Dr. AA
Department of Chemical Engineering
University Teknology Malaysia
PasquillGifford
Model
3
( )
n
x
ut C
=
2
2
2
2
1
o
PasquillGifford Model
Cases 1 through 10 described previously depend on the
specification of a value for the eddy diffusivity, K
j
.
In general, K
j
changes with position, time, wind velocity, and
prevailing weather conditions and it is difficult to determine.
Sutton solved this difficulty by proposing the following
definition for a dispersion coefficient
with similar relations given for o
y
and o
z
.
The dispersion coefficients, o
x
, o
y
, and o
z
represent the
standard deviations of the concentration in the downwind,
crosswind and vertical (x,y,z) directions, respectively. Values
for the dispersion coefficients are much easier to obtain
experimentally than eddy diffusivities
4
Table 2 Atmospheric Stability Classes for Use
with the PasquillGifford Dispersion Model
Day radiation intensity Night cloud cover
Wind
speed (m/s)
Strong Medium Slight Cloudy
Calm &
clear
< 2 A A B B
2 3 A B B C E E
3 5 B B C C D E
5 6 C C D D D D
> 6 C D C D D
Stability class for puff model :
A,B : unstable
C,D : neutral
E,F : stable
5
Figure 10 Horizontal dispersion coefficient for PasquillGifford
plume model. The dispersion coefficient is a function of distance
downwind and the atmospheric stability class.
6
Figure 11 Vertical dispersion coefficient for PasquillGifford plume
model. The dispersion coefficient is a function of distance downwind
and the atmospheric stability class.
7
Figure 12 Horizontal dispersion coefficient for puff model. This
data is based only on the data points shown and should not be
considered reliable at other distances.
8
Figure 13 Vertical dispersion coefficient for puff model. This data is
based only on the data points shown and should not be considered
reliable at other distances.
9
Table 3 Equations and data for Pasquill
Gifford Dispersion Coefficients
Equations for continuous plumes
Stability class
oy
(m)
A
oy
= 0.493x
0.88
B
oy
= 0.337x
0.88
C
oy
= 0.195x
0.90
D
oy
= 0.128x
0.90
E
oy
= 0.091x
0.91
F
oy
= 0.067x
0.90
10
Stability
class
x (m) o
z
(m)
A
100 300
300 3000
o
Z
= 0.087x
0.88
log
10
o
z
= 1.67 + 0.902 log
10
x + 0.181(log
10
x)
B
100 500
500 2 10
4
o
Z
= 0.135x
0.95
log
10
o
z
= 1.25 + 1.09 log
10
x + 0.0018(log
10
x)
C 100 10
5
o
Z
= 0.112x
0.91
D
100 500
500 10
5
o
Z
= 0.093x
0.85
log
10
o
z
= 1.22 + 1.08 log
10
x  0.061(log
10
x)
E
100 500
500 10
5
o
Z
= 0.082x
0.82
log
10
o
z
= 1.19 + 1.04 log
10
x  0.070(log
10
x)
F
100 500
500 10
5
o
Z
= 0.057x
0.80
log
10
o
z
= 1.91 + 1.37 log
10
x  0.119(log
10
x)
11
Data for puff releases
x = 100 m x = 4000 m
Stability
condition
oy
(m)
oz
(m)
oy
(m)
oz
(m)
Unstable 10 15 300 220
Neutral 4 3.8 120 50
Very stable 1.3 0.75 35 7
12
This case is identical to Case 7. The solution has a form similar to
Equation 33.
(38)
The ground level concentration is given at z = 0.
(39)
( )
(
(
+ +


.

\

=
2
2
2
2
2
2 3
*
2
1
exp
2
, , ,
z y x
z y x
m
z y ut x Q
t z y x C
o o o
o o o t
( )
(
(
+


.

\

=
2
2
2
2 3
*
2
1
exp
2
, 0 , ,
y x
z y x
m
y ut x Q
t y x C
o o
o o o t
Case 11 Puff. Instantaneous point sorce at ground
level. Coordinates fixed at release point. Conatant wind
in x direction only with constant velocity u
13
The ground level concentration along the xaxis is given at y =
z= 0.
(40)
The centre of the cloud is found at coordinates (ut,0,0). The
concentration at the centre of this moving cloud is given by
(41)
The total integrated dose, D
tid
received by an individual standing
at fixed coordinates (x,y,z) is the time integral of the concentration.
(42)
( ) ( )dt t z y x C z y x D , , , , ,
0
t id
}
=
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2 3
*
2
1
exp
2
, 0 , 0 ,
x
z y x
m
ut x Q
t x C
o
o o o t
( )
z y x
m
Q
t ut C
o o o t
2 3
*
2
, 0 , 0 , =
14
The total integrated dose at ground level is found by integrating
Equation 39 according to Equation 42. The result is 
(43)
The total integrated dose along the xaxis on the ground is
(44)
Frequently the cloud boundary defined by a fixed concentration
is required. The line connecting points of equal concentration
around the cloud boundary is called an isopleth.
( )


.

\

=
2
2 *
t id
2
1
exp 0 , ,
y z y
m
y
u
Q
y x D
o o to
( )
u
Q
x D
z y
m
o to
*
t id
0 , 0 , =
15
For a specified concentration, <C>
*
, the isopleths at ground level are
determined by dividing the equation for the centreline concentration,
Equation 40, by the equation for the general ground level concentration,
Equation 39. This equation is solved directly for y.
(45)
The procedure is
1. Specify <C>
*
, u, and t.
2. Determine the concentrations, <C> (x,0,0,t), along the xaxis using
Equation40. Define the boundary of the cloud along the xaxis.
3. Set <C> (x,y,0,t) = <C>
*
in Equation 45 and determine the values
of y at each centreline point determined in step 2.
The procedure is repeated for each value of t required.
( )
( )


.

\

=
t y x C
t x C
y
y
, 0 , ,
, 0 , 0 ,
ln 2 o
16
This case is identical to Case 9. The solution has a form similar
to Equation 35.
(46)
The ground level concentration is given at z = 0.
(47)
( )
(
(


.

\

+ =
2
2
2
2
2
1
exp , ,
z y z y
z y
u
Q
z y x C
o o o to
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2
1
exp 0 , ,
y z y
y
u
Q
y x C
o o to
Case 12 Plume. Continuous, steady state, source
at ground level, wind moving in x direction at
constant velocity u
17
The concentration along the centreline of the plume directly
downwind is given at y = z= 0.
(48)
The isopleths are found using a procedure identical to the
isopleth procedure used for Case 1.
For continuous ground level releases the maximum
concentration occurs at the release point.
( )
u
Q
x C
z y
o to
= 0 , 0 ,
18
This case is identical to Case 10. The solution has a form
similar to Equation 36.
(49)
( )
(
(


.

\
 +
+


.

\

(
(


.

\

=
2
2
2
1
exp
2
1
exp
2
1
exp
2
, ,
z
r
z
r
y z y
m
H z H z
y
u
Q
z y x C
o o
o o to
Case 13 Plume. Continuous, Steady State
Source at Heignt H, above ground level, wind
moving in x direction at constant velocity u
19
The ground level concentration is found by setting z = 0.
(50)
The ground centreline concentrations are found by setting y =
z= 0.
(51)
( )
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
2
2
2
1
2
1
exp
2
, ,
z
r
y z y
m
H y
u
Q
z y x C
o o o to
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2
1
exp 0 , 0 ,
z
r
z y
m
H
u
Q
x C
o o to
20
The maximum ground level concentration along the xaxis,
<C>
max
, is found using.
(52)
The distance downwind at which the maximum ground level
concentration occurs is found from
(53)
The procedure for finding the maximum concentration and the
downwind distance is to use Equation 53 to determine the distance
followed by Equation 52 to determine the maximum concentration.


.

\

=
y
z
r
m
uH e
Q
C
o
o
t
2 max
2
2
r
z
H
= o
21
For this case the centre of the puff is found at x = ut. The
average concentration is given by
(54)
( )
( )
(
(


.

\
 +
+
(
(


.

\

(
(


.

\

=
2 2
2
2 3
2
1
exp
2
1
exp
2
1
exp
2
, , ,
z
r
z
r
y
z y x
m
H z H z
y Q
t z y x C
o o
o
o o o t
Case 14 Puff. Instantaneous point source at
height H, above ground level. Coordinate
system on ground moves with puff
22
The time dependence is achieved through the dispersion
coefficients, since their values change as the puff moves
downwind from the release point. If wind is absent (u = 0),
Equation 54 will not predict the correct result.
At ground level, z = 0, and the concentration is computed using
(55)
( )
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
2
2
2 3
*
2
1
2
1
exp
2
, 0 , ,
z
r
y
z y x
m
H y Q
t y x C
o o
o o o t
23
The concentration along the ground at the centreline is given at
any y = z = 0,
(56)
The total integrated dose at ground level is found by application
of Equation 42 to Equation 55. The result is
(57)
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2 3
*
2
1
exp
2
, 0 , 0 ,
z
r
z y x
m
H Q
t x C
o
o o o t
( )
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
2
2
*
t id
2
1
2
1
exp 0 , ,
z
r
y z y
m
H y
u
Q
y x D
o o o to
24
For this case, the result is obtained using a transformation of
coordinates similar to the transformation used for Case 7. The
result is
(58)
where t is the time since the release of the puff.
( )
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
2
2
2
1
2
1
exp
)
P ( , , ,
56 through 54 Equations system,
coordinate moving with equations uff
z
r
y
H y
t z y x C
o o
Case 15 Puff. Instantaneous point source at
height H, above ground level. Coordinate
system fixed on ground at release point
25
(59)
p
t
t
n =
Comparison of Plume and Puff Model
Plume is based on steady state, Puff is based on
transient state
The puff model can also be used for continuous
releases by representing the release as a succession
of puffs.
For leaks from pipes and vessels, if t
p
is the time to
form one puff, then the number of puffs formed, n, is
given by
26
where t is the duration of the spill. The time to form one puff, t
p
,
is determined by defining an effective leak height, H
eff
. Then,
(60)
where u is the wind speed. Empirical results show that the best
H
eff
to use is
(61)
For a continuous leak,
(62)
u
H
t
p
eff
=
( ) 5 . 1 leak of height
eff
= H
p m m
t Q Q =
*
27
and for instantaneous release divided into a number of smaller
puffs,
(63)
where (Q
m
*
)
total
is the release amount.
This approach works for liquid spills, but not for vapor releases.
For vapor releases a single puff is suggested.
The puff model is also used to represent changes in wind speed
and direction.
( )
n
Q
Q
m
m
t ot al
*
*
=
28
On an overcast day, a stack with an effective height of 60 meters is
releasing sulphur dioxide at the rate of 80 grams per second. The
wind speed is 6 meters per second.
Determine
a. The mean concentration of SO
2
on the ground 500 meters
downwind.
b. The mean concentration on the ground 500 meters downwind
and 50 meters crosswind.
c. The location and value of the maximum mean concentration on
ground level directly downwind.
29
a. This is a continuous release. The ground concentration directly
downwind is given by Equation 51.
(51)
From Table 2, the stability class is D. the dispersion coefficients are
obtained from Figures 10 and 11. The resulting values are o
y
= 36
meters and o
z
= 18.5 meters. Substituting into Equation 51
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2
1
exp 0 , 0 ,
z
r
z y
m
H
u
Q
x C
o o to
( )
( )( )( )( )
3 5
2
m gm 10 31 . 3
m 18.5
m 60
2
1
exp
s m 6 m 18.5 m 36 14 . 3
s gm 80
0 , 0 , m 500
=
(
(

.

\

= C
30
b. The mean concentration 50 meters crosswind is found using
Equation 50 and setting y = 50. The results from part a are applied
directly,
( ) ( )
( )
3 5
2
3 5
2
m gm 10 26 . 1
m 36
m 50
2
1
exp m gm 10 31 . 3
2
1
exp 0 , 0 , m 00 5 m,0 m,50 500
=
(
(

.

\

=
(
(


.

\

=
y
y
C C
o
31
c. The location of the maximum concentration is found from
Equation 53,
From Figure 11, the dispersion coefficient has this value at x = 1500
m. At x = 1500 m, from Figure 10, o
y
= 100 m. The maximum
concentration is determined using Equation 52,
m 42.4
2
m 60
2
= = =
r
z
H
o
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
3 4
2
2 max
m gm 10 3.68
m 100
m 42.4
m 60 s m 6 3.14 2.72
s gm 80 2
2
=

.

\

=


.

\

=
y
z
r
m
uH e
Q
C
o
o
t
32
Chlorine is used in a particular chemical process. A source model study
indicates that for a particular accident scenario 1.0 kg of chlorine will be
released instantaneously. The release will occur at ground level. A
residential area is 500 m away from the chlorine source. Determine
a. The time required for the centre of the cloud to reach the residential
area. Assume a wind speed of 2 m/s.
b. The maximum concentration of chlorine in the residential area.
Compare this with a TLV for chlorine of 0.5 ppm. What stability
conditions and wind speed procedures the maximum concentration?
c. Determine the distance the cloud must travel to disperse the cloud to a
maximum concentration below the TLV. Use the conditions of Part b.
d. Determine the size of the cloud, based on the TLV, at a point 5 km
directly downwind on the ground. Assume the conditions of Part b.
33
a. For a distance of 500 m and a wind speed of 2 m/s, the time
required for the centre of the cloud to reach the residential area is
This leaves very little time for emergency warning.
min 2 . 4 s 250
s m 2
m 500
= = = =
u
x
t
34
b. The maximum concentration will occur at the centre of the cloud
directly downwind from the release. The concentration is given by
Equation 41.
(41)
The stability conditions are selected to maximize <C> in Equation
41. This requires dispersion coefficients of minimum value. From
Figures 12 and 13, this occurs under stable condition. From Table
2, this will occur at night with a 2  3 m/s wind.
( )
z y x
m
Q
t ut C
o o o t
2 3
*
2
, 0 , 0 , =
35
Assume a slow moving cloud of 2 m/s. from Figures 12 and 13, at
500 m, o
y
= 5.2 m and o
z
= 2.2 m. also assume o
x
= o
y
. From
equation 41,
Assuming a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 298K, the
concentration in ppm is 737 ppm. This is much higher than the TLV
of 0.5 ppm. Any individuals within the immediate residential area,
and any personnel within the plant will be excessively exposed if
they are outside and downwind from the source.
( ) ( ) ( )
3
m mg
3
m kg
m m
kg
2140
3
10 2.14
2.2
2
5.2
2 3
3.14 2
1.0
=
= = C
36
c. From Table 2  8, the TLV of 0.5 ppm is 1.45 mg/m or 1.4510
6
kg/m. The concentration at the centre of the cloud is given by
Equation 41. Substituting the known values,
This equation is satisfied at the correct distance from the release
point. A trial and error procedure is required. The procedure is
1. Select a distance, x.
2. Determine o
x
, o
y
, and o
z
using Figures 12 and 13.
3. Check if dispersion coefficients satisfy above equation.
( )
3 4 2
2
2 3
3 6
m 10 76 8
14 3 2
kg 0 1
m kg 10 45 . 1
=
=
.
.
.
z y
z y
37
The procedure is continued until the equation is satisfied. This
produces the following results,
Guessed
distance (km)
oy oz oy
oz
1 10 3.2 3.2 10
10 80 12.0 8.07 10
4
11 88 13.0 1.01 10
5
The distance is interpolated to about 10.3 km. This is quite a
substantial distance considering that only 1.0 kg of chlorine is
released.
38
d. The downwind centreline concentration is given by Equation 40.
(40)
The time required for the centre of the plume to arrive is
At a downwind distance of 5 km, from Figures 12 and 13,
Substituting the numbers provided,
( )
(
(


.

\

=
2
2 3
*
2
1
exp
2
, 0 , 0 ,
x
z y x
m
ut x Q
t x C
o
o o o t
s 2500
s m 2
m 5000
= = =
u
x
t
m 8 and m 44 = = =
z x y
o o o
( ) ( )
(
(

.

\

=
2
2
2 3
3 6
m 44
5000
2
1
exp
m 8 m 44 2
kg 0 . 1
m kg 10 45 . 1
x
t
39
where x has units of meters. Rearranging and combining leads to a
quadratic equation,
The cloud is 164 meters wide at this point, based on the TLV
concentration. At 2 m/s, it will take approximately,
to pass.
An appropriate emergency procedure would be to alert residents to
stay indoors with the windows closed and ventilation off until the
cloud passes. An effort by the plant to reduce the quantity of
chlorine released is also indicated.
m 82 5000
0 10 49938 . 2 10000
7 2
=
= +
x
x x
s 82
s m 2
m 164
=
40
Figure 6 indicates that the release characteristics of a puff or
plume are dependent on the initial release momentum and
buoyancy. The initial momentum and buoyancy will change the
effective height of release. A release that occurs at ground level but
in an upward spouting jet of vaporizing liquid will have a greater
effective height than a release without a jet. Similarly, a release of
vapor at a temperature higher than the ambient air temperature will
rise due to buoyancy effects, increasing the effective height of the
release.
Both of these effects are demonstrated by the traditional
smokestack release shown in Figure 14. The material released from
the smokestack contains momentum, based on its upward velocity
within the stack pipe, and it is also buoyant, since its temperature is
higher than the ambient temperature.
41
Figure 14 Smokestack plume demonstrating initial buoyant rise of hot
gases.
42
Thus, the material continues to rise after its release from the
stack. The upward rise is slowed and eventually stopped as the
released material cools and the momentum is dissipated.
For smokestack releases, Turner suggests using the empirical
Holland formula to compute the additional height due to the
buoyancy and momentum of the release,
(64)
(


.

\

+ = AH
s
a s
s
r
T
T T
Pd
u
d u
3
10 68 . 2 5 . 1
43
where
H
r
is the correlation to the release height, H
r
s
is the stack gas exit velocity, in m/s
d is the inside diameter, in m
is the wind speed, in m/s
P is the atmospheric pressure, in mb
T
s
is the stack gas temperature, in K
T
a
is the air temperature, in K
For heavier than air vapors, if the material is released above
ground level, the material will initially fall towards the ground until it
disperses enough to reduce the cloud density.
44
Building and structures provide barriers to vapor clouds and
ground releases. The behaviour of vapor clouds moving around
buildings and structures is not well understood.