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& ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ABSTRACT 4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term u sed to describe the next complete evolution in wirelesscommunications. A 4G syst em will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and str eamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at h igher data rates than previous generations. As the second generation was a total replacement of the first generation networks and handsets; and the third genera tion was a total replacement of second generation networks and handsets; so too the fourth generation cannot be an incremental evolution of current 3G technolog ies, but rather the total replacement of the current 3G networks and handsets. T he international telecommunications regulatory and standardization bodies are wo rking for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2012-2015 time sca le. There is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain obj ectives that are projected for 4G. These objectives include, that 4G will be a f ully IP-based integrated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 Mbi t/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security. 1.INTRODUCTION The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projecte d to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to prov ide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition v ideo to high-data-rate wireless channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cell ular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC Mobile multime dia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, an d customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems, have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks . This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integ ration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized w ith one word- Integration.The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating termin als, networks, and applications to satisfy increasing user demands. The continuo us expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exc eptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobi le services, and applications. An estimate of 1 billion users by the end of 2003 justifies the study and research for 4G systems. 2.HISTORY The history and evolution of mobile service from the 1G (first generation) to fo urth generation are discussed in this section. Table 1 presents a short history of mobile telephone technologies. This process began with the designs in the 197 0s that have become known as 1G. The earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. Many fundamental problems were solved by these early systems. Numerous incompatible analog systems were placed in service around the world during the 1980s.The 2G ( second generation) systems designed in the 1980s were still used mainly for voic e applications but were based on digital technology, including digital signal pr ocessing techniques. These 2G systems provided circuit-switched data communicati on services at a low speed. The competitive rush to design and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and incompatible standards such as GSM (global system mobile), mainly in Europe; TDMA (time division multiple acces s) (IS-54/IS- 136) in the U.S.; PDC (personal digital cellular) in Japan; and CD

MA (code division multiple access) (IS-95), another U.S. system. These systems o perate nationwide or internationally and are today's mainstream systems, althoug h the data rate for users in these system is very limited. During the 1990s, two organizations worked to define the next, or 3G, mobile system, which would elim inate previous incompatibilities and become a truly global system. The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data capabilitie s, up to 2 Mbps. Unfortunately, the two groups could not reconcile their differe nces, and this decade will see the introduction of two mobile standards for 3G. In addition, China is on the verge of implementing a third 3G system. An interim step is being taken between 2G and 3G, the 2.5G. It is basically an enhancement of the two major 2G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 2G RF (ra dio frequency) channels and to introduce higher throughput for data service, up to 384 kbps. A very important aspect of 2.5G is that the data channels are optim ized for packet data, which introduces access to the Internet from mobile device s, whether telephone, PDA (personal digital assistant), or laptop. However, the demand for higher access speed multimedia communication in today's society, whic h greatly depends on computer communication in digital format, seems unlimited. According to the historical indication of a generation revolution occurring once a decade, the present appears to be the right time to begin the research on a 4 G mobile communication system. Symbols: 1xRTT = 2.5G CDMA data service up to 384 kbps AMPS = advanced mobile phone service CDMA = code division multiple access EDGE = enhanced data for global evolution FDMA = frequency division multiple access GPRS = general packet radio system GSM = global system for mobile NMT = Nordic mobile telephone PDC = personal digital cellular PSTN = pubic switched telephone network TACS = total access communications system TDMA = time division multiple access WCDMA = wideband CDMA 3.VISION OF 4G This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G sys tems, perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of v arious networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environ ment. Based on the developing trends of mobile communication, 4G will have broad er bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks . The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mo bile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability and be ing highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users. Th ese features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal pre ference of different users and support the users' traffic, air interfaces, radio environment, and quality of service. Connection with the network applications c an be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. The d ominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telepho ne, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication, high-speed inf ormation services ,and entertainment broadcast services. Figure 1 illustrates el ements and techniques to support the adaptability of the 4G domain. The fourth g eneration will encompass all systems from various networks, public to private; o perator-driven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc networks. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broa dband) broadcasting systems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wire

less Internet. This all- encompassing integrated perspective shows the broad ran ge of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate, from satellite br oadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN (wireless local area networ k) and PAN (personal area network),all with IP as the integrating mechanism. Wit h 4G, a range of new services and models will be available. These services and m odels need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G syst ems. Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate the key elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks. 4.KEY 4G TECHNOLOGIES Some of the key technologies required for 4G are briefly described below: 4.1 OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not only provides clear advant ages for physical layer performance, but also a framework for improving layer 2 performance by proposing an additional degree of free- dom. Using ODFM, it is po ssible to exploit the time domain, the space domain, the frequency domain and ev en the code domain to optimize radio channel usage. It ensures very robust trans mission in multi-path environments with reduced receiver complexity. OFDM also p rovides a frequency diversity gain, improving the physical layer performance .It is also compatible with other enhancement Technologies, such as smart antennas and MIMO.OFDM modulation can also be employed as a multiple access technology (O rthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access; OFDMA). In this case, each OFDM sy mbol can transmit information to/from several users using a different set of sub carriers (sub channels). This not only provides additional flexibility for reso urce allocation (increasing the capacity), but also enables cross-layer optimiza tion of radio link usage. 4.2 SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from todays high processing power to develop multi-band, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although in future the t erminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology, at present this is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. For example, to increase net work capacity at a specific time (e.g. during a sports event),an operator will r econfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. In the context of 4G systems, SDR w ill become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. Fo r a manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard, multiband equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous mu lti-channel processing. 4.3 MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE OUTPUT MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space mult iplex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to pr ocess independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designe d for the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. Processing of the received signals may deliver several performance improvements:range, quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency. In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. The performance in cellular deployments is s till subject to research and simulations . However, it is generally admitted tha t the gain in spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of a ntennas in the link. 4.4 HANDOVER AND MOBILITY Handover technologies based on mobileIP technology have been considered for data and voice. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical methods (hierarchical, fast mobile IP). Attached File(s) 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM.doc(Size: 109 KB / Downloads: 1700) Please Use Search To Get More Inform ation About A Seminar Or Project Topic 26-04-2010, 09:28 AMPost: #2

project topicsActive In SP Hey... AskMore Info About 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM A SEMINAR REPORTPosts: 2,489 Joined: Mar 2010 RE: 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM A SEMINAR REPORT Abstract Mobile communication is continuously one of the hottest areas that are developin g at a booming speed, with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mob ile and wireless communications. Current times are just the beginning for deploy ing 3G mobile communication systems, while research on the next generation of mo bile communications, 4G wireless and mobile networks begin to pave the way for t he future. This paper studies the visions of 4G from a technical perspective. Af ter a brief review on the development history and status of mobile communication s and related 4G perspectives, we present an overall 4G feature framework based on the kernel concept of integration, in which two key features (diversity and a daptability) of the three targets (terminals, networks, and applications) are de scribed in detail. The concepts of both external and internal diversity of each target are defined to illustrate the causes and solutions of the adaptability fe ature. Then, along the entire 4G domain, each feature in the framework is deeply discussed from a technical standpoint, in which promising techniques and possib le research issues for sufficient support of adaptability are also proposed. Fin ally, a short summary on 4G visions is presented as a continuum of features in t he development of the mobile communications world. Please Use Search To Get More Inform ation About A Seminar Or Project Topic 06-06-2010, 01:11 PMPost: #3 seminar presentationActive In SP Hey... AskMore Info About 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM A SEMINAR REPORTPosts: 581 Joined: Apr 2010 RE: 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM A SEMINAR REPORT 4G communications.doc(Size: 160.5 KB / Downloads: 661) Presented By: SEMINAR ON BY M.L.V.Ramesh RollNo:05481A0529 ABSTRACT Mobile communication is continuously one of the hottest areas that are developin g at a booming speed, with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mob ile and wireless communications. Current times are just the beginning for deploy ing 3G mobile communication systems, while research on the next generation of mo bile communications, 4G wireless and mobile networks begin to pave the way for t he future. This paper studies the visions of 4G from a technical perspective.We present an overall 4G feature framework based on the kernel concept of integrati on, in which two key features (diversity and adaptability) of the three targets (terminals, networks, and applications) are described in detail. The concepts of both external and internal diversity of each target are defined to illustrate t he causes and solutions of the adaptability feature. INTRODUCTION Mobile communications and wireless networks are developing at an astounding spee d, with evidences of significant growth in the areas of mobile subscribers and t erminals, mobile and wireless access networks, and mobile services and applicati ons. The present time is just right to start the research of 4G mobile communica tions because of: ?Possibility, according to the historical indication of a genera tion revolution once a decade, and now we are near the end of 3G standardization phase and the beginning of 3G deployment. ?Necessity: according to 3G goals, 3G i s necessary but not sufficient to the mobile communication strategy, in which ma ny problems are only partly solved and there are still many problems left to be

solved in the next generation, i.e. 4G. History 1G:This process began with the designs in the 1970s that have become known as 1G . The earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. 2G was based on digital signal processing techniques and regarded as a revolutio n from analogy to digital technology These 2G systems provided circuit- switched data communication services at a low speed. of 9.6 kbps The competitive rush to design and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and in compatible standards such as GSM ,TDMA,CDMA,PDC. 2.5G: An interim step is being taken between 2G and 3G, the 2.5G. It is basicall y an enhancement of the two major 2G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 2G RF (radio frequency) channels and to introduce higher throughput for d ata service, up to 384 kbps. GSM system enhancements like GPRS and EDGE are cons idered to be 2.5 technologies. GPRS is an attractive solution to mobile operator s, because it does not require the same degree of the investment as UMTS. 3G: 3G is deploying a new system with new services instead of only providing hig her data up to 2 Mbps and broader bandwidth. Based on intelligent DSP techniques , various multimedia data communications services are transmitted by convergent 3G networks. The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels. The 3G syst em will have features like fast internet surfing advanced value added service an d video telephony .The technologies that are used to boost the speed are UMTS an d W-CDMA . Problems associated with 3G: ??Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multi media services requirements, together with the coexistence of different services needing different QoS and bandwidth. ??Limitation of spectrum and its allocation. ??Difficult to roam across distinct service environment in different frequency ban ds. ??Lack of end-to-end seamless transport mechanism spanning a mobile sub-network an d a fixed one. Table 1 summarizes the entire development of mobile communications 4G FEATURES: Different 4G feature frameworks have been defined from the standpoints of servic e subscriber, service provider, researcher and engineer. In the following we giv e some representatives of 4G perspectives. 1) It is easy to say, based on the developing trends of mobile communication, th at 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, smoother and quicker handof f, wider mobile area, more various service, lower cost, etc. 2) Other than the words more, any and/or all are preferred over expressions used by previous generations, e.g. anyone can communicate with anyone else, anywhere and anytime,or enjoy any service of any network operator, through any network o f any network service provider 3) DoCoMo introduced the concept of MAGIC for the vision of 4G Mobile multimedia ; Anytime, anywhere, anyone; Global mobility support; Integrated wireless soluti on; and Customized personal service, which mostly focused on public systems and treat 4G as the extension of 3G cellular service. 4) European Commission (EC) presented a perspective focusing on ensuring seamles s service provisioning across a multitude of wireless systems and networks, and providing for optimum delivery via the most efficient network available e.g. pri vate systems and ad-hoc networks, optimal resource utilization, multiple radio i nterfaces, WLAN use, standards for interoperability, etc. Thus 4G will encompass all systems from public to private,operator driven to Adh oc, broadband to personal area and Ad-hoc will focus mainly on perso nalized service 4G FEATURE FRAME WORK:We can summarize proposal of 4G features with one sentence , or even more simply, with one word: integration, i.e. seamless integration of terminals, networks, and applications (together with users).

1) The discussion domain includes three relevant targets, i.e. terminals, networ ks, and applications. Out of the 4G domain, the user is the only target. 2) The kernel word of the definition is so-called integration, which means the c onvergence of first the three different targets; second the various modes of eac h target, which lead to the feature of diversity. The 4G vision framework presented by us is illustrated in fig1 There are two kinds of diversity: external diversity and internal diversity. ??External diversity is outside the target, which brings along the demand of the a daptability feature to all targets. ??Internal diversity is inside each of the targets, and it acts as the solution fo r adaptability requirements. In short, the need for adaptability is caused by ex ternal diversity, and it is solved by internal diversity. Here both the external and internal diversity of users are the cause of all adaptability requirements, which implies that the user is out of the technical domain of 4G visions. The t wo main features, i.e. diversity and adaptability of the three targets terminal, n etwork, and application are described in detail in the next section. 4G FEATURE DESCRIPTION: 1) User Diversity: The external diversity of users, i.e. people in different sit uations, includes e.g. culture, educational background, economic capability, phy sical property, personal preference, etc. The internal diversity of users, i.e. people with different interfaces, include e.g. vision, hearing, speech, touch se nse, hands and fingers, body, etc, Both their external and internal diversity ar e to be adapted by the other two targets: terminal and application. diversity, w ith both diversities 2) Network Diversity and Adaptability: The external diversity of networks is obv ious. Internet is assorted by nature, while wireless networks keep the same prop erty. For instance air interfaces can integrate all kinds of standards and work on different frequencies. Moreover, multiple operators deploy networks with mult iple standards and protocols. The internal diversity of networks means that one network can interconnect with other different networks and transfer various kind s of loads, e.g. cellular systems with various coverage. Three targets are related to network adaptability. In reference to terminals, ne twork adaptability aims to make multiform mobile devices with a wide range of mo ving speeds and mobile areas connectable to wireless networks. For applications, there is a requirement that any type and/or quality of service can be delivered through diverse fixed and mobile networks in the most suitable and efficient wa y. The target for networks themselves is to make it easy to build a new network or remove an old one, and to make interoperability with ones neighbours seamless de spite its heterogeneous nature. 3) Application Diversity and Adaptability: The external diversity of application s will be a reasonable property, and this need not mean that 4G services and app lications must be multifarious, in all the aspects of quantity, quality, and typ e. With internal diversity we mean that one application can be tailored into e.g . multiple levels of quality, various styles, and different kinds of release sha pe, etc. Application adaptability is a main feature of 4G services. To users, th is means that services can be delivered automatically according to personal pref erences of different users. 4G TECHNICAL PERSPECTIVE: It is obvious that 4G, just like all the previous generations, is driven not onl y by technology, but also by market requirements. This section mainly discusses, from a more technical perspective, possible topics for research and promising t echniques of 4G, and focuses mainly on those techniques that give support to the main feature of adaptability by internal diversity of targets in the 4G domain. A. Terminals In order to adapt to the diverse applications and networks, together with the va rious requirements of users, the terminal domain must possess both internal and external diversity. Support techniques of the field may include the following: 1) User interfaces of terminals vary from traditional keyboard, display, and tab let, to new interfaces based on speech, touch, vision, soft buttons, etc. This w ill be common at a time when one terminal has multiple user interfaces.

2) Adaptive techniques such as smart antennas, software radio, and smart transce ivers, enhance interoperability through simultaneous support of several radio in terfaces in a single terminal. This makes a terminal roamable across any air int erface standard and connectable to any wireless access point by exchanging confi guration software. These approaches can also be used on wireless access points a s an advanced smart base station. 3) An intelligent terminal is able to dynamically improve its processing capabil ity in order to contain various services. Some function modules can even be down loaded to a terminal when needed. B. Networks More advances in networks are needed to keep pace with the rapidly changing term inals and applications, as follows: 1) Smart antenna, software radio, together with advanced base station are the ke y techniques to achieve adaptability of wireless access points to diverse termin als, i.e. to make radio systems and air networks re-configurable. . 2) Network layer hierarchical mobility management based on Mobile IPv6 and Cellu lar IP brings quick and seamless handoff to terminals. The Mobile IPv6 also pres ents a great contribution to the adaptability of heterogeneous networks. . 3) Applications that transmits data while the user os moving -using Hotspots are a also being developed. Hotspots are certain areas in which data is received at a higher rate. So when the user passes through this hotspot, the data packets on tended to him are transmitted at a very fast rate.this can also be considered on a system of HSDPA designed on H2. C. Applications Adaptability will be one of the basic requirements to the development and delive ry of new mobile services. Promising techniques and possible topics may include: 1) Mobile application should refer to a users profile so that it can be delivered i n a way most preferred by the subscriber, such as context-based personalized ser vices. This also brings the applications with adaptability to terminals that are moving in varying locations and speeds. Micro-sensors and GPS receivers are the main driven techniques. 2) Techniques such as adaptive multimedia and unified messaging take the termina l characteristics into account and ensure that the service can be received and r un on a terminal with the most suitable form to the host type. 3) Intelligent mobile software agent is a common technique to all of the three t argets, which act as a platform for service development, delivery, and auto-conf iguration. 4) Applications can negotiate with networks so that they can be transferred with the most efficient channel, e.g. indoor networks or WLAN or cellular systems in a wide area. Services will be tailorable in order to fit the different network environments and the varying traffic conditions. The 4G vision can be summarized by following figure 4G PRESPECTIVE IN INDIA : The Indian Government has established the centre of Excellence in Wireless Techn ologies (CEWT) in collaboration wi th