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Austronesian languages

Austronesian languages
Austronesian
Geographic
distribution:

Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania, Madagascar, Taiwan

Linguistic classification:

one of the world's major language families, with several proposed relations
to other language families

Proto-language:

Proto-Austronesian

Subdivisions:

Ethnologue code:

austronesian

ISO 639-2 / 5:

map

Rukai
Tsou
Puyuma
other Formosan (several primary branches)
Malayo-Polynesian
[1]

The western Malayo-Polynesian languages.


Philippine (not shown: Yami in Taiwan)
SamaBajaw
North Sulawesi (Gorontalo, SangirMinahasan)
Bornean
SundaSulawesi (not shown: Chamorro)
Central Malayo-Polynesian
HalmaheraCenderawasih
the westernmost Oceanic languages
The only demonstrated groups in this list, besides Malayo-Polynesian itself, are Sama-Bajaw and Oceanic.

Austronesian languages

The branches of the Oceanic languages:


Admiralties and Yapese
St Matthias
Western Oceanic & Meso-Melanesian
Temotu
Southeast Solomons
Southern Oceanic
Micronesian
FijianPolynesian (not shown: Rapa Nui)
The black ovals at the northwestern limit of Micronesian are the SundaSulawesi languages Palauan and Chamorro. The black circles in with the
green are offshore Papuan languages.

The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and
the Pacific, with a few members on continental Asia, that are spoken by about 386 million people. It is on par with
Indo-European, NigerCongo, Afroasiatic and Uralic as one of the best-established ancient language families. Otto
Dempwolff, a German scholar, was the first researcher to extensively explore Austronesian using the comparative
method. Another German scholar, Wilhelm Schmidt, coined the German word austronesisch which comes from
Latin auster "south wind" plus Greek nsos "island". The name Austronesian was formed from the same roots. The
family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages,
such as Malay and the Chamic languages, are indigenous to mainland Asia. Many Austronesian languages have very
few speakers, but the major Austronesian languages are spoken by tens of millions of people and one Austronesian
language, Malay, is spoken by 180 million people, making it the 8th most spoken language in the world. Twenty or
so Austronesian languages are official in their respective countries (see the list of Austronesian languages).
Different sources count languages differently, but Austronesian and NigerCongo are the two largest language
families in the world, each having roughly one-fifth of the total languages counted in the world. The geographical
span of Austronesian was the largest of any language family before the spread of Indo-European in the colonial
period, ranging from Madagascar off the southeastern coast of Africa to Easter Island in the eastern Pacific.
Hawaiian, Rapanui, and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar) are the geographic outliers of the Austronesian family.
According to Robert Blust (1999), Austronesian is divided in several primary branches, all but one of which are
found exclusively on Taiwan. The Formosan languages of Taiwan are grouped into as many as nine first-order
subgroups of Austronesian. All Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan (including its offshore Yami
language) belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch, sometimes called Extra-Formosan.

Austronesian languages

Structure
It is difficult to make generalizations about the languages that make up a family as diverse as Austronesian. Speaking
very broadly, the Austronesian languages can be divided into three groups of languages: Philippine-type languages,
Indonesian-type languages and post-Indonesian type (Ross 2002). The first group is characterized by relatively
strong verb-initial word order and Philippine-type voice alternations. This phenomenon has frequently been referred
to as focus. However, the relevant literature is beginning to avoid this term. Many linguists feel that the phenomenon
is better described as voice, and that the terminology creates confusion with more common uses of the word focus
within linguistics.
The Austronesian languages tend to use reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, such as wiki-wiki or
agar-agar), and, like many East and Southeast Asian languages, most have highly restrictive phonotactics, with
generally small numbers of phonemes and predominantly consonantvowel syllables.

Lexicon
The Austronesian language family has been established by the linguistic comparative method on the basis of cognate
sets, sets of words similar in sound and meaning which can be shown to be descended from the same ancestral word
in Proto-Austronesian according to regular rules. Some cognate sets are very stable. The word for eye in many
Austronesian languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as
Bunun and Amis all the way south to Mori). Other words are harder to reconstruct. The word for two is also stable,
in that it appears over the entire range of the Austronesian family, but the forms (e.g. Bunun rusya, lusha; Amis
tusa; Mori tua, rua) require some linguistic expertise to recognise. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database
[2]
gives word lists (coded for cognacy) for approximately 1000 Austronesian languages.

Classification
The internal structure of the Austronesian languages is complex. The family consists of many similar and closely
related languages with large numbers of dialect continua, making it difficult to recognize boundaries between
branches. However, it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found among the Formosan languages of
Taiwan, and the least diversity among the islands of the Pacific, supporting a dispersal of the family from Taiwan or
China. The first comprehensive classification to reflect this was Dyen (1965).
The seminal article in the classification of Formosanand, by extension, the top-level structure of Austronesianis
Blust (1999). Prominent Formosanists (linguists who specialize in Formosan languages) take issue with some of its
details, but it remains the point of reference for current linguistic analyses, and is shown below. The
Malayo-Polynesian languages are frequently included within Blust's Eastern Formosan branch due to their shared
leveling of proto-Austronesian *t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, their shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima
"five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages.
There appear to have been two great migrations of Austronesian languages that quickly covered large areas, resulting
in multiple local groups with little large-scale structure. The first was Malayo-Polynesian, distributed across the
Philippines, Indonesia, and Melanesia. The Central Malayo-Polynesian languages are similar to each other not
because of close genealogical relationships, but rather because they reflect strong substratum effects from
non-Austronesian languages. The second migration was that of the Oceanic languages into Polynesia and Micronesia
(Greenhill, Blust & Gray 2008).
In addition to Malayo-Polynesian, thirteen Formosan families are broadly accepted. Debate centers primarily around
the relationships between these families. Of the classifications presented here, Blust (1999) links two families into a
Western Plains group, two more in a Northwestern Formosan group, and three into an Eastern Formosan group,
while Lee (2008)Template:Harvard citation documentation#Wikilink to citation does not work also links five
families into a Northern Formosan group. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (2008) accepts Northern,

Austronesian languages

rejects Eastern, links Tsouic and Rukai (two highly divergent languages), and links Malayo-Polynesian with Paiwan
in a Paiwanic group. Ross (2009)Template:Harvard citation documentation#Wikilink to citation does not work splits
Tsouic, and notes that Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma fall outside of reconstructions of Proto-Austronesian.
Other studies have presented phonological evidence for a reduced Paiwanic family of Paiwanic, Puyuma, Bunun,
Amis, and Malayo-Polynesian, but this is not reflected in vocabulary. The Eastern Formosan peoples Basay,
Kavalan, and Amis share a homeland motif that has them coming originally from an island called Sinasay or
Sanasay (Li 2004). The Amis, in particular, maintain that they came from the east, and were treated by the Puyuma,
amongst whom they settled, as a subservient group (Taylor 1888).[3]

Blust (1999)
Austronesian
(clockwise from the southwest)
Tsouic
Tsou
Saaroa
Kanakanabu
Western

Plains

Thao (AKA Sao. Brawbaw, Shtafari


dialects)
Central Western Plains
Babuza (Taokas, Poavosa dialects; old
Favorlang)
Papora-Hoanya (Papora, Hoanya
dialects)
Northwest

Formosan

Saisiyat (Taai, Tungho dialects)


Pazeh (AKA Kulun)
Atayalic
Atayal
Seediq (AKA Truku, Taroko)
East

Formosan

Families of Formosan languages before Chinese colonization, per Blust (1999).

Northern (Kavalanic)
Basay (Trobiawan, LinawQauqaut dialects)
Kavalan
Ketagalan or Ketangalan
Central (Ami)
Amis
Nataoran (North Amis)
Sakizaya
Siraya
Bunun
Rukai
(Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent)

Austronesian languages

Puyuma
Paiwan (southern tip of Formosa)
Malayo-Polynesian

Li (2008)
This classification retains Blust's East
Formosan, and unites the other northern
languages. Li proposes a Proto-Formosan
(F0) ancestor and equates it with
Proto-Austronesian (PAN), following the
model in Starosta (1995).[4][5] Rukai and
Tsouic are seen as highly divergent,
although the position of Rukai is highly
controversial.[6]
F0: Formosan

= Austronesian

Rukai
Mantauran
MagaTona,
BudaiLabuanTaromak
F1
Central (Tsouic)
Tsou
Southern Tsouic
Saaroa
Kanakanabu
F2
Northern

Formosan

Northwestern (Plains)

Families of Formosan languages before Chinese colonization, per Li (2008). The


three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern
Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.

SaisiyatKulonPazeh
Western
Thao
West Coast (PaporaHoanyaBabuzaTaokas)
Atayalic
Squliq Atayal
Ts'ole' Atayal (= C'uli')
Seediq
East

Formosan

KavalanBasay
SirayaAmis
? Southern [uncertain]
Bunun
Isbukun
Northern and Central (Takitudu and Takbanuaz)

Austronesian languages

PaiwanPuyuma [uncertain]

Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (2008)


This investigation keeps Li's Northern
Formosan, but breaks up Blust's East
Formosan, and suggests Paiwan may be the
closest to Malayo-Polynesian. It also unites
Tsouic and Rukai, the two most divergent
languages in Li.

Austronesian
Kavalanic
This is an obvious, low-level grouping
Basay (Trobiawan, LinawQauqaut
dialects)
Kavalan
Ketagalan
Northern

Formosan

These groups are linked with an estimated


97% probability.
Thao (AKA Sao. Brawbaw, Shtafari
dialects)
Western Plains
Babuza (AKA Favorlang. Taokas,
Poavosa dialects)
Papora-Hoanya (Papora, Hoanya
dialects)

Families of Formosan languages before Chinese colonization, per the Austronesian


Basic Vocabulary Database (Greenhill, Blust & Gray 2008).

Saisiyat (Taai, Tungho dialects)


Pazeh (AKA Kulun)
Atayalic
Atayal (Squliq, Culi)
Seediq (AKA Truku, Taroko)
Ami
Another low-level grouping
Sakizaya
Nataoran (North Amis)
Amis
Bunun
Bunun
TsouRukai
Tsou and Rukai are connected with moderate confidence, estimated at 85% probability.
Tsouic
Tsou
Saaroa

Austronesian languages

Kanakanabu
Rukai (Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent)
Siraya
Siraya (Taivoan, Makatao dialects)
Puyuma
Puyuma
Paiwanic
Malayo-Polynesian and Paiwan are linked with a low level of confidence (74%).
Paiwan (southern tip of Formosa)
Malayo-Polynesian

Ross (2009)
In 2009, Malcolm Ross proposed a new
classification of the Austronesian language
family based on morphological evidence
from various Formosan languages.[7] He
proposed that the current reconstructions for
Proto-Austronesian actually correspond to
an intermediate stage, which he terms
"Proto-Nuclear Austronesian". Notably,
Ross' classification does not support the
unity of the Tsouic languages, instead
considering the Southern Tsouic languages
of Kanakanavu and Saaroa to be a separate
branch. This supports Chang's (2006) claim
that Tsouic is not a valid group.[8]

Austronesian
Rukai
(Mantauran and TonaMaga dialects are
divergent)
Puyuma
Tsou
Nuclear

Austronesian

Subdivisions not addressed, apart from


SaaroaKanakanabu being separate from
Tsou.

Families of Formosan languages before Chinese colonization, per Ross (2009).

Austronesian languages

Austronesian comparison chart


Below is a chart comparing thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in the Philippines, Indonesia, East
Timor, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu.
English

one

two

three

four

person

house

dog

coconut

day

Tagalog

isa

dalawa tatlo

apat

tao

bahay

aso

niyog

araw

Bikol

saro

duwa

tulo

apat

tawo

harong

ayam

niyog

usa/isa

duha

tulo

upat

tawo

balay

iro

Waray

usa

duha

tulo

upat

tawo

Hiligaynon

isa

duha

tatlo

apat

Cebuano

Aklanon

Kinaray-a
Tausug
Maranao

new

what

fire

tayo

ano

apoy

aldaw ba-go

kita

ano

kalayo

lubi

adlaw bag-o

kita

unsa

kalayo

balay

ayam/ido lubi

adlaw bag-o

kita

anu

kalayo

tawo

balay

ido

lubi

adlaw bag-o

kita

ano

kalayo

isaea,
daywa, tatlo, ap-at, tawo
sambilog, dos
tres kwatro
uno

baeay

ayam

niyog

adlaw bag-o

kita

ano

kaeayo

sara

tatlo

apat

tawo

balay

ayam

niyog

adlaw bag-o

kita

ano

kalayo

hambuuk duwa

tu

upat

tau

bay

iru'

niyug

adlaw ba-gu

kitaniyu

unu

kayu

isa

dowa

t'lo

phat

taw

walay

aso

neyog

gawi'e bago

tano

tonaa

apoy

adwa

atlu

apat

tau

bale

asu

ngungut

aldo

bayu

ikatamu

nanu

api

balo

sikatayo

anto

pool

Kapampangan metung

darwa

bago

we

Pangasinan

sakey

dua,
duara

talo, apat, too


talora apatira

abong

aso

niyog

ageo

Ilokano

maysa

dua

tallo

tao

balay

aso

niog

aldaw baro

datayo

ania

apoy

Ivatan

asa

dadowa tatdo apat

tao

vahay

chito

niyoy

araw

yaten

ango

apoy

Ibanag

tadday

dua

tallu

appa'

tolay

balay

kitu

niuk

aggaw bagu

sittam

anni

afi

Yogad

tata

addu

tallu

appat

tolay

binalay

atu

iyyog

agaw

bagu

sikitam

gani

afuy

Gaddang

antet

addwa

tallo

appat

tolay

balay

atu

ayog

aw

bawu

ikkanetam

sanenay afuy

Tboli

sotu

lewu

tlu

fat

tau

gunu

ohu

lefo

kdaw

lomi

tekuy

tedu

Indonesian

satu

dua

tiga

empat orang

rumah/balai anjing

kelapa/nyiur hari

baru

kita

apa/anu api

Javanese

siji

loro

telu

papat

uwong

omah

asu

kambil

dina

anyar/enggal dhewe

Sundanese

hiji

dua

tilu

opat

urang

imah

asu

kalapa

dinten enggal

arurang

naon

sene

Acehnese

sa

duwa

lh

peut

ureung rumoh/bal as

uro

bar

(geu)tanyo peu

apuy

Lampungese

sai

khua

telu

pak

jelema

lamban

asu

nyiwi

khani

baru

kham

api

apui

Buginese

sedi

dua

tellu

eppa

tau

bola

asu

kaluku

esso

baru

idi

aga

api

Bataknese

sada

dua

tolu

opat

halak

jabu

biang

harambiri

ari

baru

hita

aha

api

Tetum

ida

rua

tolu

haat

ema

uma

asu

nuu

loron

foun

ita

saida

ahi

Maori

tahi

rua

toru

wha

tangata

whare

kuri

kokonati

ra

hou

taua

aha

ahi

Tuvaluan

tasi

lua

tolu

toko

fale

kuri

moku

aso

fou

tua

afi

Hawaiian

kahi

lua

kolu

kanaka

hale

'lio

niu

ao

hou

kkou

aha

ahi

Banjarese

asa

duwa

talu

ampat urang

rmah

hadupan

klapa

hri

hanyar

kami

apa

api

Malagasy

isa

roa

telo

efatra

olona

trano

alika

voanio

andro

vaovao

isika

inona

afo

Dusun

iso

duo

tolu

apat

tulun

walai

tasu

piasau

tadau

wagu

tokou

onu/nu

tapui

uppat

va-yo

ofih

apa/anu geni

Austronesian languages

Homeland
The protohistory of the Austronesian people can be traced farther back through time than can that of the
Proto-Austronesian language. From the standpoint of historical linguistics, the home (in linguistic terminology,
Urheimat) of the Austronesian languages is the main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa; on this island the
deepest divisions in Austronesian are found, among the families of the native Formosan languages. According to
Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten primary branches of the Austronesian language family
Blust (1999). Comrie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote:

Austronesian languages expansion map. Periods are based on archeological studies,


though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is
disputed.

... the internal diversity among the... Formosan languages... is greater than that in all the rest of Austronesian put together, so there is a major
genetic split within Austronesian between Formosan and the rest... Indeed, the genetic diversity within Formosan is so great that it may well
consist of several primary branches of the overall Austronesian family.

At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have generally accepted that the chronology of the dispersal of languages within
a given language family can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least. For example,
English in North America has large numbers of speakers, but relatively low dialectal diversity, while English in
Great Britain has much higher diversity; such low linguistic variety by Sapir's thesis suggests a recent origin of
North American English in Great Britain. While some scholars suspect that the number of principal branches among
the Formosan languages may be somewhat less than Blust's estimate of nine (e.g. Li 2006), there is little contention
among linguists with this analysis and the resulting view of the origin and direction of the migration. For a recent
dissenting analysis, see (Peiros 2004).
To get an idea of the original homeland of the Austronesian people, scholars can probe evidence from archaeology
and genetics. Studies from the science of genetics have produced conflicting outcomes. Some researchers find
evidence for a proto-Austronesian homeland on the Asian mainland (e.g., Melton et al. 1998), while others mirror
the linguistic research, rejecting an East Asian origin in favor of Taiwan (e.g., Trejaut et al. 2005). Archaeological
evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997) is more consistent, suggesting that the ancestors of the Austronesians spread from
the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics
suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia,
to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages (Diamond 2000). It is believed that this migration
began around 6,000 years ago (Blust 1999). However, evidence from historical linguistics cannot bridge the gap
between those two periods. The view that linguistic evidence connects Austronesian languages to the Sino-Tibetan
ones, as proposed for example by Sagart (2002), is a minority one. As Fox (2004:8) states:

Austronesian languages

10

Implied in... discussions of subgrouping [of Austronesian languages] is a broad consensus that the homeland of the Austronesians was in
Taiwan. This homeland area may have also included the P'eng-hu (Pescadores) islands between Taiwan and China and possibly even sites on
the coast of mainland China, especially if one were to view the early Austronesians as a population of related dialect communities living in
scattered coastal settlements.

Linguistic analysis of the Proto-Austronesian language stops at the western shores of Taiwan; any related mainland
language(s) have not survived. The only exceptions, the Chamic languages, derive from more recent migration to the
mainland (Thurgood 1999:225).

Distant relations
Genealogical links have been proposed between Austronesian and
various families of East and especially Southeast Asia.
Austric
A link with the Austroasiatic languages in an 'Austric' phylum is based
mostly on typological evidence. However, there is also morphological
evidence of a connection between the conservative Nicobarese
languages and Austronesian languages of the Philippines. Paul K.
Benedict extended the Austric proposal to include the TaiKadai and
HmongMien families, but this has not been followed by other
linguists.

Austronesian languages distribution in Southeast


Asia

Austro-Tai
A competing Austro-Tai proposal linking Austronesian and TaiKadai is supported by Weera Ostapirat, Roger
Blench, and Laurent Sagart, and is based on the traditional comparative method. Ostapirat (2005) proposes a series
of regular correspondences linking the two families and assumes a primary split, with TaiKadai speakers being the
Austronesians who stayed behind in their Chinese homeland. Blench (2004) suggests that, if the connection is valid,
the relationship is unlikely to be one of two sister families. Rather, he suggests that proto-TaiKadai speakers were
Austronesians who migrated to Hainan Island and back to the mainland from the northern Philippines, and that their
distinctiveness results from radical restructuring following contact with HmongMien and Sinitic. Sagart's 2005
proposal (Sagart 2005), which may have some support from human population genetics (Li 2005)Template:Harvard
citation documentation#Wikilink to citation does not work, is that proto-TaiKadai was an early Austronesian
language that may have back-migrated from northeastern Taiwan to the southeastern coast of China. The apparently
cognate words in TaiKadai and Austronesian might be explained either as commonly inherited vocabulary, or as
loanwords from this hypothetical (but perhaps Malayo-Polynesian) language into proto-TaiKadai. (The latter
explanation would imply contact rather than a genetic relationship between Tai-Kadai and Austronesian.) Sagart also
suggests that Austronesian, in which he includes TaiKadai, is ultimately related to the Sino-Tibetan languages and
probably has its origin in a Neolithic community of the coastal regions of prehistoric North China or East China.
Sino-Austronesian
French linguist and Sinologist Laurent Sagart considers the Austronesian languages to be related to the Sino-Tibetan
languages, and also groups the TaiKadai languages as more closely related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages.[9]
He also groups the Austronesian languages in a recursive-like fashion, placing TaiKadai as a sister branch of
Malayo-Polynesian.
Japanese
A few linguistsWikipedia:Avoid weasel words have proposed that Japanese may be a distant relative of the
Austronesian family, but this is rejected by all mainstream linguistic specialists.[citation needed] The evidence for any
sort of connection is slight, and many linguists think it is more plausible that Japanese might have instead been

Austronesian languages
influenced by Austronesian languages, perhaps by an Austronesian substratum. Those who propose this scenario
suggest that the Austronesian family once covered the islands to the north of Formosa (western Japanese areas such
as the Ryky Islands and Kysh) as well as to the south. However, there is no genetic evidence for an especially
close relationship between speakers of Austronesian languages and speakers of Japonic languages, so if there was
any prehistoric interaction between them, it is likely to have been one of simple cultural exchange without significant
ethnic mixing. In fact, genetic analyses consistently show that the Ryukyuans between Taiwan and the main islands
of Japan are genetically less similar to the Taiwanese aborigines than are the Japanese, which suggests that if there
was any interaction between proto-Austronesian and proto-Japonic, it occurred on the mainland prior to the
extinction of Austronesian languages on mainland China and the introduction of Japonic to Japan, not in the
Ryukyus. More commonly, Japanese is placed in the Altaic language family, though this has never been
satisfactorily demonstrated.
Ongan
It has recently been proposed that the Austronesian and the Ongan protolanguage are the descendants of an
AustronesianOngan protolanguage (Blevins 2007).

Writing systems
Most Austronesian languages have Latin-based writing systems today. Some non-Latin-based writing systems are
listed below.

Jawi alphabet (Arabic-based)


Sorabe alphabet (Arabic-based)
Cham alphabet
Avoiuli
Eskayan
Kawi script

Balinese alphabet
Batak alphabet
Baybayin
Buhid alphabet
Hanun'o alphabet
Javanese alphabet
Lontara alphabet
Sundanese alphabet (Old Sundanese)
Rejang alphabet
Rencong alphabet
Tagbanwa alphabet
Woleai script (Caroline Island script)
Rongorongo (possibly used to write the Rapa Nui language)

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ subgroups/ austronesian
[2] http:/ / language. psy. auckland. ac. nz/ austronesian
[3] "The Tipuns...are certainly descended from emigrants, and I have not the least doubt but that the Amias are of similar origin; only of later
date, and most probably from the Mejaco Simas [that is, Miyako-jima], a group of islands lying 110 miles to the North-east....By all accounts
the old Pilam savages, who merged into the Tipuns, were the first settlers on the plain; then came the Tipuns, and a long time afterwards the
Amias. The Tipuns, for some time, acknowledged the Pilam Chief as supreme, but soon absorbed both the chieftainship and the people, in fact
the only trace left of them now, is a few words peculiar to the Pilam village, one of which, makan (to eat), is pure Malay. The Amias
submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the Tipuns."

11

Austronesian languages
[4] Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2008. "Time perspective of Formosan Aborigines." In Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia ed. Past human migrations in East Asia:
matching archaeology, linguistics and genetics. Taylor & Francis US.
[5] Starosta, S. 1995. "A grammatical subgrouping of Formosan languages." In P. Li, Cheng-hwa Tsang, Ying-kuei Huang, Dah-an Ho, and
Chiu-yu Tseng eds. Austronesian Studies Relating to Taiwan, pp. 683726, Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica.
[6] "The position of Rukai is the most controversial: Tsuchida... treats it as more closely related to Tsouic languages, based on lexicostatistic
evidence, while Ho... believes it to be one of the Paiwanic languages, i.e. part of my Southern group, as based on a comparison of fourteen
grammatical features. In fact, Japanese anthropologists did not distinguish between Rukai, Paiwan and Puyuma in the early stage of their
studies" (Li 2008: 216).
[7] Ross, Malcolm. 2009. "Proto Austronesian verbal morphology: A reappraisal." In Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds.).
Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: a festschrift for Robert Blust. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
[8] Chang, Henry Yungli. 2006. "Rethinking the Tsouic Subgroup Hypothesis: A Morphosyntactic Perspective." In Chang, H., Huang, L. M., Ho,
D. (eds.). Streams converging into an ocean: Festschrift in honor of Professor Paul Jen-Kuei Li on his 70th birthday. Taipei: Institute of
Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
[9] van Driem, George. 2005. Sino-Austronesian vs. Sino-Caucasian, Sino-Bodic vs. Sino-Tibetan, and Tibeto-Burman as default theory.
Contemporary Issues in Nepalese Linguistics, pp. 285338. http:/ / www. eastling. org/ paper/ Driem. pdf (see page 304)

References
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Archaeology 18: 3948.
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Blevins, Juliette (2007). "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of
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Blust, Robert (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative". In
Zeitoun, E.; Li, P.J.K. Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics.
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Diamond, Jared M (2000). "Taiwan's gift to the world" (http://faculty.washington.edu/plape/pacificarchwin06/
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Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages". International Journal of
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Fox, James J. (1920 August 2004). "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies" (http://
dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/43158/1/Comparative_Austronesian_Studies.pdf) (PDF). Symposium
Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali.

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php?searchterm=3-4-3). Asia Pacific Research. Canberra, Australia: Research School of Pacific and Asian
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to Lexomics" (http://language.psy.auckland.ac.nz/publications/index.php?pub=Greenhill_et_al2008).
Evolutionary Bioinformatics (http://www.la-press.com/article.php?article_id=1129) 4: 271283..
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Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2004). "Origins of the East Formosans:Basay, Kavalan, Amis, and Siraya". Language and
Linguistics 5 (2): 363376.
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In Wouk, Fay; Ross, Malcolm. The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems. Canberra:
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Sagart, Laurent (2005). "Sino-Tibeto-Austronesian: An updated and improved argument". In Blench, Roger;
Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics.
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Trejaut JA, Kivisild T, Loo JH, Lee CL, He CL (2005). "Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in
Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations" (http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv?request=get-pdf&
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Wouk, Fay and Malcolm Ross, eds. (2002), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems.
Pacific Linguistics. Canberra: Australian National University.

Further reading
Bengtson, John D., The Greater Austric Hypothesis (http://jdbengt.net/articles/Austric.pdf), Association for
the Study of Language in Prehistory.
Blust, R. A. (1983). Lexical reconstruction and semantic reconstruction: the case of the Austronesian "house"
words. Hawaii: R. Blust.
Cohen, E. M. K. (1999). Fundaments of Austronesian roots and etymology. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ISBN
0-85883-436-7
Marion, P., Liste Swadesh largie de onze langues austronsiennes, d. Carr de sucre, 2009
Pawley, A., & Ross, M. (1994). Austronesian terminologies: continuity and change. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of
Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN
0-85883-424-3
Sagart, Laurent, Roger Blench, and Alicia Sanchez-Nazas (Eds.) (2004). The peopling of East Asia: Putting
Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1.
Tryon, D. T., & Tsuchida, S. (1995). Comparative Austronesian dictionary: an introduction to Austronesian
studies. Trends in linguistics, 10. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 110127296
Wittmann, Henri (1972). "Le caractre gntiquement composite des changements phontiques du malgache."
Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (http://homepage.mac.com/noula/ling/
1972a-malgache.pdf) 7.807-10. La Haye: Mouton.
Wolff, John U., "Comparative Austronesian Dictionary. An Introduction to Austronesian Studies", Language, vol.
73, no. 1, pp.14556, Mar 1997,ISSN-0097-8507

External links
Blust's Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (http://www.trussel2.com/acd/)
Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database ABVD (http://language.psy.auckland.ac.nz/austronesian/)
(contains over 650 Austronesian Languages)
Swadesh lists of Austronesian basic vocabulary words (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/
Appendix:Swadesh_lists_for_Austronesian_languages) (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix (http://en.
wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Swadesh_lists))
Summer Institute of Linguistics site showing languages (Austronesian and Papuan) of Papua New Guinea. (http:/
/www.sil.org/pacific/png)
Austronesian Language Resources (http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rustyb/112/austronesian.htm) (defunct?
moved?) ( @ archive.org (http://web.archive.org/web/20041122214717/http://www-personal.umich.edu/
~rustyb/112/austronesian.htm))
Spreadsheet of 1600+ Austronesian and Papuan number names and systems ongoing study to determine their
relationships and distribution (http://coconutstudio.com/Austro Nos Mar2008 11-3.xls)
Languages of the World: The Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) Language Family (http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/
months/june/austronesianLanguageFamily.html)

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Austronesian languages
Introduction to Austronesian Languages and Culture (video) (Malayo-Polynesian) Language Family (http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYSr2k4buqU)

15

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Austronesian languages Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=583659099 Contributors: 16@r, 208.181.90.xxx, 23prootie, A-giau, A. Parrot, AAR analysis, Aboctok,
Ahoerstemeier, Aidan Elliott-McCrea, Alohasoy, Alphathon, Altenmann, Ancheta Wis, Andre Engels, Andrew Dalby, Anggerik, Angr, Ano-User, Anrnusna, Ante Aikio, Artur Lion, Atethnekos,
Australian Jezza, Ayrenz, BDD, Badagnani, Barefact, Bellhalla, Binadot, Blackfield, Bobo12345, Born Gay, Brianski, CRGreathouse, Caltrop, Calypso, Cameron Dewe, Can't sleep, clown will
eat me, Cancio157, Cavia, Centralcitymarc, CharlesGillingham, Chicbicyclist, Christopher Sundita, Cnyborg, CommonsDelinker, Conrad Leviston, Conversion script, Cuaxdon, Cuchullain,
DO'Neil, Daduzi, Dakilang Isagani, Damian Yerrick, Dbachmann, Dedee73, DerekWinters, Devanatha, Dmscvan, Don4of4, DopefishJustin, Dougg, Dpr, Dpv, Ebizur, Ed g2s, Eklir, Enzino,
Errantacademic, Esprit15d, FilipeS, Florian Blaschke, FonsScientiae, GCarty, Gabbe, Gaimhreadhan, Gaius Cornelius, Gilgamesh, GraemeL, Graham87, Gringo300, Gritchka, Gunkarta,
Gunnernett, Guy Harris, Harold Philby, Hibernian, Hippopha, Hmains, Hokulani78, Hottentot, Humboldt, Hunnjazal, Iketsi, Illexsquid, Indon, Infovoria, Ish ishwar, Ivan tambuk, Ivirivi00,
JFHJr, Jagged 85, Jahiegel, James Opstad, Jamesjoyce1980, Jamespeterka, Janko, Jarble, Jason Recliner, Esq., Jerzy, Jiang, Jnuger, Joemaza, JorisvS, Kafziel, Kandar, Karmosin, Keraunos,
Kingfish, Kintetsubuffalo, Klatcher, Koyaanis Qatsi, Kwamikagami, Lagalag, Leeheonjin, Lethe, Lexicon, Lgh, Ling.Nut, Lockesdonkey, LordAmeth, Macarenaman, Mammalia, MapsMan,
MarcusCole12, Mario1952, Mark Dingemanse, Maulucioni, Maunus, Mentifisto, Merbabu, Meursault2004, Mogism, Monedula, Morwen, Mrcoolbp, Mrguyguy226, Munci, Ngio, Nilmerg, Nino
Gonzales, Nuker, Obsidian Soul, Ohnoitsjamie, Olivier, Ottocs, P b1999, Pacific Archaeologist, Pasquale, Peter Isotalo, Pgan002, Pgdudda, PiCo, PierreAbbat, Pinnerup, Pm67nz, Pne,
Promethean, Qophee, Quiensabe, Rajmaan, Rapidfiringneurons, Rbrausse, Rcgy, Reaverdrop, Revoarkagiri, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Keatinge, Richardparker01, Rjwilmsi, Rob Hooft, Robert
Foley, Robin Patterson, Rocket000, Rosiestep, Rossami, Ryulong, Scipius, SeanMack, Secretlondon, Senor fjord, SimonGreenhill, Sl, Snowy1001, Sobreira, Stevey7788, THSlone, Tabletop,
Taivo, Taiwantaffy, Tamfang, Tarong, Teles, Tesseran, TheKMan, Thisglad, Tibetologist, Tobias Conradi, Toussaint, Trek011, Turtledove8windmill, Tvarnoe, V111P, Valentino76, Vardion,
Vassili Nikolaev, Visite fortuitement prolonge, Vmenkov, Vsmith, WJetChao, Wachowich, Wdshu, Wetman, Wiglaf, WikiFlier, Wikid77, Woohookitty, Wtmitchell, Yosri, Zack2007, Zaidpjd,
Zeno Gantner, Zhen Lin, , , 203 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Oceanic languages.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oceanic_languages.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: kwami (talk)
File:Formosan languages.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Formosan_languages.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: kwami
(talk) Original uploader was Kwamikagami at en.wikipedia
File:Formosan languages 2005.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Formosan_languages_2005.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: Kwamikagami
File:Formosan languages 2008.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Formosan_languages_2008.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: Kwamikagami
File:Formosan languages 2009.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Formosan_languages_2009.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: User:Kwamikagami
File:Migraciones austronesias.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Migraciones_austronesias.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors:
User:Maulucioni, User:Maulucioni, User:Maulucioni
File:Austronesian including Malay and various random languages.svg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Austronesian_including_Malay_and_various_random_languages.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
User:Gunkarta

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