopment acti+ities including the 6atershed de+elopment programme. :uch pro)lems can )e sol+ed through entry point acti+ities. 0here are many acti+ities related to 6atershed de+elopment 6hich can )e organised )y the 6omen. In @8I"?s programme- 6omen groups are trained to use the G8? "rame for marking the contour lines in the field. 0hrough this training and field e1perience- they gain confidence a)out their skills and a)ility6hich helps them to participate in the future decision making process related to +arious socio-economic acti+ities in the +illage. 0hus 6hile reducing their )urden- these groups are moti+ated to take up sa+ing and income generation acti+ities. In 8kole- :;G?s are in+ol+ed in managing the grain retailing shopnursery raising- flour mills- 6hile participating in 6atershed de+elopment acti+ities. :kill-oriented training to the landless youth for in+ol+ing them in masonry constructions- oil engine and electric motor repairs- ser+icing of automo)iles and farm implements- etc. pro+ides them gainful self employment. In some of the pro=ect areas- the acti+ities such as maintenance of +illage common lands and community assets and operation of grain and fertiliser shops are )eing managed )y the mem)ers of the 6eaker sections. 3. M +I,A+I 3.1 Mass A2areness Watershed de+elopment programme is a highly comple1 programme )ecause of the in+ol+ement of the entire +illage community for dealing 6ith multiple pro)lems related to li+elihood- health and en+ironmental issues. In this programme- the technical planning and implementation demand the in+ol+ement of each and e+ery piece of land in the 6atershed area including the area o6ned )y the re+enue and "orest departments. "urther- the priorities of land o6ners . WA+/$S0/D & MM!-I+1

may +ary as per the Auality and location of the land- in+estment priorities- la)our and input a+aila)ilities and e1pected returns. ;ence the participating families should )e encouraged to form small groups and plan to identify their needs and priorities at the micro-le+el. "or in+ol+ing them in this process- the primary step is to esta)lish a rapport 6ith them through some reputed sources such as school teachers- mem)ers of the Gram Panchayat- Fooperati+e :ocieties- youth clu)sMahila mandals, +oluntary organisations and progressi+e farmers. .eetings can )e conducted in small groups and at the +illage le+el to create a6areness a)out the proposed de+elopment programme. 0he importance of 6atershed de+elopment should )e highlighted on the community )y listing the ad+erse effects due to lack of conser+ation of the natural resources- resulting in flash floods- soil erosion- silting of ri+er )eds and 6ater reser+oirs- lo6er crop yieldsincrease in the ground 6ater ta)le and 6ater scarcity. :uch situations can result in unemployment- migration and en+ironmental degradation. 8long6ith the ad+erse effects- the community has to )e con+inced a)out the )enefits of 6atershed de+elopment like impro+ement in soil fertility and a+aila)ility of 6ater resulting in higher crop yields- safe drinking 6ater- increased employment opportunities and finally socio-economic upliftment of the community. 0he +illagers are cautious a)out their participation in programmes )ecause of )itter e1periences in the past. 0his particularly holds good for soil conser+ation and 6atershed de+elopment programmes. 0here are instances 6here the :oil Fconser+ation !epartment 6ithout e+en consulting the land o6ners had created check )unds to promote soil and 6ater conser+ation and the cost 6as reco+ered as re+enue arrears after se+eral years. In the a)sence of a6areness a)out the )enefits of contour )unds- many farmers lo6ered the height of the )unds. In other cases- the accumulated rain 6ater flo6ing o+er the 6eak )unds caused serious damage as compared to the ill-effects of soil erosion occurring in normal circumstances. ;ence the participating families should )e fully educated 6ith adeAuate reasoning a)out +arious acti+ities to )e initiated in the field. In @undi district of *a=asthan- 6hen @8I"?s field officers started taking keen interest in moti+ating the community to de+elop the 6atershed- the tri)al families 6ere suspicious that they might gra) their land. "ortunately- @8I" had also initiated sil+ipasture de+elopment on a community pasture 6ith the in+ol+ement of a small section of the community. 0he de+elopment included the digging of staggered trenches- collection of stones to erect )oundary 6allsso6ing of grass seeds and esta)lishment of fodder tree species through planting of saplings. Within si1 months of initiating the programme- there 6as profuse grass gro6th in the pastures and all the mem)ers of the community 6ere allo6ed to cut and carry the grass free of cost. 0his helped to remo+e their fears. 0he 6orst e1perience 6as in another +illage in *a=asthan- 6here @8I" staff mem)ers 6ere mistaken for a child lifting gang. ;o6e+er the close association 6ith the opinion leaders and local organisations helped in clearing their dou)ts. 0he community reaffirmed their faith in @8I" after their +isit to other pro=ect areas 6here @8I" is already implementing similar de+elopment programmes. 3.2 In(ol(ement o" #ocal &ommunity

0he mem)ers of the rural community can )e classified into inno+ators- early adapters- follo6ers and laggards. 0he process of de+elopment starts 6ith the in+ention or introduction of a ne6 technology and the in+entors take the risk of trying on their farms. /ooking to the initial success- the early adapters 6ill take up and the others follo6 after some time. 8 fe6 6ho are left out are laggards. ;o6e+er in case of 6atershed de+elopment- participation of the entire community should )e ensured as the non-participants may pro+e to )e o)stacles in undertaking +arious land )ased acti+ities. 0o enhance people?s participation- moti+ation of the community in smaller groups 6ill )e helpful. "or this purpose- the rural community can )e classified into su)groups )ased on different criteria. :maller groups )ased on the socio-economic criteria could )e more effecti+e- as the people )elonging to different castes and income groups ha+e mutual trust and similar thinking. While dealing 6ith different groups- certain aspects of the programme 6hich are of interest to them could )e highlighted. 8fter moti+ation of smaller groups- +illage le+el 6ater usersn and other ser+ice groups can )e constituted )y taking representati+es from all the su)groups. .ost of the de+elopment programmes sponsored )y the Go+ernment and other donor agencies focus on 6eaker sections of the society- particularly those )elonging to small and marginal farmers- landless- scheduled castes- scheduled tri)es and poor families. ;o6e+er in case of 6atershed de+elopment- it is necessary to in+ol+e the entire community including the upper classes to ensure harmony and cooperation. @eing the opinion leaders in the community- upper class can play a significant role in moti+ating the 6eaker sections of the society. Women can also play a significant role in sustaining the interest in de+elopment and maintenance of the 6atershed. ;o6e+er- assistance in the form of su)sidised inputs and 6age supplement should )e restricted only to the poor. 0o sustain the interest of all the sections of the community- specific roles should )e identified for different groups- right from the )eginning of the pro=ect. In the process of in+ol+ing the entire community- the interest of the poor should )e safeguarded from the +ested interests. ;ence- selected indi+iduals from the elite and 6ell to do sections are taken on +illagele+el pro=ect 8d+isory Fommittees and the representati+es of the target groups are taken on 8yo=an :amitie or Pro=ect H1ecuti+e Fomittee 6hich 6ill )e responsi)le for implementing +arious acti+ities. 8 clear cut mechanism to share the 6ater- eAual contri)ution of +oluntary la)our- specific assistance and opportunities to poor and )ack6ard families 6ould help in ensuring eAuity and social =ustice. Hfforts are also needed to ensure harmony among different the groups 6ithin the community to fulfill the o)=ecti+es of 6ater resource de+elopment and sustaina)le li+elihood. 0he a)o+e t6o committees are e1pected to fulfil these o)=ecti+es. %. Implementation Mechanism

%.1. .amily 3ased Approach "or successful launching of the 6atershed de+elopment programme- the entire community should )e participating acti+ely. ;o6e+er there is a danger of the poor often )eing laggards and dominated )y the elite and +ested interests. ;ence- a suita)le mechanism should )e de+eloped to ensure )enefits to them )y addressing the pro)lems of indi+idual families and pro+iding necessary inputs to sol+e their pro)lems. .any families may not come for6ard to culti+ate their lands e+en after the 6ater supply- due to lack of inputs or skills. :uch families need training and financial assistance to harness the )enefits of the programme. With the family )ased approach- the pro)lems of the landless and small land holders can also )e highlighted and +arious income generation acti+ities can )e de+eloped- e+en in non-farm sectors- to ena)le the poor families to come out of po+erty. "ailure to ensure su)stantial income to meet )oth ends is a ma=or reason for loss of interest of the poor in the programme. %.2. &ommunity rganisations .or Programme Implementation

0he de+elopment agencies in general- including many +oluntary organisations ha+e )een 6orking as mangers for implementing +arious pro=ects. No dou)t this helps to implement the programme efficiently. ;o6e+er there is a danger of the community de+eloping dependency on the donor agency. With an efficient pro=ect implementing team- the target families depend on their pro=ect managers and lose their initiati+e to take risk. ;ence many good pro=ects ha+e failed to sustain the )enefits of de+elopment after the pro=ect termination. ;ence it is necessary to de+elop community le+el organisations 6ho can identify their representati+es to ser+e as office )earers and acAuire necessary technical and managerial skills needed for programme implementation. 0he community organisation should ha+e mem)ership of all the families 6ithin the community 6ith eAual share in the )enefits. 0he office )earers of this organisation should ser+e as a link )et6een the pro=ect implementing organisation and the community. 0he organisation should take the responsi)ility of preparing the action plan- )udget and implementation schedule. 0he pro=ect implementing agencies can assist the local organisations in human resources de+elopment through skill oriented training. Initially- one or t6o representati+es from the pro=ect implementing agency can ser+e as the Foordinator or .em)er :ecretary of the organisation and su)seAuently- this responsi)ility can )e entrusted to the mem)ers of the community. 0he donor agency should assist in de+eloping technical and managerial capa)ilities of the mem)ers of the organisation. 8s the financial assistance is a+aila)le from the donor agency till the )eneficiaries start earning additional income from the pro=ect- there 6ill not )e any difficulty in meeting the e1penses on critical inputs and technical manpo6er. :u)seAuently 6ith additional income generation- the mem)ers of the community should contri)ute to their

organisation to meet the e1penses on administration and ad+isory ser+ices. With the initiation of processing and marketing acti+ities- a small cess can )e imposed on the output to reco+er the o+erhead e1penses. 0he local organisation should )e represented )y all sections of the society 6ithout affiliating to any political party. 0he organisation can ha+e se+eral committees 6ith representation of the )eneficiaries on H1ecuti+e Fommittees for safeguarding their interests. 0he organisation should remain secular and non-)iased to6ards any particular sections of the community. 0his organisation can )e su)seAuently registered as a ser+ice society or a cooperati+e so that the details of accounts are audited and transparency is maintained. 0he success of the local organisations hea+ily depends on its o)=ecti+esmanagement- efficiency and honesty of the office )earers. In :aurashtra- out of %# local le+el organisations- %$ are functioning 6ell and contri)uting their )est to implement the 6atershed de+elopment programme. ;o6e+er- one committee has a se+ere set )ack 6ith its functioning as some mem)ers did not sho6 fairness in the financial dealings and the participating families are not cooperating 6ith them. 0imely action )y @8I"?s H1tension Officer could a+oid the )reakdo6n )ut re)uilding a ne6 team is taking some time 6hich is delaying the pro=ect schedule. %.3 /ntry Point Acti(ities Hntry Point 8cti+ity is a short term acti+ity to )e initiated to attract the community and gain confidence )efore implementing the main programme. 0his acti+ity should sol+e the pressing pro)lems of the community and )enefit larger sections of the society. In :aurashtra region of Gu=arat- @8I" is implementing fi+e pro=ects in the districts of @ha+nagar- 8mareli- Eunagadh and *a=kot co+ering %# micro 6atersheds in %& +illages. 0hese pro=ects co+er an area of 2#%'' ha. O+er the last fe6 years- @8I" has esta)lished %# +illage 6atershed committees and &3 of them ha+e )een registered as societies under the 0rust 8ct. In these +illages- @8I" had identified se+eral entry point acti+ities through P*8?s. 0his process in+ol+ed )oth men and 6omen )elonging to different socio-economic su)groups. While implementing the entry point programme- the community esta)lishes good rapport 6ith the e1tension officers of the pro=ect. With the )enefits gained from this programme- the )eneficiaries 6ill gain confidence to implement 6atershed de+elopment and other programmes. H+en 6hile implementing the Hntry Point Programme- the local families ha+e contri)uted %-1'9 of the cost- either in cash or in kind. Important entry point acti+ities undertaken )y @8I" in the :aurashtra and their impact are presented )elo6 : Impact o" /ntry Point Programmes /ntry Point Programmes Impact

1. !rinking 6ater facilities 1. @ore6ells - 1$ 2. Ground le+el tanks - 12 &. O+erhead tank - & 2. Open 6ells - 2 %. !eepening of 6ells - 2 7. Pump set and pipeline - 1# 3. Pipelines - 2 $. Water turf for li+estock - 1% 2. Flass-rooms for schools - 2 kindergartens - 2 "encing of schools - # &. Fommon )ath and 6ashing facilities - $ 0oilets Drinals - 3 2. *oofing of crematorium - &

In+ol+ement of 6omen in programme ;elp in :;G formation for 6omen O+erall people?s participation in planning and implementation increased

;elped in rapport )uilding People started contri)uting for community 6orks *educed hardships of 6omen and men

0he de+elopment of drinking 6ater resources- construction of school )uildingstoilets- soak pits and 6ashing facilities 6ere the important entry point programmes in Gu=arat. In Dttar Pradesh- supply of pressure cookers and impro+ed 6ood sto+es at su)sidised cost helped the :elf ;elp Group of 6omen to take keen interest in 6atershed de+elopment. Organisation of health campsprimary treatment and referral ser+ices could enhance people?s participation in 6estern parts of Dttar Pradesh. Introduction of kitchen gardens- +ermiculture and N8!8@ composting 6ere effecti+e in *a=asthan and Iarnataka . %.%. &apacity 3uilding

;uman resource de+elopment is the key to the success of any rural de+elopment programme. 8part from moti+ating the target groups- it is also necessary to impro+e the technical and managerial skills of the indi+idual families and office )earers of the community organisations. 8s the H1tension Officers of the pro=ect implementing agencies are responsi)le for organising such training- orientation of these field officers should )e organised )efore posting them on the site. +raining " /4tension ""icers 5 0he pro=ect implementing team should consist of Fi+il Hngineers- :oil :cientists- 8gronomists- ;orticulturists and :ocial :cientists 6ith specialisation in e1tension and 6omen empo6erment. 8part from their e1pertise in specific sectors- general orientation in +arious aspects of the pro=ect implementation 6ill help in esta)lishing )etter communication 6ith the team. 8 general orientation programme of 2-& 6eeks duration can organised to co+er the follo6ing su)=ects: +echnical : Foncept of 6atershedB land use classificationB soil and moisture conser+ation structuresB techniAues of soil and moisture conser+ationB impro+ed

agriculture- horticultureB forestry- nursery raising- 6ater sharing and efficient utilisationB post production and marketing acti+ities. Managerial 5 P*8 techniAuesB mass communicationB preparation of training aidsB gender sensiti<ationB moti+ation and leadership de+elopment techniAuesB preparation of plan of actions and )udgetsB pro=ect accountingB documentation and report 6ritingB monitoring and e+aluationB de+elopment of micro-enterpriseB market studyB formation of 6atershed committeesB registration of cooperati+es and ser+ice societies and su)mission of periodic reports. +raining o" Participating .amilies 5 0he rural community )eing heterogeneous in educational and economic status- selection of literate and acti+e men and 6omen from the community 6ill )e )etter for training on capacity )uilding. 0hese trained persons can educate other mem)ers. 0he training can consist of +illage le+el meetings- film sho6s and e1posure +isits to the successful pro=ect areas. 0he +illagers should )e e1posed to the concepts and management of 6atersheds- soil and 6ater conser+ation measures- impro+ed agricultural practices- post-production and food processing- nursery raising- grafting- hortiforestry plantation methods and different off-farm acti+ities. In addition to the a)o+e training- +illage leaders and youth in+ol+ed in management of community organisations should ha+e special intensi+e training in leadership and team )uilding- finance management- statutary administrati+e procedures- pu)lic relations 6ith sponsors and other supporting agenciesdocumentation- marketing- enterpreneurship de+elopment and general administration. %.). Sharing o" the bene"its 0he 6atershed de+elopment programme can )enefit the local community in many 6ays- directly and indirectly. 0he 6ater collected in checkdams is generally utilised for drinking- irrigating horticultural and food crops- 6ith eAual sharing )y all the mem)ers of the community. 0his 6ater can also )e pro+ided to raise fruit and forest nurseries and +egeta)les on community lands )y the landless and 6omen?s groups. 0he remaining surplus 6ater can )e sold to indi+iduals ha+ing larger holdings. In spite of eAual right on the 6ater- it is difficult for the landless to enhance their income )eyond certain le+els. 0here are chances that the landless poor are left out. 0o a+oid such a situation- in @8I"?s 8kole 6atershed pro=ect in 8hmednagar district of .aharashtra- the families )elonging to landless- single parent household 6ere gi+en priority for 6ater use. 0hey 6ere also encouraged to take up plant nurseries- mushroom production and collection of minor forest produce on community lands. 0hey 6ere also gi+en priority for taking up aAuaculture and li+estock rearing. 0he families a+ailing of 6ater for esta)lishing horti-forestry plantations are paying a small 6ater charge- )ased on the num)er of plants esta)lished 6hich is managed )y a 6atershed committee. 0he use of this amount is at the discretion of the 6atershed committee.

%.6 #in*age 2ith ,illage De(elopment Programme 0he sustaina)ility of the pro=ect can )e ensured if people come to the mainstream and 6hen the participants continue to harness the )enefits of de+elopment- 6ithout depending on the pro=ect implementing agencies. 0hey should )e a)le to take part in +arious social and economic de+elopment acti+ities in the +illage. 0hey should take interest in +illage le+el organisations and efficient use of the infrastructure organised )y the Gram Panchayats and other go+ernment departments. While the indi+idual mem)ers of the +illage 6atershed organisation can 6ork as 6atch dogs- the Organisation itself should )e an influential )ody to pressurise the local go+ernment and the elected local )odies to manaoge their functions efficiently. In Cansda- such )odies ha+e not only ensured efficient 6orking of local health centres and schools- )ut also taken acti+e part in managing the Gram Panchayat. With the de+elopment of indi+idual families- the +illage organisation can initiate =oint forest management and dairy socieites and other income generation acti+ities in the +illage. Summary :ustaina)le 6atershed de+elopment through people?s participation is a comple1 process as its ultimate goal is socio-economic and socio-de+elopment of the people li+ing in the 6atershed area. Identification of key indicators- their de+elopment through peoples in+ol+ement is a multi-disciplinary phenomenon 6hich is go+erned not only )y the internal en+ironment of 6atershed )ut also )y the e1ternal en+ironment. :ystematic planning- pro=ect designing- implementation and capacity )uilding of locals for future sustenance of the indigenous are the key factors for success. $e"erences5 8.N. :arkar- 1##3. :tatus of Organi<ing 0raining for Watershed !e+elopment 8nd .anagement in India ;...*aghunath- 1#$3. Ground Water. Willey Hastern /td. p. 1-2 8.:. Eape- !ec.1##3. :aurashtra H1perience Fommunity Organisation @uilding and *ole of Hntry Point 8cti+ity in Watershed !e+elopment.