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THE 1987 CONSTITUTION

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

PREAMBLE We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the ai o! "lmight# $o , in or er to %&il a '&st an h&mane so(iet# an esta%lish a $overnment that shall em%o # o&r i eals an aspirations, promote the (ommon goo , (onserve an evelop o&r patrimon#, an se(&re to o&rselves an o&r posterit# the %lessings o! in epen en(e an emo(ra(# &n er the r&le o! la) an a regime o! tr&th, '&sti(e, !ree om, love, e*&alit#, an pea(e, o or ain an prom&lgate this Constit&tion+ ARTICLE I National Territory The national territor# (omprises the ,hilippine ar(hipelago, )ith all the islan s an )aters em%ra(e therein, an all other territories over )hi(h the ,hilippines has sovereignt# or '&ris i(tion, (onsisting o! its terrestrial, !l&vial, an aerial omains, in(l& ing its territorial sea, the sea%e , the s&%soil, the ins&lar shelves, an other s&%marine areas+ The )aters aro&n , %et)een, an (onne(ting the islan s o! the ar(hipelago, regar less o! their %rea th an imensions, !orm part o! the internal )aters o! the ,hilippines+ ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies Principles SECTION 1+ The ,hilippines is a emo(rati( an rep&%li(an State+ Sovereignt# resi es in the people an all government a&thorit# emanates !rom them+ SECTION -+ The ,hilippines reno&n(es )ar as an instr&ment o! national poli(#, a opts the generall# a((epte prin(iples o! international la) as part o! the la) o! the lan an a heres to the poli(# o! pea(e, e*&alit#, '&sti(e, !ree om, (ooperation, an amit# )ith all nations+

SECTION .+ Civilian a&thorit# is, at all times, s&preme over the militar#+ The "rme For(es o! the ,hilippines is the prote(tor o! the people an the State+ Its goal is to se(&re the sovereignt# o! the State an the integrit# o! the national territor#+ SECTION /+ The prime &t# o! the $overnment is to serve an prote(t the people+ The $overnment ma# (all &pon the people to e!en the State an , in the !&l!illment thereo!, all (iti0ens ma# %e re*&ire , &n er (on itions provi e %# la), to ren er personal militar# or (ivil servi(e+ SECTION 1+ The maintenan(e o! pea(e an or er, the prote(tion o! li!e, li%ert#, an propert#, an the promotion o! the general )el!are are essential !or the en'o#ment %# all the people o! the %lessings o! emo(ra(#+ SECTION 2+ The separation o! Ch&r(h an inviola%le+ State Policies SECTION 7+ The State shall p&rs&e an in epen ent !oreign poli(#+ In its relations )ith other states the paramo&nt (onsi eration shall %e national sovereignt#, territorial integrit#, national interest, an the right to sel!3 etermination+ SECTION 8+ The ,hilippines, (onsistent )ith the national interest, a opts an p&rs&es a poli(# o! !ree om !rom n&(lear )eapons in its territor#+ SECTION 9+ The State shall promote a '&st an #nami( so(ial or er that )ill ens&re the prosperit# an in epen en(e o! the nation an !ree the people !rom povert# thro&gh poli(ies that provi e a e*&ate so(ial servi(es, promote !&ll emplo#ment, a rising stan ar o! living, an an improve *&alit# o! li!e !or all+ SECTION 14+ The State shall promote so(ial '&sti(e in all phases o! national evelopment+ SECTION 11+ The State val&es the ignit# o! ever# h&man person an g&arantees !&ll respe(t !or h&man rights+
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State shall %e

SECTION 1-+ The State re(ogni0es the san(tit# o! !amil# li!e an shall prote(t an strengthen the !amil# as a %asi( a&tonomo&s so(ial instit&tion+ It shall e*&all# prote(t the li!e o! the mother an the li!e o! the &n%orn !rom (on(eption+ The nat&ral an primar# right an &t# o! parents in the rearing o! the #o&th !or (ivi( e!!i(ien(# an the evelopment o! moral (hara(ter shall re(eive the s&pport o! the $overnment+ SECTION 1.+ The State re(ogni0es the vital role o! the #o&th in nation %&il ing an shall promote an prote(t their ph#si(al, moral, spirit&al, intelle(t&al, an so(ial )ell3%eing+ It shall in(&l(ate in the #o&th patriotism an nationalism, an en(o&rage their involvement in p&%li( an (ivi( a!!airs+ SECTION 1/+ The State re(ogni0es the role o! )omen in nation3 %&il ing, an shall ens&re the !&n amental e*&alit# %e!ore the la) o! )omen an men+ SECTION 11+ The State shall prote(t an promote the right to health o! the people an instill health (ons(io&sness among them+ SECTION 12+ The State shall prote(t an a van(e the right o! the people to a %alan(e an health!&l e(olog# in a((or )ith the rh#thm an harmon# o! nat&re+ SECTION 17+ The State shall give priorit# to e &(ation, s(ien(e an te(hnolog#, arts, (&lt&re, an sports to !oster patriotism an nationalism, a((elerate so(ial progress, an promote total h&man li%eration an evelopment+ SECTION 18+ The State a!!irms la%or as a primar# so(ial e(onomi( !or(e+ It shall prote(t the rights o! )or5ers an promote their )el!are+ SECTION 19+ The State shall evelop a sel!3reliant an in epen ent national e(onom# e!!e(tivel# (ontrolle %# Filipinos+ SECTION -4+ The State re(ogni0es the in ispensa%le role o! the private se(tor, en(o&rages private enterprise, an provi es in(entives to nee e investments+ SECTION -1+ The State shall promote (omprehensive r&ral evelopment an agrarian re!orm+

SECTION --+ The State re(ogni0es an promotes the rights o! in igeno&s (&lt&ral (omm&nities )ithin the !rame)or5 o! national &nit# an evelopment+ SECTION -.+ The State shall en(o&rage non3governmental, (omm&nit#3%ase , or se(toral organi0ations that promote the )el!are o! the nation+ SECTION -/+ The State re(ogni0es the (omm&ni(ation an in!ormation in nation3%&il ing+ vital role o!

SECTION -1+ The State shall ens&re the a&tonom# o! lo(al governments+ SECTION -2+ The State shall g&arantee e*&al a((ess to opport&nities !or p&%li( servi(e, an prohi%it politi(al #nasties as ma# %e e!ine %# la)+ SECTION -7+ The State shall maintain honest# an integrit# in the p&%li( servi(e an ta5e positive an e!!e(tive meas&res against gra!t an (orr&ption+ SECTION -8+ S&%'e(t to reasona%le (on itions pres(ri%e %# la), the State a opts an implements a poli(# o! !&ll p&%li( is(los&re o! all its transa(tions involving p&%li( interest+ ARTICLE III Bill of Rights SECTION 1+ No person shall %e eprive o! li!e, li%ert#, or propert# )itho&t &e pro(ess o! la), nor shall an# person %e enie the e*&al prote(tion o! the la)s+ SECTION -+ The right o! the people to %e se(&re in their persons, ho&ses, papers, an e!!e(ts against &nreasona%le sear(hes an sei0&res o! )hatever nat&re an !or an# p&rpose shall %e inviola%le, an no sear(h )arrant or )arrant o! arrest shall iss&e e6(ept &pon pro%a%le (a&se to %e etermine personall# %# the '& ge a!ter e6amination &n er oath or a!!irmation o! the (omplainant an the )itnesses he ma# pro &(e, an parti(&larl# es(ri%ing the pla(e to %e sear(he an the persons or things to %e sei0e +

SECTION .+ 718 The priva(# o! (omm&ni(ation an (orrespon en(e shall %e inviola%le e6(ept &pon la)!&l or er o! the (o&rt, or )hen p&%li( sa!et# or or er re*&ires other)ise as pres(ri%e %# la)+ 7-8 "n# evi en(e o%taine in violation o! this or the pre(e ing se(tion shall %e ina missi%le !or an# p&rpose in an# pro(ee ing+ SECTION /+ No la) shall %e passe a%ri ging the !ree om o! spee(h, o! e6pression, or o! the press, or the right o! the people pea(ea%l# to assem%le an petition the government !or re ress o! grievan(es+ SECTION 1+ No la) shall %e ma e respe(ting an esta%lishment o! religion, or prohi%iting the !ree e6er(ise thereo!+ The !ree e6er(ise an en'o#ment o! religio&s pro!ession an )orship, )itho&t is(rimination or pre!eren(e, shall !orever %e allo)e + No religio&s test shall %e re*&ire !or the e6er(ise o! (ivil or politi(al rights+ SECTION 2+ The li%ert# o! a%o e an o! (hanging the same )ithin the limits pres(ri%e %# la) shall not %e impaire e6(ept &pon la)!&l or er o! the (o&rt+ Neither shall the right to travel %e impaire e6(ept in the interest o! national se(&rit#, p&%li( sa!et#, or p&%li( health, as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION 7+ The right o! the people to in!ormation on matters o! p&%li( (on(ern shall %e re(ogni0e + "((ess to o!!i(ial re(or s, an to o(&ments, an papers pertaining to o!!i(ial a(ts, transa(tions, or e(isions, as )ell as to government resear(h ata &se as %asis !or poli(# evelopment, shall %e a!!or e the (iti0en, s&%'e(t to s&(h limitations as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION 8+ The right o! the people, in(l& ing those emplo#e in the p&%li( an private se(tors, to !orm &nions, asso(iations, or so(ieties !or p&rposes not (ontrar# to la) shall not %e a%ri ge + SECTION 9+ ,rivate propert# shall not %e ta5en !or p&%li( &se )itho&t '&st (ompensation+ SECTION 14+ No la) impairing the o%ligation o! (ontra(ts shall %e passe +

SECTION 11+ Free a((ess to the (o&rts an *&asi3'& i(ial %o ies an a e*&ate legal assistan(e shall not %e enie to an# person %# reason o! povert#+ SECTION 1-+ 718 "n# person &n er investigation !or the (ommission o! an o!!ense shall have the right to %e in!orme o! his right to remain silent an to have (ompetent an in epen ent (o&nsel pre!era%l# o! his o)n (hoi(e+ I! the person (annot a!!or the servi(es o! (o&nsel, he m&st %e provi e )ith one+ These rights (annot %e )aive e6(ept in )riting an in the presen(e o! (o&nsel+ 7-8 No tort&re, !or(e, violen(e, threat, intimi ation, or an# other means )hi(h vitiate the !ree )ill shall %e &se against him+ Se(ret etention pla(es, solitar#, incommunicado, or other similar !orms o! etention are prohi%ite + 7.8 "n# (on!ession or a mission o%taine in violation o! this or Se(tion 17 hereo! shall %e ina missi%le in evi en(e against him+ 7/8 The la) shall provi e !or penal an (ivil san(tions !or violations o! this se(tion as )ell as (ompensation to an reha%ilitation o! vi(tims o! tort&re or similar pra(ti(es, an their !amilies+ SECTION 1.+ "ll persons, e6(ept those (harge )ith o!!enses p&nisha%le %# reclusion perpetua )hen evi en(e o! g&ilt is strong, shall, %e!ore (onvi(tion, %e %aila%le %# s&!!i(ient s&reties, or %e release on re(ogni0an(e as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ The right to %ail shall not %e impaire even )hen the privilege o! the )rit o! habeas corpus is s&spen e + E6(essive %ail shall not %e re*&ire +

SECTION 1/+ 718 No person shall %e hel to ans)er !or a (riminal o!!ense )itho&t &e pro(ess o! la)+ 7-8 In all (riminal prose(&tions, the a((&se shall %e pres&me inno(ent &ntil the (ontrar# is prove , an shall en'o# the right to %e hear %# himsel! an (o&nsel, to %e in!orme o! the nat&re an (a&se o! the a((&sation against him, to have a spee #, impartial, an p&%li( trial, to meet the )itnesses !a(e to !a(e, an to have (omp&lsor# pro(ess to se(&re the atten an(e o! )itnesses an the pro &(tion o! evi en(e in his %ehal!+ Ho)ever, a!ter arraignment, trial ma# pro(ee

not)ithstan ing the a%sen(e o! the a((&se provi e that he has %een &l# noti!ie an his !ail&re to appear is &n'&sti!ia%le+ SECTION 11+ The privilege o! the )rit o! habeas corpus shall not %e s&spen e e6(ept in (ases o! invasion or re%ellion )hen the p&%li( sa!et# re*&ires it+ SECTION 12+ "ll persons shall have the right to a spee # isposition o! their (ases %e!ore all '& i(ial, *&asi3'& i(ial, or a ministrative %o ies+ SECTION 17+ No person shall %e (ompelle against himsel!+ to %e a )itness

SECTION 18+ 718 No person shall %e etaine solel# %# reason o! his politi(al %elie!s an aspirations+ 7-8 No invol&ntar# servit& e in an# !orm shall e6ist e6(ept as a p&nishment !or a (rime )hereo! the part# shall have %een &l# (onvi(te + SECTION 19+ 718 E6(essive !ines shall not %e impose , nor (r&el, egra ing or inh&man p&nishment in!li(te + Neither shall eath penalt# %e impose , &nless, !or (ompelling reasons involving heino&s (rimes, the Congress herea!ter provi es !or it+ "n# eath penalt# alrea # impose shall %e re &(e to reclusion perpetua+ 7-8 The emplo#ment o! ph#si(al, ps#(hologi(al, or egra ing p&nishment against an# prisoner or etainee or the &se o! s&%stan ar or ina e*&ate penal !a(ilities &n er s&%h&man (on itions shall %e ealt )ith %# la)+ SECTION -4+ No person shall %e imprisone pa#ment o! a poll ta6+ !or e%t or non3

SECTION -1+ No person shall %e t)i(e p&t in 'eopar # o! p&nishment !or the same o!!ense+ I! an a(t is p&nishe %# a la) an an or inan(e, (onvi(tion or a(*&ittal &n er either shall (onstit&te a %ar to another prose(&tion !or the same a(t+ SECTION --+ No ex post facto la) or %ill o! attain er shall %e ena(te +

ARTICLE IV Citizenship SECTION 1+ The !ollo)ing are (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines9 718 Those )ho are (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines at the time o! the a option o! this Constit&tion: 7-8 Those )hose !athers or mothers are (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines: 7.8 Those %orn %e!ore ;an&ar# 17, 197., o! Filipino mothers, )ho ele(t ,hilippine (iti0enship &pon rea(hing the age o! ma'orit#: an 7/8 Those )ho are nat&rali0e in a((or an(e )ith la)+ SECTION -+ Nat&ral3%orn (iti0ens are those )ho are (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines !rom %irth )itho&t having to per!orm an# a(t to a(*&ire or per!e(t their ,hilippine (iti0enship+ Those )ho ele(t ,hilippine (iti0enship in a((or an(e )ith paragraph 7.8, Se(tion 1 hereo! shall %e eeme nat&ral3%orn (iti0ens+ SECTION .+ ,hilippine (iti0enship ma# %e lost or rea(*&ire in the manner provi e %# la)+ SECTION /+ Citi0ens o! the ,hilippines )ho marr# aliens shall retain their (iti0enship, &nless %# their a(t or omission the# are eeme , &n er the la), to have reno&n(e it+ SECTION 1+ <&al allegian(e o! (iti0ens is inimi(al to the national interest an shall %e ealt )ith %# la)+ ARTICLE V Suffrage SECTION 1+ S&!!rage ma# %e e6er(ise %# all (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines not other)ise is*&ali!ie %# la), )ho are at least eighteen #ears o! age, an )ho shall have resi e in the ,hilippines !or at least one #ear an in the pla(e )herein the# propose to vote !or at least si6 months imme iatel# pre(e ing the ele(tion+ No litera(#, propert#, or

other s&%stantive re*&irement shall %e impose s&!!rage+

on the e6er(ise o!

SECTION -+ The Congress shall provi e a s#stem !or se(&ring the se(re(# an san(tit# o! the %allot as )ell as a s#stem !or a%sentee voting %# *&ali!ie Filipinos a%roa + The Congress shall also esign a pro(e &re !or the isa%le an the illiterates to vote )itho&t the assistan(e o! other persons+ Until then, the# shall %e allo)e to vote &n er e6isting la)s an s&(h r&les as the Commission on Ele(tions ma# prom&lgate to prote(t the se(re(# o! the %allot+ ARTICLE VI The Legislati e Department SECTION 1+ The legislative po)er shall %e veste in the Congress o! the ,hilippines )hi(h shall (onsist o! a Senate an a Ho&se o! =epresentatives, e6(ept to the e6tent reserve to the people %# the provision on initiative an re!eren &m+ SECTION -+ The Senate shall %e (ompose o! t)ent#3!o&r Senators )ho shall %e ele(te at large %# the *&ali!ie voters o! the ,hilippines, as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION .+ No person shall %e a Senator &nless he is a nat&ral3 %orn (iti0en o! the ,hilippines, an , on the a# o! the ele(tion, is at least thirt#3!ive #ears o! age, a%le to rea an )rite, a registere voter, an a resi ent o! the ,hilippines !or not less than t)o #ears imme iatel# pre(e ing the a# o! the ele(tion+ SECTION /+ The term o! o!!i(e o! the Senators shall %e si6 #ears an shall (ommen(e, &nless other)ise provi e %# la), at noon on the thirtieth a# o! ;&ne ne6t !ollo)ing their ele(tion+ No Senator shall serve !or more than t)o (onse(&tive terms+ >ol&ntar# ren&n(iation o! the o!!i(e !or an# length o! time shall not %e (onsi ere as an interr&ption in the (ontin&it# o! his servi(e !or the !&ll term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te + SECTION 1+ 718 The Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall %e (ompose o! not more than t)o h&n re an !i!t# mem%ers, &nless

other)ise !i6e %# la), )ho shall %e ele(te !rom legislative istri(ts apportione among the provin(es, (ities, an the ?etropolitan ?anila area in a((or an(e )ith the n&m%er o! their respe(tive inha%itants, an on the %asis o! a &ni!orm an progressive ratio, an those )ho, as provi e %# la), shall %e ele(te thro&gh a part#3list s#stem o! registere national, regional, an se(toral parties or organi0ations+ 7-8 The part#3list representatives shall (onstit&te t)ent# per centum o! the total n&m%er o! representatives in(l& ing those &n er the part# list+ For three (onse(&tive terms a!ter the rati!i(ation o! this Constit&tion, one3hal! o! the seats allo(ate to part#3list representatives shall %e !ille , as provi e %# la), %# sele(tion or ele(tion !rom the la%or, peasant, &r%an poor, in igeno&s (&lt&ral (omm&nities, )omen, #o&th, an s&(h other se(tors as ma# %e provi e %# la), e6(ept the religio&s se(tor+ 7.8 Ea(h legislative istri(t shall (omprise, as !ar as pra(ti(a%le, (ontig&o&s, (ompa(t an a 'a(ent territor#+ Ea(h (it# )ith a pop&lation o! at least t)o h&n re !i!t# tho&san , or ea(h provin(e, shall have at least one representative+ 7/8 Within three #ears !ollo)ing the ret&rn o! ever# (ens&s, the Congress shall ma5e a reapportionment o! legislative istri(ts %ase on the stan ar s provi e in this se(tion+ SECTION 2+ No person shall %e a ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives &nless he is a nat&ral3%orn (iti0en o! the ,hilippines an , on the a# o! the ele(tion, is at least t)ent#3!ive #ears o! age, a%le to rea an )rite, an , e6(ept the part#3list representatives, a registere voter in the istri(t in )hi(h he shall %e ele(te , an a resi ent thereo! !or a perio o! not less than one #ear imme iatel# pre(e ing the a# o! the ele(tion+ SECTION 7+ The ?em%ers o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall %e ele(te !or a term o! three #ears )hi(h shall %egin, &nless other)ise provi e %# la), at noon on the thirtieth a# o! ;&ne ne6t !ollo)ing their ele(tion+ No mem%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall serve !or more than three (onse(&tive terms+ >ol&ntar# ren&n(iation o! the o!!i(e !or an# length o! time shall not %e (onsi ere as an interr&ption in the (ontin&it# o! his servi(e !or the !&ll term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te +

SECTION 8+ Unless other)ise provi e %# la), the reg&lar ele(tion o! the Senators an the ?em%ers o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall %e hel on the se(on ?on a# o! ?a#+ SECTION 9+ In (ase o! va(an(# in the Senate or in the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, a spe(ial ele(tion ma# %e (alle to !ill s&(h va(an(# in the manner pres(ri%e %# la), %&t the Senator or ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives th&s ele(te shall serve onl# !or the &ne6pire term+ SECTION 14+ The salaries o! Senators an ?em%ers o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall %e etermine %# la)+ No in(rease in sai (ompensation shall ta5e e!!e(t &ntil a!ter the e6piration o! the !&ll term o! all the ?em%ers o! the Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives approving s&(h in(rease+ SECTION 11+ " Senator or ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall, in all o!!enses p&nisha%le %# not more than si6 #ears imprisonment, %e privilege !rom arrest )hile the Congress is in session+ No ?em%er shall %e *&estione nor %e hel lia%le in an# other pla(e !or an# spee(h or e%ate in the Congress or in an# (ommittee thereo!+ SECTION 1-+ "ll ?em%ers o! the Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall, &pon ass&mption o! o!!i(e, ma5e a !&ll is(los&re o! their !inan(ial an %&siness interests+ The# shall noti!# the Ho&se (on(erne o! a potential (on!li(t o! interest that ma# arise !rom the !iling o! a propose legislation o! )hi(h the# are a&thors+ SECTION 1.+ No Senator or ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives ma# hol an# other o!!i(e or emplo#ment in the $overnment, or an# s&% ivision, agen(#, or instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or their s&%si iaries, &ring his term )itho&t !or!eiting his seat+ Neither shall he %e appointe to an# o!!i(e )hi(h ma# have %een (reate or the emol&ments thereo! in(rease &ring the term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te + SECTION 1/+ No Senator or ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives ma# personall# appear as (o&nsel %e!ore an# (o&rt o! '&sti(e or %e!ore the Ele(toral Tri%&nals, or *&asi3'& i(ial an other a ministrative %o ies+ Neither shall he, ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, %e intereste !inan(iall# in an# (ontra(t )ith, or in an# !ran(hise or spe(ial privilege grante %# the $overnment, or an# s&% ivision, agen(#, or

instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing an# government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporation, or its s&%si iar#, &ring his term o! o!!i(e+ He shall not intervene in an# matter %e!ore an# o!!i(e o! the $overnment !or his pe(&niar# %ene!it or )here he ma# %e (alle &pon to a(t on a((o&nt o! his o!!i(e+

SECTION 11+ The Congress shall (onvene on(e ever# #ear on the !o&rth ?on a# o! ;&l# !or its reg&lar session, &nless a i!!erent ate is !i6e %# la), an shall (ontin&e to %e in session !or s&(h n&m%er o! a#s as it ma# etermine &ntil thirt# a#s %e!ore the opening o! its ne6t reg&lar session, e6(l&sive o! Sat&r a#s, S&n a#s, an legal holi a#s+ The ,resi ent ma# (all a spe(ial session at an# time+ SECTION 12+ 718 The Senate shall ele(t its ,resi ent an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives its Spea5er, %# a ma'orit# vote o! all its respe(tive ?em%ers+ Ea(h Ho&se shall (hoose s&(h other o!!i(ers as it ma# ne(essar#+ eem

7-8 " ma'orit# o! ea(h Ho&se shall (onstit&te a *&or&m to o %&siness, %&t a smaller n&m%er ma# a 'o&rn !rom a# to a# an ma# (ompel the atten an(e o! a%sent ?em%ers in s&(h manner, an &n er s&(h penalties, as s&(h Ho&se ma# provi e+ 7.8 Ea(h Ho&se ma# etermine the r&les o! its pro(ee ings, p&nish its ?em%ers !or isor erl# %ehavior, an , )ith the (on(&rren(e o! t)o3thir s o! all its ?em%ers, s&spen or e6pel a ?em%er+ " penalt# o! s&spension, )hen impose , shall not e6(ee si6t# a#s+ 7/8 Ea(h Ho&se shall 5eep a ;o&rnal o! its pro(ee ings, an !rom time to time p&%lish the same, e6(epting s&(h parts as ma#, in its '& gment, a!!e(t national se(&rit#: an the yeas an nays on an# *&estion shall, at the re*&est o! one3!i!th o! the ?em%ers present, %e entere in the ;o&rnal+ Ea(h Ho&se shall also 5eep a =e(or o! its pro(ee ings+ 718 Neither Ho&se &ring the sessions o! the Congress shall, )itho&t the (onsent o! the other, a 'o&rn !or more than three a#s, nor to an# other pla(e than that in )hi(h the t)o Ho&ses shall %e sitting+

SECTION 17+ The Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall ea(h have an Ele(toral Tri%&nal )hi(h shall %e the sole '& ge o! all (ontests relating to the ele(tion, ret&rns, an *&ali!i(ations o! their respe(tive ?em%ers+ Ea(h Ele(toral Tri%&nal shall %e (ompose o! nine ?em%ers, three o! )hom shall %e ;&sti(es o! the S&preme Co&rt to %e esignate %# the Chie! ;&sti(e, an the remaining si6 shall %e ?em%ers o! the Senate or the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, as the (ase ma# %e, )ho shall %e (hosen on the %asis o! proportional representation !rom the politi(al parties an the parties or organi0ations registere &n er the part#3list s#stem represente therein+ The senior ;&sti(e in the Ele(toral Tri%&nal shall %e its Chairman+ SECTION 18+ There shall %e a Commission on "ppointments (onsisting o! the ,resi ent o! the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, t)elve Senators an t)elve ?em%ers o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, ele(te %# ea(h Ho&se on the %asis o! proportional representation !rom the politi(al parties an parties or organi0ations registere &n er the part#3list s#stem represente therein+ The Chairman o! the Commission shall not vote, e6(ept in (ase o! a tie+ The Commission shall a(t on all appointments s&%mitte to it )ithin thirt# session a#s o! the Congress !rom their s&%mission+ The Commission shall r&le %# a ma'orit# vote o! all the ?em%ers+ SECTION 19+ The Ele(toral Tri%&nals an the Commission on "ppointments shall %e (onstit&te )ithin thirt# a#s a!ter the Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall have %een organi0e )ith the ele(tion o! the ,resi ent an the Spea5er+ The Commission on "ppointments shall meet onl# )hile the Congress is in session, at the (all o! its Chairman or a ma'orit# o! all its ?em%ers, to is(harge s&(h po)ers an !&n(tions as are herein (on!erre &pon it+ SECTION -4+ The re(or s an %oo5s o! a((o&nts o! the Congress shall %e preserve an %e open to the p&%li( in a((or an(e )ith la), an s&(h %oo5s shall %e a& ite %# the Commission on "& it )hi(h shall p&%lish ann&all# an itemi0e list o! amo&nts pai to an e6penses in(&rre !or ea(h ?em%er+ SECTION -1+ The Senate or the Ho&se o! =epresentatives or an# o! its respe(tive (ommittees ma# (on &(t in*&iries in ai o! legislation in a((or an(e )ith its &l# p&%lishe r&les o! pro(e &re+ The rights o! persons appearing in or a!!e(te %# s&(h in*&iries shall %e respe(te +

SECTION --+ The hea s o! epartments ma# &pon their o)n initiative, )ith the (onsent o! the ,resi ent, or &pon the re*&est o! either Ho&se, as the r&les o! ea(h Ho&se shall provi e, appear %e!ore an %e hear %# s&(h Ho&se on an# matter pertaining to their epartments+ Written *&estions shall %e s&%mitte to the ,resi ent o! the Senate or the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives at least three a#s %e!ore their s(he &le appearan(e+ Interpellations shall not %e limite to )ritten *&estions, %&t ma# (over matters relate thereto+ When the se(&rit# o! the State or the p&%li( interest so re*&ires an the ,resi ent so states in )riting, the appearan(e shall %e (on &(te in e6e(&tive session+ SECTION -.+ 718 The Congress, %# a vote o! t)o3thir s o! %oth Ho&ses in 'oint session assem%le , voting separatel#, shall have the sole po)er to e(lare the e6isten(e o! a state o! )ar+ 7-8 In times o! )ar or other national emergen(#, the Congress ma#, %# la), a&thori0e the ,resi ent, !or a limite perio an s&%'e(t to s&(h restri(tions as it ma# pres(ri%e, to e6er(ise po)ers ne(essar# an proper to (arr# o&t a e(lare national poli(#+ Unless sooner )ith ra)n %# resol&tion o! the Congress, s&(h po)ers shall (ease &pon the ne6t a 'o&rnment thereo!+ SECTION -/+ "ll appropriation, reven&e or tari!! %ills, %ills a&thori0ing in(rease o! the p&%li( e%t, %ills o! lo(al appli(ation, an private %ills shall originate e6(l&sivel# in the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, %&t the Senate ma# propose or (on(&r )ith amen ments+ SECTION -1+ 718 The Congress ma# not in(rease the appropriations re(ommen e %# the ,resi ent !or the operation o! the $overnment as spe(i!ie in the %& get+ The !orm, (ontent, an manner o! preparation o! the %& get shall %e pres(ri%e %# la)+ 7-8 No provision or ena(tment shall %e em%ra(e in the general appropriations %ill &nless it relates spe(i!i(all# to some parti(&lar appropriation therein+ "n# s&(h provision or ena(tment shall %e limite in its operation to the appropriation to )hi(h it relates+ 7.8 The pro(e &re in approving appropriations !or the Congress shall stri(tl# !ollo) the pro(e &re !or approving appropriations !or other epartments an agen(ies+

7/8 " spe(ial appropriations %ill shall spe(i!# the p&rpose !or )hi(h it is inten e , an shall %e s&pporte %# !&n s a(t&all# availa%le as (erti!ie %# the National Treas&rer, or to %e raise %# a (orrespon ing reven&e propose therein+ 718 No la) shall %e passe a&thori0ing an# trans!er o! appropriations: ho)ever, the ,resi ent, the ,resi ent o! the Senate, the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, the Chie! ;&sti(e o! the S&preme Co&rt, an the hea s o! Constit&tional Commissions ma#, %# la), %e a&thori0e to a&gment an# item in the general appropriations la) !or their respe(tive o!!i(es !rom savings in other items o! their respe(tive appropriations+ 728 <is(retionar# !&n s appropriate !or parti(&lar o!!i(ials shall %e is%&rse onl# !or p&%li( p&rposes to %e s&pporte %# appropriate vo&(hers an s&%'e(t to s&(h g&i elines as ma# %e pres(ri%e %# la)+ 778 I!, %# the en o! an# !is(al #ear, the Congress shall have !aile to pass the general appropriations %ill !or the ens&ing !is(al #ear, the general appropriations la) !or the pre(e ing !is(al #ear shall %e eeme reena(te an shall remain in !or(e an e!!e(t &ntil the general appropriations %ill is passe %# the Congress+ SECTION -2+ 718 Ever# %ill passe %# the Congress shall em%ra(e onl# one s&%'e(t )hi(h shall %e e6presse in the title thereo!+ 7-8 No %ill passe %# either Ho&se shall %e(ome a la) &nless it has passe three rea ings on separate a#s, an printe (opies thereo! in its !inal !orm have %een istri%&te to its ?em%ers three a#s %e!ore its passage, e6(ept )hen the ,resi ent (erti!ies to the ne(essit# o! its imme iate ena(tment to meet a p&%li( (alamit# or emergen(#+ Upon the last rea ing o! a %ill, no amen ment thereto shall %e allo)e , an the vote thereon shall %e ta5en imme iatel# therea!ter, an the yeas an nays entere in the ;o&rnal+ SECTION -7+ 718 Ever# %ill passe %# the Congress shall, %e!ore it %e(omes a la), %e presente to the ,resi ent+ I! he approves the same, he shall sign it: other)ise, he shall veto it an ret&rn the same )ith his o%'e(tions to the Ho&se )here it originate , )hi(h shall enter the o%'e(tions at large in its ;o&rnal an pro(ee to re(onsi er it+ I!, a!ter s&(h re(onsi eration, t)o3thir s o! all the ?em%ers o! s&(h Ho&se shall agree to pass the %ill, it shall %e sent, together )ith the o%'e(tions, to the other Ho&se %# )hi(h it shall li5e)ise %e re(onsi ere , an i!

approve %# t)o3thir s o! all the ?em%ers o! that Ho&se, it shall %e(ome a la)+ In all s&(h (ases, the votes o! ea(h Ho&se shall %e etermine %# yeas or nays, an the names o! the ?em%ers voting !or or against shall %e entere in its ;o&rnal+ The ,resi ent shall (omm&ni(ate his veto o! an# %ill to the Ho&se )here it originate )ithin thirt# a#s a!ter the ate o! re(eipt thereo!: other)ise, it shall %e(ome a la) as i! he ha signe it+ 7-8 The ,resi ent shall have the po)er to veto an# parti(&lar item or items in an appropriation, reven&e, or tari!! %ill, %&t the veto shall not a!!e(t the item or items to )hi(h he oes not o%'e(t+ SECTION -8+ 718 The r&le o! ta6ation shall %e &ni!orm an e*&ita%le+ The Congress shall evolve a progressive s#stem o! ta6ation+ 7-8 The Congress ma#, %# la), a&thori0e the ,resi ent to !i6 )ithin spe(i!ie limits, an s&%'e(t to s&(h limitations an restri(tions as it ma# impose, tari!! rates, import an e6port *&otas, tonnage an )har!age &es, an other &ties or imposts )ithin the !rame)or5 o! the national evelopment program o! the $overnment+ 7.8 Charita%le instit&tions, (h&r(hes an parsonages or (onvents app&rtenant thereto, mos*&es, non3pro!it (emeteries, an all lan s, %&il ings, an improvements, a(t&all#, ire(tl#, an e6(l&sivel# &se !or religio&s, (harita%le, or e &(ational p&rposes shall %e e6empt !rom ta6ation+

7/8 No la) granting an# ta6 e6emption shall %e passe )itho&t the (on(&rren(e o! a ma'orit# o! all the ?em%ers o! the Congress+ SECTION -9+ 718 No mone# shall %e pai o&t o! the Treas&r# e6(ept in p&rs&an(e o! an appropriation ma e %# la)+ 7-8 No p&%li( mone# or propert# shall %e appropriate , applie , pai , or emplo#e , ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, !or the &se, %ene!it, or s&pport o! an# se(t, (h&r(h, enomination, se(tarian instit&tion, or s#stem o! religion, or o! an# priest, prea(her, minister, or other religio&s tea(her, or ignitar# as s&(h, e6(ept )hen s&(h priest, prea(her, minister, or ignitar# is assigne to the arme !or(es, or to an# penal instit&tion, or government orphanage or leprosari&m+

7.8 "ll mone# (olle(te on an# ta6 levie !or a spe(ial p&rpose shall %e treate as a spe(ial !&n an pai o&t !or s&(h p&rpose onl#+ I! the p&rpose !or )hi(h a spe(ial !&n )as (reate has %een !&l!ille or a%an one , the %alan(e, i! an#, shall %e trans!erre to the general !&n s o! the $overnment+ SECTION .4+ No la) shall %e passe in(reasing the appellate '&ris i(tion o! the S&preme Co&rt as provi e in this Constit&tion )itho&t its a vi(e an (on(&rren(e+ SECTION .1+ No la) granting a title o! ro#alt# or no%ilit# shall %e ena(te + SECTION .-+ The Congress shall, as earl# as possi%le, provi e !or a s#stem o! initiative an re!eren &m, an the e6(eptions there!rom, )here%# the people (an ire(tl# propose an ena(t la)s or approve or re'e(t an# a(t or la) or part thereo! passe %# the Congress or lo(al legislative %o # a!ter the registration o! a petition there!or signe %# at least ten per centum o! the total n&m%er o! registere voters, o! )hi(h ever# legislative istri(t m&st %e represente %# at least three per centum o! the registere voters thereo!+ ARTICLE VII !xecuti e Department SECTION 1+ The e6e(&tive po)er shall %e veste ,resi ent o! the ,hilippines+ in the

SECTION -+ No person ma# %e ele(te ,resi ent &nless he is a nat&ral3%orn (iti0en o! the ,hilippines, a registere voter, a%le to rea an )rite, at least !ort# #ears o! age on the a# o! the ele(tion, an a resi ent o! the ,hilippines !or at least ten #ears imme iatel# pre(e ing s&(h ele(tion+ SECTION .+ There shall %e a >i(e3,resi ent )ho shall have the same *&ali!i(ations an term o! o!!i(e an %e ele(te )ith an in the same manner as the ,resi ent+ He ma# %e remove !rom o!!i(e in the same manner as the ,resi ent+ The >i(e3,resi ent ma# %e appointe as a ?em%er o! the Ca%inet+ S&(h appointment re*&ires no (on!irmation+

SECTION /+ The ,resi ent an the >i(e3,resi ent shall %e ele(te %# ire(t vote o! the people !or a term o! si6 #ears )hi(h shall %egin at noon on the thirtieth a# o! ;&ne ne6t !ollo)ing the a# o! the ele(tion an shall en at noon o! the same ate si6 #ears therea!ter+ The ,resi ent shall not %e eligi%le !or an# reele(tion+ No person )ho has s&((ee e as ,resi ent an has serve as s&(h !or more than !o&r #ears shall %e *&ali!ie !or ele(tion to the same o!!i(e at an# time+ No >i(e3,resi ent shall serve !or more than t)o (onse(&tive terms+ >ol&ntar# ren&n(iation o! the o!!i(e !or an# length o! time shall not %e (onsi ere as an interr&ption in the (ontin&it# o! the servi(e !or the !&ll term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te + Unless other)ise provi e %# la), the reg&lar ele(tion !or ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent shall %e hel on the se(on ?on a# o! ?a#+ The ret&rns o! ever# ele(tion !or ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent, &l# (erti!ie %# the %oar o! (anvassers o! ea(h provin(e or (it#, shall %e transmitte to the Congress, ire(te to the ,resi ent o! the Senate+ Upon re(eipt o! the (erti!i(ates o! (anvass, the ,resi ent o! the Senate shall, not later than thirt# a#s a!ter the a# o! the ele(tion, open all (erti!i(ates in the presen(e o! the Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives in 'oint p&%li( session, an the Congress, &pon etermination o! the a&thenti(it# an &e e6e(&tion thereo! in the manner provi e %# la), (anvass the votes+ The person having the highest n&m%er o! votes shall %e pro(laime ele(te , %&t in (ase t)o or more shall have an e*&al an highest n&m%er o! votes, one o! them shall !orth)ith %e (hosen %# the vote o! a ma'orit# o! all the ?em%ers o! %oth Ho&ses o! the Congress, voting separatel#+ The Congress shall prom&lgate its r&les !or the (anvassing o! the (erti!i(ates+ The S&preme Co&rt, sitting en banc, shall %e the sole '& ge o! all (ontests relating to the ele(tion, ret&rns, an *&ali!i(ations o! the ,resi ent or >i(e3 ,resi ent, an ma# prom&lgate its r&les !or the p&rpose+

SECTION 1+ @e!ore the# enter on the e6e(&tion o! their o!!i(e, the ,resi ent, the >i(e3,resi ent, or the "(ting ,resi ent shall ta5e the !ollo)ing oath or a!!irmation9
AI o solemnl# s)ear 7or a!!irm8 that I )ill !aith!&ll# an (ons(ientio&sl# !&l!ill m# &ties as ,resi ent 7or >i(e3,resi ent or "(ting ,resi ent8 o! the ,hilippines, preserve an e!en its Constit&tion, e6e(&te its la)s, o '&sti(e to ever# man, an (onse(rate m#sel! to the servi(e o! the Nation+ So help me $o +A 7In (ase o! a!!irmation, last senten(e )ill %e omitte +8

SECTION 2+ The ,resi ent shall have an o!!i(ial resi en(e+ The salaries o! the ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent shall %e etermine %# la) an shall not %e e(rease &ring their ten&re+ No in(rease in sai (ompensation shall ta5e e!!e(t &ntil a!ter the e6piration o! the term o! the in(&m%ent &ring )hi(h s&(h in(rease )as approve + The# shall not re(eive &ring their ten&re an# other emol&ment !rom the $overnment or an# other so&r(e+ SECTION 7+ The ,resi ent3ele(t an the >i(e3,resi ent3ele(t shall ass&me o!!i(e at the %eginning o! their terms+ I! the ,resi ent3ele(t !ails to *&ali!#, the >i(e3,resi ent3ele(t shall a(t as ,resi ent &ntil the ,resi ent3ele(t shall have *&ali!ie + I! a ,resi ent shall not have %een (hosen, the >i(e3,resi ent3 ele(t shall a(t as ,resi ent &ntil a ,resi ent shall have %een (hosen an *&ali!ie + I! at the %eginning o! the term o! the ,resi ent, the ,resi ent3 ele(t shall have ie or shall have %e(ome permanentl# isa%le , the >i(e3,resi ent3ele(t shall %e(ome ,resi ent+ Where no ,resi or shall have *&ali!ie permanentl# isa%le , ina%ilit#, the Spea5er ,resi ent &ntil a ,resi an *&ali!ie + ent an >i(e3,resi ent shall have %een (hosen , or )here %oth shall have ie or %e(ome the ,resi ent o! the Senate or, in (ase o! his o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall a(t as ent or a >i(e3,resi ent shall have %een (hosen

The Congress shall, %# la), provi e !or the manner in )hi(h one )ho is to a(t as ,resi ent shall %e sele(te &ntil a ,resi ent or a >i(e3 ,resi ent shall have *&ali!ie , in (ase o! eath, permanent isa%ilit#, or ina%ilit# o! the o!!i(ials mentione in the ne6t pre(e ing paragraph+

SECTION 8+ In (ase o! eath, permanent isa%ilit#, removal !rom o!!i(e, or resignation o! the ,resi ent, the >i(e3,resi ent shall %e(ome the ,resi ent to serve the &ne6pire term+ In (ase o! eath, permanent isa%ilit#, removal !rom o!!i(e, or resignation o! %oth the ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent, the ,resi ent o! the Senate or, in (ase o! his ina%ilit#, the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, shall then a(t as ,resi ent &ntil the ,resi ent or >i(e3,resi ent shall have %een ele(te an *&ali!ie + The Congress shall, %# la), provi e )ho shall serve as ,resi ent in (ase o! eath, permanent isa%ilit#, or resignation o! the "(ting ,resi ent+ He shall serve &ntil the ,resi ent or the >i(e3,resi ent shall have %een ele(te an *&ali!ie , an %e s&%'e(t to the same restri(tions o! po)ers an is*&ali!i(ations as the "(ting ,resi ent+ SECTION 9+ Whenever there is a va(an(# in the O!!i(e o! the >i(e3,resi ent &ring the term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te , the ,resi ent shall nominate a >i(e3,resi ent !rom among the ?em%ers o! the Senate an the Ho&se o! =epresentatives )ho shall ass&me o!!i(e &pon (on!irmation %# a ma'orit# vote o! all the ?em%ers o! %oth Ho&ses o! the Congress, voting separatel#+ SECTION 14+ The Congress shall, at ten oB(lo(5 in the morning o! the thir a# a!ter the va(an(# in the o!!i(es o! the ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent o((&rs, (onvene in a((or an(e )ith its r&les )itho&t nee o! a (all an )ithin seven a#s ena(t a la) (alling !or a spe(ial ele(tion to ele(t a ,resi ent an a >i(e3,resi ent to %e hel not earlier than !ort#3!ive a#s nor later than si6t# a#s !rom the time o! s&(h (all+ The %ill (alling s&(h spe(ial ele(tion shall %e eeme (erti!ie &n er paragraph -, Se(tion -2, "rti(le >I o! this Constit&tion an shall %e(ome la) &pon its approval on thir rea ing %# the Congress+ "ppropriations !or the spe(ial ele(tion shall %e (harge against an# (&rrent appropriations an shall %e e6empt !rom the re*&irements o! paragraph /, Se(tion -1, "rti(le >I o! this Constit&tion+ The (onvening o! the Congress (annot %e s&spen e nor the spe(ial ele(tion postpone + No spe(ial ele(tion shall %e (alle i! the va(an(# o((&rs )ithin eighteen months %e!ore the ate o! the ne6t presi ential ele(tion+ SECTION 11+ Whenever the ,resi ent transmits to the ,resi ent o! the Senate an the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives his )ritten e(laration that he is &na%le to is(harge the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e, an &ntil he transmits to them a )ritten e(laration to the

(ontrar#, s&(h po)ers an &ties shall %e ,resi ent as "(ting ,resi ent+

is(harge

%# the >i(e3

Whenever a ma'orit# o! all the ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet transmit to the ,resi ent o! the Senate an to the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives their )ritten e(laration that the ,resi ent is &na%le to is(harge the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e, the >i(e3,resi ent shall imme iatel# ass&me the po)ers an &ties o! the o!!i(e as "(ting ,resi ent+ Therea!ter, )hen the ,resi ent transmits to the ,resi ent o! the Senate an to the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives his )ritten e(laration that no ina%ilit# e6ists, he shall reass&me the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e+ ?ean)hile, sho&l a ma'orit# o! all the ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet transmit )ithin !ive a#s to the ,resi ent o! the Senate an to the Spea5er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives their )ritten e(laration that the ,resi ent is &na%le to is(harge the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e, the Congress shall e(i e the iss&e+ For that p&rpose, the Congress shall (onvene, i! it is not in session, )ithin !ort#3eight ho&rs, in a((or an(e )ith its r&les an )itho&t nee o! (all+

I! the Congress, )ithin ten a#s a!ter re(eipt o! the last )ritten e(laration, or, i! not in session, )ithin t)elve a#s a!ter it is re*&ire to assem%le, etermines %# a t)o3thir s vote o! %oth Ho&ses, voting separatel#, that the ,resi ent is &na%le to is(harge the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e, the >i(e3,resi ent shall a(t as the ,resi ent: other)ise, the ,resi ent shall (ontin&e e6er(ising the po)ers an &ties o! his o!!i(e+ SECTION 1-+ In (ase o! serio&s illness o! the ,resi ent, the p&%li( shall %e in!orme o! the state o! his health+ The ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet in (harge o! national se(&rit# an !oreign relations an the Chie! o! Sta!! o! the "rme For(es o! the ,hilippines, shall not %e enie a((ess to the ,resi ent &ring s&(h illness+ SECTION 1.+ The ,resi ent, >i(e3,resi ent, the ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet, an their ep&ties or assistants shall not, &nless other)ise provi e in this Constit&tion, hol an# other o!!i(e or emplo#ment &ring their ten&re+ The# shall not, &ring sai ten&re, ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, pra(ti(e an# other pro!ession, parti(ipate in an# %&siness, or %e !inan(iall# intereste in an# (ontra(t )ith, or in an# !ran(hise, or spe(ial

privilege grante %# the $overnment or an# s&% ivision, agen(#, or instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or their s&%si iaries+ The# shall stri(tl# avoi (on!li(t o! interest in the (on &(t o! their o!!i(e+ The spo&se an relatives %# (onsang&init# or a!!init# )ithin the !o&rth (ivil egree o! the ,resi ent shall not &ring his ten&re %e appointe as mem%ers o! the Constit&tional Commissions, or the O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman, or as Se(retaries, Un erse(retaries, (hairmen or hea s o! %&rea&s or o!!i(es, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations an their s&%si iaries+ SECTION 1/+ "ppointments e6ten e %# an "(ting ,resi ent shall remain e!!e(tive, &nless revo5e %# the ele(te ,resi ent )ithin ninet# a#s !rom his ass&mption or reass&mption o! o!!i(e+ SECTION 11+ T)o months imme iatel# %e!ore the ne6t presi ential ele(tions an &p to the en o! his term, a ,resi ent or "(ting ,resi ent shall not ma5e appointments, e6(ept temporar# appointments to e6e(&tive positions )hen (ontin&e va(an(ies therein )ill pre'& i(e p&%li( servi(e or en anger p&%li( sa!et#+ SECTION 12+ The ,resi ent shall nominate an , )ith the (onsent o! the Commission on "ppointments, appoint the hea s o! the e6e(&tive epartments, am%assa ors, other p&%li( ministers an (ons&ls, or o!!i(ers o! the arme !or(es !rom the ran5 o! (olonel or naval (aptain, an other o!!i(ers )hose appointments are veste in him in this Constit&tion+ He shall also appoint all other o!!i(ers o! the $overnment )hose appointments are not other)ise provi e !or %# la), an those )hom he ma# %e a&thori0e %# la) to appoint+ The Congress ma#, %# la), vest the appointment o! other o!!i(ers lo)er in ran5 in the ,resi ent alone, in the (o&rts, or in the hea s o! epartments, agen(ies, (ommissions, or %oar s+ The ,resi ent shall have the po)er to ma5e appointments &ring the re(ess o! the Congress, )hether vol&ntar# or (omp&lsor#, %&t s&(h appointments shall %e e!!e(tive onl# &ntil a!ter isapproval %# the Commission on "ppointments or &ntil the ne6t a 'o&rnment o! the Congress+ SECTION 17+ The ,resi ent shall have (ontrol o! all the e6e(&tive epartments, %&rea&s, an o!!i(es+ He shall ens&re that the la)s %e !aith!&ll# e6e(&te +

SECTION 18+ The ,resi ent shall %e the Comman er3in3Chie! o! all arme !or(es o! the ,hilippines an )henever it %e(omes ne(essar#, he ma# (all o&t s&(h arme !or(es to prevent or s&ppress la)less violen(e, invasion or re%ellion+ In (ase o! invasion or re%ellion, )hen the p&%li( sa!et# re*&ires it, he ma#, !or a perio not e6(ee ing si6t# a#s, s&spen the privilege o! the )rit o! habeas corpus or pla(e the ,hilippines or an# part thereo! &n er martial la)+ Within !ort#3eight ho&rs !rom the pro(lamation o! martial la) or the s&spension o! the privilege o! the )rit o! habeas corpus, the ,resi ent shall s&%mit a report in person or in )riting to the Congress+ The Congress, voting 'ointl#, %# a vote o! at least a ma'orit# o! all its ?em%ers in reg&lar or spe(ial session, ma# revo5e s&(h pro(lamation or s&spension, )hi(h revo(ation shall not %e set asi e %# the ,resi ent+ Upon the initiative o! the ,resi ent, the Congress ma#, in the same manner, e6ten s&(h pro(lamation or s&spension !or a perio to %e etermine %# the Congress, i! the invasion or re%ellion shall persist an p&%li( sa!et# re*&ires it+ The Congress, i! not in session, shall, )ithin t)ent#3!o&r ho&rs !ollo)ing s&(h pro(lamation or s&spension, (onvene in a((or an(e )ith its r&les )itho&t an# nee o! a (all+ The S&preme Co&rt ma# revie), in an appropriate pro(ee ing !ile %# an# (iti0en, the s&!!i(ien(# o! the !a(t&al %asis o! the pro(lamation o! martial la) or the s&spension o! the privilege o! the )rit or the e6tension thereo!, an m&st prom&lgate its e(ision thereon )ithin thirt# a#s !rom its !iling+ " state o! martial la) oes not s&spen the operation o! the Constit&tion, nor s&pplant the !&n(tioning o! the (ivil (o&rts or legislative assem%lies, nor a&thori0e the (on!erment o! '&ris i(tion on militar# (o&rts an agen(ies over (ivilians )here (ivil (o&rts are a%le to !&n(tion, nor a&tomati(all# s&spen the privilege o! the )rit+ The s&spension o! the privilege o! the )rit shall appl# onl# to persons '& i(iall# (harge !or re%ellion or o!!enses inherent in or ire(tl# (onne(te )ith the invasion+ <&ring the s&spension o! the privilege o! the )rit, an# person th&s arreste or etaine shall %e '& i(iall# (harge )ithin three a#s, other)ise he shall %e release +

SECTION 19+ E6(ept in (ases o! impea(hment, or as other)ise provi e in this Constit&tion, the ,resi ent ma# grant reprieves, (omm&tations an par ons, an remit !ines an !or!eit&res, a!ter (onvi(tion %# !inal '& gment+ He shall also have the po)er to grant amnest# )ith the (on(&rren(e o! a ma'orit# o! all the ?em%ers o! the Congress+ SECTION -4+ The ,resi ent ma# (ontra(t or g&arantee !oreign loans on %ehal! o! the =ep&%li( o! the ,hilippines )ith the prior (on(&rren(e o! the ?onetar# @oar , an s&%'e(t to s&(h limitations as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ The ?onetar# @oar shall, )ithin thirt# a#s !rom the en o! ever# *&arter o! the (alen ar #ear, s&%mit to the Congress a (omplete report o! its e(isions on appli(ations !or loans to %e (ontra(te or g&arantee %# the $overnment or government3o)ne an (ontrolle (orporations )hi(h )o&l have the e!!e(t o! in(reasing the !oreign e%t, an (ontaining other matters as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION -1+ No treat# or international agreement shall %e vali an e!!e(tive &nless (on(&rre in %# at least t)o3thir s o! all the ?em%ers o! the Senate+ SECTION --+ The ,resi ent shall s&%mit to the Congress )ithin thirt# a#s !rom the opening o! ever# reg&lar session, as the %asis o! the general appropriations %ill, a %& get o! e6pen it&res an so&r(es o! !inan(ing, in(l& ing re(eipts !rom e6isting an propose reven&e meas&res+ SECTION -.+ The ,resi ent shall a ress the Congress at the opening o! its reg&lar session+ He ma# also appear %e!ore it at an# other time+ ARTICLE VIII "udicial Department SECTION 1+ The '& i(ial po)er shall %e veste in one S&preme Co&rt an in s&(h lo)er (o&rts as ma# %e esta%lishe %# la)+ ;& i(ial po)er in(l& es the &t# o! the (o&rts o! '&sti(e to settle a(t&al (ontroversies involving rights )hi(h are legall# eman a%le an en!or(ea%le, an to etermine )hether or not there has %een a grave

a%&se o! is(retion amo&nting to la(5 or e6(ess o! '&ris i(tion on the part o! an# %ran(h or instr&mentalit# o! the $overnment+ SECTION -+ The Congress shall have the po)er to e!ine, pres(ri%e, an apportion the '&ris i(tion o! vario&s (o&rts %&t ma# not eprive the S&preme Co&rt o! its '&ris i(tion over (ases en&merate in Se(tion 1 hereo!+ No la) shall %e passe reorgani0ing the ;& i(iar# )hen it &n ermines the se(&rit# o! ten&re o! its ?em%ers+ SECTION .+ The ;& i(iar# shall en'o# !is(al a&tonom#+ "ppropriations !or the ;& i(iar# ma# not %e re &(e %# the legislat&re %elo) the amo&nt appropriate !or the previo&s #ear an , a!ter approval, shall %e a&tomati(all# an reg&larl# release + SECTION /+ 718 The S&preme Co&rt shall %e (ompose o! a Chie! ;&sti(e an !o&rteen "sso(iate ;&sti(es+ It ma# sit en banc or in its is(retion, in ivisions o! three, !ive, or seven ?em%ers+ "n# va(an(# shall %e !ille )ithin ninet# a#s !rom the o((&rren(e thereo!+ 7-8 "ll (ases involving the (onstit&tionalit# o! a treat#, international or e6e(&tive agreement, or la), )hi(h shall %e hear %# the S&preme Co&rt en banc, an all other (ases )hi(h &n er the =&les o! Co&rt are re*&ire to %e hear en banc, in(l& ing those involving the (onstit&tionalit#, appli(ation, or operation o! presi ential e(rees, pro(lamations, or ers, instr&(tions, or inan(es, an other reg&lations, shall %e e(i e )ith the (on(&rren(e o! a ma'orit# o! the ?em%ers )ho a(t&all# too5 part in the eli%erations on the iss&es in the (ase an vote thereon+ 7.8 Cases or matters hear %# a ivision shall %e e(i e or resolve )ith the (on(&rren(e o! a ma'orit# o! the ?em%ers )ho a(t&all# too5 part in the eli%erations on the iss&es in the (ase an vote thereon, an in no (ase, )itho&t the (on(&rren(e o! at least three o! s&(h ?em%ers+ When the re*&ire n&m%er is not o%taine , the (ase shall %e e(i e en banc9 Pro ided# that no o(trine or prin(iple o! la) lai o)n %# the (o&rt in a e(ision ren ere en banc or in ivision ma# %e mo i!ie or reverse e6(ept %# the (o&rt sitting en banc+ SECTION 1+ The S&preme Co&rt shall have the !ollo)ing po)ers9

718 E6er(ise original '&ris i(tion over (ases a!!e(ting am%assa ors, other p&%li( ministers an (ons&ls, an over petitions !or certiorari, prohi%ition, mandamus, $uo %arranto, an habeas corpus+ 7-8 =evie), revise, reverse, mo i!#, or a!!irm on appeal or certiorari, as the la) or the =&les o! Co&rt ma# provi e, !inal '& gments an or ers o! lo)er (o&rts in9

7a8 "ll (ases in )hi(h the (onstit&tionalit# or vali it# o! an# treat#, international or e6e(&tive agreement, la), presi ential e(ree, pro(lamation, or er, instr&(tion, or inan(e, or reg&lation is in *&estion+ 7%8 "ll (ases involving the legalit# o! an# ta6, impost, assessment, or toll, or an# penalt# impose in relation thereto+ 7(8 "ll (ases in )hi(h the '&ris i(tion o! an# lo)er (o&rt is in iss&e+ 7 8 "ll (riminal (ases in )hi(h the penalt# impose is reclusion perpetua or higher+ 7e8 "ll (ases in )hi(h onl# an error or *&estion o! la) is involve + 7.8 "ssign temporaril# '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts to other stations as p&%li( interest ma# re*&ire+ S&(h temporar# assignment shall not e6(ee si6 months )itho&t the (onsent o! the '& ge (on(erne + 7/8 Or er a (hange o! ven&e or pla(e o! trial to avoi mis(arriage o! '&sti(e+ 718 a

,rom&lgate r&les (on(erning the prote(tion an en!or(ement o! (onstit&tional rights, plea ing, pra(ti(e, an pro(e &re in all (o&rts, the a mission to the pra(ti(e o! la), the Integrate @ar, an legal assistan(e to the &n erprivilege + S&(h r&les shall

provi e a simpli!ie an ine6pensive pro(e &re !or the spee # isposition o! (ases, shall %e &ni!orm !or all (o&rts o! the same gra e, an shall not iminish, in(rease, or mo i!# s&%stantive rights+ =&les o! pro(e &re o! spe(ial (o&rts an *&asi3'& i(ial %o ies shall remain e!!e(tive &nless isapprove %# the S&preme Co&rt+ 728 "ppoint all o!!i(ials an emplo#ees o! the ;& i(iar# in a((or an(e )ith the Civil Servi(e Ca)+ SECTION 2+ The S&preme Co&rt shall have a ministrative s&pervision over all (o&rts an the personnel thereo!+ SECTION 7+ 718 No person shall %e appointe ?em%er o! the S&preme Co&rt or an# lo)er (ollegiate (o&rt &nless he is a nat&ral3%orn (iti0en o! the ,hilippines+ " ?em%er o! the S&preme Co&rt m&st %e at least !ort# #ears o! age, an m&st have %een !or !i!teen #ears or more a '& ge o! a lo)er (o&rt or engage in the pra(ti(e o! la) in the ,hilippines+ 7-8 The Congress shall pres(ri%e the *&ali!i(ations o! '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts, %&t no person ma# %e appointe '& ge thereo! &nless he is a (iti0en o! the ,hilippines an a mem%er o! the ,hilippine @ar+ 7.8 " ?em%er o! the ;& i(iar# m&st %e a person o! proven (ompeten(e, integrit#, pro%it#, an in epen en(e+ SECTION 8+ 718 " ;& i(ial an @ar Co&n(il is here%# (reate &n er the s&pervision o! the S&preme Co&rt (ompose o! the Chie! ;&sti(e as ex officio Chairman, the Se(retar# o! ;&sti(e, an a representative o! the Congress as ex officio ?em%ers, a representative o! the Integrate @ar, a pro!essor o! la), a retire ?em%er o! the S&preme Co&rt, an a representative o! the private se(tor+ 7-8 The reg&lar ?em%ers o! the Co&n(il shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent !or a term o! !o&r #ears )ith the (onsent o! the Commission on "ppointments+ O! the ?em%ers !irst appointe , the representative o! the Integrate @ar shall serve !or !o&r #ears, the pro!essor o! la) !or three #ears, the retire ;&sti(e !or t)o #ears, an the representative o! the private se(tor !or one #ear+

7.8 The Cler5 o! the S&preme Co&rt shall %e the Se(retar# ex officio o! the Co&n(il an shall 5eep a re(or o! its pro(ee ings+ 7/8 The reg&lar ?em%ers o! the Co&n(il shall re(eive s&(h emol&ments as ma# %e etermine %# the S&preme Co&rt+ The S&preme Co&rt shall provi e in its ann&al %& get the appropriations !or the Co&n(il+ 718 The Co&n(il shall have the prin(ipal !&n(tion o! re(ommen ing appointees to the ;& i(iar#+ It ma# e6er(ise s&(h other !&n(tions an &ties as the S&preme Co&rt ma# assign to it+ SECTION 9+ The ?em%ers o! the S&preme Co&rt an '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent !rom a list o! at least three nominees prepare %# the ;& i(ial an @ar Co&n(il !or ever# va(an(#+ S&(h appointments nee no (on!irmation+ For the lo)er (o&rts, the ,resi ent shall iss&e the appointments )ithin ninet# a#s !rom the s&%mission o! the list+ SECTION 14+ The salar# o! the Chie! ;&sti(e an o! the "sso(iate ;&sti(es o! the S&preme Co&rt, an o! '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts shall %e !i6e %# la)+ <&ring their (ontin&an(e in o!!i(e, their salar# shall not %e e(rease + SECTION 11+ The ?em%ers o! the S&preme Co&rt an '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts shall hol o!!i(e &ring goo %ehavior &ntil the# rea(he the age o! sevent# #ears or %e(ome in(apa(itate to is(harge the &ties o! their o!!i(e+ The S&preme Co&rt en banc shall have the po)er to is(ipline '& ges o! lo)er (o&rts, or or er their ismissal %# a vote o! a ma'orit# o! the ?em%ers )ho a(t&all# too5 part in the eli%erations on the iss&es in the (ase an vote thereon+ SECTION 1-+ The ?em%ers o! the S&preme Co&rt an o! other (o&rts esta%lishe %# la) shall not %e esignate to an# agen(# per!orming *&asi3'& i(ial or a ministrative !&n(tions+ SECTION 1.+ The (on(l&sions o! the S&preme Co&rt in an# (ase s&%mitte to it !or e(ision en banc or in ivision shall %e rea(he in (ons&ltation %e!ore the (ase is assigne to a ?em%er !or the )riting o! the opinion o! the Co&rt+ " (erti!i(ation to this e!!e(t signe %# the Chie! ;&sti(e shall %e iss&e an a (op# thereo! atta(he to the re(or o! the (ase an serve &pon the parties+ "n# ?em%er )ho too5 no part, or

issente , or a%staine !rom a e(ision or resol&tion m&st state the reason there!or+ The same re*&irements shall %e o%serve %# all lo)er (ollegiate (o&rts+ SECTION 1/+ No e(ision shall %e ren ere %# an# (o&rt )itho&t e6pressing therein (learl# an istin(tl# the !a(ts an the la) on )hi(h it is %ase + No petition !or revie) or motion !or re(onsi eration o! a e(ision o! the (o&rt shall %e re!&se &e (o&rse or enie )itho&t stating the legal %asis there!or+ SECTION 11+ 718 "ll (ases or matters !ile a!ter the e!!e(tivit# o! this Constit&tion m&st %e e(i e or resolve )ithin t)ent#3!o&r months !rom ate o! s&%mission !or the S&preme Co&rt, an , &nless re &(e %# the S&preme Co&rt, t)elve months !or all lo)er (ollegiate (o&rts, an three months !or all other lo)er (o&rts+ 7-8 " (ase or matter shall %e eeme s&%mitte !or e(ision or resol&tion &pon the !iling o! the last pen ing, %rie!, or memoran &m re*&ire %# the =&les o! Co&rt or %# the (o&rt itsel!+ 7.8 Upon the e6piration o! the (orrespon ing perio , a (erti!i(ation to this e!!e(t signe %# the Chie! ;&sti(e or the presi ing '& ge shall !orth)ith %e iss&e an a (op# thereo! atta(he to the re(or o! the (ase or matter, an serve &pon the parties+ The (erti!i(ation shall state )h# a e(ision or resol&tion has not %een ren ere or iss&e )ithin sai perio + 7/8 <espite the e6piration o! the appli(a%le man ator# perio , the (o&rt, )itho&t pre'& i(e to s&(h responsi%ilit# as ma# have %een in(&rre in (onse*&en(e thereo!, shall e(i e or resolve the (ase or matter s&%mitte thereto !or etermination, )itho&t !&rther ela#+ SECTION 12+ The S&preme Co&rt shall, )ithin thirt# a#s !rom the opening o! ea(h reg&lar session o! the Congress, s&%mit to the ,resi ent an the Congress an ann&al report on the operations an a(tivities o! the ;& i(iar#+ ARTICLE IX Constitutional Commissions

"+ Common Pro isions SECTION 1+ The Constit&tional Commissions, )hi(h shall %e in epen ent, are the Civil Servi(e Commission, the Commission on Ele(tions, an the Commission on "& it+ SECTION -+ No ?em%er o! a Constit&tional Commission shall, &ring his ten&re, hol an# other o!!i(e or emplo#ment+ Neither shall he engage in the pra(ti(e o! an# pro!ession or in the a(tive management or (ontrol o! an# %&siness )hi(h in an# )a# %e a!!e(te %# the !&n(tions o! his o!!i(e, nor shall he %e !inan(iall# intereste , ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, in an# (ontra(t )ith, or in an# !ran(hise or privilege grante %# the $overnment, an# o! its s&% ivisions, agen(ies, or instr&mentalities, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or their s&%si iaries+ SECTION .+ The salar# o! the Chairman an the Commissioners shall %e !i6e %# la) an shall not %e e(rease &ring their ten&re+ SECTION /+ The Constit&tional Commissions shall appoint their o!!i(ials an emplo#ees in a((or an(e )ith la)+ SECTION 1+ The Commission shall en'o# !is(al a&tonom#+ Their approve ann&al appropriations shall %e a&tomati(all# an reg&larl# release + SECTION 2+ Ea(h Commission en banc ma# prom&lgate its o)n r&les (on(erning plea ings an pra(ti(e %e!ore it or %e!ore an# o! its o!!i(es+ S&(h r&les ho)ever shall not iminish, in(rease, or mo i!# s&%stantive rights+ SECTION 7+ Ea(h Commission shall e(i e %# a ma'orit# vote o! all its ?em%ers an# (ase or matter %ro&ght %e!ore it )ithin si6t# a#s !rom the ate o! its s&%mission !or e(ision or resol&tion+ " (ase or matter is eeme s&%mitte !or e(ision or resol&tion &pon the !iling o! the last plea ing, %rie!, or memoran &m re*&ire %# the r&les o! the Commission or %# the Commission itsel!+ Unless other)ise provi e %# this Constit&tion or %# la), an# e(ision, or er, or r&ling o! ea(h Commission ma# %e %ro&ght to the S&preme Co&rt on certiorari %# the aggrieve part# )ithin thirt# a#s !rom re(eipt o! a (op# thereo!+ SECTION 8+ Ea(h Commission shall per!orm s&(h other !&n(tions as ma# %e provi e %# la)+

@+ The Ci il Ser ice Commission SECTION 1+ 718 The Civil Servi(e shall %e a ministere %# the Civil Servi(e Commission (ompose o! a Chairman an t)o Commissioners )ho shall %e nat&ral3%orn (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines an , at the time o! their appointment, at least thirt#3!ive #ears o! age, )ith proven (apa(it# !or p&%li( a ministration, an m&st not have %een (an i ates !or an# ele(tive position in the ele(tions imme iatel# pre(e ing their appointment+ 7-8 The Chairman an the Commissioners shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent )ith the (onsent o! the Commission on "ppointments !or a term o! seven #ears )itho&t reappointment+ O! those !irst appointe , the Chairman shall hol o!!i(e !or seven #ears, a Commissioner !or !ive #ears, an another Commissioner !or three #ears, )itho&t reappointment+ "ppointment to an# va(an(# shall %e onl# !or the &ne6pire term o! the pre e(essor+ In no (ase shall an# ?em%er %e appointe or esignate in a temporar# or a(ting (apa(it#+

SECTION -+ 718 The (ivil servi(e em%ra(es all %ran(hes, s&% ivisions, instr&mentalities, an agen(ies o! the $overnment, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations )ith original (harters+ 7-8 "ppointments in the (ivil servi(e shall %e ma e onl# a((or ing to merit an !itness to %e etermine , as !ar as pra(ti(a%le, an , e6(ept to positions )hi(h are poli(#3 etermining, primaril# (on!i ential, or highl# te(hni(al, %# (ompetitive e6amination+ 7.8 No o!!i(er or emplo#ee o! the (ivil servi(e shall %e remove or s&spen e e6(ept !or (a&se provi e %# la)+ 7/8 No o!!i(er or emplo#ee in the (ivil servi(e shall engage, ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, in an# ele(tioneering or partisan politi(al (ampaign+ 718 The right to sel!3organi0ation shall not %e government emplo#ees+ enie to

728 Temporar# emplo#ees o! the $overnment shall %e given s&(h prote(tion as ma# %e provi e %# la)+

SECTION .+ The Civil Servi(e Commission, as the (entral personnel agen(# o! the $overnment, shall esta%lish a (areer servi(e an a opt meas&res to promote morale, e!!i(ien(#, integrit#, responsiveness, progressiveness, an (o&rtes# in the (ivil servi(e+ It shall strengthen the merit an re)ar s s#stem, integrate all h&man reso&r(es evelopment programs !or all levels an ran5s, an instit&tionali0e a management (limate (on &(ive to p&%li( a((o&nta%ilit#+ It shall s&%mit to the ,resi ent an the Congress an ann&al report on its personnel programs+ SECTION /+ "ll p&%li( o!!i(ers an emplo#ees shall ta5e an oath or a!!irmation to &phol an e!en this Constit&tion+ SECTION 1+ The Congress shall provi e !or the stan ar i0ation o! (ompensation o! government o!!i(ials an emplo#ees, in(l& ing those in government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations )ith original (harters, ta5ing into a((o&nt the nat&re o! the responsi%ilities pertaining to, an the *&ali!i(ations re*&ire !or their positions+ SECTION 2+ No (an i ate )ho has lost in an# ele(tion shall, )ithin one #ear a!ter s&(h ele(tion, %e appointe to an# o!!i(e in the $overnment or an# government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or in an# o! their s&%si iaries+ SECTION 7+ No ele(tive o!!i(ial shall %e eligi%le !or appointment or esignation in an# (apa(it# to an# p&%li( o!!i(e or position &ring his ten&re+ Unless other)ise allo)e %# la) or %# the primar# !&n(tions o! his position, no appointive o!!i(ial shall hol an# other o!!i(e or emplo#ment in the $overnment or an# s&% ivision, agen(# or instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or their s&%si iaries+ SECTION 8+ No ele(tive or appointive p&%li( o!!i(er or emplo#ee shall re(eive a itional, o&%le, or in ire(t (ompensation, &nless spe(i!i(all# a&thori0e %# la), nor a((ept )itho&t the (onsent o! the Congress, an# present, emol&ment, o!!i(e, or title o! an# 5in !rom an# !oreign government+ ,ensions or grat&ities shall not %e (onsi ere o&%le, or in ire(t (ompensation+ as a itional,

C+ The Commission on !lections SECTION 1+ 718 There shall %e a Commission on Ele(tions (ompose o! a Chairman an si6 Commissioners )ho shall %e nat&ral3 %orn (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines an , at the time o! their appointment, at least thirt#3!ive #ears o! age, hol ers o! a (ollege egree, an m&st not have %een (an i ates !or an# ele(tive position in the imme iatel# pre(e ing ele(tions+ Ho)ever, a ma'orit# thereo!, in(l& ing the Chairman, shall %e ?em%ers o! the ,hilippine @ar )ho have %een engage in the pra(ti(e o! la) !or at least ten #ears+ 7-8 The Chairman an the Commissioners shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent )ith the (onsent o! the Commission on "ppointments !or a term o! seven #ears )itho&t reappointment+ O! those !irst appointe , three ?em%ers shall hol o!!i(e !or seven #ears, t)o ?em%ers !or !ive #ears, an the last ?em%ers !or three #ears, )itho&t reappointment+ "ppointment to an# va(an(# shall %e onl# !or the &ne6pire term o! the pre e(essor+ In no (ase shall an# ?em%er %e appointe or esignate in a temporar# or a(ting (apa(it#+ SECTION -+ The Commission on Ele(tions shall e6er(ise the !ollo)ing po)ers an !&n(tions9 718 En!or(e an a minister all la)s an reg&lations relative to the (on &(t o! an ele(tion, ple%is(ite, initiative, re!eren &m, an re(all+ 7-8 E6er(ise e6(l&sive original '&ris i(tion over all (ontests relating to the ele(tions, ret&rns, an *&ali!i(ations o! all ele(tive regional, provin(ial, an (it# o!!i(ials, an appellate '&ris i(tion over all (ontests involving ele(tive m&ni(ipal o!!i(ials e(i e %# trial (o&rts o! general '&ris i(tion, or involving ele(tive %aranga# o!!i(ials e(i e %# trial (o&rts o! limite '&ris i(tion+ <e(isions, !inal or ers, or r&lings o! the Commission on ele(tion (ontests involving ele(tive m&ni(ipal an %aranga# o!!i(es shall %e !inal, e6e(&tor#, an not appeala%le+ 7.8 <e(i e, e6(ept those involving the right to vote, all *&estions a!!e(ting ele(tions, in(l& ing etermination o! the n&m%er an lo(ation o! polling pla(es,

appointment o! ele(tion o!!i(ials an registration o! voters+

inspe(tors, an

7/8 <ep&ti0e, )ith the (on(&rren(e o! the ,resi ent, la) en!or(ement agen(ies an instr&mentalities o! the $overnment, in(l& ing the "rme For(es o! the ,hilippines, !or the e6(l&sive p&rpose o! ens&ring !ree, or erl#, honest, pea(e!&l, an (re i%le ele(tions+ 718 =egister, a!ter s&!!i(ient p&%li(ation, politi(al parties, organi0ations, or (oalitions )hi(h, in a ition to other re*&irements, m&st present their plat!orm or program o! government: an a((re it (iti0ensB arms o! the Commission on Ele(tions+ =eligio&s enominations an se(ts shall not %e registere + Those )hi(h see5 to a(hieve their goals thro&gh violen(e or &nla)!&l means, or re!&se to &phol an a here to this Constit&tion, or )hi(h are s&pporte %# an# !oreign government shall li5e)ise %e re!&se registration+ Finan(ial (ontri%&tions !rom !oreign governments an their agen(ies to politi(al parties, organi0ations, (oalitions, or (an i ates relate to ele(tions (onstit&te inter!eren(e in national a!!airs, an , )hen a((epte , shall %e an a itional gro&n !or the (an(ellation o! their registration )ith the Commission, in a ition to other penalties that ma# %e pres(ri%e %# la)+ 728 File, &pon a veri!ie (omplaint, or on its o)n initiative, petitions in (o&rt !or in(l&sion or e6(l&sion o! voters: investigate an , )here appropriate, prose(&te (ases o! violations o! ele(tion la)s, in(l& ing a(ts or omissions (onstit&ting ele(tion !ra& s, o!!enses, an malpra(ti(es+ 778 =e(ommen to the Congress e!!e(tive meas&res to minimi0e ele(tion spen ing, in(l& ing limitation o! pla(es )here propagan a materials shall %e poste , an to prevent an penali0e all !orms o! ele(tion !ra& s, o!!enses, malpra(ti(es, an n&isan(e (an i a(ies+

788 =e(ommen to the ,resi ent the removal o! an# o!!i(er or emplo#ee it has ep&ti0e , or the imposition o! an# other is(iplinar# a(tion, !or violation or isregar o!, or iso%e ien(e to its ire(tive, or er, or e(ision+ 798 S&%mit to the ,resi ent an the Congress a (omprehensive report on the (on &(t o! ea(h ele(tion, ple%is(ite, initiative, re!eren &m, or re(all+

SECTION .+ The Commission on Ele(tions ma# sit en banc or in t)o ivisions, an shall prom&lgate its r&les o! pro(e &re in or er to e6pe ite isposition o! ele(tion (ases, in(l& ing pre3pro(lamation (ontroversies+ "ll s&(h ele(tion (ases shall %e hear an e(i e in ivision, provi e that motions !or re(onsi eration o! e(isions shall %e e(i e %# the Commission en banc+ SECTION /+ The Commission ma#, &ring the ele(tion perio , s&pervise or reg&late the en'o#ment or &tili0ation o! all !ran(hises or permits !or the operation o! transportation an other p&%li( &tilities, me ia o! (omm&ni(ation or in!ormation, all grants, spe(ial privileges, or (on(essions grante %# the $overnment or an# s&% ivision, agen(#, or instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing an# government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporation or its s&%si iar#+ S&(h s&pervision or reg&lation shall aim to ens&re e*&al opport&nit#, time, an spa(e, an the right to repl#, in(l& ing reasona%le, e*&al rates there!or, !or p&%li( in!ormation (ampaigns an !or&ms among (an i ates in (onne(tion )ith the o%'e(tive o! hol ing !ree, or erl#, honest, pea(e!&l, an (re i%le ele(tions+ SECTION 1+ No par on, amnest#, parole, or s&spension o! senten(e !or violation o! ele(tion la)s, r&les, an reg&lations shall %e grante %# the ,resi ent )itho&t the !avora%le re(ommen ation o! the Commission+ SECTION 2+ " !ree an open part# s#stem shall %e allo)e to evolve a((or ing to the !ree (hoi(e o! the people, s&%'e(t to the provisions o! this "rti(le+ SECTION 7+ No votes (ast in !avor o! a politi(al part#, organi0ation, or (oalition shall %e vali , e6(ept !or those registere &n er the part#3list s#stem as provi e in this Constit&tion+

SECTION 8+ ,oliti(al parties, or organi0ations or (oalitions registere &n er the part#3list s#stem, shall not %e represente in the votersB registration %oar s, %oar s o! ele(tion inspe(tors, %oar s o! (anvassers, or other similar %o ies+ Ho)ever, the# shall %e entitle to appoint poll )at(hers in a((or an(e )ith la)+ SECTION 9+ Unless other)ise !i6e %# the Commission in spe(ial (ases, the ele(tion perio shall (ommen(e ninet# a#s %e!ore the a# o! the ele(tion an shall en thirt# a#s a!ter+ SECTION 14+ Bona fide (an i ates !or an# p&%li( o!!i(e shall %e !ree !rom an# !orm o! harassment an is(rimination+ SECTION 11+ F&n s (erti!ie %# the Commission as ne(essar# to e!ra# the e6penses !or hol ing reg&lar an spe(ial ele(tions, ple%is(ites, initiatives, re!eren a, an re(alls, shall %e provi e in the reg&lar or spe(ial appropriations an , on(e approve , shall %e release a&tomati(all# &pon (erti!i(ation %# the Chairman o! the Commission+ <+ Commission on &udit SECTION 1+ 718 There shall %e a Commission on "& it (ompose o! a Chairman an t)o Commissioners, )ho shall %e nat&ral3%orn (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines an , at the time o! their appointment, at least thirt#3!ive #ears o! age, (erti!ie p&%li( a((o&ntants )ith not less than ten #ears o! a& iting e6perien(e, or mem%ers o! the ,hilippine @ar )ho have %een engage in the pra(ti(e o! la) !or at least ten #ears, an m&st not have %een (an i ates !or an# ele(tive position in the ele(tions imme iatel# pre(e ing their appointment+ "t no time shall all ?em%ers o! the Commission %elong to the same pro!ession+

7-8 The Chairman an the Commissioners shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent )ith the (onsent o! the Commission on "ppointments !or a term o! seven #ears )itho&t reappointment+ O! those !irst appointe , the Chairman shall hol o!!i(e !or seven #ears, one Commissioner !or !ive #ears, an the other Commissioner !or three #ears, )itho&t reappointment+ "ppointment to an# va(an(# shall %e onl# !or the &ne6pire portion o! the term o! the pre e(essor+ In no (ase shall an# ?em%er %e appointe or esignate in a temporar# or a(ting (apa(it#+

SECTION -+ 718 The Commission on "& it shall have the po)er, a&thorit#, an &t# to e6amine, a& it, an settle all a((o&nts pertaining to the reven&e an re(eipts o!, an e6pen it&res or &ses o! !&n s an propert#, o)ne or hel in tr&st %#, or pertaining to, the $overnment, or an# o! its s&% ivisions, agen(ies, or instr&mentalities, in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations )ith original (harters, an on a post3a& it %asis9 7a8 (onstit&tional %o ies, (ommissions an o!!i(es that have %een grante !is(al a&tonom# &n er this Constit&tion: 7%8 a&tonomo&s state (olleges an &niversities: 7(8 other government3 o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations an their s&%si iaries: an 7 8 s&(h non3governmental entities re(eiving s&%si # or e*&it#, ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, !rom or thro&gh the $overnment, )hi(h are re*&ire %# la) or the granting instit&tion to s&%mit to s&(h a& it as a (on ition o! s&%si # or e*&it#+ Ho)ever, )here the internal (ontrol s#stem o! the a& ite agen(ies is ina e*&ate, the Commission ma# a opt s&(h meas&res, in(l& ing temporar# or spe(ial pre3a& it, as are ne(essar# an appropriate to (orre(t the e!i(ien(ies+ It shall 5eep the general a((o&nts o! the $overnment an , !or s&(h perio as ma# %e provi e %# la), preserve the vo&(hers an other s&pporting papers pertaining thereto+ 7-8 The Commission shall have e6(l&sive a&thorit#, s&%'e(t to the limitations in this "rti(le, to e!ine the s(ope o! its a& it an e6amination, esta%lish the te(hni*&es an metho s re*&ire there!or, an prom&lgate a((o&nting an a& iting r&les an reg&lations, in(l& ing those !or the prevention an isallo)an(e o! irreg&lar, &nne(essar#, e6(essive, e6travagant, or &n(ons(iona%le e6pen it&res, or &ses o! government !&n s an properties+ SECTION .+ No la) shall %e passe e6empting an# entit# o! the $overnment or its s&%si iar# in an# g&ise )hatever, or an# investment o! p&%li( !&n s, !rom the '&ris i(tion o! the Commission on "& it+ SECTION /+ The Commission shall s&%mit to the ,resi ent an the Congress, )ithin the time !i6e %# la), an ann&al report (overing the !inan(ial (on ition an operation o! the $overnment, its s&% ivisions, agen(ies, an instr&mentalities, in(l& ing government3 o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations, an non3governmental entities s&%'e(t to its a& it, an re(ommen meas&res ne(essar# to improve their e!!e(tiveness an e!!i(ien(#+ It shall s&%mit s&(h other reports as ma# %e re*&ire %# la)+ ARTICLE X

Local 'o ernment 'eneral Pro isions SECTION 1+ The territorial an politi(al s&% ivisions o! the =ep&%li( o! the ,hilippines are the provin(es, (ities, m&ni(ipalities, an %aranga#s+ There shall %e a&tonomo&s regions in ?&slim ?in anao an the Cor illeras as hereina!ter provi e + SECTION -+ The territorial an politi(al s&% ivisions shall en'o# lo(al a&tonom#+ SECTION .+ The Congress shall ena(t a lo(al government (o e )hi(h shall provi e !or a more responsive an a((o&nta%le lo(al government str&(t&re instit&te thro&gh a s#stem o! e(entrali0ation )ith e!!e(tive me(hanisms o! re(all, initiative, an re!eren &m, allo(ate among the i!!erent lo(al government &nits their po)ers, responsi%ilities, an reso&r(es, an provi e !or the *&ali!i(ations, ele(tion, appointment an removal, term, salaries, po)ers an !&n(tions an &ties o! lo(al o!!i(ials, an all other matters relating to the organi0ation an operation o! the lo(al &nits+ SECTION /+ The ,resi ent o! the ,hilippines shall e6er(ise general s&pervision over lo(al governments+ ,rovin(es )ith respe(t to (omponent (ities an m&ni(ipalities, an (ities an m&ni(ipalities )ith respe(t to (omponent %aranga#s shall ens&re that the a(ts o! their (omponent &nits are )ithin the s(ope o! their pres(ri%e po)ers an !&n(tions+ SECTION 1+ Ea(h lo(al government &nit shall have the po)er to (reate its o)n so&r(es o! reven&es an to lev# ta6es, !ees, an (harges s&%'e(t to s&(h g&i elines an limitations as the Congress ma# provi e, (onsistent )ith the %asi( poli(# o! lo(al a&tonom#+ S&(h ta6es, !ees, an (harges shall a((r&e e6(l&sivel# to the lo(al governments+ SECTION 2+ Co(al government &nits shall have a '&st share, as etermine %# la), in the national ta6es )hi(h shall %e a&tomati(all# release to them+ SECTION 7+ Co(al governments shall %e entitle to an e*&ita%le share in the pro(ee s o! the &tili0ation an evelopment o! the national )ealth )ithin their respe(tive areas, in the manner provi e %# la),

in(l& ing sharing the same )ith the inha%itants %# )a# o! %ene!its+

ire(t

SECTION 8+ The term o! o!!i(e o! ele(tive lo(al o!!i(ials, e6(ept %aranga# o!!i(ials, )hi(h shall %e etermine %# la), shall %e three #ears an no s&(h o!!i(ial shall serve !or more than three (onse(&tive terms+ >ol&ntar# ren&n(iation o! the o!!i(e !or an# length o! time shall not %e (onsi ere as an interr&ption in the (ontin&it# o! his servi(e !or the !&ll term !or )hi(h he )as ele(te + SECTION 9+ Cegislative %o ies o! lo(al governments shall have se(toral representation as ma# %e pres(ri%e %# la)+ SECTION 14+ No provin(e, (it#, m&ni(ipalit#, or %aranga# ma# %e (reate , ivi e , merge , a%olishe , or its %o&n ar# s&%stantiall# altere , e6(ept in a((or an(e )ith the (riteria esta%lishe in the Co(al $overnment Co e an s&%'e(t to approval %# a ma'orit# o! the votes (ast in a ple%is(ite in the politi(al &nits ire(tl# a!!e(te + SECTION 11+ The Congress ma#, %# la), (reate spe(ial metropolitan politi(al s&% ivisions, s&%'e(t to a ple%is(ite as set !orth in Se(tion 14 hereo!+ The (omponent (ities an m&ni(ipalities shall retain their %asi( a&tonom# an shall %e entitle to their o)n lo(al e6e(&tives an legislative assem%lies+ The '&ris i(tion o! the metropolitan a&thorit# that )ill here%# %e (reate shall %e limite to %asi( servi(es re*&iring (oor ination+ SECTION 1-+ Cities that are highl# &r%ani0e , as etermine %# la), an (omponent (ities )hose (harters prohi%it their voters !rom voting !or provin(ial ele(tive o!!i(ials, shall %e in epen ent o! the provin(e+ The voters o! (omponent (ities )ithin a provin(e, )hose (harters (ontain no s&(h prohi%ition, shall not %e eprive o! their right to vote !or ele(tive provin(ial o!!i(ials+ SECTION 1.+ Co(al government &nits ma# gro&p themselves, (onsoli ate or (oor inate their e!!orts, servi(es, an reso&r(es !or p&rposes (ommonl# %ene!i(ial to them in a((or an(e )ith la)+ SECTION 1/+ The ,resi ent shall provi e !or regional evelopment (o&n(ils or other similar %o ies (ompose o! lo(al government o!!i(ials, regional hea s o! epartments an other government o!!i(es, an representatives !rom non3governmental organi0ations )ithin the regions !or p&rposes o! a ministrative

e(entrali0ation to strengthen the a&tonom# o! the &nits therein an to a((elerate the e(onomi( an so(ial gro)th an evelopment o! the &nits in the region+ &utonomous Region SECTION 11+ There shall %e (reate a&tonomo&s regions in ?&slim ?in anao an in the Cor illeras (onsisting o! provin(es, (ities, m&ni(ipalities, an geographi(al areas sharing (ommon an istin(tive histori(al an (&lt&ral heritage, e(onomi( an so(ial str&(t&res, an other relevant (hara(teristi(s )ithin the !rame)or5 o! this Constit&tion an the national sovereignt# as )ell as territorial integrit# o! the =ep&%li( o! the ,hilippines+ SECTION 12+ The ,resi ent shall e6er(ise general s&pervision over a&tonomo&s regions to ens&re that the la)s are !aith!&ll# e6e(&te + SECTION 17+ "ll po)ers, !&n(tions, an responsi%ilities not grante %# this Constit&tion or %# la) to the a&tonomo&s regions shall %e veste in the National $overnment+ SECTION 18+ The Congress shall ena(t an organi( a(t !or ea(h a&tonomo&s region )ith the assistan(e an parti(ipation o! the regional (ons&ltative (ommission (ompose o! representatives appointe %# the ,resi ent !rom a list o! nominees !rom m&ltise(toral %o ies+ The organi( a(t shall e!ine the %asi( str&(t&re o! government !or the region (onsisting o! the e6e(&tive epartment an legislative assem%l#, %oth o! )hi(h shall %e ele(tive an representative o! the (onstit&ent politi(al &nits+ The organi( a(ts shall li5e)ise provi e !or spe(ial (o&rts )ith personal, !amil#, an propert# la) '&ris i(tion (onsistent )ith the provisions o! this Constit&tion an national la)s+ The (reation o! the a&tonomo&s region shall %e e!!e(tive )hen approve %# ma'orit# o! the votes (ast %# the (onstit&ent &nits in a ple%is(ite (alle !or the p&rpose, provi e that onl# provin(es, (ities, an geographi( areas voting !avora%l# in s&(h ple%is(ite shall %e in(l& e in the a&tonomo&s region+ SECTION 19+ The !irst Congress ele(te &n er this Constit&tion shall, )ithin eighteen months !rom the time o! organi0ation o! %oth Ho&ses, pass the organi( a(ts !or the a&tonomo&s regions in ?&slim ?in anao an the Cor illeras+

SECTION -4+ Within its territorial '&ris i(tion an s&%'e(t to the provisions o! this Constit&tion an national la)s, the organi( a(t o! a&tonomo&s regions shall provi e !or legislative po)ers over9 718 " ministrative organi0ation: 7-8 Creation o! so&r(es o! reven&es: 7.8 "n(estral omain an nat&ral reso&r(es: 7/8 ,ersonal, !amil#, an propert# relations: 718 =egional &r%an an r&ral planning evelopment: 728 E(onomi(, so(ial, an to&rism evelopment: 778 E &(ational poli(ies: 788 ,reservation an an evelopment o! the (&lt&ral heritage:

798 S&(h other matters as ma# %e a&thori0e %# la) !or the promotion o! the general )el!are o! the people o! the region+

SECTION -1+ The preservation o! pea(e an or er )ithin the regions shall %e the responsi%ilit# o! the lo(al poli(e agen(ies )hi(h shall %e organi0e , maintaine , s&pervise , an &tili0e in a((or an(e )ith appli(a%le la)s+ The e!ense an se(&rit# o! the regions shall %e the responsi%ilit# o! the National $overnment+ ARTICLE XI &ccountability of Public (fficers SECTION 1+ ,&%li( o!!i(e is a p&%li( tr&st+ ,&%li( o!!i(ers an emplo#ees m&st at all times %e a((o&nta%le to the people, serve them )ith &tmost responsi%ilit#, integrit#, lo#alt#, an e!!i(ien(#, a(t )ith patriotism an '&sti(e, an lea mo est lives+ SECTION -+ The ,resi ent, the >i(e3,resi ent, the ?em%ers o! the S&preme Co&rt, the ?em%ers o! the Constit&tional Commissions,

an the Om%& sman ma# %e remove !rom o!!i(e, on impea(hment !or, an (onvi(tion o!, (&lpa%le violation o! the Constit&tion, treason, %ri%er#, gra!t an (orr&ption, other high (rimes, or %etra#al o! p&%li( tr&st+ "ll other p&%li( o!!i(ers an emplo#ees ma# %e remove !rom o!!i(e as provi e %# la), %&t not %# impea(hment+ SECTION .+ 718 The Ho&se o! =epresentatives shall have the e6(l&sive po)er to initiate all (ases o! impea(hment+ 7-8 " veri!ie (omplaint !or impea(hment ma# %e !ile %# an# ?em%er o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives or %# an# (iti0en &pon a resol&tion o! en orsement %# an# ?em%er thereo!, )hi(h shall %e in(l& e in the Or er o! @&siness )ithin ten session a#s, an re!erre to the proper Committee )ithin three session a#s therea!ter+ The Committee, a!ter hearing, an %# a ma'orit# vote o! all its ?em%ers, shall s&%mit its report to the Ho&se )ithin si6t# session a#s !rom s&(h re!erral, together )ith the (orrespon ing resol&tion+ The resol&tion shall %e (alen are !or (onsi eration %# the Ho&se )ithin ten session a#s !rom re(eipt thereo!+ 7.8 " vote o! at least one3thir o! all the ?em%ers o! the Ho&se shall %e ne(essar# either to a!!irm a !avora%le resol&tion )ith the "rti(les o! Impea(hment o! the Committee, or overri e its (ontrar# resol&tion+ The vote o! ea(h ?em%er shall %e re(or e + 7/8 In (ase the veri!ie (omplaint or resol&tion o! impea(hment is !ile %# at least one3thir o! all the ?em%ers o! the Ho&se, the same shall (onstit&te the "rti(les o! Impea(hment, an trial %# the Senate shall !orth)ith pro(ee + 718 No impea(hment pro(ee ings shall %e initiate same o!!i(ial more than on(e )ithin a perio o! one #ear+ against the

728 The Senate shall have the sole po)er to tr# an e(i e all (ases o! impea(hment+ When sitting !or that p&rpose, the Senators shall %e on oath or a!!irmation+ When the ,resi ent o! the ,hilippines is on trial, the Chie! ;&sti(e o! the S&preme Co&rt shall presi e, %&t shall not vote+ No person shall %e (onvi(te )itho&t the (on(&rren(e o! t)o3 thir s o! all the ?em%ers o! the Senate+ 778 ;& gment in (ases o! impea(hment shall not e6ten !&rther than removal !rom o!!i(e an is*&ali!i(ation to hol an# o!!i(e &n er the =ep&%li( o! the ,hilippines, %&t the part# (onvi(te shall

nevertheless %e lia%le an s&%'e(t to prose(&tion, trial, an p&nishment a((or ing to la)+ 788 The Congress shall prom&lgate its r&les on impea(hment to e!!e(tivel# (arr# o&t the p&rpose o! this se(tion+ SECTION /+ The present anti3gra!t (o&rt 5no)n as the San igan%a#an shall (ontin&e to !&n(tion an e6er(ise its '&ris i(tion as no) or herea!ter ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION 1+ There is here%# (reate the in epen ent O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman, (ompose o! the Om%& sman to %e 5no)n as Tano %a#an, one overall <ep&t# an at least one <ep&t# ea(h !or C&0on, >isa#as, an ?in anao+ " separate <ep&t# !or the militar# esta%lishment ma# li5e)ise %e appointe + SECTION 2+ The o!!i(ials an emplo#ees o! the O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman, other than the <ep&ties, shall %e appointe %# the Om%& sman a((or ing to the Civil Servi(e Ca)+ SECTION 7+ The e6isting Tano %a#an shall herea!ter %e 5no)n as the O!!i(e o! the Spe(ial ,rose(&tor+ It shall (ontin&e to !&n(tion an e6er(ise its po)ers as no) or herea!ter ma# %e provi e %# la), e6(ept those (on!erre on the O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman (reate &n er this Constit&tion+ SECTION 8+ The Om%& sman an his <ep&ties shall %e nat&ral3 %orn (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines, an at the time o! their appointment, at least !ort# #ears ol , o! re(ogni0e pro%it# an in epen en(e, an mem%ers o! the ,hilippine @ar, an m&st not have %een (an i ates !or an# ele(tive o!!i(e in the imme iatel# pre(e ing ele(tion+ The Om%& sman m&st have !or ten #ears or more %een a '& ge or engage in the pra(ti(e o! la) in the ,hilippines+ <&ring their ten&re, the# shall %e s&%'e(t to the same is*&ali!i(ations an prohi%itions as provi e !or in Se(tion - o! "rti(le ID3" o! this Constit&tion+ SECTION 9+ The Om%& sman an his <ep&ties shall %e appointe %# the ,resi ent !rom a list o! at least si6 nominees prepare %# the ;& i(ial an @ar Co&n(il, an !rom a list o! three nominees !or ever# va(an(# therea!ter+ S&(h appointments shall re*&ire no

(on!irmation+ "ll va(an(ies shall %e !ille )ithin three months a!ter the# o((&r+ SECTION 14+ The Om%& sman an his <ep&ties shall have the ran5 o! Chairman an ?em%ers, respe(tivel#, o! the Constit&tional Commissions, an the# shall re(eive the same salar#, )hi(h shall not %e e(rease &ring their term o! o!!i(e+ SECTION 11+ The Om%& sman an his <ep&ties shall serve !or a term o! seven #ears )itho&t reappointment+ The# shall not %e *&ali!ie to r&n !or an# o!!i(e in the ele(tion imme iatel# s&((ee ing their (essation !rom o!!i(e+ SECTION 1-+ The Om%& sman an his <ep&ties, as prote(tors o! the people, shall a(t promptl# on (omplaints !ile in an# !orm or manner against p&%li( o!!i(ials or emplo#ees o! the $overnment, or an# s&% ivision, agen(# or instr&mentalit# thereo!, in(l& ing government3 o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations, an shall, in appropriate (ases, noti!# the (omplainants o! the a(tion ta5en an the res&lt thereo!+ SECTION 1.+ The O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman shall have the !ollo)ing po)ers, !&n(tions, an &ties9 718 Investigate on its o)n, or on (omplaint %# an# person, an# a(t or omission o! an# p&%li( o!!i(ial, emplo#ee, o!!i(e or agen(#, )hen s&(h a(t or omission appears to %e illegal, &n'&st, improper, or ine!!i(ient+ 7-8 <ire(t, &pon (omplaint or at its o)n instan(e, an# p&%li( o!!i(ial or emplo#ee o! the $overnment, or an# s&% ivision, agen(# or instr&mentalit# thereo!, as )ell as o! an# government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporation )ith original (harter, to per!orm an e6pe ite an# a(t or &t# re*&ire %# la), or to stop, prevent, an (orre(t an# a%&se or impropriet# in the per!orman(e o! &ties+ 7.8 <ire(t the o!!i(er (on(erne to ta5e appropriate a(tion against a p&%li( o!!i(ial or emplo#ee at !a&lt, an re(ommen his removal, s&spension, emotion, !ine, (ens&re, or prose(&tion, an ens&re (omplian(e there)ith+

7/8 <ire(t the o!!i(er (on(erne , in an# appropriate (ase, an s&%'e(t to s&(h limitations as ma# %e provi e %# la), to !&rnish it )ith (opies o! o(&ments relating to (ontra(ts or transa(tions entere into %# his o!!i(e involving the is%&rsement or &se o! p&%li( !&n s or properties, an report an# irreg&larit# to the Commission on "& it !or appropriate a(tion+ 718 =e*&est an# government agen(# !or assistan(e an in!ormation ne(essar# in the is(harge o! its responsi%ilities, an to e6amine, i! ne(essar#, pertinent re(or s an o(&ments+ 728 ,&%li(i0e matters (overe %# its investigation )hen (ir(&mstan(es so )arrant an )ith &e pr& en(e+ 778 <etermine the (a&ses o! ine!!i(ien(#, re tape, mismanagement, !ra& , an (orr&ption in the $overnment an ma5e re(ommen ations !or their elimination an the o%servan(e o! high stan ar s o! ethi(s an e!!i(ien(#+ 788 ,rom&lgate its r&les o! pro(e &re an e6er(ise s&(h other po)ers or per!orm s&(h !&n(tions or &ties as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ SECTION 1/+ The O!!i(e o! the Om%& sman shall en'o# !is(al a&tonom#+ Its approve ann&al appropriations shall %e a&tomati(all# an reg&larl# release + SECTION 11+ The right o! the State to re(over properties &nla)!&ll# a(*&ire %# p&%li( o!!i(ials or emplo#ees, !rom them or !rom their nominees or trans!erees, shall not %e %arre %# pres(ription, la(hes, or estoppel+ SECTION 12+ No loan, g&arant#, or other !orm o! !inan(ial a((ommo ation !or an# %&siness p&rpose ma# %e grante , ire(tl# or in ire(tl#, %# an# government3o)ne or (ontrolle %an5 or !inan(ial instit&tion to the ,resi ent, the >i(e3,resi ent, the ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet, the Congress, the S&preme Co&rt, an the Constit&tional Commissions, the Om%& sman, or to an# !irm or entit# in )hi(h the# have (ontrolling interest, &ring their ten&re+

SECTION 17+ " p&%li( o!!i(er or emplo#ee shall, &pon ass&mption o! o!!i(e an as o!ten therea!ter as ma# %e re*&ire %# la), s&%mit a e(laration &n er oath o! his assets, lia%ilities, an net )orth+ In the (ase o! the ,resi ent, the >i(e3,resi ent, the ?em%ers o! the Ca%inet, the Congress, the S&preme Co&rt, the Constit&tional Commissions an other (onstit&tional o!!i(es, an o!!i(ers o! the arme !or(es )ith general or !lag ran5, the e(laration shall %e is(lose to the p&%li( in the manner provi e %# la)+ SECTION 18+ ,&%li( o!!i(ers an emplo#ees o)e the State an this Constit&tion allegian(e at all times, an an# p&%li( o!!i(er or emplo#ee )ho see5s to (hange his (iti0enship or a(*&ire the stat&s o! an immigrant o! another (o&ntr# &ring his ten&re shall %e ealt )ith %# la)+ ARTICLE XII National !conomy and Patrimony SECTION 1+ The goals o! the national e(onom# are a more e*&ita%le istri%&tion o! opport&nities, in(ome, an )ealth: a s&staine in(rease in the amo&nt o! goo s an servi(es pro &(e %# the nation !or the %ene!it o! the people: an an e6pan ing pro &(tivit# as the 5e# to raising the *&alit# o! li!e !or all, espe(iall# the &n erprivilege + The State shall promote in &striali0ation an !&ll emplo#ment %ase on so&n agri(&lt&ral evelopment an agrarian re!orm, thro&gh in &stries that ma5e !&ll an e!!i(ient &se o! h&man an nat&ral reso&r(es, an )hi(h are (ompetitive in %oth omesti( an !oreign mar5ets+ Ho)ever, the State shall prote(t Filipino enterprises against &n!air !oreign (ompetition an tra e pra(ti(es+

In the p&rs&it o! these goals, all se(tors o! the e(onom# an all regions o! the (o&ntr# shall %e given optim&m opport&nit# to evelop+ ,rivate enterprises, in(l& ing (orporations, (ooperatives, an similar (olle(tive organi0ations, shall %e en(o&rage to %roa en the %ase o! their o)nership+ SECTION -+ "ll lan s o! the p&%li( omain, )aters, minerals, (oal, petrole&m, an other mineral oils, all !or(es o! potential energ#, !isheries, !orests or tim%er, )il li!e, !lora an !a&na, an other nat&ral

reso&r(es are o)ne %# the State+ With the e6(eption o! agri(&lt&ral lan s, all other nat&ral reso&r(es shall not %e alienate + The e6ploration, evelopment, an &tili0ation o! nat&ral reso&r(es shall %e &n er the !&ll (ontrol an s&pervision o! the State+ The State ma# ire(tl# &n erta5e s&(h a(tivities, or it ma# enter into (o3pro &(tion, 'oint vent&re, or pro &(tion3sharing agreements )ith Filipino (iti0ens, or (orporations or asso(iations at least si6t# per centum o! )hose (apital is o)ne %# s&(h (iti0ens+ S&(h agreements ma# %e !or a perio not e6(ee ing t)ent#3!ive #ears, rene)a%le !or not more than t)ent#3!ive #ears, an &n er s&(h terms an (on itions as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ In (ases o! )ater rights !or irrigation, )ater s&ppl#, !isheries, or in &strial &ses other than the evelopment o! )ater po)er, %ene!i(ial &se ma# %e the meas&re an limit o! the grant+ The State shall prote(t the nationBs marine )ealth in its ar(hipelagi( )aters, territorial sea, an e6(l&sive e(onomi( 0one, an reserve its &se an en'o#ment e6(l&sivel# to Filipino (iti0ens+ The Congress ma#, %# la), allo) small3s(ale &tili0ation o! nat&ral reso&r(es %# Filipino (iti0ens, as )ell as (ooperative !ish !arming, )ith priorit# to s&%sisten(e !ishermen an !ish)or5ers in rivers, la5es, %a#s, an lagoons+ The ,resi ent ma# enter into agreements )ith !oreign3o)ne (orporations involving either te(hni(al or !inan(ial assistan(e !or large3 s(ale e6ploration, evelopment, an &tili0ation o! minerals, petrole&m, an other mineral oils a((or ing to the general terms an (on itions provi e %# la), %ase on real (ontri%&tions to the e(onomi( gro)th an general )el!are o! the (o&ntr#+ In s&(h agreements, the State shall promote the evelopment an &se o! lo(al s(ienti!i( an te(hni(al reso&r(es+ The ,resi ent shall noti!# the Congress o! ever# (ontra(t entere into in a((or an(e )ith this provision, )ithin thirt# a#s !rom its e6e(&tion+ SECTION .+ Can s o! the p&%li( omain are (lassi!ie into agri(&lt&ral, !orest or tim%er, mineral lan s, an national par5s+ "gri(&lt&ral lan s o! the p&%li( omain ma# %e !&rther (lassi!ie %# la) a((or ing to the &ses )hi(h the# ma# %e evote + "liena%le lan s o! the p&%li( omain shall %e limite to agri(&lt&ral lan s+ ,rivate (orporations or asso(iations ma# not hol s&(h aliena%le lan s o! the p&%li( omain e6(ept %# lease, !or a perio not e6(ee ing t)ent#3!ive

#ears, rene)a%le !or not more than t)ent#3!ive #ears, an not to e6(ee one tho&san he(tares in area+ Citi0ens o! the ,hilippines ma# lease not more than !ive h&n re he(tares, or a(*&ire not more than t)elve he(tares thereo! %# p&r(hase, homestea , or grant+ Ta5ing into a((o&nt the re*&irements o! (onservation, e(olog#, an evelopment, an s&%'e(t to the re*&irements o! agrarian re!orm, the Congress shall etermine, %# la), the si0e o! lan s o! the p&%li( omain )hi(h ma# %e a(*&ire , evelope , hel , or lease an the (on itions there!or+ SECTION /+ The Congress shall, as soon as possi%le, etermine %# la) the spe(i!i( limits o! !orest lan s an national par5s, mar5ing (learl# their %o&n aries on the gro&n + Therea!ter, s&(h !orest lan s an national par5s shall %e (onserve an ma# not %e in(rease nor iminishe , e6(ept %# la)+ The Congress shall provi e, !or s&(h perio as it ma# etermine, meas&res to prohi%it logging in en angere !orests an )atershe areas+ SECTION 1+ The State, s&%'e(t to the provisions o! this Constit&tion an national evelopment poli(ies an programs, shall prote(t the rights o! in igeno&s (&lt&ral (omm&nities to their an(estral lan s to ens&re their e(onomi(, so(ial, an (&lt&ral )ell3%eing+ The Congress ma# provi e !or the appli(a%ilit# o! (&stomar# la)s governing propert# rights or relations in etermining the o)nership an e6tent o! an(estral omain+ SECTION 2+ The &se o! propert# %ears a so(ial !&n(tion, an all e(onomi( agents shall (ontri%&te to the (ommon goo + In ivi &als an private gro&ps, in(l& ing (orporations, (ooperatives, an similar (olle(tive organi0ations, shall have the right to o)n, esta%lish, an operate e(onomi( enterprises, s&%'e(t to the &t# o! the State to promote istri%&tive '&sti(e an to intervene )hen the (ommon goo so eman s+ SECTION 7+ Save in (ases o! here itar# s&((ession, no private lan s shall %e trans!erre or (onve#e e6(ept to in ivi &als, (orporations, or asso(iations *&ali!ie to a(*&ire or hol lan s o! the p&%li( omain+ SECTION 8+ Not)ithstan ing the provisions o! Se(tion 7 o! this "rti(le, a nat&ral3%orn (iti0en o! the ,hilippines )ho has lost his

,hilippine (iti0enship ma# %e a trans!eree o! private lan s, s&%'e(t to limitations provi e %# la)+ SECTION 9+ The Congress ma# esta%lish an in epen ent e(onomi( an planning agen(# hea e %# the ,resi ent, )hi(h shall, a!ter (ons&ltations )ith the appropriate p&%li( agen(ies, vario&s private se(tors, an lo(al government &nits, re(ommen to Congress, an implement (ontin&ing integrate an (oor inate programs an poli(ies !or national evelopment+ Until the Congress provi es other)ise, the National E(onomi( an <evelopment "&thorit# shall !&n(tion as the in epen ent planning agen(# o! the government+ SECTION 14+ The Congress shall, &pon re(ommen ation o! the e(onomi( an planning agen(#, )hen the national interest i(tates, reserve to (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines or to (orporations or asso(iations at least si6t# per centum o! )hose (apital is o)ne %# s&(h (iti0ens, or s&(h higher per(entage as Congress ma# pres(ri%e, (ertain areas o! investments+ The Congress shall ena(t meas&res that )ill en(o&rage the !ormation an operation o! enterprises )hose (apital is )holl# o)ne %# Filipinos+ In the grant o! rights, privileges, an (on(essions (overing the national e(onom# an patrimon#, the State shall give pre!eren(e to *&ali!ie Filipinos+ The State shall reg&late an e6er(ise a&thorit# over !oreign investments )ithin its national '&ris i(tion an in a((or an(e )ith its national goals an priorities+ SECTION 11+ No !ran(hise, (erti!i(ate, or an# other !orm o! a&thori0ation !or the operation o! a p&%li( &tilit# shall %e grante e6(ept to (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines or to (orporations or asso(iations organi0e &n er the la)s o! the ,hilippines at least si6t# per centum o! )hose (apital is o)ne %# s&(h (iti0ens, nor shall s&(h !ran(hise, (erti!i(ate, or a&thori0ation %e e6(l&sive in (hara(ter or !or a longer perio than !i!t# #ears+ Neither shall an# s&(h !ran(hise or right %e grante e6(ept &n er the (on ition that it shall %e s&%'e(t to amen ment, alteration, or repeal %# the Congress )hen the (ommon goo so re*&ires+ The State shall en(o&rage e*&it# parti(ipation in p&%li( &tilities %# the general p&%li(+ The parti(ipation o! !oreign investors in the governing %o # o! an# p&%li( &tilit# enterprise shall %e

limite to their proportionate share in its (apital, an all the e6e(&tive an managing o!!i(ers o! s&(h (orporation or asso(iation m&st %e (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines+ SECTION 1-+ The State shall promote the pre!erential &se o! Filipino la%or, omesti( materials an lo(all# pro &(e goo s, an a opt meas&res that help ma5e them (ompetitive+ SECTION 1.+ The State shall p&rs&e a tra e poli(# that serves the general )el!are an &tili0es all !orms an arrangements o! e6(hange on the %asis o! e*&alit# an re(ipro(it#+ SECTION 1/+ The s&staine evelopment o! a reservoir o! national talents (onsisting o! Filipino s(ientists, entreprene&rs, pro!essionals, managers, high3level te(hni(al manpo)er an s5ille )or5ers an (ra!tsmen in all !iel s shall %e promote %# the State+ The State shall en(o&rage appropriate te(hnolog# an reg&late its trans!er !or the national %ene!it+ The pra(ti(e o! all pro!essions in the ,hilippines shall %e limite to Filipino (iti0ens, save in (ases pres(ri%e %# la)+ SECTION 11+ The Congress shall (reate an agen(# to promote the via%ilit# an gro)th o! (ooperatives as instr&ments !or so(ial '&sti(e an e(onomi( evelopment+ SECTION 12+ The Congress shall not, e6(ept %# general la), provi e !or the !ormation, organi0ation, or reg&lation o! private (orporations+ $overnment3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations ma# %e (reate or esta%lishe %# spe(ial (harters in the interest o! the (ommon goo an s&%'e(t to the test o! e(onomi( via%ilit#+ SECTION 17+ In times o! national emergen(#, )hen the p&%li( interest so re*&ires, the State ma#, &ring the emergen(# an &n er reasona%le terms pres(ri%e %# it, temporaril# ta5e over or ire(t the operation o! an# privatel# o)ne p&%li( &tilit# or %&siness a!!e(te )ith p&%li( interest+ SECTION 18+ The State ma#, in the interest o! national )el!are or e!ense, esta%lish an operate vital in &stries an , &pon pa#ment o! '&st (ompensation, trans!er to p&%li( o)nership &tilities an other private enterprises to %e operate %# the $overnment+

SECTION 19+ The State shall reg&late or prohi%it monopolies )hen the p&%li( interest so re*&ires+ No (om%inations in restraint o! tra e or &n!air (ompetition shall %e allo)e + SECTION -4+ The Congress shall esta%lish an in epen ent (entral monetar# a&thorit#, the mem%ers o! )hose governing %oar m&st %e nat&ral3%orn Filipino (iti0ens, o! 5no)n pro%it#, integrit#, an patriotism, the ma'orit# o! )hom shall (ome !rom the private se(tor+ The# shall also %e s&%'e(t to s&(h other *&ali!i(ations an isa%ilities as ma# %e pres(ri%e %# la)+ The a&thorit# shall provi e poli(# ire(tion in the areas o! mone#, %an5ing, an (re it+ It shall have s&pervision over the operations o! %an5s an e6er(ise s&(h reg&lator# po)ers as ma# %e provi e %# la) over the operations o! !inan(e (ompanies an other instit&tions per!orming similar !&n(tions+

Until the Congress other)ise provi es, the Central @an5 o! the ,hilippines, operating &n er e6isting la)s, shall !&n(tion as the (entral monetar# a&thorit#+ SECTION -1+ Foreign loans ma# onl# %e in(&rre in a((or an(e )ith la) an the reg&lation o! the monetar# a&thorit#+ In!ormation on !oreign loans o%taine or g&arantee %# the $overnment shall %e ma e availa%le to the p&%li(+ SECTION --+ "(ts )hi(h (ir(&mvent or negate an# o! the provisions o! this "rti(le shall %e (onsi ere inimi(al to the national interest an s&%'e(t to (riminal an (ivil san(tions, as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ ARTICLE XIII Social "ustice and )uman Rights SECTION 1+ The Congress shall give highest priorit# to the ena(tment o! meas&res that prote(t an enhan(e the right o! all the people to h&man ignit#, re &(e so(ial, e(onomi(, an politi(al ine*&alities, an remove (&lt&ral ine*&ities %# e*&ita%l# i!!&sing )ealth an politi(al po)er !or the (ommon goo + To this en , the State shall reg&late the a(*&isition, o)nership, &se, an isposition o! propert# an its in(rements+

SECTION -+ The promotion o! so(ial '&sti(e shall in(l& e the (ommitment to (reate e(onomi( opport&nities %ase on !ree om o! initiative an sel!3relian(e+ Labor SECTION .+ The State shall a!!or !&ll prote(tion to la%or, lo(al an overseas, organi0e an &norgani0e , an promote !&ll emplo#ment an e*&alit# o! emplo#ment opport&nities !or all+ It shall g&arantee the rights o! all )or5ers to sel!3organi0ation, (olle(tive %argaining an negotiations, an pea(e!&l (on(erte a(tivities, in(l& ing the right to stri5e in a((or an(e )ith la)+ The# shall %e entitle to se(&rit# o! ten&re, h&mane (on itions o! )or5, an a living )age+ The# shall also parti(ipate in poli(# an e(ision3ma5ing pro(esses a!!e(ting their rights an %ene!its as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ The State shall promote the prin(iple o! share responsi%ilit# %et)een )or5ers an emplo#ers an the pre!erential &se o! vol&ntar# mo es in settling isp&tes, in(l& ing (on(iliation, an shall en!or(e their m&t&al (omplian(e there)ith to !oster in &strial pea(e+ The State shall reg&late the relations %et)een )or5ers an emplo#ers, re(ogni0ing the right o! la%or to its '&st share in the !r&its o! pro &(tion an the right o! enterprises to reasona%le ret&rns on investments, an to e6pansion an gro)th+ &grarian and Natural Resources Reform SECTION /+ The State shall, %# la), &n erta5e an agrarian re!orm program !o&n e on the right o! !armers an reg&lar !arm)or5ers, )ho are lan less, to o)n ire(tl# or (olle(tivel# the lan s the# till or, in the (ase o! other !arm)or5ers, to re(eive a '&st share o! the !r&its thereo!+ To this en , the State shall en(o&rage an &n erta5e the '&st istri%&tion o! all agri(&lt&ral lan s, s&%'e(t to s&(h priorities an reasona%le retention limits as the Congress ma# pres(ri%e, ta5ing into a((o&nt e(ologi(al, evelopmental, or e*&it# (onsi erations, an s&%'e(t to the pa#ment o! '&st (ompensation+ In etermining retention limits, the State shall respe(t the right o! small lan o)ners+ The State shall !&rther provi e in(entives !or vol&ntar# lan 3sharing+ SECTION 1+ The State shall re(ogni0e the right o! !armers, !arm)or5ers, an lan o)ners, as )ell as (ooperatives, an other

in epen ent !armersB organi0ations to parti(ipate in organi0ation, an management o! the program, an s&pport to agri(&lt&re thro&gh appropriate te(hnolog# an a e*&ate !inan(ial, pro &(tion, mar5eting, an servi(es+

the planning, shall provi e an resear(h, other s&pport

SECTION 2+ The State shall appl# the prin(iples o! agrarian re!orm or ste)ar ship, )henever appli(a%le in a((or an(e )ith la), in the isposition or &tili0ation o! other nat&ral reso&r(es, in(l& ing lan s o! the p&%li( omain &n er lease or (on(ession s&ita%le to agri(&lt&re, s&%'e(t to prior rights, homestea rights o! small settlers, an the rights o! in igeno&s (omm&nities to their an(estral lan s+ The State ma# resettle lan less !armers an !arm)or5ers in its o)n agri(&lt&ral estates )hi(h shall %e istri%&te to them in the manner provi e %# la)+ SECTION 7+ The State shall prote(t the rights o! s&%sisten(e !ishermen, espe(iall# o! lo(al (omm&nities, to the pre!erential &se o! lo(al marine an !ishing reso&r(es, %oth inlan an o!!shore+ It shall provi e s&pport to s&(h !ishermen thro&gh appropriate te(hnolog# an resear(h, a e*&ate !inan(ial, pro &(tion, an mar5eting assistan(e, an other servi(es+ The State shall also prote(t, evelop, an (onserve s&(h reso&r(es+ The prote(tion shall e6ten to o!!shore !ishing gro&n s o! s&%sisten(e !ishermen against !oreign intr&sion+ Fish)or5ers shall re(eive a '&st share !rom their la%or in the &tili0ation o! marine an !ishing reso&r(es+ SECTION 8+ The State shall provi e in(entives to lan o)ners to invest the pro(ee s o! the agrarian re!orm program to promote in &striali0ation, emplo#ment (reation, an privati0ation o! p&%li( se(tor enterprises+ Finan(ial instr&ments &se as pa#ment !or their lan s shall %e honore as e*&it# in enterprises o! their (hoi(e+ *rban Land Reform and )ousing SECTION 9+ The State shall, %# la), an !or the (ommon goo , &n erta5e, in (ooperation )ith the p&%li( se(tor, a (ontin&ing program o! &r%an lan re!orm an ho&sing )hi(h )ill ma5e availa%le at a!!or a%le (ost e(ent ho&sing an %asi( servi(es to &n erprivilege an homeless (iti0ens in &r%an (enters an resettlements areas+ It shall also promote a e*&ate emplo#ment opport&nities to s&(h (iti0ens+ In

the implementation o! s&(h program the State shall respe(t the rights o! small propert# o)ners+ SECTION 14+ Ur%an or r&ral poor )ellers shall not %e evi(te nor their )ellings emolishe , e6(ept in a((or an(e )ith la) an in a '&st an h&mane manner+ No resettlement o! &r%an or r&ral )ellers shall %e &n erta5en )itho&t a e*&ate (ons&ltation )ith them an the (omm&nities )here the# are to %e relo(ate + )ealth SECTION 11+ The State shall a opt an integrate an (omprehensive approa(h to health evelopment )hi(h shall en eavor to ma5e essential goo s, health an other so(ial servi(es availa%le to all the people at a!!or a%le (ost+ There shall %e priorit# !or the nee s o! the &n erprivilege si(5, el erl#, isa%le , )omen, an (hil ren+ The State shall en eavor to provi e !ree me i(al (are to pa&pers+ SECTION 1-+ The State shall esta%lish an maintain an e!!e(tive !oo an r&g reg&lator# s#stem an &n erta5e appropriate health manpo)er evelopment an resear(h, responsive to the (o&ntr#Bs health nee s an pro%lems+ SECTION 1.+ The State shall esta%lish a spe(ial agen(# !or isa%le persons !or reha%ilitation, sel!3 evelopment an sel!3relian(e, an their integration into the mainstream o! so(iet#+ +omen SECTION 1/+ The State shall prote(t )or5ing )omen %# provi ing sa!e an health!&l )or5ing (on itions, ta5ing into a((o&nt their maternal !&n(tions, an s&(h !a(ilities an opport&nities that )ill enhan(e their )el!are an ena%le them to reali0e their !&ll potential in the servi(e o! the nation+ Role and Rights of People,s (rganizations SECTION 11+ The State shall respe(t the role o! in epen ent peopleBs organi0ations to ena%le the people to p&rs&e an prote(t, )ithin the emo(rati( !rame)or5, their legitimate an (olle(tive interests an aspirations thro&gh pea(e!&l an la)!&l means+

,eopleBs organi0ations are bona fide asso(iations o! (iti0ens )ith emonstrate (apa(it# to promote the p&%li( interest an )ith i enti!ia%le lea ership, mem%ership, an str&(t&re+ SECTION 12+ The right o! the people an their organi0ations to e!!e(tive an reasona%le parti(ipation at all levels o! so(ial, politi(al, an e(onomi( e(ision3ma5ing shall not %e a%ri ge + The State shall, %# la), !a(ilitate the esta%lishment o! a e*&ate (ons&ltation me(hanisms+ )uman Rights SECTION 17+ 718 There is here%# (reate an in epen ent o!!i(e (alle the Commission on H&man =ights+ 7-8 The Commission shall %e (ompose o! a Chairman an !o&r ?em%ers )ho m&st %e nat&ral3%orn (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines an a ma'orit# o! )hom shall %e mem%ers o! the @ar+ The term o! o!!i(e an other *&ali!i(ations an isa%ilities o! the ?em%ers o! the Commission shall %e provi e %# la)+ 7.8 Until this Commission is (onstit&te , the e6isting ,resi ential Committee on H&man =ights shall (ontin&e to e6er(ise its present !&n(tions an po)ers+ 7/8 The approve ann&al appropriations o! the Commission shall %e a&tomati(all# an reg&larl# release + SECTION 18+ The Commission on H&man =ights shall have the !ollo)ing po)ers an !&n(tions9 718 Investigate, on its o)n or on (omplaint %# an# part#, all !orms o! h&man rights violations involving (ivil an politi(al rights: 7-8 " opt its operational g&i elines an r&les o! pro(e &re, an (ite !or (ontempt !or violations thereo! in a((or an(e )ith the =&les o! Co&rt: 7.8 ,rovi e appropriate legal meas&res !or the prote(tion o! h&man rights o! all persons )ithin the ,hilippines, as )ell as Filipinos resi ing a%roa , an provi e !or preventive meas&res an legal ai servi(es to the

&n erprivilege )hose h&man rights have %een violate or nee prote(tion: 7/8 E6er(ise visitorial po)ers over 'ails, prisons, or etention !a(ilities: 718 Esta%lish a (ontin&ing program o! resear(h, e &(ation, an in!ormation to enhan(e respe(t !or the prima(# o! h&man rights: 728 =e(ommen to the Congress e!!e(tive meas&res to promote h&man rights an to provi e !or (ompensation to vi(tims o! violations o! h&man rights, or their !amilies: 778 ?onitor the ,hilippine $overnmentBs (omplian(e )ith international treat# o%ligations on h&man rights: 788 $rant imm&nit# !rom prose(&tion to an# person )hose testimon# or )hose possession o! o(&ments or other evi en(e is ne(essar# or (onvenient to etermine the tr&th in an# investigation (on &(te %# it or &n er its a&thorit#: 798 =e*&est the assistan(e o! an# epartment, %&rea&, o!!i(e, or agen(# in the per!orman(e o! its !&n(tions: 7148 "ppoint its o!!i(ers an emplo#ees in a((or an(e )ith la): an 7118 ,er!orm s&(h other provi e %# la)+ &ties an !&n(tions as ma# %e

SECTION 19+ The Congress ma# provi e !or other (ases o! violations o! h&man rights that sho&l !all )ithin the a&thorit# o! the Commission, ta5ing into a((o&nt its re(ommen ations+ ARTICLE XIV !ducation# Science and Technology# &rts# Culture# and Sports !ducation

SECTION 1+ The State shall prote(t an promote the right o! all (iti0ens to *&alit# e &(ation at all levels an shall ta5e appropriate steps to ma5e s&(h e &(ation a((essi%le to all+ SECTION -+ The State shall9 718 Esta%lish, maintain, an s&pport a (omplete, a e*&ate, an integrate s#stem o! e &(ation relevant to the nee s o! the people an so(iet#: 7-8 Esta%lish an maintain a s#stem o! !ree p&%li( e &(ation in the elementar# an high s(hool levels+ Witho&t limiting the nat&ral right o! parents to rear their (hil ren, elementar# e &(ation is (omp&lsor# !or all (hil ren o! s(hool age: 7.8 Esta%lish an maintain a s#stem o! s(holarship grants, st& ent loan programs, s&%si ies, an other in(entives )hi(h shall %e availa%le to eserving st& ents in %oth p&%li( an private s(hools, espe(iall# to the &n erprivilege : 7/8 En(o&rage non3!ormal, in!ormal, an in igeno&s learning s#stems, as )ell as sel!3learning, in epen ent, an o&t3o!3s(hool st& # programs parti(&larl# those that respon to (omm&nit# nee s: an 718 ,rovi e a &lt (iti0ens, the isa%le , an o&t3o!3s(hool #o&th )ith training in (ivi(s, vo(ational e!!i(ien(#, an other s5ills+ SECTION .+ 718 "ll e &(ational instit&tions shall in(l& e the st& # o! the Constit&tion as part o! the (&rri(&la+ 7-8 The# shall in(&l(ate patriotism an nationalism, !oster love o! h&manit#, respe(t !or h&man rights, appre(iation o! the role o! national heroes in the histori(al evelopment o! the (o&ntr#, tea(h the rights an &ties o! (iti0enship, strengthen ethi(al an spirit&al val&es, evelop moral (hara(ter an personal is(ipline, en(o&rage (riti(al an (reative thin5ing, %roa en s(ienti!i( an te(hnologi(al 5no)le ge, an promote vo(ational e!!i(ien(#+

7.8 "t the option e6presse in )riting %# the parents or g&ar ians, religion shall %e allo)e to %e ta&ght to their (hil ren or )ar s in p&%li( elementar# an high s(hools )ithin the reg&lar (lass ho&rs %# instr&(tors esignate or approve %# the religio&s a&thorities o! the religion to )hi(h the (hil ren or )ar s %elong, )itho&t a itional (ost to the $overnment+ SECTION /+ 718 The State re(ogni0es the (omplementar# roles o! p&%li( an private instit&tions in the e &(ational s#stem an shall e6er(ise reasona%le s&pervision an reg&lation o! all e &(ational instit&tions+ 7-8 E &(ational instit&tions, other than those esta%lishe %# religio&s gro&ps an mission %oar s, shall %e o)ne solel# %# (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines or (orporations or asso(iations at least si6t# per centum o! the (apital o! )hi(h is o)ne %# s&(h (iti0ens+ The Congress ma#, ho)ever, re*&ire in(rease Filipino e*&it# parti(ipation in all e &(ational instit&tions+ The (ontrol an a ministration o! e &(ational instit&tions shall %e veste in (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines+ No e &(ational instit&tion shall %e esta%lishe e6(l&sivel# !or aliens an no gro&p o! aliens shall (omprise more than one3thir o! the enrollment in an# s(hool+ The provisions o! this s&%se(tion shall not appl# to s(hools esta%lishe !or !oreign iplomati( personnel an their epen ents an , &nless other)ise provi e %# la), !or other !oreign temporar# resi ents+ 7.8 "ll reven&es an assets o! non3sto(5, non3pro!it e &(ational instit&tions &se a(t&all#, ire(tl#, an e6(l&sivel# !or e &(ational p&rposes shall %e e6empt !rom ta6es an &ties+ Upon the issol&tion or (essation o! the (orporate e6isten(e o! s&(h instit&tions, their assets shall %e ispose o! in the manner provi e %# la)+ ,roprietar# e &(ational instit&tions, in(l& ing those (ooperativel# o)ne , ma# li5e)ise %e entitle to s&(h e6emptions s&%'e(t to the limitations provi e %# la) in(l& ing restri(tions on ivi en s an provisions !or reinvestment+ 7/8 S&%'e(t to (on itions pres(ri%e %# la), all grants, en o)ments, onations, or (ontri%&tions &se a(t&all#, ire(tl#, an e6(l&sivel# !or e &(ational p&rposes shall %e e6empt !rom ta6+

SECTION 1+ 718 The State shall ta5e into a((o&nt regional an se(toral nee s an (on itions an shall en(o&rage lo(al planning in the evelopment o! e &(ational poli(ies an programs+ 7-8 "(a emi( !ree om shall %e en'o#e in all instit&tions o! higher learning+ 7.8 Ever# (iti0en has a right to sele(t a pro!ession or (o&rse o! st& #, s&%'e(t to !air, reasona%le, an e*&ita%le a mission an a(a emi( re*&irements+ 7/8 The State shall enhan(e the right o! tea(hers to pro!essional a van(ement+ Non3tea(hing a(a emi( an non3a(a emi( personnel shall en'o# the prote(tion o! the State+ 718 The State shall assign the highest %& getar# priorit# to e &(ation an ens&re that tea(hing )ill attra(t an retain its right!&l share o! the %est availa%le talents thro&gh a e*&ate rem&neration an other means o! 'o% satis!a(tion an !&l!illment+ Language SECTION 2+ The national lang&age o! the ,hilippines is Filipino+ "s it evolves, it shall %e !&rther evelope an enri(he on the %asis o! e6isting ,hilippine an other lang&ages+ S&%'e(t to provisions o! la) an as the Congress ma# eem appropriate, the $overnment shall ta5e steps to initiate an s&stain the &se o! Filipino as a me i&m o! o!!i(ial (omm&ni(ation an as lang&age o! instr&(tion in the e &(ational s#stem+ SECTION 7+ For p&rposes o! (omm&ni(ation an instr&(tion, the o!!i(ial lang&ages o! the ,hilippines are Filipino an , &ntil other)ise provi e %# la), English+ The regional lang&ages are the a&6iliar# o!!i(ial lang&ages in the regions an shall serve as a&6iliar# me ia o! instr&(tion therein+ Spanish an optional %asis+ "ra%i( shall %e promote on a vol&ntar# an

SECTION 8+ This Constit&tion shall %e prom&lgate in Filipino an English an shall %e translate into ma'or regional lang&ages, "ra%i(, an Spanish+ SECTION 9+ The Congress shall esta%lish a national lang&age (ommission (ompose o! representatives o! vario&s regions an is(iplines )hi(h shall &n erta5e, (oor inate, an promote resear(hes !or the evelopment, propagation, an preservation o! Filipino an other lang&ages+ Science and Technology SECTION 14+ S(ien(e an te(hnolog# are essential !or national evelopment an progress+ The State shall give priorit# to resear(h an evelopment, invention, innovation, an their &tili0ation: an to s(ien(e an te(hnolog# e &(ation, training, an servi(es+ It shall s&pport in igeno&s, appropriate, an sel!3reliant s(ienti!i( an te(hnologi(al (apa%ilities, an their appli(ation to the (o&ntr#Bs pro &(tive s#stems an national li!e+ SECTION 11+ The Congress ma# provi e !or in(entives, in(l& ing ta6 e &(tions, to en(o&rage private parti(ipation in programs o! %asi( an applie s(ienti!i( resear(h+ S(holarships, grants3in3ai , or other !orms o! in(entives shall %e provi e to eserving s(ien(e st& ents, resear(hers, s(ientists, inventors, te(hnologists, an spe(iall# gi!te (iti0ens+ SECTION 1-+ The State shall reg&late the trans!er an promote the a aptation o! te(hnolog# !rom all so&r(es !or the national %ene!it+ It shall en(o&rage the )i est parti(ipation o! private gro&ps, lo(al governments, an (omm&nit#3%ase organi0ations in the generation an &tili0ation o! s(ien(e an te(hnolog#+ SECTION 1.+ The State shall prote(t an se(&re the e6(l&sive rights o! s(ientists, inventors, artists, an other gi!te (iti0ens to their intelle(t&al propert# an (reations, parti(&larl# )hen %ene!i(ial to the people, !or s&(h perio as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ &rts and Culture an SECTION 1/+ The State shall !oster the preservation, enri(hment, #nami( evol&tion o! a Filipino national (&lt&re %ase on the

prin(iple o! &nit# in iversit# in a (limate o! !ree artisti( an intelle(t&al e6pression+ SECTION 11+ "rts an letters shall en'o# the patronage o! the State+ The State shall (onserve, promote, an pop&lari0e the nationBs histori(al an (&lt&ral heritage an reso&r(es, as )ell as artisti( (reations+ SECTION 12+ "ll the (o&ntr#Bs artisti( an histori( )ealth (onstit&tes the (&lt&ral treas&re o! the nation an shall %e &n er the prote(tion o! the State )hi(h ma# reg&late its isposition+ SECTION 17+ The State shall re(ogni0e, respe(t, an prote(t the rights o! in igeno&s (&lt&ral (omm&nities to preserve an evelop their (&lt&res, tra itions, an instit&tions+ It shall (onsi er these rights in the !orm&lation o! national plans an poli(ies+ SECTION 18+ 718 The State shall ens&re e*&al a((ess to (&lt&ral opport&nities thro&gh the e &(ational s#stem, p&%li( or private (&lt&ral entities, s(holarships, grants an other in(entives, an (omm&nit# (&lt&ral (enters, an other p&%li( ven&es+ 7-8 The State shall en(o&rage an st& ies on the arts an (&lt&re+ Sports SECTION 19+ 718 The State shall promote ph#si(al e &(ation an en(o&rage sports programs, leag&e (ompetitions, an amate&r sports, in(l& ing training !or international (ompetitions, to !oster sel!3 is(ipline, team)or5, an e6(ellen(e !or the evelopment o! a health# an alert (iti0enr#+ 7-8 "ll e &(ational instit&tions shall &n erta5e reg&lar sports a(tivities thro&gho&t the (o&ntr# in (ooperation )ith athleti( (l&%s an other se(tors+ ARTICLE XV The -amily s&pport resear(hes an

SECTION 1+ The State re(ogni0es the Filipino !amil# as the !o&n ation o! the nation+ "((or ingl#, it shall strengthen its soli arit# an a(tivel# promote its total evelopment+ SECTION -+ ?arriage, as an inviola%le so(ial instit&tion, is the !o&n ation o! the !amil# an shall %e prote(te %# the State+ SECTION .+ The State shall e!en 9 718 The right o! spo&ses to !o&n a !amil# in a((or an(e )ith their religio&s (onvi(tions an the eman s o! responsi%le parenthoo : 7-8 The right o! (hil ren to assistan(e, in(l& ing proper (are an n&trition, an spe(ial prote(tion !rom all !orms o! negle(t, a%&se, (r&elt#, e6ploitation, an other (on itions pre'& i(ial to their evelopment: 7.8 The right o! the !amil# to a !amil# living )age an in(ome: an

7/8 The right o! !amilies or !amil# asso(iations to parti(ipate in the planning an implementation o! poli(ies an programs that a!!e(t them+ SECTION /+ The !amil# has the &t# to (are !or its el erl# mem%ers %&t the State ma# also o so thro&gh '&st programs o! so(ial se(&rit#+ ARTICLE XVI 'eneral Pro isions SECTION 1+ The !lag o! the ,hilippines shall %e re , )hite, an %l&e, )ith a s&n an three stars, as (onse(rate an honore %# the people an re(ogni0e %# la)+ SECTION -+ The Congress ma#, %# la), a opt a ne) name !or the (o&ntr#, a national anthem, or a national seal, )hi(h shall all %e tr&l# re!le(tive an s#m%oli( o! the i eals, histor#, an tra itions o! the people+ S&(h la) shall ta5e e!!e(t onl# &pon its rati!i(ation %# the people in a national re!eren &m+

SECTION .+ The State ma# not %e s&e )itho&t its (onsent+ SECTION /+ The "rme For(es o! the ,hilippines shall %e (ompose o! a (iti0en arme !or(e )hi(h shall &n ergo militar# training an serve, as ma# %e provi e %# la)+ It shall 5eep a reg&lar !or(e ne(essar# !or the se(&rit# o! the State+ SECTION 1+ 718 "ll mem%ers o! the arme !or(es shall ta5e an oath or a!!irmation to &phol an e!en this Constit&tion+ 7-8 The State shall strengthen the patrioti( spirit an nationalist (ons(io&sness o! the militar#, an respe(t !or peopleBs rights in the per!orman(e o! their &t#+ 7.8 ,ro!essionalism in the arme !or(es an a e*&ate rem&neration an %ene!its o! its mem%ers shall %e a prime (on(ern o! the State+ The arme !or(es shall %e ins&late !rom partisan politi(s+ No mem%er o! the militar# shall engage an# partisan politi(al a(tivit#, e6(ept to vote+ ire(tl# or in ire(tl# in

7/8 No mem%er o! the arme !or(es in the a(tive servi(e shall, at an# time, %e appointe or esignate in an# (apa(it# to a (ivilian position in the $overnment in(l& ing government3o)ne or (ontrolle (orporations or an# o! their s&%si iaries+ 718 Ca)s on retirement o! militar# o!!i(ers shall not allo) e6tension o! their servi(e+ 728 The o!!i(ers an men o! the reg&lar !or(e o! the arme !or(es shall %e re(r&ite proportionatel# !rom all provin(es an (ities as !ar as pra(ti(a%le+ 778 The to&r o! &t# o! the Chie! o! Sta!! o! the arme !or(es shall not e6(ee three #ears+ Ho)ever, in times o! )ar or other national emergen(# e(lare %# the Congress, the ,resi ent ma# e6ten s&(h to&r o! &t#+ SECTION 2+ The State shall esta%lish an maintain one poli(e !or(e, )hi(h shall %e national in s(ope an (ivilian in (hara(ter, to %e a ministere an (ontrolle %# a national poli(e (ommission+ The a&thorit# o! lo(al e6e(&tives over the poli(e &nits in their '&ris i(tion shall %e provi e %# la)+

SECTION 7+ The State shall provi e imme iate an a e*&ate (are, %ene!its, an other !orms o! assistan(e to )ar veterans an veterans o! militar# (ampaigns, their s&rviving spo&ses an orphans+ F&n s shall %e provi e there!or an &e (onsi eration shall %e given them in the isposition o! agri(&lt&ral lan s o! the p&%li( omain an , in appropriate (ases, in the &tili0ation o! nat&ral reso&r(es+ SECTION 8+ The State shall, !rom time to time, revie) to &pgra e the pensions an other %ene!its &e to retirees o! %oth the government an the private se(tors+ SECTION 9+ The State shall prote(t (ons&mers !rom tra e malpra(ti(es an !rom s&%stan ar or ha0ar o&s pro &(ts+ SECTION 14+ The State shall provi e the poli(# environment !or the !&ll evelopment o! Filipino (apa%ilit# an the emergen(e o! (omm&ni(ation str&(t&res s&ita%le to the nee s an aspirations o! the nation an the %alan(e !lo) o! in!ormation into, o&t o!, an a(ross the (o&ntr#, in a((or an(e )ith a poli(# that respe(ts the !ree om o! spee(h an o! the press+ SECTION 11+ 718 The o)nership an management o! mass me ia shall %e limite to (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines, or to (orporations, (ooperatives or asso(iations, )holl#3o)ne an manage %# s&(h (iti0ens+ The Congress shall reg&late or prohi%it monopolies in (ommer(ial mass me ia )hen the p&%li( interest so re*&ires+ No (om%inations in restraint o! tra e or &n!air (ompetition therein shall %e allo)e + 7-8 The a vertising in &str# is impresse )ith p&%li( interest, an shall %e reg&late %# la) !or the prote(tion o! (ons&mers an the promotion o! the general )el!are+ Onl# Filipino (iti0ens or (orporations or asso(iations at least sevent# per centum o! the (apital o! )hi(h is o)ne %# s&(h (iti0ens shall %e allo)e to engage in the a vertising in &str#+ The parti(ipation o! !oreign investors in the governing %o # o! entities in s&(h in &str# shall %e limite to their proportionate share in the (apital thereo!, an all the e6e(&tive an managing o!!i(ers o! s&(h entities m&st %e (iti0ens o! the ,hilippines+

SECTION 1-+ The Congress ma# (reate a (ons&ltative %o # to a vise the ,resi ent on poli(ies a!!e(ting in igeno&s (&lt&ral (omm&nities, the ma'orit# o! the mem%ers o! )hi(h shall (ome !rom s&(h (omm&nities+ ARTICLE XVII &mendments or Re isions SECTION 1+ "n# amen ment to, or revision o!, this Constit&tion ma# %e propose %#9 718 The Congress, &pon a vote o! three3!o&rths o! all its ?em%ers: or 7-8 " (onstit&tional (onvention+ SECTION -+ "men ments to this Constit&tion ma# li5e)ise %e ire(tl# propose %# the people thro&gh initiative &pon a petition o! at least t)elve per centum o! the total n&m%er o! registere voters, o! )hi(h ever# legislative istri(t m&st %e represente %# at least three per centum o! the registere voters therein+ No amen ment &n er this se(tion shall %e a&thori0e )ithin !ive #ears !ollo)ing the rati!i(ation o! this Constit&tion nor o!tener than on(e ever# !ive #ears therea!ter+ The Congress shall provi e !or the implementation o! the e6er(ise o! this right+ SECTION .+ The Congress ma#, %# a vote o! t)o3thir s o! all its ?em%ers, (all a (onstit&tional (onvention, or %# a ma'orit# vote o! all its ?em%ers, s&%mit to the ele(torate the *&estion o! (alling s&(h a (onvention+ SECTION /+ "n# amen ment to, or revision o!, this Constit&tion &n er Se(tion 1 hereo! shall %e vali )hen rati!ie %# a ma'orit# o! the votes (ast in a ple%is(ite )hi(h shall %e hel not earlier than si6t# a#s nor later than ninet# a#s a!ter the approval o! s&(h amen ment or revision+ "n# amen ment &n er Se(tion - hereo! shall %e vali )hen rati!ie %# a ma'orit# o! the votes (ast in a ple%is(ite )hi(h shall %e hel not earlier than si6t# a#s nor later than ninet# a#s a!ter the

(erti!i(ation %# the Commission on Ele(tions o! the s&!!i(ien(# o! the petition+ ARTICLE XVIII Transitory Pro isions SECTION 1+ The !irst ele(tions o! ?em%ers o! the Congress &n er this Constit&tion shall %e hel on the se(on ?on a# o! ?a#, 1987+ The !irst lo(al ele(tions shall %e hel on a ate to %e etermine %# the ,resi ent, )hi(h ma# %e sim&ltaneo&s )ith the ele(tion o! the ?em%ers o! the Congress+ It shall in(l& e the ele(tion o! all ?em%ers o! the (it# or m&ni(ipal (o&n(ils in the ?etropolitan ?anila area+ SECTION -+ The Senators, ?em%ers o! the Ho&se o! =epresentatives, an the lo(al o!!i(ials !irst ele(te &n er this Constit&tion shall serve &ntil noon o! ;&ne .4, 199-+ O! the Senators ele(te in the ele(tion o! 199-, the !irst t)elve o%taining the highest n&m%er o! votes shall serve !or si6 #ears an the remaining t)elve !or three #ears+ SECTION .+ "ll e6isting la)s, e(rees, e6e(&tive or ers, pro(lamations, letters o! instr&(tions, an other e6e(&tive iss&an(es not in(onsistent )ith this Constit&tion shall remain operative &ntil amen e , repeale , or revo5e + SECTION /+ "ll e6isting treaties or international agreements )hi(h have not %een rati!ie shall not %e rene)e or e6ten e )itho&t the (on(&rren(e o! at least t)o3thir s o! all the ?em%ers o! the Senate+ SECTION 1+ The si63#ear term o! the in(&m%ent ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent ele(te in the Fe%r&ar# 7, 1982 ele(tion is, !or p&rposes o! s#n(hroni0ation o! ele(tions, here%# e6ten e to noon o! ;&ne .4, 199-+ The !irst reg&lar ele(tions !or the ,resi ent an >i(e3,resi ent &n er this Constit&tion shall %e hel on the se(on ?on a# o! ?a#, 199-+

SECTION 2+ The in(&m%ent ,resi ent shall (ontin&e to e6er(ise legislative po)ers &ntil the !irst Congress is (onvene + SECTION 7+ Until a la) is passe , the ,resi ent ma# !ill %# appointment !rom a list o! nominees %# the respe(tive se(tors the seats reserve !or se(toral representation in paragraph 7-8, Se(tion 1 o! "rti(le >I o! this Constit&tion+ SECTION 8+ Until other)ise provi e %# the Congress, the ,resi ent ma# (onstit&te the ?etropolitan "&thorit# to %e (ompose o! the hea s o! all lo(al government &nits (omprising the ?etropolitan ?anila area+ SECTION 9+ " s&%3provin(e shall (ontin&e to e6ist an operate &ntil it is (onverte into a reg&lar provin(e or &ntil its (omponent m&ni(ipalities are reverte to the mother provin(e+ SECTION 14+ "ll (o&rts e6isting at the time o! the rati!i(ation o! this Constit&tion shall (ontin&e to e6er(ise their '&ris i(tion, &ntil other)ise provi e %# la)+ The provisions o! the e6isting =&les o! Co&rt, '& i(iar# a(ts, an pro(e &ral la)s not in(onsistent )ith this Constit&tion shall remain operative &nless amen e or repeale %# the S&preme Co&rt or the Congress+ SECTION 11+ The in(&m%ent ?em%ers o! the ;& i(iar# shall (ontin&e in o!!i(e &ntil the# rea(h the age o! sevent# #ears or %e(ome in(apa(itate to is(harge the &ties o! their o!!i(e or are remove !or (a&se+ SECTION 1-+ The S&preme Co&rt shall, )ithin one #ear a!ter the rati!i(ation o! this Constit&tion, a opt a s#stemati( plan to e6pe ite the e(ision or resol&tion o! (ases or matters pen ing in the S&preme Co&rt or the lo)er (o&rts prior to the e!!e(tivit# o! this Constit&tion+ " similar plan shall %e a opte !or all spe(ial (o&rts an *&asi3'& i(ial %o ies+ SECTION 1.+ The legal e!!e(t o! the lapse, %e!ore the rati!i(ation o! this Constit&tion, o! the appli(a%le perio !or the e(ision or resol&tion o! the (ases or matters s&%mitte !or a '& i(ation %# the (o&rts, shall %e etermine %# the S&preme Co&rt as soon as pra(ti(a%le+

SECTION 1/+ The provisions o! paragraphs 7.8 an 7/8, Se(tion 11 o! "rti(le >III o! this Constit&tion