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LE seminar 2 21.10.


Richard III
The Plantagenets: Yorks & Lancasters (white&red rose) Richard II Henry V Henry VI + Margaret of Anjou = Edward + Anne (daughter of earl of Wawick "the kingmaker") Richard of York father of Richard III, his eldest son, Edward IV became king and married Elizabeth, a commoner widow Versus Margaret of Anjou - war "this sun of York" -> Edward IV called "the sun in splendour" Henry Tudor -> stepbrother of Henry VI marries Elizabeth of York George Clarence Richard Gloucester Edward: Edward&Richard George: Edward&Margaret the last Plantagenets Richard III -> founding myth of the Tudors LE seminar 3 07.11.2013

As You Like It
- female protagonist -> disguise (man) - laughter - situational humour - happy ending multiple marriages in a story based on love court -> forest -> court forest = no more rules no hierarchy - simple clothing freedom of movement, easier breathing farthingale "crinolin" Fragment 1 Robin Hood ~ 12th century (Richard the Lion Heart) equality brown&green clothes camouflage Duke Senior rightful leader Duke Frederick usurper & tyrant "golden world" -> The Garden of Eden (Forest of Arden) Celia woman: shepherdess Aliona -> social disguise Rosalind man: hunter Ganymede -> gender&social disguise: Tall Weapons: spear, axe Martial (soldier) Confident Protective mission *Viola/Cesario: eunuch, page, sword The court -> artificial&hypocritical Brook "small river" Fragment 4 -> "hangs a tale" Fragment 5 -> real love vs romantic love 1

Fragment 7 -> Troilus&Cressida + Leandre&Hero => romantic love doesn't exist in real life Clamorous "talkative, chatty, nagging" Epilogue => conclusion, transition to real life Rosalind (actor) breaks character at the end - "If I were a woman" Main actor -> woman (R) -> man (G) -> woman (R) LE seminar 4 18.11.2013

Appropriation a certain literary text is used, adapted and adopted for purposes that have little to do with literature Shakespeare's most known play most used for appropriation Hamlet on film What made Shakespeare famous? -> 18th century Romantic movement rediscovery of Shakespeare Harold Bloom: "Shakespeare invented the human" The son expects to inherit but doesn't popular themes in Shakespeare's work A person not fit to rule Chronicle plays -> the man that takes over is unprepared unconvincing for audience/characters and therefore his position is taken from him Richard III -> younger son of a younger son unprepared because it was very unlikely to become king -> unconvincing Hamlet the father -> moral authority, instructed to become a king, lawful king&legitimate -> warrior Hamlet should have become the king succession law -> shadow of H the father Claudius -> shadow of H the father is not a warrior, he is domestic, feminine -> unprepaired to rule Hamlet went to Wittenberg to study the humanities -> problem of trening ! he is not strong, assertive -> like Richard II & III. He is unconvincing to himself, to his mother/uncle/subjects -> H's frustration Death for death -> Hamlet the father's order Hamlet&Ophelia -> love? Marriage of convenience Meritocracy Ending-> everybody dies (complete carnage -> perfect tragedy) Horatio remains Fortinbras warrior king of Norway becomes implicitly the king of Denmark -> similar to Hamlet the father The most legitimate rules is the one who can convince his people that he can rule. LE seminar 5 02.12.2013

Venice was a cosmopolitan city with a favourable geographical position, a city of trade (silk road) and one of the few democracies at the time (republic). Cyprus refers to the historical moment (Europeans vs. The Turks / Ottoman Empire) Iago and Rodrigo Spanish names (Santiago Saint James) Othello, Desdemona, Emilia, Cassio, Bianca - Italian names Spain had been under Moorish occupation in the Middle Ages. Spaniards who fought bravely against the Moors legends: Rodrigo the Cide and Santiago de Compostello (Santiago the Moor Killer) Othello Egiptian and Muslim, a Moor whose appearance is Black to enhance the impression of Otherness 2

Black people were seen as inferior beings, while blue bloods were created by the Spaniards (you can see your veins through the white skin). Moors / Muslims are thought to be gullible, violent, agressive and cruel. Iago's words to Desdemona: clime (geography), complexion (race), degree (status) refer to the chain of being. LE seminar 6 16.12.2013

Queen Elisabeth died - James of Scotland became king of England 17th century beginning of the witch-hunting Maleus Maleficarum Krammer reprinted 20 times The Gunpowder plot Guy Fawkes Giordano Bruno, Mirandello called witchcraft "art" Mgic connection between science and philosophy (magic has blossomed at the court of queen Elisabeth, but this has changed by the reign of James) The witches appear in crucial moments of the play (the beginning when they lead Macbeth into temptation, later on, he consults them, but he misinterprets what they tell them they are very ambiguous, just like the Oracle of Delphi) Some critics see Lady Macbeth as an extension of the witches Women accused of witchcraft single, from a poor environment, living in a rural context Witchcraft became popular in key moments after natural / social causes/curses? (as authorities had no way to counter balance what was happening, they used witchcraft as a scape-goat) Women's ___ cooking and attending the sick (herbal remedies) they were easily accused LE seminar 7 09.01.2014

King Lear
constant theme in European folklore early MA Anglo-Saxon haptarchy economic progress and cultural development Lear's madness senile dementia parallel story Gloucester and his 2 sons Edmund and Edgar The 2 fathers do not know their offsprings' personalities. How responsible are they when they make decisions concerning their children? (inheritance) How do they negociate with them? Why is the conflcit getting worse? The parallel story is clear: Gloucester goes blind and begins to see the truth despite complicating the play. What about king Lear? Does he realise the truth? The battle between the English and the French Cordelia dies Lear dies Madness & Nature important motifs inner nature vs outer nature micro and macro cosm the nature reflects the inside (Lear's madness takes over in the middle of the storm) Lear dies relieved, with an eased conscience. He still doesn't see the truth. The tragedy of Leon refers to the inability to see beyond, to see reality. Excess the king's invitation to flattery his retirement- dividing the kingdom France and Burgundy (The Netherlands) foreign alliances