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DESIGNING A MIXER

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PRE PRELIMINARY PRE

PRELIMINARY LIMINARY LIMINARY

Deciding on and choosing the size of a type of a mixer consists in finding the optimum parameters for the implementation of the desired

procedure. Frequently, optimization is limited by constraints such as costs, bulk or physical limits. This approach consists in choosing a

certain number of parameters:

 

• Type of agitators and position

 
  • - Radial discharge rotors

  • - Axial discharge rotors

  • - Mix discharge rotors

  • - Angled discharge rotors

  • - Dispersion/emulsification rotors

• Geometry of the tank (size, shape)

 

• Rotation of the rotor (speed, rate of discharge)

 

• Length of mixing

• Imposed physical conditions (pressure, temperature)

 

The people who make these choices rely on their knowledge and experience to make them and choices become additionally complex

because of a certain number of factors of which the most frequent follow:

 

The nature and rheology of products can lead to complicated expressions of a certain number of parameters and specifically of their

respective progress during the mixing process. More precisely in the case of non Newtonian liquids (when viscosity of liquids is directly

related to the speed of shearing) for which is observed non linear progress of the required power and the rate of flow of circulation in

respect to the rotation speed of the agitator. This is observed in rheoliquidifying liquids (fruit juice, blood), threshold or Bingham liquids

(paint, varnish, mayonnaise, toothpaste), rheothickening liquids (wet grit, starch suspension, pizza dough) or thixotropic liquids

 

(yogurt).

Constraints regarding some parameters because of experience or technologic and economic reasons, such as the peripheral speed

return from one type of mixer to another, shearing rate, speed of flow or pumping limit the margin of action for the calculation of the

other mixing parameters. It is a limiting factor but we must consider that these constraints, in the end, lead to a more rapid result by

 

minimizing choices.

practice, choosing

practice,

practice,

InInInIn practice,

choosing

choosing

choosing anananan agitator

agitator

agitator

agitator becomes

becomes

becomes

becomes aaaa compromise

compromise::: aaaa dominant parameter

compromise:

compromise

parameter parameter

dominant dominant

dominant parameter isisisis established

established established

the other other other other parameters

the

the

the

parameters

parameters

parameters are

are

are

a re checked

checked

checked

checked totototo insure

insure

insure

insure they

they are sufficient.

they

they

sufficient

a re sufficient

are

are

sufficient...

established and

and

and

and calcul

calculated

calcul

calculated

ated

a ted and

and and then

and

then tthen hen

 

VMI recommends and implements the following method:

 

Step 1111

Step

Step

Step

Identification of the type of mixing to perform

Step 22 22 ................................

Step Step Step

.................................................

................................

................................................

.................

Inventory of the characteristics of mixing materials

 

Step 3333

Step

Step

Step

Identification of the global characteristics of mixing rotors

Step 4444 .....................................................................

Step

Step

Step

Choice

of the rotors

Step 5555

Step

Step

Step

Calculation of the various mixing parameters (tank – rotors)

 
ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France Tel: 33 (0)2 51 45 35 35 –

ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France

Tel: 33 (0)2 51 45 35 35 – Fax: 33 (0)2 51 06 40 84

http:\www.rayneri.fr - E-mail : comm-rayneri@vmi.fr

 
 

DESIGNING A MIXER

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STEP 1: Identification

S TEP 1:

STEP

STEP

1: 1:

Identification

Identification

Identification of the

the

ooff the type

of

the type of

of

type of mixing

type

mixing

of mixing

mixing totototo perform

perform perform perform

SSolid SSolid olid o lid //// liquid liquid liquid liquid mixtures

mixtures mixtures mixtures

-

SSoluble Soluble

Soluble oluble powders

powders powders powders

Dissolution

Homogenizing

-

Non soluble powders

Non

Non

soluble powder

Non soluble

soluble

ppowder owdersss

Placing in and/or maintaining in suspension

 

Homogenizing

Dispersion

Liquid //// lliquid lliquid iquid i quid mixtures

Liquid Liquid

Liquid

mixtures

mixtures

mixtures

-

Miscible liquid

Miscible

Miscible

Miscible

liquids

liquidsss

liquid

Placing in and/or maintaining in suspension

 

Homogenizing

Dilution

-

Immiscible liquids liquids liquids liquids

Immiscible Immiscible Immiscible

Emulsion

C omplex rhe rheol rhe rheol olo o loogy ogy gy gy of of of of viscous viscous viscous viscous mixtures

Complex

Complex

Complex

mixtures

mixtures

mixtures

Placing in and/or maintaining in suspension

 

Dissolution

Homogenizing

Dispersion

Heat transfer

Grinding

STEP STEP STEP 2: 2: 2: Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory of of of of the the the the characteristics characteristics characteristics characteristics of of of of mixing mixing mixing mixing materials materials materials materials

S TEP 2:

 

Liquids

Liquid

Liquidsss

Liquid

-

Density

-

Viscosity

-

Percentage

-

Initial and final temperature

-

Type of discharge

Solids

Solid

Solidsss

Solid

-

Nature

-

Percentage

-

Density

-

Granulometric dimensions and distribution

 

-

Settling speed

-

Wettability

-

Solubility

Gas

Ga

Gasss

Ga

-

Nature

-

Flow

-

Pressure

-

Solubility

STEP 3: Identifi

STEP

S TEP 3:

STEP

3: Identification

3:

Identifi

Identification

cation

cation of the

of

the

of the

of

the gglobal

lobal ccharacteristic

lobal

gglobal

ccharacteristics

haracteristicsss of mixing

haracteristic

mixing

of of

of mixing rotorsss

rotors

rotor

mixing rotor

 

Flow mainly generated (axial or radial)

Importance of the pumping effect (high, medium, low)

 

Importance of the shearing effect (high, medium, low)

Capacity of generating turbulence (high, medium, low)

 
 
ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France

ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France

Tel: 33 (0)2 51 45 35 35 – Fax: 33 (0)2 51 06 40 84

http:\www.rayneri.fr - E-mail : comm-rayneri@vmi.fr

 

DESIGNING A MIXER

 

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STEP 4: Choice of

STEP

S TEP 4:

STEP

Choice

Choice

of

4: Choice of rotorsss

4:

of rotor

rotors rotor

You must then chose between the varieties of rotors offered by VMI the one that is the best adapted to the mixture you want to produce.

Your choice should be based on the following:

 

Intrinsic characteristics of the rotors taking into account the preferred type of flow, knowing that frequently a compromise must be made

between the type of discharge (axial, radial, turbulent…) and mechanical effect generated (circulation, shearing, …),

Laboratory tests,

Financial criteria: example = choice in order to achieve the best Nq/Np performance to minimize installed capacity,

Functional criteria: example = choice of a rotor that is the easiest to clean.

 

Currently VMI offers the following agitation rotors:

 
  • 1. Profiled triblade

7.

Centripetal

13.

Break=up

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
  • 2. Two way profiled triblade

8.

Deflocculator

14.

Butterfly

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
  • 3. PSVB four blade

9.

Sevin with inlets

15.

Saw teeth

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
  • 4. PSVH four blade

10.

Centrifugal

16.

Anchor blade

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
  • 5. PA four blade

11.

Centri=deflocculator

17. Rotor=stator

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
  • 6. Water propeller

12.

Cutting

DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
DESIGNING A MIXER PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 33//12 121 2 33/ /12 STEP 4: Choice of
 
ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France
 

ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France

Tel: 33 (0)2 51 45 35 35 – Fax: 33 (0)2 51 06 40 84

http:\www.rayneri.fr - E-mail : comm-rayneri@vmi.fr

DESIGNING A MIXER

NNNN PPPP Pumping Pumping Pumping Flow NNNN QQQQ Circulation 0.58 to 0.68 Power Water propeller (6)
NNNN PPPP
Pumping
Pumping
Pumping
Flow
NNNN QQQQ
Circulation
0.58 to 0.68
Power
Water propeller (6)
Table I
MMain
Flow
Main
ain Flow
Flow
RRotor otor Type
SEVIN
DEFLOCULEUSE
CENTRIFUGE
TRIPALE
PROFILEE
CENTRIPETE
0
0,5
Pumping
Main
Rotor
Rotor
Type TType ype
Main Main MMain ain FuFunction
FFuunction nction nction
Power
Power
Power
charges
Saw teeth (15)
0.23 to 0.42
0.21 to 0.28
Homogenizing liquid/liquid
Profiled triblade (1)
0.34 to 0.60
0.84 to 0.87
Two way
profiled triblade (2)
Dissolution, incorporation
0.19 to 0.31
0.76 to 1.22
1.15 to 1.2
PSVB four blade (3)
1 to 1.73
Dilution/Dissolution
1 to 1.95
1 to 1.73
Dilution/Dissolution
1.6 to 2
1.8 to 2.2
AAAXIAL
XIAL
AXIAL
XIAL
0.75 to 0.85
SEVIN with inlets (9)
0.4 to 0.55
Dissolution/Dispersion
QUADRIPALE
PA four blade (5)
Centripetal (7)
1.1 to 1.3
Dilution/Dissolution
Dissolution
2.5 to 4.5
Centrifugal (10)
3 to 3.8
Dispersion
Q
N
P
Q
=
Dispersion
Dispersion
Deflocculator (8)
0.34 to 0.8
N
0.37 to 0.44
Centri=deflocculator (11)
1.1 to 2
0.67 to 0.79
(17b)
Rotor/Stator wide slots
(17a)
Dispersion/Emulsion
N
2.3 to 6.2
Dispersion/Emulsion
0.55 to 0.6
Note: N P , N Q and shearing strength are expressed for equivalent diameters
Power:
5
3
d
0.82 to 0.9
P
N p
Rotor/Stator narrow slots
of drag from the agitator when in the liquid and represents power usage.
Pumping:
3
d
Low
Fort
Très Faible
Faible
Moyen
ROTOR PERFORMANCE
Shearing Strength
Very Low
High
Medium
1
DIRECTTIONNELLE
expression of the pumping flow rate for the agitator.
s =1 , a value that is very difficult to measure.
PERFORMANCE MOBILES
MARINE
TRIPALE BI-
(Q P : pumping flow
Pouvoir de cisaillement
2.1 to 5.9
RADIAL
RADIAL
RADIAL
RADIAL
1,5
2,5
3
3,5
=
Rendement dedébit Nq/Np
M AINTIEN EN
SUSPENSION
2 HOMOGENEISATION
D ILUTION
DISSOLUTION
DISSOLUTION
DISPERSION
NNNN PPPP Pumping Pumping Pumping Flow NNNN QQQQ Circulation 0.58 to 0.68 Power Water propeller (6)
44//12 PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 44/ /12 121 2
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Medium Shearing Strength SStrength Strength trength Low hearing Medium Very low Very low High Very low
Medium
Shearing
Strength
SStrength
Strength
trength
Low
hearing
Medium
Very low
Very low
High
Very low
Very low
Very low
High
High
Very high
EMULSION
Très Fort
Very High
e
& =
Very high
V , expressed as
ROTOR/
STATOR FL
ROTOR
STATOR FE
SShearing
Shearing
Medium Shearing Strength SStrength Strength trength Low hearing Medium Very low Very low High Very low
DESIGNING A MIXER NNNN PPPP Pumping Pumping Pumping Flow NNNN QQQQ Circulation 0.58 to 0.68 Power

(P: agitation power; : density; N: rotation speed; d: rotor diameter) is the coefficient

rate; N: rotation speed; d: rotor diameter) is the dimensionless

Shearing strength indicates the capacity of the rotor in breaking the friction effect exerted by two infinitesimal

layers of liquid sliding against one another. Shearing is usually stated as speed of shearing

D ISPERSION
D ISPERSION

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DESIGNING A MIXER

Type of Rotor Soluble Liquid / Liquid Mixtures Solid / Liquid Mixtures Low Low Low Low
Type of Rotor
Soluble
Liquid / Liquid Mixtures
Solid / Liquid Mixtures
Low Low Low
Low viscosity viscosity viscosity viscosity product product product product
Speed ((rpm ((rpm rpm) rpm)))
Speed Speed Speed
RRotor otor
of
Type
Type of Rotor
Type
Powders
tool
tool
DDDD tool
Table III
of
*according to the number of movements
Anchor or butterfly blade
10 to 200
0,9 à 1
60 to 30
0,5
Propeller or Turbine
(*)
Dispersion
Dilution
Homogenizing
Dissolution
capacity
circulation
High
Emulsion
strength
shearing
High
8
0,3
11
10
12
.
13
15
17
(**)
9
8
1
3
7
10
.
.
1
2
3
.
7
10
11
7
6
3
1
7
6
3
1
(*)
Homogenizing
Suspension
Table II
Miscible Liquids
Non Soluble Powders
Guide
(*)
Centri=deflocculator
tank tank ratio r ratio
tool
ool //D//DDD tank atio in the tank
t tool
the
the DDDD tool
the
selecting the
selecting
for
Triblade
Guide for selecting
Diameter, number number number number and and and and speed speed speed speed of of of of one one one one or or or or more more more more mixing mixing mixing mixing rotor rotor(s) rotor rotor(s) (s) (s)
Guide for
Economic criteria
at low speed)
= length of the mixing process.
= recirculation rate therefore capacity of the turbine,
= peripheral speed,
Criteria for mixing efficiency
1. 1
170 to 90
500 to 250
0,25
0,2
1500 to 750
1500 0,15
Rotor/Stator
3000 0,1
t ank ratio
1.
.
1.
Guide for selecting
parameters parameters parameters
Calculation ation a tion of of of of the the the the various various various various mixing mixing mixing mixing parameters
Calculation Calcul
55::: Calcul
S TEP 55:
STEP STEP STEP
Diameter, Diameter, Diameter,
very efficient for placing compact materials in suspension
very good compromise between the centrifuge and deflocculator
Break=up
Centripetal
Water propeller
Four blade
Type of Rotor Soluble Liquid / Liquid Mixtures Solid / Liquid Mixtures Low Low Low Low
PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 55//12 55/ /12 121 2
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55//12
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product*** . 16 2 8 9 14 15 17 . 1 2 . Transfer Mixtures Viscous
product***
.
16
2
8
9
14
15
17
.
1
2
.
Transfer
Mixtures
Viscous
Rheology for
Complex
Heat
product
Viscous product*
Viscous product
Centrifuge
Viscous
tank
tank
tank
0,8
0,6
Viscous
0,5
0,3
0,25
0,2
.
3
1
6
16
product*** . 16 2 8 9 14 15 17 . 1 2 . Transfer Mixtures Viscous
Immiscible Liquids
Immiscible
Liquids

efficient for high volumes at low rotation speeds efficient for low and medium volume at medium rotation speeds efficient for high volumes requiring strong circulation very efficient for dissolution because of the right compromise between circulation and shearing

(**) Deflocculator / Sevin a Sevin insures better circulation at equivalent power input, specifically for high volumes very efficient for complex dissolutions

These calculations are performed taking into account as main parameters one or several criteria for a precise mixture:

Criteria linked to the rheology of the product (the higher the viscosity of the product, the higher the diameter of the rotor

tool //// DDDD tank
tool //// DDDD tank

ZI Nord - 85607 MONTAIGU Cedex - France

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DESIGNING A MIXER

sspeed Speed Speed Speed Guide for selecting Maintaining in suspension, circulation: slow sedimentation product peripheral peripheral
sspeed
Speed Speed
Speed
Guide for selecting
Maintaining in suspension, circulation: slow sedimentation product
peripheral peripheral
for selecting the
the
Guide Guide
TYPE OF MIXTURE MIXTURE MIXTURE
selecting
Guide for
the peripheral sspeed
selecting the peripheral
number of
Dispersion facile
Difficult dispersion
TYPE TYPE TYPE OF OOFF MIXTURE
Table IV
and
peed
and
peed and the
the recirculation rate
recirculation rate
and the recirculation
rate rate
recirculation
the
for
.
characteristic ccharacteristic haracteristic parameters of of of the mixer mixer mixer
number
8 to 10
5 to 8
High concentration dissolution: up to 50 %
Solid /liquid homogenizing
Very different apparent densities
4 to 5
Low concentration dissolution: 10 to 20 % max
Liquid/solid homogenizing
Relatively equal apparent densities
2,5 to 4
Liquid/liquid homogenizing
Maintaining in suspension, circulation: fast sedimentation product
1,5 to 2,5
0,5 to 1,5
the tank
torsss inininin the
rorotor
C alculation ation a tion of
for
of rorotor
the number of
Guide for selecting
Guide for
selecting the number
selecting
for selecting the
the
of
Guide Guide
15 to 20
Products that swell
Extremely fine products
Mashing
Viscosity
t imes
times ØØØØ))))
times
Height Height Height
movements vements v ements
mo movements mo
of of
N o. of
No. of
10 to 30
Pa.s
Viscosity
Pa.s
Viscosity Pa.s
Viscosity Pa.s
- N P : Number for corrected capacity
Table V
tank
t ank
tank
the
the
No. No.
1.5 to 1
2 to 1.5
1 movement
0.1 to 10
<0.1
3 to 2
times
0.001 (eau)
2 movements minimum
Calcul Calculation Calcul of of of the the the the characteristic parameters parameters parameters of the the the mixer
2.
.
2.
2. 2
0.5
tors
> 1000
100 to 1000
0.65
0.8
60 to 100
1
1 or 2 movements
30 to 60
8 to 3
Non Newtonian liquids: Re equivalent = ( x N 2=n x D 2 )/K
Newtonian liquids: Re = x N x D 2 /µ
Calculation of Reynolds number (Re)
viscosity where µ = K n=1
-
- K S : Metzner=Otto constant to calculate shearing
- N Q : Number of pumping actions
- N P0 : Number for nominal capacity
- µ: viscosity of the liquid (Pa.s)
- : apparent density of the liquid (kg/m 3 )
- N: rotation speed of the tool (t/s)
- D: diameter of the mixing tool (m)
Sizes used:
PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE 66//12 66/ /12 121 2
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PAGE
PAGE
66//12
66/
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121 2
0.35 700 to 1000 400 to 700 50 to 200 300 to 400 200 to 300
0.35
700 to 1000
400 to 700
50 to 200
300 to 400
200 to 300
800 to 1200
1000 to 1500
volume volume volume
volume bac/h bac/h bac/h bac/h
Recirculation
Recirculation
Recirculation
Recirculation
m/s m/s m/s
0.2
Flow
0.5
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.3
rate
Flow
factor
factor KKKK 0000
rate factor
Flow rate
Flow
rate
factor
0.35 700 to 1000 400 to 700 50 to 200 300 to 400 200 to 300
Speed inininin m/s
Speed inininin m/s
Height of of of of work work work work (Nb (Nb (Nb of (Nb of of
Height of of of of work work work work (Nb (Nb (Nb of
(Nb of of of

K: Consistency index (Pa.s n=1 ) = n: exponent of rheoliquidifying; K and n are determined by a measure of

DESIGNING A MIXER sspeed Speed Speed Speed Guide for selecting Maintaining in suspension, circulation: slow sedimentation

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DESIGNING A MIXER

Triblade Centripetal C entripetal Centripetal Centripetal SVH Experimental Experimental E xperimental values values values values of
Triblade
Centripetal C
entripetal
Centripetal
Centripetal
SVH
Experimental
Experimental
E xperimental values values values values of of of of NNNN P0 0 ==== f(Re)
Calculation of the nominal capacity number N P0 = f(Re)
Experimental
Re
Triblade
Triblade
Re
Re
Re
Re
Four Four Four
F our blade blade blade blade
Table VI
for
for Re
for
P00 ==== 1111 for Re
Propeller
0,86
1 1
1 1
10000
Propeller
SVH
PPPSVH
SVB
PSVB
PSVB
PPSVB
PAPPPAAA
f(Re)
Propeller
Propeller
PSVH
Water
W ater
Water
Water
Profilée
Profilée
Profilée
Profilée
Triblade
1 /
5,7
23,2
7,6
100 22,4
60 13,5
21
19 31
59
2
53
36,2
31,5
5,2
5 19,1
4 23,5
12,4
11,4
36 7,6
2,4
18
22
44 8,8
12,4
14,3
3 29,5
16
f(Re) (N(N(N(N PP0P0
f(Re)
P
P0P0
11
7 14,7
5,3
8,6
26 6,2
12
10 9
6 16,2
1 1
30 6,5
9,5
6
3,2
3,8
10 2,8
20 6,8
10 11,2
10,5
9,5
18 4,1
1,2
1,8
50 3,8
2,8
4
40 4,4
6 1,9
2,2
7,6
4,7
2,7
3,1
3,6
250 1,6
1,7
2,3
1,3
2,8
4,4
100 2,7
2 1,8
70 3,2
1,5
5,2
2,6
2 3,4
0,95
1,1
1,1
200 1,8
1,05
1,8
150 2,2
1,2
1,2
2,8
1,4
2
1,8
Calculation of Froude number (Fr) if required (appearance of a vortex)
0,86
0,95
0,95
300 1,5
1,7
1,
2,2
1,7
1,06
0,95
0,95
0,95
Calculation of turbine flow rate Q (in m 3 /s)
P abs = N P x x N 3 x D 5
Calculation of absorbed pump power P ab (in W)
1,05
1 0,95
5000 0,94
0,95
1,2
1000 1,1
1
Q = N Q x N x D 3
0,86
0,86
1,2
1,5
1,4
500 1,2
30 5,3
1,06
0,88
50000 1,03
1
1 0,96
0,84
- if Fr , 3 (vortex), then N P = N P0 x Fr y et y = (a – Log Re) / b
Fr - 1 (no vortex), then N P = N P0
- If
Calculation of corrected capacity number N P
A vortex will be considered formed if Fr , 3
Fr = N 2 x D/g (g=9,81 ms =2 )
1,1
0,95
100000 1,12
1,05
2,6
Peripheral Speed (in m/s) (linear speed of the extremity of the turbine)
1992 or Nienow in 1997)
Calculation of mixing time T m
Calculation of recirculation rate T RC (in volume / hour)
1,05
Q e = Q x K 0 (flow rate factor, see Table V)
Calculation of drag flow rate Q e (the viscosity of the liquid is taken into account)
Triblade Centripetal C entripetal Centripetal Centripetal SVH Experimental Experimental E xperimental values values values values of
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10 with with SEVIN SEVIN SEVIN SEVIN with nlets 31 24 22 28 14 with 16
10
with
with
SEVIN
SEVIN
SEVIN
SEVIN with
nlets
31
24
22 28
14
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77
55
128
94
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30 41
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39
4 5,2
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3 3,8
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6 7,7
7 9
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Re ==== 10101010 4444 ))))

Deflocculator Deflocculator Deflocculator Deflocculator
Deflocculator
Deflocculator
Deflocculator
Deflocculator

radial effect rotors: a = 1 b = 40

axial effect rotors: a = 2,1 b = 18

Directly deducted from the drag flow rate Q e and the volume V of the tank

T m = K x V/Q e where K is an experimental coefficient varying from 10 to 10000 (tests from Grenville and Co in

If K is unknown the value for K 0 can be used (Table V), and you will get: T m = K 0 /T RC

Calculation of peripheral speeds (V P ), flow speeds (or transversal) (V F ), and rising speed (V R )

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DESIGNING A MIXER

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V P = .D.N

Flow Speed (in m/s) (linear speed of the liquid in the turbine)

 
 

V F = (4 x N Q x D x N)/

Rising Speed (in m/s) (linear rising speed of liquids on the side of the tank)

 
 

V R = (4 x Q)/ (D c 2 = D 2 ) = (V F x D 2 )/(D c 2= D 2 ) with D c = diameter of the tank

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DESIGNING A MIXER

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MIXING LEXICON

MIXING

LEXICON

MIXING

MIXING

LEXICON

LEXICON

 

Behaviour index

Parameter of Ostwald=Dewaele’s Law, the behaviour index defines the pseudoplastic character of a liquid for n<1 or dilatant for n>1. For n=1, the apparent viscosity is independent from the speed gradient, which defines a Newtonian liquid.

Bingham

A Bingham liquid is one that flows only if shearing stress is superior to a certain threshold 0 . Beyond this threshold, the product reacts like a Newtonian liquid, pseudoplastic or dilatant. Chocolate, toothpaste and drilling mud are examples of Bingham liquids.

Consistency index

Parameter of Ostwald=Dewaele’s Law the consistency index defines the consistency of a liquid. The higher the value of the index the higher the apparent viscosity, at a given speed gradient, is important

Dilatant

A dilatant like liquid is one whose apparent viscosity increases with the speed gradient. The rheologic model of Ostwald=Dewaele defines this liquid. The dilatant characteristic will be will be even more apparent as the behaviour index increases. Aqueous clay suspensions and some slush are examples of dilatant liquids.

Dilution

Dilution is the transformation of a concentrated solution to a more diluted solution by adding a continuous phase compatible with the solution. This operation requires an important circulation of the product.

Dispersion

Dispersion is the incorporation of a solid phase divided in a continuous liquid phase where the particles of the solid phase are not soluble in the liquid phase.

Dissolution

Dissolution is the incorporation of a soluble solid phase in a continuous liquid phase often called solvent. This operation requires good circulation.

 

Emulsion

An Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids. One liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the continuous phase. This operation requires a very high degree of shearing from the agitation rotor. The stability of the emulsion is essentially linked to the size of the droplets of the dispersed phase, their surface tension and distribution in the dispersed phased.

Endothermic

A reaction is endothermic when it absorbs heat. Dissolution of citric acid in water is endothermic.

 

Exothermic

A reaction is exothermic when it emits heat. Dissolution of soda in water is exothermic.

 
 
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DESIGNING A MIXER

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Extraction

 

Extraction is made up of the dispersion or suspension of a solid phase divided in a liquid phase obtaining a very high concentration that can reach 75% of the end product.

Froude

 

The Froude number is a dimensionless number (no units) comparing inertial and gravitational forces. It occurs only

when gravitational forces are sensitive and it is characterized by the forming of a vortex on the interface of the liquid.

Grinding

 

Grinding is an activity that reduces the sizes of solid particles, either in a liquid phase or directly in its dry state.

Homogenizing

 

Homogenizing is the action of homogenizing a medium. This means that the value of a characteristic quantity (example = temperature or concentration) is identical in every part of the medium. Significant circulation of the product favours this operation.

Laminar

 

A discharge is laminar when the layers or threads of liquids slide one against the other without merging. It is characterized by a Reynolds number lower than a limit value which depends on the geometric conditions of the agitation system. The transversal motion of linear momentum is caused only by molecular momentum.

Mixture

 

The term mixture defines a system made up of several chemical species which can found in various states (solid, liquid, gaseous). To perform a mixture for which at least the dispersion phase is in liquid state, the agitation rotor creates two distinct actions: a pumping action to ensure a wide scale global mixture (macro=mixture) and a turbulent action or shearing to ensure a small scale local mixture (micro=mixture).

Newton

 

Newton’s Law expresses the quantity of motion transferred through a given surface, represented by the formula:

d mV

(

)

S

= µ

dV

.

dt

dx

Newtonian

 

A liquid is Newtonian when its viscosity is constant when in given temperatures and pressures. Viscosity does not depend on operational conditions (speed gradient, shearing rate, time …). All gases, water, light organic products are Newtonian liquids.

Non Newtonian

 

A liquid is non=newtonian when its viscosity is dependent of operational conditions. Notably we can distinguish liquids for which the apparent viscosity depends on:

 

= the speed gradient (pseudoplastic, dilatant, of Bingham) = the speed gradient and length of the application of the constraint (thixotropic, rheopectic) = the speed gradient, length of the application of the constraint and modulus of elasticity (viscoelastic).

Ostwald>Dewaele

 

Ostwald=Dewaele’s Law, also called power law, is the rheologic model used to characterize the behaviour of pseudoplastic and dilatant liquids. It expresses the apparent viscosity as a function of gradient speed using the

equation: µ

a

=m &

n

1 where m and n are respectively the consistency and behaviour index of a liquid.

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Phase reversal
Phase reversal created by a very significant mechanical or thermal effect characterizes an emulsion where the
dispersed phase becomes the dispersion phase and vice versa.
Propeller
The word propeller is a generic term used to qualify an agitation rotor that generates a main axial discharge,
meaning parallel to the agitation shaft. Shearing constraints are generally low.
Pseudoplastic
A liquid is pseudoplastic when its apparent viscosity decreases as the gradient speed increases. Ostwald=Dewaele’s
rheologic model defines this liquid. The pseudoplastic character will be more significant the lesser the behaviour
index. Carbomer solutions and cosmetic creams are examples of pseudoplastic liquids.
Reynolds
Reynolds’ number is a dimensionless number (no units) that represents the relationship between inertial forces and
viscous forces. A low value of this number indicates the dominance of viscous friction: it is the laminar regime. A
high value indicates the dominance of dynamic friction: it is the turbulent regime.
Rheogram
A rheogram represents the progress curve of shearing
constraint in respect to the speed gradient used. Using this
diagram you can determine the rheologic behaviour of the
liquid (newtonian, pseudoplastic, dilatant, thixotropic or
rheopectic) and associate this behaviour to one of the
existing rheologic models.
contrainte de
Bingham
cisaillement
pseudoplastique
newtonien
dilatant
Rheometer
A rheometer is a device which can be used to trace a
rheogram. It determines the viscosity of a liquid continuously;
at a constant gradient speed or within a range of gradient
speed.
gradient de vitesse
Rheopectic
A liquid is rheopectic when its apparent viscosity increases when the length of application of constraint increases. A
gypsum suspension presents a rheopectic character.
Suspension
A suspension is the setting in motion of a non soluble divided solid phase in an internal liquid phase. Without
agitation the particles, which usually have a different density from the liquid phase, depending on the situation, tend
to settle or float.
Thixotropic
A liquid is thixotropic when its apparent viscosity decreases when the length of application of the constraint. Paint,
ink, polymers in a solution are generally thixotropic liquids.
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Turbine

A turbine is a generic term used to designate an agitation rotor that creates a main radial discharge, meaning perpendicular to the agitation axis. Shearing constraints are generally very high because the speed of flow located close to the turbine is significant compared to the speeds of surrounding liquids.

 

Turbulent

A discharge is turbulent when the sizes characterizing the motion of the liquid are turbulent. Streams of liquid no longer have any individuality. It is characterized by a Reynold’s number superior to a limit value which depends on the geometric conditions of the agitation system. Molecular motion is insignificant, the transversal motion of the linear momentum is ensured by the vortices.

 

Viscoelastic

A viscoelastic liquid includes simultaneously viscous properties (distortion when submitted) and elastic properties (reverts to its initial state when constraints are removed). Several polymers are viscoelastic, like polyacrylamide solutions.

 

Viscosimeter

A viscosimeter is a device used to determine the viscosity of a liquid in given operational conditions. Its operation is based more often than not on the measure of working torque from the setting in motion of a solid in contact with a liquid.

Apparent viscosity

A characteristic of non newtonian liquids. The definition of apparent viscosity is the relationship between shearing tension and the speed gradient.

 

Kinematic viscosity

The definition of kinematic viscosity is the relationship between the dynamic viscosity and the density of the liquid. It is seen as the coefficient of diffusion of linear momentum.

 

V

 

Dynamic viscosity

F y
F
y

plaque entraînée

plaque immobile

 

A property of a liquid, dynamic viscosity usually called viscosity, characterizes the resistance of transfer of linear

momentum. It is the coefficient of proportionality between tangent shearing tension to the transverse speed and the speed gradient. At a given speed, a higher viscosity requires greater power for movement. For a given applied

force, an increase in viscosity is characterized by a lower

 

F

V

speed of movement.

par définition :

A

= µ

y

 
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