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MANUFACTURING OF PNEUMATIC PRESS TO PRODUCE U-BEND ON THE SHEET METAL

A Project Report Submitted by


V. S ANKRUTHYA L. S OUMYA B. S WATHI 07241A03B2 07241A03B3 07241A03B7

U NDER THE GUIDANCE OF D R . S AMMAIAH

in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of


Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering

Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology


(Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

Bachupally, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500072 April 2011

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) Hyderabad

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that it is a bonafide record of the dissertation work entitled MANUFACTURING OF PNEUMATIC PRESS TO PRODUCE U-BEND IN THE SHEET METAL submitted by

V.SANKRUTHYA

(07241A03B2),

L.SOUMYA

(07241A03B3), B.SWATHI (07241A03B7) in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree


of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, for the academic year 2007-2011.

Internal Guide Dr. SAMMAIAH Professor Mechanical Department GRIET, Hyderabad

Head of the Department Dr. KGK. MURTI Sr. Professor and HOD Mechanical Department GRIET, Hyderabad

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The accomplishment of this project has been lot easier owing to cooperation of S.R.Tooling Systems, and management of Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology. We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving us such attention and time.

We would like to thank the management of S.R.Tooling Systems for allowing us to take up this project under them.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to our guide Mr. RAM for helpful guidance.

We would like to express our deepest sense of gratitude towards our guide Dr.Sammaiah (Professor, Mechanical Department) for his constant help and encouragement during this project.

We would like to thank Mr. Jandyala N Murthy (Principal, GRIET) and Mr. KGK Murthi (HOD, Mechanical Department) for permitting us to take up this project work.

Lastly we would like to thank each and every person who helped directly or indirectly in the successful completion of this project.

V.SANKRUTHYA L.SOUMYA B.SWATHI

ABSTRACT
Presses are used in industries for a wide variety of uses, including blanking, piercing and pressing. There are many different types of presses. The most popular are pneumatic presses and hydraulic presses. These two models of presses are very similar in function. But pneumatic presses are more preferable than hydraulic presses. The greatest advantage of Pneumatic presses is their speed. Pneumatic presses are 10 times faster than hydraulic presses and they can perform many jobs faster and more efficiently. They can also be stopped at any time by opening the valves to release the air. Pneumatic presses are extremely flexible, that they can be placed in a factory in any required position, even upside down. The objective of our project is to MANUFACTURE THE PNEUMATIC PRESS of 2 tonne capacity and to make a U-Bend of 1mm thickness sheet made of Galvanized Iron.

SPECIFICATIONS OF PNEUMATIC PRESS: The acting load is 2 tonne. Cylinder Bore is 160mm. Stroke length is 170mm. Diameter of Piston Rod is 63mm. Punch diameter is 24mm. Die diameter is 24mm. Volume of working plate is 540 x 465 x 50 mm3

By using this, the overall working time is reduced compared to other presses and hence, the overall productivity increases.

INDEX
MODULE 1 MODULE 2 2.1 2.2 INTRODUCTION TO PRESSES PNEUMATICS 1 3 3 3 5 6 7 8 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 15 15 16 PRESS OPERATIONS 18 18 18 19 20 21 22 23

Gases Used In Pneumatic Systems Advantages of Pneumatics PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

MODULE 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

Preparation of Air Advantages of Pneumatics Supplying Compressed Air PARTS OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

MODULE 4 4.1

Pneumatic Cylinders 4.1.1 Single-Acting Cylinder 4.1.2 4.1.3 Double-Acting Cylinder Sizes

4.1.4 Materials 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Valves T-Piece Compressors FRL Unit

MODULE 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Punching Shearing Stamping Blanking Piercing Bending 5.6.1

Bend Allowances

5.6.2

Principle Types of Bending 5.6.2.1 Air Bending 5 .6.2.2 Bottoming 5.6.2.3 Coining

25 25 26 26 27 28 30 30 31 32

5.6.3 Rules to Be Followed While Bending 5.6.4 Other Common Types of Bending MODULE 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 Die Punch Calculation for U-Bending TOOL AND TOOL DESIGN

MODULE 7 MODULE 8 MODULE 9

WORKING OF PNEUMATIC PRESS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF C-FRAME CONCLUSION

33 35 43

BIBILOGRAPHY

MODULE - 1 INTRODUCTION TO PRESSES


A power press is a machine that supplies force to a die used to blank, form, or shape metal or nonmetallic material. Thus, a press is a component of a manufacturing system that combines the press, die, material, and feeding method to produce a part. Presses are composed of frame, bed, or bolster plate and a reciprocating member called a ram or slide, which exerts force upon work material through special tools mounted on the ram and bed. Energy stored in the rotating flywheel of a mechanical press (or supplied by a hydraulic system in a hydraulic press, or supplied by pneumatic cylinder in a pneumatic press) is transferred to the ram to provide linear movement. Power presses can be classified according to: 1. Energy Supply Mechanical presses Hydraulic presses Pneumatic presses Steam presses Electromagnetic presses

2. Function Energy-producing machines Force-producing machines Stroke-controlled machines

3. Construction C-frame presses or gap-frame Closed-frame presses or O-frame 2-Pillar type 4-Pillar type

4. Operation Single-Action Press Double-Action Press Triple-Action Press Multi-slide Press

Pneumatic Presses These type employs pressurized air using compressor as actuator and several valves to generate a high compressive force acting on the male element its look like the hydraulic presses but it deal with lower pressure requirements i.e. it generate lower acting forces. C-Frame Presses or Gap-Frame C-frame construction is often used with smaller-capacity presses. Their main advantage lies in the easily accessible work area, which accounts for shorter setup and adjustmenttimes. This advantage is perhaps outweighed by their faults, mostly attributable to theshape of their frame, whose construction is likely to suffer from deflection under load.However, in current machine building, ribs, back plate and other reinforcements are used tosecure the machines sturdiness and accuracy.

MODULE - 2 PNEUMATICS
Pneumatics is that branch of technology, which deals with the study and application of use of pressurized air to affect mechanical motion. Pneumos means Air and Tics means Technology.

The compressed air is used as the working medium, normally at a pressure of 68bars(also can be extended up to 15bar) and a maximum force up to 50KN can be obtained.Pneumatics is used extensively in industry as well as in many everyday applications. It has many distinct advantages in terms of energy consumption, cost and safety.Pneumatic power is used in industry, where factory machines are commonly plumbed for compressed air (other compressed inert gases can also be used). Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.

2.1 GASES USED IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS Pneumatic systems in fixed installations such as factories use compressed air because a sustainable supply can be made by compressing atmospheric air. The air usually has moisture removed and a small quantity of oil added at the compressor, to avoid corrosion of mechanical components and to lubricate them. 2.2 ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS

Simplicity of Design and Control Machines are designed using standard cylinders and other components. Control is as easy as ON-OFF type.

o Reliability Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, the equipment is less likely to be damaged by

o Storage
Compressed Gas can be stored, allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost.

o Safety Very low chance of fire (compared to hydraulic oil). Machines can be designed to be overload safe.

MODULE 3 PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS


Pneumatics is something that we probably know very little about, yet come across every day without even realising it. Some examples of everyday pneumatic systems are shown below.

.
Fig#1 Example of a pneumatic system

Pneumatics is also used a lot in industry and you would expect to see pneumatic systems in factories, production lines and processing plants. It can be used to do lots of different jobs such as moving, holding or shaping objects.

MOVE

HO LD

FO RM

PRO CE S S

Fig # 2 Operations done by Pneumatic System

Every one of these pneumatic systems makes use of compressed air. Compressed air is quite simply the air that we breathe forced or squashed into a smaller space. We can use the energy stored in this compressed air to do things. 3.1 PREPARATION OF AIR For a pneumatic system, we need the pressurized air which is free from dust, moisture and smoke. To remove these pollutants, air is filtered. During the filtration, the dust, moisture and smoke are eliminated about 90%. Then the pressurized air passes through the air dryer to remove the moisture and make the air dry. Then it passes through another filter, where a complete free air is available for the system. This pressurized air goes to the FRL unit, then to the system.

Fig # 3 Basic Pneumatic System

To understand how compressed air is able to do things, lets think of a ball. If we blow up the ball so that it is full, it will contain a lot of compressed air. If we bounce the ball, it will bounce very high. However, if the ball is burst then the compressed air will escape and the ball will not bounce as high. Quite simply, the ball bounces because it is using the energy stored in the compressed air.

Fig # 4 Example of Pneumatic Systems

3.2 ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS There are usually lots of different ways to carry out a task, so it is important to understand some of the reasons for choosing pneumatic systems. Clean: Pneumatic systems are clean because they use compressed air. We know already that this is just the air we breathe forced into small spaces. If a pneumatic system develops a leak, it will be air that escapes and not oil. This air will not drip or cause a mess and this makes pneumatics suitable for food production lines. Safe: Pneumatic systems are very safe compared to other systems. We cannot, for example, use electronics for paint spraying because many electronic components produce sparks and this could cause the paint to catch fire. It is important, however, that we look after and maintain the different components. It is also important that we follow the correct safety rules. Reliable: Pneumatic systems are very reliable and can keep working for a long time. Many companies invest in pneumatics because they know they will not have a lot of breakdowns and that the equipment will last for a long time.

Economical: If we compare pneumatic systems to other systems, we find that they are cheaper to run. This is because the components last for a long time and because we are using compressed air. Many factories already have compressed air for other reasons. Flexible: Pneumatic systems are easy to install and they do not need to be insulated or protected like electronic systems.

3.3 SUPPLYING COMPRESSED AIR


We know already that pneumatic systems need compressed air to make them work. A bicycle pump can produce compressed air. This is all right for inflating the tyres of the bicycle, but can you imagine trying to blow up all the tyres on a lorry using this? You would soon become tired, exhausted even. In order to supply pneumatic systems with compressed air we use a machine called a compressor. Compressors come in lots of different shapes and sizes but they all work in the same way.

Fig # 5 Compressor

A pump that is driven by a motor, sucks-in air from the room and stores it in a tank called the receiver. We will be able to hear the compressor when it is running. Sometimes though, it will stop because the receiver is full.

ON

OFF

Fig # 6 ON/OFF positions for air flow

3.4 SAFETY RULES Safety rules help to keep us safe. They highlight dangers and this helps to prevent accidents. When we are using pneumatics we must follow these rules. 1. Never blow compressed air at anyone, not even yourself. 2. Never let compressed air come into contact with your skin, as this can be very dangerous. 3. Always wear safety goggles when you are connecting and operating circuits. 4. Check that all airlines are connected before turning on the main air supply. 5. Always turn off the main air supply before changing a circuit. 6. Keep your hands away from moving parts. 7. Avoid having airlines trailing across the floor or where someone could trip or become entangled.

MODULE 4 PARTS OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM


4.1 PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS: Pneumatic equipment can be split up into two basic categories of cylinders and valves. Cylinders are the muscles of pneumatic systems as they are used to move, hold and lift objects. They can even be used to operate other pneumatic components. Cylinders are operated by compressed air and they covert the stored energy in the compressed air into linear motion.

Fig # 7 Pneumatic Cylinders

Linear motion is motion in a straight line: an apple falling from a tree or a sliding door closing is an example of linear motion. We can represent linear motion by arrows like the ones below.

There are two types of cylinder that we will be using: Single-Acting Cylinders Double-Acting Cylinders

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4.1.1 Single-Acting Cylinder: The symbol for a single-acting cylinder is shown below.

Fig # 8 Single Acting Cylinder

A single-acting cylinder requires only one air supply. If we supply compressed air to a single-acting cylinder, the air pushes against the piston inside the cylinder and causes it to outstroke. When the piston has fully outstroked it is said to be positive.

positive

Air in
Fig # 9 Outstroke of the Piston

If we stop the supply of air then the spring inside the cylinder causes the piston to instroke to its starting position and the piston is said to be negative. As this happens, the air inside the cylinder is pushed back out.

negative

Air out
Fig # 10 Instroke of the Piston

Single-acting cylinders are easy to use and control but they do not produce very big forces. This means that we need to be careful of what we use them for.
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4.1.2 Double-Acting Cylinder A double-acting cylinder has no spring inside to return it to its original position. It needs two air supplies, one to outstroke the piston and the other to instroke the piston. The symbol for a double-acting cylinder is shown below.

Fig # 11 Double Acting Cylinder

To outstroke a double-acting cylinder we need compressed air to push against the piston inside the cylinder. As this happens, any air on the other side of the piston is forced out. This causes the double-acting cylinder to outstroke. When the piston has fully outstroked it is said to be positive.
positive

Air in

Air out

Fig # 12 Outstroke of the Piston

To instroke a double-acting cylinder we need to reverse this action. We supply the compressed air to the other side of the piston. As the air pushes the piston back to its original position, any air on the other side is again forced out. This causes the piston to instroke and it is said to be negative.
n egative

A ir out

A ir in

Fig # 13 Instroke of the Piston

Double-acting cylinders are used more often in pneumatic systems than singleacting cylinders. They are able to produce bigger forces and we can make use of the outstroke and instroke for pushing and pulling.

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4.1.3 Sizes: Air cylinders are available in a variety of sizes and can typically range from a small 2.5 mm air cylinder, which might be used for picking up a small transistor or other electronic component, to 400 mm diameter air cylinders which would impart enough force to lift a car. Some pneumatic cylinders reach 1000 mm in diameter, and are used in place of hydraulic cylinders for special circumstances where leaking hydraulic oil could impose an extreme hazard. 4.1.4 Materials: The pneumatic cylinders designed for educational use typically have transparent outer sleeves (often plexi glass), so students can see the piston moving inside. The pneumatic cylinders designed for cleanroom applications often use lubricant-free Pyrex Glass pistons sliding inside graphite sleeves. In general, the material used for a pneumatic cylinder is ST-52 (Steamless Tube). 4.2 VALVES: Valves control the flow of compressed air to a cylinder. They can be used to turn the air on or off, change the direction in which the air is flowing or even slow down the airflow. The most common type of valve is the 3/2 valve. 3/2 valve: A 3/2 valve gets its name because it has three ports and two states. A port is where we can connect a pipe and a state is simply a position that the valve can be in. The ports are numbered to help us make the right connections. The numbers will be stamped onto the casing of the valve.

Port 1 Main Air This port is connected to main air. Remember that our main air is supplied through a manifold. Main air is identified by this symbol:

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Port 2 Output Connection This port lets us make connections to other components. Remember, the purpose of valves is to control the flow of air to other components, usually cylinders. Port 3 Exhaust This port allows air trapped in the circuit to escape or exhaust. Remember, for our cylinders to instroke and outstroke, they need the air on the other side of the piston to escape.

The 3/2 valve has two states of operation. One state prevents air from being supplied to other components and the other allows the air to flow freely. State 1 Off/Unactuated State: In this state, the main air supply through the valve is blocked and so air is unable to reach other components, such as cylinders. However, any air within the cylinder is able to exhaust through the valve and this will allow the cylinder to return to its original position. The symbol below represents the air flow through the valve in OFF state.

1 3
State 2 On/Actuated State:

In this state, the main air supply is able to flow freely through the valve and supply components, such as cylinders, with air. The symbol below represents the air flow through the valve in OFF state.

1 3

14

The complete symbol for a 3/2 valve combines both states and is usually drawn in the OFF/Unactuated state. The complete symbol is shown below.

4.3 T-PIECE A T-piece or T-connector is a very simple component that lets us split or divide airflow. It can be very useful if you want two cylinders to operate at the same time.

AIR OUT

AIR OUT

AIR IN

Fig # 14 T-Connector

On circuit diagrams, the T-piece is identified by a dot.

T-piece

4.4 COMPRESSORS An air compressor is a machine which takes in air at a certain pressure and delivers the air at a higher pressure. Everything on earth is subjected to the absolute atmospheric pressure(pa), this pressure cannot be felt. The prevailing atmospheric pressure is therefore regarded as the base and any deviation is termed "gauge pressure". Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure
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Absolute pressure is approximately one bar greater than the gauge pressure. Characteristics of interest on a compressor are, Delivery volume or capacity of the compressor, Compression ratio. Compressor capacity is usually expressed as air volume at ambient conditions at the compressor intake, namely in units of meter cube per minute or litres per minute. Compression ratio is expressed by the discharge pressure measured in the generally accepted unit of bars. Compressors should be installed in a separate room. Special care is required to ensure that the compressors will be able to take in air that is preferably cool but above all dry and substantially dust-free. At locations where clean suction air is not available, the installation of a separate intake filter can answer this requirement. Piping leading from the filter to the compressor intake should be amply dimensioned. In this way it is also possible for clean suction air to be supplied to a multiple number of compressors via a common intake duct.

4.5 FRL Unit It is a device that conditions air for use in pneumatic systems. An FRL is a combination filter-regulator-lubricator.frl units have semi-auto-drain function and the body is made of die casting aluminum alloy, thus making them sturdy to operate in industrial environments.

Fig # 15 FRL Unit

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The FRL units are used in various industries such as food processing, paper and packaging, pharmaceutical and textile. Offered at economical prices, FRL units are robust in design, construction and are ideal to be used in tough working conditions.

Specifications: Medium: Compressed air Mounting position: Vertical 5 Pressure range max.: 10 Bar Temperature nominal: -10 to + 60

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MODULE - 5 PRESS OPERATIONS


5.1 PUNCHING
Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes through the work into a die.

Fig # 16 Punching

A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the process. Depending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused or discarded. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production. When a specially shaped punch is used to create multiple usable parts from a sheet of material the process is known as blanking. In forging applications the work is often punched while hot, and this is called hot punching.

5.2 SHEARING
Shearing is a process for cutting sheet metal to size out of a larger stock such as roll stock. Shears are used as the preliminary step in preparing stock for stamping processes, or smaller blanks for CNC presses. Material thickness ranges from 0.125 mm to 6.35 mm (0.005 to 0.250 in). The dimensional tolerance ranges from 0.125 mm to 1.5 mm (0.005 to 0.060 in).

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Fig # 17 Shearing

The shearing process produces a shear edge burr, which can be minimized to less than 10% of the material thickness. The burr is a function of clearance between the punch and the die (which is nominally designed to be the material thickness), and the sharpness of the punch and the die.

5.3 STAMPING
Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining. This could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produce the desired form on the sheet metal part, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is usually carried out on sheet metal, but can also be used on other materials, such as polystyrene.

19

Fig # 18 Stamping

5.4 BLANKING:
Blanking is a cutting process in which a piece of sheet metal is removed from a larger piece of stock by applying a great enough shearing force. In this process, the piece removed, called the blank, is not scrap but rather the desired part. Blanking can be used to cutout parts in almost any 2D shape, but is most commonly used to cut workpieces with simple geometries that will be further shaped in subsequent processes. Often times multiple sheets are blanked in a single operation. Final parts that are produced using blanking include gears, jewelry, and watch or clock components. Blanked parts typically require secondary finishing, to smooth out burrs along the bottom edge.

Fig # 19 Blanking

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The blanking process requires a blanking press, sheet metal stock, blanking punch, and blanking die. The sheet metal stock is placed over the die in the blanking press. The die, instead of having a cavity, has a cutout in the shape of the desired part and must be custom made unless a standard shape is being formed. Above the sheet, resides the blanking punch which is a tool in the shape of the desired part. Both the die and punch are typically made from tool steel or carbide. The hydraulic press drives the punch downward at high speed into the sheet. A small clearance, typically 10-20% of the material thickness, exists between the punch and die. When the punch impacts the sheet, the metal in this clearance quickly bends and then fractures. The blank which has been sheared from the stock now falls freely into the gap in the die. This process is extremely fast, with some blanking presses capable of performing over 1000 strokes per minute.

5.5 PIERCING:
The best way to understand piercing is to think of it as the opposite of a blanking operation. In other words, unlike blanking, the slug is discarded and the hole is saved. Often called perforating, piercing is a metal cutting operation that produces a round, square, or special-shaped hole in flat sheet metal or a formed part. The cutting punch that produces the hole is called the pierce or perforating punch, and the hole into which it enters is called the matrix or the button.

Fig # 20 Piercing

Unlike blanking, piercing is usually done on a smaller scale. The holes created by piercing can be used for fastening parts and making parts lighter. Some examples are holes that hold special clips, clearance holes for wiring, and liquid drain holes.

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5.6 BENDING:
Bending is a process by which metal can be deformed by plastically deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond the yield strength but below the ultimate tensile strength. The surface area of the material does not change much. Bending usually refers to deformation about one axis. Bending is a flexible process by which many different shapes can be produced. Standard die sets are used to produce a wide variety of shapes. The material is placed on the die, and positioned in place with stops and/or gages. It is held in place with holddowns. The upper part of the press, the ram with the appropriately shaped punch descends and forms the v-shaped bend.

Fig # 21 Bending

Bending is done using Press Brakes. Press Brakes normally have a capacity of 20 to 200 tons to accommodate stock from 1m to 4.5m (3 feet to 15 feet). Larger and smaller presses are used for specialized applications. Programmable back gages, and multiple die sets available currently can make for a very economical process.

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5.6.1 BEND ALLOWANCES When sheet metal is bent, the inside surface of the bend is compressed and the outer surface of the bend is stretched. Somewhere within the thickness of the metal lies its Neutral Axis, which is a line in the metal that is neither compressed nor stretched. What this means in practical terms is that if we want a work piece with a 90 degree bend in which one leg measures A, and the other measures B, then the total length of the flat piece is NOT A + B as one might first assume. To work out what the length of the flat piece of metal needs to be, we need to calculate the Bend Allowance or Bend Deduction, that tells us how much we need to add or subtract to our leg lengths to get exactly what we want.

The location of the neutral line varies depending on the material itself, the radius of the bend, the ambient temperature, direction of material grain, and the method by which it is being bent, etc. The location of this line is often referred to as the K factor. K-factor is a ratio that represents the location of the neutral sheet with respect to the thickness of the sheet metal part.

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Fig # 22 K-Factor

The only truly effective way of working out the correct bend allowance is to reverse engineer it by taking a measured strip of material, bending it, and then measuring it. to calculate the bend allowance. These bend allowance can be measured for many materials and scenarios and then tabulated so that the table can be used by CAD programs to produce accurate sheet-metal work. Bend allowances are calculated using a K-factor as follows:

This works extremely well and is pretty straight forward, providing we know the correct K-factor to use.

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5.6.2 PRINCIPLE TYPES OF BENDING:

5.6.2.1 AIR BENDING Air Bending is a bending process in which the punch touches the work piece and the work piece does not bottom in the lower cavity. As the punch is released, the work piece springs back a little and ends up with less bend than that on the punch (greater included angle). This is called spring-back. The amount of spring back depends on the material, thickness, grain and temper. The spring back will usually range from 5 to 10 degrees. The same angle is usually used in both the punch and the die to minimize set-up time. The inner radius of the bend is the same as the radius on the punch.

Fig # 23 Air Bending

In air bending, there is no need to change any equipment or dies to obtain different bending angles because the bend angles are determined by the punch stroke. The forces required to form the parts are relatively small, but accurate control of the punch stroke is necessary to obtain the desired bend angle.

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5 .6.2.2 BOTTOMING Bottoming is a bending process where the punch and the work piece bottom on the die. This makes for a controlled angle with very little spring back. The tonnage required on this type of press is more than in air bending. The inner radius of the work piece should be a minimum of 1 material thickness.

Fig # 24 Bottoming

In bottom bending, spring-back is reduced by setting the final position of the punch such that the clearance between the punch and die surface is less than the blank thickness. As a result, the material yields slightly and reduces the spring-back. Bottom bending requires considerably more force (about 50%~60% more) than air bending.

5.6.2.3 COINING Coining is a bending process in which the punch and the work piece bottom on the die and compressive stress is applied to the bending region to increase the amount of plastic deformation. This reduces the amount of spring-back. The inner radius of the work piece should be up to 0.75 of the material thickness.

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Fig # 25 Coining

5.6.3 RULES TO BE FOLLOWED WHILE BENDING: General bending guidelines are as follows: The bend radius should, if possible, be kept the same for all radiuses in the part to minimize set up changes. For most materials, the ideal minimum inner radius should be at least 1 material thickness. As a general rule, bending perpendicular to the rolling direction is easier than bending parallel to the rolling direction. Bending parallel to the rolling direction can often lead to fracture in hard materials. Thus bending parallel to the rolling direction is not recommended for cold rolled steel > Rb 70. And no bending is acceptable for cold rolled steel > Rb 85. Hot rolled steel can however be bent parallel to the rolling direction. The minimum flange width should be at least 4 times the stock thickness plus the bending radius. Violating this rule could cause distortions in the part or damage to tooling or operator due to slippage.

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Slots or holes too close to the bend can cause distortion of these holes. Holes or slots should be located a minimum of 3 stock thickness plus the bend radius. If it is necessary to have holes closer, then the hole or slot should de-extended beyond the bend line.

Dimensioning of the part should take into account the stack up of dimensions that can happen and mounting holes that can be made oblong should be. Parts should be inspected in a restrained position, so that the natural flexure of the parts does not affect measurements. Similarly inside dimensions in an inside bend should be measured close to the bend.

5.6.4 OTHER COMMON TYPES OF BENDING 5.6.4.1 V Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is constant (equal to the thickness of sheet blank). It is used widely. The thickness of the sheet ranges from approximately 0.5 mm to 25 mm.

Fig # 26 V-Bending

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Fig # 27 V-Bending

5.6.4.2 U-DIE BENDING U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes are produced in the same operation. A backing pad is used to force the sheet contacting with the punch bottom. It requires about 30% of the bending force for the pad to press the sheet contacting the punch.

Fig # 28 U-Bending

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MODULE 6 TOOL AND TOOL DESIGN

Sheet metal is a material formed into thin and flat strips. The shaping of sheet metal by straining the metal around a straight axis is called Bending. A bending operation compresses the interior side of the bend and stretches the exterior side. For bending, we need a die and punch. When sheet metal makes a transition from a bend to a flat surface, or to another bend, it tends to rip and tear. To eliminate this, a bend relief is added so the edge of the sheet metal is perpendicular to the bend. In general, a minimum bend relief is equal to the material thickness plus the inside bend radius. If it is OK for the metal to rip, the minimum bend relief is zero. One benefit of a bend relief is that it makes the part easier to produce. The bigger the bend relief, the easier it is to align over the end of the tooling. The bend relief eliminates some burrs and sharp points. Without a bend relief, the part may slip unpredictably in the tooling as the bend is made. Another benefit of a bend relief is fracture propagation reduction. If the part is subject to vibration or flexure, existing cracks may grow rapidly. By eliminating the cracks before cutting, and by cutting the bend relief with curves instead of sharp inside corners, the finished part will be stronger and more stable. I think a bend relief makes the part more attractive.

DIE: It is fixed with clamps into the T-slot in the work area. The Die for U-bending has a U-slot. This shape of the slot, effects the sheet bending. The radius of U is 12mm.

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Fig # 29 Die Design PUNCH: Punch is used to press the sheet metal, to the shape of DIE. The load from the cylinder is impacted on to the punch, which bends the sheet metal.

Fig # 30 Punch Design

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CALCULATIONS FOR U-BENDING: 1. Shear Force = 0.667 x Su x W x t2 L Where Su = Ultimate tensile stress W = Width of component t = Thickness of sheet metal L = Radius = Rd + Rp + c = 1.5 + 0.5 + 0.2 = 2.2mm Rd= Radius of the Die Rp= Radius of the Punch C = Clearance

Fsh = 0.667 x 50 x 50 x 1.52


2.2 = 1705.39 N 2.Thickness of Die (Td) = 3Fsh
= 12

x F.S(2) F.S = Factor of Safety

=24mm 3.Thickness of the Punch = 1.5 Td = 1.5 x 12 x F.S(1.4) = 24mm The sheet used for bending in U form is Galvanized Iron. The material of Die and Punch is EN-31.

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MODULE 7 WORKING OF PNEUMATIC PRESS


The pneumatic press is provided with a 2 tonne capacity cylinder. Compressor is a pump which stores up air at working pressure say 6 psi (pounds per square inch) and compresses air, raising it to a higher pressure. The compressed air from the compressor (in this case 6 psi) is delivered to the cylinder (160mm Bore) of the pneumatic press (sometimes, can also be used to generate a vacuum). When the lever is operated, the high pressure air in the cylinder is released, pushing the piston and the rod attached to it, downwards. The released air is free and non- toxic. Often the air is slightly modified by taking out some of the water vapor and adding a small amount of atomized oil to make the gas more machines friendly by using FRL unit. A 160mm (6.299 inches) diameter cylinder has an area of r2. So if we have 6 psi air pressure pushing on 3.14 square inches of surface. That cylinder has 6psi x 31.14 inch2 = 186.88 lbs of pressure. This pressure pushes down the rod. Ram connected to the rod is forced downwards which in turn pushes down the punch which is fixed to the ram. This punch, hits the metal sheet placed on the die having a U-Groove. The pressure is applied until the part has been formed to the proper angle.

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Fig # 31 Operation of Punch on sheet metal

When the lever is operated in reverse direction as operated before, the ram moves upwards, moving away the punch from the die. The operation is continuous and can be controlled by lever mechanism. The sheet metal of 1.5mm thickness, after U-bending, will have 9mm inner diameter and 12mm outer diameter at the bend.

Thus the operation is completed, and the sheet is bent in U form. Salient features Low space requirement Simple operation with direction control valve Suitable for varied sizes of carriers

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MODULE 8 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF C-FRAME

Fig # 32 2D Drawing of C-frame

This is the C-frame of our pneumatic press, with 10mm back plate and 100x140x20mm rib for supporting purpose. The frame is not a solid, but made hollow (shell) of 16mm thickness. A base with T-slot lies on the lower portion of the frame, used to fix a DIE.

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Fig # 33 C-Frame 3D Model

This is the 3D Model of the C-frame done in CATIA software. The pneumatic cylinder lies on the top of the frame.

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Fig # 34 Deformed and Undeformed shape of C-frame without ribs when cylinder load is acting on the top of C-frame

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Fig # 35 Deformed and Undeformed shape of C-frame with ribs, when cylinder load is acting on the top of C-frame

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Fig # 36 Deformed C-Frame without ribs, showing stress variations at various portions of the frame

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Fig # 37 Deformed C-frame with ribs showing the stress variation when cylinder load is acting

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Fig # 38 Deformed and Undeformed plot of C-frame without ribs showing the stress variation

When the cylinder load is acting on the top of the frame, the frame may deform due to continuous load on it. The stress value is varied at different portions of the C-frame shown by color variation in the above figure. The blue color represents 0 N/mm2 stress value. So the portion of the frame represented by blue color is not subjected to any deformations. The red color represents the highest stress value and more deformation. Analyzing the deformation of frame without ribs to support and back plate, the maximum stress observed at the up-right portion of the frame is found to be varying from 1.265-1.423 N/mm2.

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Fig # 39 Deformed C-frame with ribs showing the stress variation when cylinder load is acting

Analyzing the deformation of frame with ribs to support and back plate, the maximum stress observed at the up-right portion of the frame is found to be varying from 0.65690.7391N/mm2. By observing the deflections and stress variations in the C-frame with and without Ribs and Backplate, the stress in the frame without supporting ribs is found to be more, compared to that with supporting ribs. So, to minimize the deflection, Ribs are attached.

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MODULE 9 CONCLUSION
This project has met its objective to produce a C-Frame Pneumatic Press and its function is limited to U-Bending. We designed a pneumatic press which costs less than that available in the market. We are very good at what we have done and had fun doing it. Our pneumatic press is useful to do metal forming operations and as it is a 2 tonne capacity press. We can do simple operations like bending, blanking and piercing, which is very useful and helpful to do small works at our college. We chose a simple c-frame press which occupies less space which any one can operate, and manufactured it at 1/3rd of the original cost in the market. We have also done analysis of c-frame of the press. We tested our project by producing a U-bend of sheet metal. Our product was first planned to be a washer but due to cost considerations of die we have limited to bending operation. As our project is based on manufacturing of pneumatic press and U-bending, further modifications can be done and increase its applications.

FUTURE EXTENSION: We contemplate the following future features which can be incorporated into this project:1. A die to produce a washer of less than 1mm thickness. 2. Automation of pneumatic press. 3. Improvements in pneumatic press by adding components like timers, silencers etc.

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BIBILOGRAPHY:
http://www.ciri.org.nz/bendworks/bending.pdf http://www.pdf4me.net/view.php?url=http://classes.engr.oregonstate.edu/mime/winter2010/ie337001/Laboratories/7.Metal%20Forming_bending-1.pdf http://www.pdf4me.net/view.php?url=http://www.sonexaircraft.com/documents/instruction_sheets/bendin g_flat_parts.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/44248472/Presses http://www.scribd.com/doc/38482439/5-Reports-1-31 http://ranier.hq.nasa.gov/Team116/2003/lessons/lesson7-pneumatics.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/12594808/Final-Year-Project-Reportground-Source-Cooling-System http://www.cottonyarnmarket.net/OASMTP/Pneumatic%20Air%20Compressor.pdf http://www.deyes.sefton.sch.uk/technology/as&alevel/pneumatic_systems.htm http://books.google.co.in/books?id=k6KLBs2L2AMC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=working+principle+of +pneumatic+system+for+bending&source=bl&ots=LqguMJXS_-&sig=pbR9_UBuWkCiKxIglSb6BQWXOA&hl=en&ei=QEebTbaVBc_NrQfT_YHlBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct =result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=true