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CREEP - AME 559
Fall 2011
Course Syllabus
AME 559 - Fall 2011
Instructor: Megumi Kawasaki
Email: mkawasak@usc.edu
Office: Vivian Hall of Engineering (VHE), Room 418
Phone: 213-740-4342
Course objective: Provide an understanding of the fundamentals
of creep plasticity including the mechanics, mechanisms and
phenomena, as applied to metallic metals and alloys.
Textbook: M.E. Kassner, "Fundamentals of creep in metals and
alloys", Elsevier, 2009
1
st
edition: M.E. Kassner, M.-T. Prez-Prado,
"Fundamentals of creep in metals and alloys", Elsevier, 2004
!ok!
!5% rebate from the purchase price when you bring a sales receipt
Latest edition
Elsevier, 2009
1
st
edition
Elsevier, 2004
References: (i) M.E. Kassner and M.T. Perez-Prado, Prog. Mater. Sci. 45
(2000), p.1.
(ii) F. Garofalo, "Fundamentals of creep and creep rupture in
metals, Macmillan, 1965 TA460.G36
(iiI) J. Gittus, "Creep, viscoelasticity, and creep fracture in solids,
Wiley, 1975
AME 559 - Fall 2011
Class schedule:
Course Syllabus
Week Date Lecture Topics
1 8/23 Introduction
8/25 Phenomenological approach
2 8/30 Analysis of activation energy
9/1 Factors influencing activation energy I
3 9/6 Factors influencing activation energy II
9/8 Factors influencing activation energy III
4 9/13 Stress dependence of creep I
9/15 Stress dependence of creep II
5 9/20 Stress dependence of secondary creep rate I
9/22 Stress dependence of secondary creep rate II
6 9/27 Power-law creep I
9/29
7 10/4 Mid-term Exam
10/6
AME 559 - Fall 2011
15 11/29 Creep fracture III
12/1
( )
12/8 (Th): Final Exam (2-4 p.m.)
Week
Date
Lecture Topics
8
10/11
10/13
9 10/18 Power-law creep II
10/20 Creep equation
10 10/25 Three-Power-law creep
10/27 Structure dependence of Creep I
11 11/1 Structure dependence of Creep II
11/3 Structure dependence of Creep III
12 11/8 Creep mechanism I
11/10 Creep mechanism II
13 11/15 Superplasticity
11/17 Creep fracture I
14 11/22 Creep fracture II
11/24
Thanksgiving recess
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 96-100
Number of
students
Total points
Final score (Fall 2009)
Homework: 10%
Term paper: 20%
1 Midterm Exam: 25%
Final Exam: 45%
AME 559 - Fall 2011
Course Syllabus
Grading:
Mid-term Exams:
80 minutes, in class
Final Exam:
120 minutes, December 8 (Th), 2-4 p.m.
0
1
2
3
4
5
-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 96-
100
Number of
students
Total points
Final score (Fall 2010)
Choose a journal paper (not conferences or company reports,
etc.) regarding to creep, write a short critical review paper.
The target paper should be selected and approved no later
than November 1. The paper can be submitted until the last
class (November 29).
Format:
Abstract (~200 words)
Review (<2000 words)
References (>10)
Recommended journals:
Acta Materialia
Philosophical Magazine A
Metallurgical and materials transactions A
Materials science & engineering A
Scripta Materialia
Journal of materials science
AME 559 - Fall 2011
Term paper:
Course Syllabus
Writing a critical review paper:
Focus on the content (e.g. experimental materials, experimental
methods, experimental results & discussion).
The contents you have to understand and evaluate include;
(1) The purpose of the paper
(2) The hypothesis of the experiments
(3) The experimental set-up
(4) The experimental results (well-presented? Reliable? Sufficient?)
(5) Discussion (able to explain all the results? Anything make it
original? Well-demonstrated?)
(6) Conclusions (well-supported? Meet the original goal?)
Abstract (~200 words)
Review (<2000 words) 1. Introduction (summary of the paper)
2. Reliability of creep data..
3. ..
4. Summary / Conclusion and suggestions
References (>10)
Example:
Finding Journal papers
Finding Journal papers
Finding Journal papers
I. Introduction
Definition:
Creep occurs at all temperatures above 0 K.
Creep is only important at temperatures < 0.5 T
m
.
Creep is "time-dependent deformation of materials
occurring at constant stress, !, and temperature, T.
Lead (Pb) T
m
= 327 C = 600 K !T
RT
= 0.5 T
m
1800 1900 2000
0
100
200
300
400
T
e
m
p
.

f
o
r

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

p
l
a
n
t

o
n

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y



(
e
.
g
.

b
o
i
l
e
r
)
C
year
use any steel
Need
creep-resistance
Why is creep important ?
Creep is important in all systems:
engines, turbines, piping, rockets, etc.
(Also important in glaciers, ice flow,
moment of rocks in earth.)
steam turbine used in a
power plant
Need creep-resistant alloys
Level A - continue service but monitor damage at 3 year intervals;
Level B - continue service but fix inspection intervals at 1.5 years;
Level C - limited service is possible until repair;
Level D - repair immediately.
Damage parameters are different for the same material used in
different conditions.
Gas turbine blades:0.0001%per hour (1%in 10,000 hours)
Steam turbines:0.00001%per hour (1%in 100,000 hours = 11.5 years)
Nuclear reactors:0.2%in 200,800 hours (~22 years)
Creep rate: % / hour
Example: Minimum creep rate interested to design engineers
Hot working of metals Engineering creep
10
6
10
-6
1
Experimental creep tests
10
-15
10
-12
10
-9
10
-6
10
-3
10
0
10
3
10
6
geology
Normal design
code
Creep testing
Standard
tensile test
Industrial
processes
(Forging, Rolling, Extrusion, Drawing)
Dynamic
testing
Explosive
testing
constant T
) (s
-1
log !!
" log
Variation of ! with !
!
Comparison between creep & fatigue:
Fatigue
1. Cyclic stress (<breaking stress)
2. Focused on failure
3. o = f(s, N
f
)
4. Important at all temperatures
5. Experimentation difficult
6. Results usually scattered
Creep
Static stress (<breaking stress)
Focused on strain
= f(o, T)
Primary at high temperatures
Experimentation easy
Scatter not a major problem
!!
Similarities:
Interpretation of results is difficult.
Important definitions and parameters:
1. Mechanical process
Applied stress
Applied shear stress
True strain (rate of change of instant length)
Engineering strain (rate of change of initial length)
Shear strain
Strain rate
Shear strain rate
1 !
e
" #
"
#
o o
o
l
l
l
l l
$ % 1 ! ln ln !
e
& # # #
'
o
l
l
l
l
l
dl
o
!
!
where l is instantaneous length
and l
o
is initial length.
#
!
"
$
!
e
!
#
t d
d!
#
t d
d#
#
2. Diffusion process
D Diffusion coefficient
) / exp( RT Q D D
o
" #
where D
o
is frequency factor, Q is activation energy for
diffusion in kJ/mol and R is gas constant (8.31 J/mol!K).
D
gb
Grain boundary diffusion coefficient
D
l
Lattice diffusion coefficient
U Activation energy in eV
k Boltzmann's constant (1.386 10
-29
MPa!m
3
/K)
T
m
Melting temperature of a material
) / exp( kT U D D
o
" #
S Entropy
( Atomic volume [ ( " 0.7 b
3
]
1 kcal/mol = 4.19 kJ/mol
3. Elasticity
G Shear modulus
E Young's modulus
! Poisson's ratio
1
2
" #
G
E
)
4. Special symbols for creep structural terms
d Grain size
S "Structure term
" Width of grain boundary
b Burgers vector of dislocation
* density of dislocations
H.J. Frost and M.F. Ashby, Deformation-Mechanism Maps; The Plasticity
and Creep of Metals and Ceramics, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, (1982)
For pure metals,