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(a) Identify and define the components of a two pole permanent magnetic DC motor (stator, armature, commutator and brushes). (b) Given the direction of a magnetic field in a two pole permanent magnetic DC motor, determine the direction of force applied to a single armature loop (Lorentz/Force Law). (c) Understand the effect of multiple armature loops in a DC motor. (d) Understand the induced effects of rotating a current-carrying closed loop conductor in a magnetic field (Faraday/Lenz/Electromotive Force)

Basic DC Motor Operation Suppose we place a coil of wire between the poles of a permanent magnet, as shown in the picture on the right. Note that the direction of the magnetic flux density, B, points from the north pole of the permanent magnet to the south pole. If we do not run any current through the loop of wire, the coil sits completely lifeless, like a midshipman after lunch. Suppose we now run a current through the coil. What happens? In this case, as we learned last time, the current passing through the coil creates a magnetic field which interacts with the permanent magnetic field to exert a force on the wire (this force is due to the fact that opposite poles repel each other, while the like poles attract each other). This force on the coil, the Lorentz force, given by F = I L B , causes the coil of wire to spin. d Lets look at this a little more closely. Suppose we are looking at the coil of wire in the magnetic field from the viewpoint shown below. The left wire has current flowing into the page (we see the tail of the arrow) and the current returns in the wire on the right, flowing out of the page.

The direction of the Lorentz force on the left tends to pull the coil downward, and the direction of the Lorentz force on the right tends to pull the coil upward. These two forces are tending to rotate the coil in the same direction, causing the rotor to tend to spin (in a counter-clockwise direction from our perspective). The coil will spin to the intermediary position shown below.

Note that Lorentz forces are still, in this intermediate position, tending to cause the coil to rotate counterclockwise. The coil arrives at the position shown below. 1

Nowwe have a problem. The Lorentz forces are no longer tending to cause the coil to rotate counterclockwise. The coil is, at this point, stuck. In reality, the momentum of the coil as it rotates counterclockwise will carry it a little bit beyond the position shown above, but the Lorentz force will then act to rotate the coil clockwise, so that it locks into the position shown above. Suppose, though, that just as the coil arrives with momentum in the position above, we instantly shift the current direction. Now, the current in the wire at the top will be going into the page and the current in the wire at the bottom will be coming out of the page. The direction of the Lorentz forces will reverse!

Now, having reversed the direction of current, the Lorentz forces will continue to cause the coil to rotate counterclockwise, as before. Now, take a guess at what we do when the coil arrives again at the vertical position? Instantly shift the current direction again! The point is: we want to always have the current on the portion of the coil near the north pole to have its current direction going into the page, and the current on the portion of the coil near the south pole to have its current direction going out of the page. If we can manage to accomplish this, the Lorentz force will always tend to move the coil counterclockwise. The coil will continuously spin counterclockwise. Commutation In order to provide continuous rotation, the current we provide to the rotating coil must change direction every 180 of rotation. This process is called commutation, and it is accomplished by brushes and a segmented commutator ring. Stationary brushes

Stationary brushes

Spinning commutator

Spinning commutator

EE301 Lesson 31 Reading: DC Motors Supplement I from Course Website Commutator: changes the direction of the current in the current carrying conductor. Brushes: used to maintain electrical contact with spinning rotor The Math Remember that gang of EE majors who failed out of the Academy and terrorize innocent midshipmen in downtown Annapolis, threatening them with physical harm unless they handover the answers to nerdy EE questions. We need to protect you from them, by covering the math behind the operation of DC motors. Its really the least we can do. No need to thank us; its our job.

The force on each wire of the rotating coil is given by the Lorentz Force Law Fd = ILB Now, since we have two wires in the Bfield, or force is Fd = 2 ILB For rotating machines, we are usually interested in torque, which is force distance. The torque exerted on the coil is thus Td = 2 ILBr where r is the radius from the central axis. We can significantly increase torque by increasing: The magnetic field strength (as measured by B) The current I The number of loops in the coil (we have used only one loop)

The most practical way to increase the torque is to increase the number of wires being acted upon (the number of loops of coil):

Td = 2 NILBr

where N = number of turns of wire Once we build our rotating machine, the number of turns (2N) is constant, the physical length parameters (L and r) are constant, and we use permanent magnets of a fixed strength (so B is constant). We collect all these constants into a single constant K v called the machine constant.

and Kv is called the Machine Constant. Lets add one more term: Lets call the spinning rotor that has all the current-carrying loops of wire the armature. So, the current I, that we have been talking about since page 1 of these notes, will be relabeled I a , where the subscript a stands for armature. 3

EE301 Lesson 31 Reading: DC Motors Supplement I from Course Website The important takeaway: The developed torque equals the machine constant multiplied by the armature current: Td = K v I a Recall from Physics that power is the product of torque and angular velocity in radians/sec: = Pd T= K v I a d This equation is also good to know! Note that this developed power, Pd , is the mechanical power available to the motor. Example. A motor is rotating at 3600 RPM. What is its angular velocity in radian sec?

2 Solution: One rotation per minute is equal to 2 radians per minute, which is equal to radians 60 per second. Hence

Torque Balance So, we have a machine where, based on the DC current that we put in, I a , we can develop a torque, Td . We can use this developed torque to good use, by connecting the rotating rotor to a load, for instance a pump or a propeller. In any real system, some of the developed torque will be lost (as far as productive purposes are concerned) due to friction. Thus, under steady-state conditions: = Td Tload + Tloss Since power is the product of torque and angular velocity:

= Pd Pout + Pmech loss

Faraday Redux Recall that Faradays Law states that a voltage is induced in a circuit when a conductor is moved through a magnetic field. The induced voltage in a linear motor (from last time) is given by Einduced = BLu This was for a single current-carrying rail in our linear motor. If our linear motor had 2N rails, the induced voltage would be Einduced = 2 NBLu 4

EE301 Lesson 31 Reading: DC Motors Supplement I from Course Website Turning now to a rotating machine, where angular velocity is related to linear velocity by u = r , we have Einduced = 2 NBLr But since K v = 2 NBLr this equation for the induced voltage becomes Einduced = K v In the context of DC motors, this induced voltage is called the armature voltage, Ea , and thus we have: Ea = K v Some authors term the armature voltage the back EMF. This armature voltage is useful because it gives us another equation for the developed power: Pd = Ea I a These last two equations are also keepers. Lets close todays topic by looking at the electrical end of the DC motor. We connect the motor to a DC voltage source, VDC , that furnishes the armature current I a . So, the power into the DC motor is Pin = VDC I a There are electrical losses in the armature due to the armature resistance Ra . This electrical loss is equal to Pelecloss = I a 2 Ra Here is a summary of what we covered today:

= 2 60

RPM

(rad/sec)

Td = K v Ia

Ea = Kv

EE301 Lesson 31 Reading: DC Motors Supplement I from Course Website Parts of a DC Motor

Example. Suppose we have a 120V permanent magnet DC motor that is rated for 15A at 3600 rpm. The motor is 85% efficient at rated conditions. Assume no rotational losses (a) Determine KV. (b) Determine the back EMF at 3600 rpm. Solution:

EE301 Lesson 31 Reading: DC Motors Supplement I from Course Website Example A permanent magnet DC motor has a machine constant, KV = 1.0 Vs. The no-load torque is 2.0 N-m assuming rotational power loss is linear with speed. (a) Determine the mechanical power developed by the unloaded motor at 3600 rpm. (b) Determine the back EMF at 3600 rpm (c) Determine the armature current. Solution:

Example A 120V permanent magnet DC motor with KV = 0.95 Vs is measured under the following two conditions: 1. Motor is unloaded, I a = 2 A. 2. Motor is loaded until I a = 15 A and 1200 rpm. (a) Find the torque due to rotational loss and the torque due to the load in the second measurement, assuming rotational power loss is linear with speed. (b) Determine the overall efficiency under condition #2. Solution:

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