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WHAT IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES? WHAT ARE STORAGE DEVICES?

Storage device are ! ed to tore data a"d #rogra$ #er$a"e"t%&' T(e e device are ! ed to tore %arge vo%!$e o) data a"d #rogra$' Storage device are a% o ca%%ed a *+ PRIMARY STORAGE DEVICES' ,+ SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES' -+ A./I0IARY STORAGE DEVICES' WHAT IS PRIMARY AND SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES? T(ere i "o o))icia% de)i"itio" o) t(e e t1o ter$ 2 #ri$ar& torage t&#ica%%& re)er to ra"do$ acce $e$or& 3RAM42 1(i%e eco"dar& torage re)er to t(e co$#!ter5 i"ter"a% (ard drive' 4 E/AMP0ES OF PRIMARY STORAGE DEVICES+ Fo%%o1i"g are o$e e6a$#%e o) #ri$ar& torage device ' *+ RAM' ,+ ROM' -+ Cac(e MEMORY' E/AMP0ES OF SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES+ I"ter"a% Hard Di 7 Drive E6ter"a% (ard di 7 drive Di))ere"tiate 8et1ee" RAM a"d ROM? RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It can store information and have new information stored over it later. And its a physical device you can change it Types of RAM DDR (Double Data Rate ! DDR" and #DRAM R$M stands for Read $nly Memory. It cant be written%over Types of R$M &R$M (&rogrammable Read%$nly Memory and 'D%R$M W(at i cac(e $e$or&? 'ache memory is random access memory (RAM that a computer microprocessor can access more (uic)ly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data! it loo)s first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there! it does not have to do the more time%consuming reading of data from larger memory. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" -, 8it a"d 9: 8it $e$or&? The terms *"%bit and +,%bit refer to the way a computer-s processor (also called a '&. ! handles information. The +,%bit version of /indows handles large amounts of random access memory (RAM more effectively than a *"%bit system. W(at i Virt!a% Me$or&? 0irtual memory is storage space on your computers hard dis) that /indows uses in con1unction with random access memory (RAM . W(at i NVRAM? 20RAM (2on%0olatile Random Access Memory is a type of Random Access Memory (RAM that retains its information when power is turned off. The 20RAM is a small

", pin DI& (Dual Inline &ac)age integrated circuit chip and is thus able to obtain the power needed to )eep it running from the 'M$# battery installed in your motherboard. It )eeps trac) of various system parameters such as serial number! 3thernet MA' (Media Access 'ontrol address! 4$#TID! date of manufacture. 4ow many logical drives is it possible to fit onto a physical dis)5 Ma6imum of ", logical drives. The e6tended partition can only have "* logical drives Ma6 of ", partition from 7c7 to 787 primary , W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" 0* a"d 0, cac(e? 9: (level : cache % 9: cache stores information for use by the processor. 9: cache is e6tremely (uic) but also e6pensive. Most processors have an 9: cache divided into space for data and space for instructions. 9" (level " cache % 9" cache is the ne6t step down from 9: cache. Most processors today have 9" cache! which increases cache performance. Most des)top processors have an 9" 'ache of about ";+<=! but some high%end processors can have as much as "M=. W(at i BIOS? =I$# stands for =asic Input>output #ystem! although the full term is used very infre(uently. The system =I$# is the lowest%level software in the computer? it acts as an interface between the hardware and the operating system. W(at i TCP;IP? T'&>I& (Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol>Internet &rotocol is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private networ). W(at i I"tra"et? An Intranet is a private networ) that is contained within an enterprise. It may consists of many interlin)ed 9A2 .The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information @ computing resources among employees. An intranet can also be used to facilitate wor)ing in groups and for teleconferences. Difference between T'& and .D& T'& is a Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol. .D& is a .ser Datagram &rotocol. T'& offers error connection and Auaranteed Delivery .D& doesnt offer error connection @ delivery T'& &rovides or sends larger pac)ets .D& &rovides or sends smaller pac)ets. T'& is #lower than .D& .D& is Baster than T'& W(at i 0oad 8a%a"ci"g? Distributing processing and communications activity evenly across a computer networ) so that no single device is overwhelmed. 9oad balancing is especially important for networ)s where it-s difficult to predict the number of re(uests that will be issued to a server. /hat are called Bat clients and Bat servers5

If the bul) of the application runs on the 'lient side! then it is Bat clients. It is used for decision support and personal software. If the bul) of the application runs on the #erver side! then it is Bat servers. It tries to minimi8e networ) interchanges by creating more abstract levels of services. W(at i C%ie"t;Server? 'lient%server computing or networ)ing is a distributed application architecture that partitions tas)s or wor)loads between service providers (servers and service re(uesters! called clients W(at are t(e c(aracteri tic o) C%ie"t;Server? #calability A client server system can accommodate growth and networ) e6pansions. 'omputers can easily be added or replaced .=ecause a client server system is centrali8ed! servers can easily move files and applications from an old computer to a new one. Ble6ibility 4aving a centrali8ed management ma)es the client server system fle6ible to adapt to changes and new technologies. Accessibility A client server system also is more accessible and secure than a peer%to%peer networ) because servers ensure that everything that goes in and out of the networ) passes through their stringent security measures. W(at are t(e 8!i%di"g 8%oc7 o) C%ie"t;Server? The building bloc)s of client>server applications areC 'lient #erver Middleware The 'lient =uilding =loc) Runs the client side of the application It runs on the $# that provides a A.I or an $$.I and that can access distributed services! wherever they may be. The client also runs a component of the Distributed #ystem Management (D#M element. The #erver =uilding =loc) Runs the server side of the application The server application typically runs on top of some shrin)%wrapped server software pac)age. The five contending server platforms for creating the ne6t generation of client>server applications are #D9 database servers! T& Monitors! groupware servers! $b1ect servers and the /eb server. The server side depends on the $# to interface with the middleware building bloc). The server also runs D#M component It may be a simple agent or a shared ob1ect database etc. The Middleware =uilding =loc) Runs on both the client and server sides of an application This bro)en into three category Transport #tac)s

2$# #ervice%specific middleware Middleware is the nervous system of the client>server infrastructure

W(at i a" e$ai% c%ie"t? W(at i di))ere"ce 8et1ee" e$ai% c%ie"t a"d 1e8 $ai%? In most cases! your email account e6ists on a central server! and not on your personal computer or wor)station. An email client is software that allows you to read and send email through your account by connecting to this server. 3mail clients generally provide a simple interface through which you can access your email account. =oth web mail and email clients use the internet to read and send mail /ith web mail! you read or send email through your browser and the web mail interface. #ome e6amples of web mail areC EahooF Mail Amail 4otmail A" e$ai% c%ie"t i a #iece o) o)t1are o" &o!r co$#!ter t(at &o! ! e to read a"d e"d e$ai% )ro$ &o!r co$#!ter' T(e adva"tage o) ! i"g a" e$ai% c%ie"t i t(at t(e e$ai% are tored o" &o!r co$#!ter a"d are acce i8%e )a ter t(a" ! i"g a 1e8 8a ed e$ai% i"ter)ace' There are various email client programs available. #ome of the more common email clients areC $utloo) 36press G This comes with /indows for free. $utloo) G part of the Microsoft $ffice collection of programs Thunderbird G comes with the Birefo6 browser W(at are t(e di))ere"ce a$o"g ro!ter2 1itc(2 8ridge a"d (!8? 4ub A common connection point for devices in a networ). 4ubs are commonly used to connect segments of a 9A2. A hub contains multiple ports. /hen a pac)et arrives at one port! it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the 9A2 can see all pac)ets. #witch In networ)s! a device that filters and forwards pac)ets between 9A2 segments. #witches operate at the data lin) layer (layer " and sometimes the networ) layer (layer * of the $#I Reference Model . Router A device that forwards data pac)ets along networ)s. A router is connected to at least two networ)s! commonly two 9A2s or /A2s or a 9A2 and its I#&.s networ). W(at i IP ec? #hort for IP Security, a set of protocols developed by the I3TB to support secure e6change of pac)ets at the I& layer. I&sec has been deployed widely to implement 0&2s.

W(at i t(e #ort "!$8er o) Te%"et 2DNS2 )t#3data4 a"d )t#? Telnet H "* and D2# H ;* ftp(data H "I and ftpH": Di))ere"tiate 8et1ee" )or1ard %oo7!# a"d rever e %oo7!# i" DNS? Borward loo)up convertC4ost name to I& address. Reverse loo)up convertCI& address to 4ost name W(ic( %a&er o) OSI i re #o" i8%e )or e"d<to<e"d co$$!"icatio"? 3nd%to%end communication refer to process to process delivery which is done by TRA2#&$RT 9AE3R W(at i a 1ide area "et1or7? A wide area networ) (/A2 is a data networ)! usually used for connecting computers! that spans a wide geographical area. /A2s can be used to connect cities! states! or even countries. /A2s are often used by larger corporations or organi8ations to facilitate the e6change of data The best e6ample of the /A2 is the internet. W(at i a $etro#o%ita" area "et1or7? Metropolitan area networ) (MA2 A networ) intermediate between a local area networ) (9A2 and a wide area networ) (/A2 ? A networ) spanning a physical area larger than a 9A2 but smaller than a /A2! such as a city. A MA2 is typically owned and operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" =dia%<!# co""ecio"= a"d =8road8a"d co""ectio"=? The main difference is speed. Dial up has only ;+ <=&# speed and broad band has faster speed li)e ";+ M=&# to " M=&# W(at i %oca% area "et1or7? A local area networ) (9A2 is a computer networ) that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home! school! computer laboratory or office building. W(at i di))ere"ce 8et1ee" 8a e8a"d a"d 8road8a"d tra" $i io"? In a baseband transmission! the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission! signals are sent on multiple fre(uencies! allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. In base band transmission we transmit digital signal without converting it into analog. here a low pass channel is used. In broad band transmission we transmit digital signal by converting it into analog. 4ere a band pass channel is used. W(at i PING !ti%it&?

&I2AC &ac)et Internet Aropper. It-s a diagnostic utility! which diagnose connectivity between computers. It use I'M&C Internet 'ontrol Messaging protocol to send echo re(uests ( usually , pac)ets and receive echo replies (, pac)ets W(at i NETBIOS a"d NETBE.I? 2et=I$# (2etwor) =asic Input>output #ystem is a program that allows applications on different computers to communicate within a local area networ) (9A2 . Microsoft /indows uses 2et=I$# on 3thernet or To)en Ring networ)s. 2et=3.I (2et=I$# 36tended .ser Interface is a new! e6tended version of 2et=I$#! the program that lets computers communicates within a local area networ). 2et=3.I is a fast and efficient protocol that consumes few networ) resources! provides e6cellent error correction! and re(uires little configuration. W(at are t(e di))ere"t t&#e o) "et1or7i"g ; i"ter"et1or7i"g device ? Modems! repeater! routers! 4.=-s! switches! and wireless adapters.

W(at i RAID? RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Dis)s and it basically involves combining two or more drives together to improve the performance and the fault tolerance There are number of different RAID levelsC 9evel I %% #triped Dis) Array without Bault ToleranceC &rovides data striping 9evel : %% Mirroring and Duple6ingC &rovides dis) mirroring. 9evel " %% 3rror%'orrecting 'odingC 9evel * %% =it%Interleaved &arityC &rovides byte%level striping with a dedicated parity dis). 9evel , %% Dedicated &arity DriveC provides bloc)%level striping (li)e 9evel I with a parity dis). 9evel ; %% =loc) Interleaved Distributed &arityC &rovides data striping at the byte level and also stripe error correction information. 9evel + %% Independent Data Dis)s with Double &arityC &rovides bloc)%level striping with parity data distributed across all dis)s. 9evel IJ: %% A Mirror of #tripesC 9evel :I %% A #tripe of MirrorsC 9evel KC A trademar) of #torage 'omputer 'orporation that adds caching to 9evels * or ,. RAID #C (also called &arity RAID 3M' 'orporation-s proprietary striped parity RAID system used in its #ymmetri6 storage systems. W(at are *>Ba e,2 *>Ba e? a"d *>Ba eT Et(er"et 0AN ? :I=ase" an 3thernet term meaning a ma6imum transfer rate of :I Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling! with a contiguous cable segment length of "II meters (:L;mts . <nown as Thinnet. :I=ase; an 3thernet term meaning a ma6imum transfer rate of :I Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling! with a contiguous cable segment length of ;II meters. <nown as Thic)net. :I=aseT an 3thernet term meaning a ma6imum transfer rate of :I Megabits per

second that uses two pairs of twisted%pair baseband signaling! with a contiguous cable segment length of :II meters. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" #(& ica% addre &hysical AddressC Its called as MA' Address 9ogical AddressC Its 'alled as Ip Address a"d %ogica% addre ?

W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" tree a"d )ore t? Multiple domain models create logical structures called trees! when they share contiguous D2# names. Bor e6ample! contoso.com! us.contoso.com! and europe.contoso.com share contiguous D2# namespaces and would together be considered a tree. An Active Directory that consists of multiple trees is naturally called a forest. W(at i t(e Net1or7 Ti$e Protoco%? 2etwor) Time &rotocol (2T& is a protocol that is used to synchroni8e computer cloc) times in a networ) of computers. W(at i ICMP? I'M& (Internet 'ontrol Message &rotocol is a message control and error%reporting protocol between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. W(at i S0IP 3Seria% 0i"e I"ter)ace Protoco%4? It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of I& datagrams across a serial line. W(at i DHCP2 DNS2 POP-? Dynamic 4ost 'onfiguration &rotocol (D4'& is a client>server protocol that automatically provides an Internet &rotocol (I& host with its I& address and other related configuration information such as the subnet mas) and default gateway Domain 2ame #ystem (D2# is an Internet 3ngineering Tas) Borce (I3TB standard name service that allows your computer to register and resolve domain names! an Internet service that translates domain names into I& addresses &$&* (&ost $ffice &rotocol * is the most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving e%mail. &$&* is a client>server protocol in which e%mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. Na$e t(ree "et1or7 too% ! ed to deter$i"e "et1or7 co""ectivit& &I2A TRA'3R$.T3 &AT4&I2A W(at i $!%tica t ro!ti"g? Multicast routing is done by sending one pac)et to several destinations W(at i t(e de)a!%t !8"et $a 7 )or a" i#v9 addre ";;.";;.";;.";;.";;.I ?

W(at i @er8ero ? W(ic( ver io" i c!rre"t%& ! ed 8& Wi"do1 ? Ho1 doe @er8ero 1or7?

<erberos is a networ) authentication protocol that verifies both the identity of the user that is re(uesting authentication as well as the server providing the re(uested authentication! also )nown as mutual authentication. The <erberos authentication mechanism issues tic)ets for accessing networ) services. These tic)ets contain encrypted data! including an encrypted password that confirms the user-s identity to the re(uested service. The <erberos version ; authentication protocols provide a mechanism for authentication and mutual authentication between a client @ a server! or between one server and another server. Birst! the client contacts the Authentication #erver with a re(uest for access to service(s . The authentication #erver verifies the client-s presence in its database! and sends two messages to the client. The first message is a 'lient>Tic)et%Aranting #erver session )ey that is encrypted with the client-s secret )ey. The second message is a Tic)et%Aranting Tic)et! encrypted with the Tic)et%Aranting #erver-s secret )ey. The Tic)et%Aranting Tic)et includes the client-s ID! networ) address! the tic)et-s validity period! and a copy of the 'lient>Tic)et%Aranting #erver session )ey. 2e6t! the client sends two messages to the Tic)et%Aranting #erver. The first of these is the Tic)et%Aranting Tic)et plus the ID of the desired service. The second is called the Authenticator. It is composed of the 'lient ID and a timestamp! and is encrypted using the session )ey. The Tic)et%Aranting #erver uses its secret )ey to decrypt the Tic)et%Aranting Tic)et. It then uses the session )ey to decrypt the 'lient ID and timestamp from the Authenticator. The server then sends bac) to the client a new tic)et ('lient>#erver Tic)et for the re(uested service! encrypted with the service-s secret )ey! including the client ID! networ) address! valid time period! and a 'lient>#erver session )ey. The client then contacts a server providing the desired service and sends two messages. The first one! as you might guess! is the 'lient>#erver Tic)et. Along with this the client sends an Authenticator containing the client ID and a timestamp! encrypted with the 'lient>#erver session )ey. The server providing the service decrypts the 'lient>#erver Tic)et using its secret )ey. It then uses the 'lient>#erver session )ey to decrypt the Authenticator. The server then increments the timestamp! and sends the client a message encrypted with the session )ey containing the incremented timestamp. $n receipt! the client and server are authenticated with each other and the client begins normal client% server service re(uests and the server provides services. W(at i t(e ra"ge o) addre e i" t(e c%a e o) i"ter"et addre e ? 'lass :.I.I.: to #upports :+ million hosts on each of :"K networ)s. A :"+.";;.";;.";, 'lass :"L.:.I.: to = :M:.";;.";;.";, 'lass :M".I.:.: to ' ""*.";;.";,.";, 'lass "",.I.I.I to D "*M.";;.";;.";; #upports +;!III hosts on each of :+!III networ)s. #upports ";, hosts on each of " million networ)s. Reserved for multicast groups.

'lass ",I.I.I.I to Reserved for future use! or Research and 3 ";,.";;.";;.";, Development &urposes. Ranges :"K.6.6.6 are reserved for loopbac) or localhost!

A :%:"+ 2.4.4.4 = :"L%:M: 2.2.4.4 ' :M"%""* 2.2.2.4 D "",%"*M 2ot applicable 2H2etwor) 4H4ost 2ote :C :"K.I.I.I is a class A networ)! but is reserved for use as a loopbac) address (typically :"K.I.I.: . 2ote "C The I.I.I.I networ) is reserved for use as the default route. 2ote *C 'lass D addresses are used by groups of hosts or routers that share a common characteristicC e.g. all $#&B devices respond to pac)ets sent to address "",.I.I." 2ote ,C 'lass 3 addresses e6ist (",I%",L ! but are reserved for future use W(at i OSPF? $#&B stands for $pen #hortest &ath first and it is a lin) state routing protocol and it is used to find the best possible shortest path to the router in a networ) W(at are t(e #o i8%e 1a& o) data e6c(a"ge? #imple6 4alf%duple6 Bull%duple6. W(at i #oi"t<to<#oi"t #rotoco%? In networ)ing! the &oint%to%&oint &rotocol! or &&&! is a data lin) protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networ)ing nodes. W(at doe CIDR ta"d )or? 'lassless Inter%Domain Routing ('IDR is a methodology of allocating I& addresses and routing Internet &rotocol pac)ets W(at i a Ma"age$e"t I")or$atio" Ba e 3MIB4 Management Information =ase, a database of ob1ects that can be monitored by a networ) management system. =oth #2M& and RM$2 use standardi8ed MI= formats that allow any #2M& and RM$2 tools to monitor any device defined by a MI=. W(at i 'o t )i%e? An $#T file (.ost is an offline folder file in Microsoft $utloo). $ffline folders ma)e it possible for the user to wor) offline and then to synchroni8e changes with the 36change server the ne6t time they connect. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" POP- a"d IMAP Mai% Server? There are two different protocols available to access e%mailC &$&* and IMA&. &$&* is useful when e%mail is chec)ed from only one computer. IMA& is the better choice when you would li)e to chec) your mail from multiple computers. /hen using &$&*! your mail is stored on your &'. /hen using IMA&! the mail is stored on the mail server. &$&* Eou only chec) e%mail from one computer. Eou want to remove your e%mail from the mail server. #et to remove mail from server after *I days. Dont chec) more fre(uently than every :; minutes.

K; M= is the ma6imum for &$&* users. IMA& Do 2$T chec) all folders for new messagesF This slows your e%mail substantially. .se Nmail>O (without the (uotes as your IMA& folder directory. Eou can set your client to download the mail and to remove the mail from the server! li)e a &$&* client. $rgani8e your mail into folders! and archive your older messages. This speeds e% mail retrieval by minimi8ing the number of messages in the inbo6. So$eo"e a 7ed $e 1(at Micro o)t !8Aect i 1a"t to %ear"? A"d i aid t(at I 1a"t to %ear" Wi"do1 a"d E6c(a"ge' So co!%d ! te%% $e 1(at re%ated !8Aect i" 1i"do1 ? A"d 1(at re%ated !8Aect i" E6c(a"ge? In /indows and 36change #erver are both Microsoft &roducts .The related #ub1ects for /indows and 36change are as belowC /indows Related #ub1ects are !$# Installation!AD#!RA#!D2#!D4'&!4omeDirectory!&rofile Management!Technical Issues!#ervices!#ystem files!$# &erformance issues!=ac)up!Repair of $# (/indows !Registry #ettings and 2etwor) between /indows #ystems and etc. 36change related sub1ects are 36change Installation!36change =ac).p!$utloo) 'onfiguration!36change #erver and 'lient installtion!'reation of .sers!'reation of &rofiles!&$&* #ervice !#MT& #ervice W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" MCP2 MCSA a"d MCSE a 8rie) de cri#tio"? If u &ass : paper of Microsoft than Microsoft awards u with M'& (Microsoft 'ertified &rofessional 'ertificate. similarly if u &ass , papers than u become M'#A (Microsoft 'ertified #ystems Administrator @ after &assing K &apers u become M'#3 (Microsoft 'ertified #ystems 3ngineer I" , do$ai" co"tro%%er 2 O"e (a o$e - ro%e ot(er (a , ro%e 2 Do$ai" co"tro%%er 1(ic( (a - ro%e 1e"t do1"2 1i%% t(e ! er ca" a8%e to %ogi" 1(o are created i" t(at do$ai" co"tro%%er? Ees! by default that users can able to login as this record is repliacted to another D's. #ince pdc emulator role is handling the &assword and loc)out policies! if the account is loc)ed out! that user may not be able to login if the down D' handling this role. I) Acco!"t %oc7o!t or #a 1ord re et (a 8ee" do"e2 1(at i t(e re#%icatio" ti$e 8et1ee" do$ai" co"tro%%er ? Immediately

W(at i o)t1are? 'omputer software! or 1ust software! is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words software is a set of programs! procedures! algorithms and its documentation W(at are a##%icatio" #artitio" ? W(e" do I ! e t(e$?

An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. $nly domain controllers running /indows #erver "II* can host a replica of an application directory partition. I (ave de%% %a#to#2 1(ere i (ave i" ta%% 1i"do1 vi ta2 a"d %ater i (ave i" ta%% 1i"do1 B2 8!t "o1 1(e" i a$ tarti"g it it5 "ot givi"g t(e o#tio" 1(ic( 1i"do1 i 1a"t to ! e2 a!to$atica%%& it tarti"g 1it( 1i"do1 B2a% o i" 1i"do1 B it5 "ot acce#ti"g a"& drive<i a$ !"a8%e to tra" )er data t(ro!g( B%!etoot( or card reader2 #%ea e (e%# i" to re o%ve t(i #ro8%e$? Eou have to install all compatible software drivers for =luetooth and card reader for win K Ho1 to 8ac7!#;re tore Gro!# Po%ic& o8Aect ''''? Bor bac)upC 36pand group policy ob1ect and right clic) on group which you want bac)up and clic) on e6port and provide location. Bor restoreC e6pand group policy ob1ect and right clic) on group policy! clic) import (which you want restore from bac)up clic) restore! provide source location. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" NTFS C FAT Fi%e S& te$ ? $perting #ystem BAT*"C ML>2T>"<>P& BAT:+C D$# @ All 0ersions of /indows 2TB#C 2T>"<>P& 9imitations Ma6 0olume #i8e @ Ma6 Bile #i8e BAT*"C "T= BAT:+C "A= BAT*"C ,A= BAT:+C "A= 2TB#C "T= 'ompression BAT*" @ BAT:+C 2o 2TB#C Ees 3ncryption 2TB#C Ees BAT*"! BAT:+C 2o Dis) Duotas 2TB#C Ees BAT*"! BAT:+C 2o =uilt%In #ecurity 2TB#C Ees BAT*" @ BAT:+C 2o &erformance 2TB#C 9ow on small volumes! 4igh on 9arge BAT*" @ BAT:+C 4igh on small volumes! 9ow on large Bault Tolerance 2TB#C Ma6 BAT*"C Minimal BAT:+C Average Ho1 to tro!8%e (oot t(e Re#%icatio" I !e 1it( t(e Active Director&? E6#%ai" .se below * tools :. Repadmin.e6e ". Remplmon *. Active directory sites and service W(at i di))ere"ce 8et1ee" Server ,>>- v ' ,>>D?

: "IIL is combination of vista and windows "II*r". #ome new services are introduced in it :. R$D' QRead%only Domain controllers.R new domain controller introduced in it ". /D# (windows deployment services instead of RI# in "II* server *. shadow copy for each and every folders ,.boot se(uence is changed ;.installation is *" bit where as in "II* it is :+ as well as *" bit! +.services are )nown as role in it K. Aroup policy editor is a separate option in ads " The main difference between "II* and "IIL is 0irtuali8ation! management. "IIL has more inbuilt components and updated third party drivers. /indows #erver "IIL introduces 4yper%0 (0 for 0irtuali8ation but only on +,bit versions. * In /indows #erver "IIL! Microsoft is introducing new features and technologies! some of which were not available in /indows #erver "II* with #ervice &ac) : (#&: ! that will help to reduce the power consumption of server and client operating systems and increase server efficiency. It includes updated support for Advanced 'onfiguration and &ower Interface (A'&I processor power management (&&M features! including support for processor performance states (&%states and processor idle sleep states on multiprocessor systems. Write Hierarc(& o) ADS 4ierarchy of AD# %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Borest S Tree S Domain S $rgani8ational .nitQ$.R S Aroup S .ser Yo!r '# t )i%e got corr!#ted2 &o!r $a"ager 1a"t to c(ec7 (i $ai% 2 8!t it5 "ot getti"g o#e"2 1(at 1i%% &o! do ?(o1 ! 1i%% o%ve t(i #ro8%e$ Run the scanpst to solve this issue from the following location 'CTprogram filesT'ommon BilesT#ystemTM#MA&IT:I**T#'A2&#T.3P3 #elect the path of the &#T! and scan it. If the &#T file is in shared drive! chec) the authentication for the user. (&ermission %from the #ecurity settings ! if permission is denied to user! give the permission to parent folder and child folders W(at i t(e 1a& to i")ect t(e & te$ 8& vir! ? :. &32 DRI03# A2D I2T3R23T ".installing *rd party softwares *. 'rac)! patch! )eygen ,. 'onnecting in a 9A2 where other computer-s in that networ) may contain viruses.

W(at (a##e" i) a Sc(e$a or Do$ai" "a$i"g $a ter goe do1"2 1o!%d t(ere 8e a"& i$#act o" t(e e"d ! er a!t(e"ticatio"? Actually! #chema master and domain naming master are on forest level and #chema master is responsible for schema modification. #o if a user going to login and user doesnt modify the schema. finally 2o impact from schema master. Domain naming master responsible for adding for removing>modify any domain in the forest. #o again 2o impact. Binally if my both server are down so there is no impact of user login. I) RID $a ter i do1"2 ca" do$ai" ! er %ogi" i" do$ai"? A server that has RID (Relative Identifiers master role only generates the uni(ue IDs to the newly created ob1ects. 4ence if your RID master is down? no new ob1ects could be created however the e6isting users would )eep on getting authenticated as authentication is done via <erberos v; in server "II* that does not include RI# master server. W(at i i" DNS? D2# stand for Domain name system it is name resolution service which resolve the human friendlily name such as ///.Microsoft.com into I& address. W(at i t(e DHCP ro%e? D4'& (Dynamic 4ost 'onfiguration &rotocol automatically assign I& address to the client machines which are connected to the networ). It also configures other networ) settings li)e subnet mas)! Default getway and D2#. It reduces the administrative wor). Ca" I edit Sc(e$a''''? Ees! for editing the schema the user must be member of #chema Admin Aroup. T(ere are ?> & te$ 2 a%% & te$ are Aoi"ed i" do$ai" co"tro%%er2 i" t(at o"e o) t(e #c got di co""ected )ro$ t(e do$ai" !dde"%&2 (o1 ca" ! o%ve t(e #ro8%e$2 1(at are t(e te# do &o! )o%%o1 to overco$e? (: chec) logical problems li)e T'&>I& whether it is configured properly or not. (" chec) physical problems li)e cable! r1,; whether it is inserted properly or not. (* 'hec) I'M& in firewall W(at are t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" Wi"do1 ,>>> Server a"d Wi"do1 Server ,>>-? /indows #erver "II* was released as an upgrade to /indows "III #erver. windows "II* server support remote des)top feature but in "III remote des)top feature was not supported. /indow "II* server includes II# server in it. you can change the domain name at any time with help of ntdsutil command! without rebuilding the domain that is not possible in "III. :C /indows "III server give only MI days trial version of Terminal server. but windows server "II* give :"I days trial version. "C /indows server "II* shared folder at a time only +;K+K user access. : In /in "III server we can apply +"I group policies but in "II* we can apply nearly K"I so /in"II* server is more secure than win "III server.

" In "III we cannot rename domain whereas in "II* we can rename Domain. * In "III it supports of L processors and +, A= RAM (In "III Advance #erver whereas in "II* supports up to +, processors and ma6 of ;:"A= RAM. , "III #upports II# ;.I and "II* #upports II#+.I ; "III doesn-t support Dot net whereas "II* #upports Microsoft .23T ".I + "III has #erver and Advance #erver editions whereas "II* has #tandard! 3nterprise! Datacenter and /eb server 3ditions. K "III doesn-t have any +, bit server operating system whereas "II* has +, bit server operating systems (/indows #erver "II* P+, #td and 3nterprise 3dition L "III has basic concept of DB# (Distributed Bile systems with defined roots whereas "II* has 3nhanced DB# support with multiple roots. M In "III we can create : million users and in "II* we can create : billion users. :I In "III!there is no shadow copy whereas "II* shadow copy is there. :: In "III!we can-t rename domain name whereas we can change it. In "II* W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" ddr* a"d ddr, a"d ddr-? DDR DDR stands for Double Data Rate. It can transfer data twice per cloc) cycle. It does this by using the rising and falling edges of the cloc) signal! also )nown as 7double pumping7 and employing a prefetch buffer capable of accessing two datawords at a time. DDR2 DDR" also utili8es the same double pumping techni(ue as DDR. It achieves performance gains by using a prefetch buffer that retrieves four datawords per memory access. This allows it to transfer data four times per cloc) cycle (compared to twice in the case of DDR . DDR3 9i)e all other forms of DDR! DDR* transfers data twice per cloc) cycle. 4owever! its prefetch buffer can access eight datawords at a time. It can transfer data eight times per cloc) cycle. W(at are t(e di))ere"t tec("ica% te# to i" ta%% 1i"do1 6# a"d 1i"do1 ,>>> #ro)e io"a%? :% =ootable 'D. "% .nattended installation before you has to create an answer file @ save it to a floppy dis). *% If you have RI# server you can =oot from networ) @ install. W(at i t(e i$#act i) DNS Server )ai% ? If you D2# server fails! Active Directory stops wor)ing @ server stops responding. Eou can-t resolve host names. W(at are t(e AD data8a e t&#e a"d it )%o1? The Active Directory creates and stores four types of log files on the maintenance and management of transactions. These files are stored in Usystem>2TD# and include VTransaction log files. The current transaction file is 3db.log! which by default contains information about recent transactions and is limited to :IM=. /hen this limit is reached! transaction files are automatically created with the name

edb66666.log (where 6 is a se(uential number . $nce every :" hours! old previous transaction files are purged during a process )nown as garbage collection. V'hec)point files. The chec)point is 3db.ch)! and it is used to list transactions that have been committed to the Active Directory VReserved log files. The reserved log file can be a number se(uence of logs! with a ma6imum si8e of :IM=! named res:.log! res".log! and so on. These logs are used in place of the transaction log when the creation of a new log file is attempted V&atch files. &atch files (with a .pat suffi6 are used during the bac)up%and%restore process of the Active Directory. Database entries are sometimes divided during bac)up into what is )nown as split transactions. The patch files are used to record these splits! and 7patch7 the transaction bac) together during restoration. W(at i o))%i"e de)rag$e"tatio" i" AD a"d (o1 do 1e do it? &erforming an offline defragmentation creates a new! compacted version of the database file. Depending on how fragmented the original database file was! the new file may be considerably smaller. To perform offline defragmentation of the Active Directory databaseC :. =ac) up Active Directory :. Reboot the domain controller! press BL @ 'hoose Directory #ervices Restore Mode and press 32T3R. &ress 32T3R again to start the boot process. ". 9og on using the Administrator account with the password :. 'lic) #tart! point to &rograms! point to Accessories! and then clic) 'ommand &rompt. At the command prompt! type ntdsutil! and then press 32T3R. *. Type files! and then press 32T3R. :. Type info! and then press 32T3R. This displays current information about the path and si8e of the Active Directory database and its log files. 2ote the path. ". 3stablish a location that has enough drive space for the compacted database to be stored. *. Type compact to driveCTdirectory! and then press 32T3R! where drive and directory is the path to the location you established in the previous step. 2ote Eou must specify a directory path. If the path contains any spaces! the entire path must be surrounded by (uotation mar)s. Bor e6ample! typeC compact to 7cCTnew folder7 ,. A new database named 2tds.dit is created in the path you specified. ;. Type (uit! and then press 32T3R. Type (uit again to return to the command prompt. :. If defragmentation succeeds without errors! follow the 2tdsutil.e6e on% screen instructions. Delete all the log files in the log directory by typing the following commandC del drive CT pathTo9ogBiles TW.log 'opy the new 2tds.dit file over the old 2tds.dit file in the current Active Directory database path that you noted in step +. 2ote you do not have delete the 3db.ch) file. Restart the computer normally. W(at i Pro6& erver?

A pro6y server is computer that functions as an intermediary between a web browser (such as Internet 36plorer and the Internet. &ro6y servers help improve web performance by storing a copy of fre(uently used /eb&ages. /hen a browser re(uests a webpage stored in the pro6y server-s collection (its cache ! it is provided by the pro6y server! which is faster than going to the web. &ro6y servers also help improve security by filtering out some web content and malicious software. &ro6y servers are used mostly by networ)s in organi8ations and companies. Typically! people connecting to the Internet from home will not use a pro6y server. DHCP Proce a"d 1(ic( Protoco% DHCP ! e Dynamic 4ost 'onfiguration &rotocol (D4'& is a standard protocol defined by RB' :;,: (which is superseded by RB' ":*: that allows a server to dynamically distribute I& addressing and configuration information to clients. D4'& &rocess fall into four basic phasesC D4'&DI#'$03R D4'&$BB3R D4'&R3D.3#T D4'&A'< &rotocol and &ort D4'& uses the same two ports assigned by IA2A for =$$T&C +K>.D& for sending data to the server! and +L>.D& for data to the client. W(at i t(e )!%% )or$ o) 6# it stands for 36perience. W(at i t(e adva"tage o) ! i"g Wi"do1 /P? The user interface for I&#ecurity (I&#ec V #2M& V #imple T'&>I& services V #A& Agent V 'lient #ervice for 2et/are V 2etwor) Monitor V Multiple Roaming feature W(& t(e 7er"e% #a"ic error 1a occ!rri"g? A )ernel panic is an action ta)en by an operating system upon detecting an internal fatal error from which it cannot safely recover. Attempts by the operating system to read an invalid or non%permitted memory address are a common source of )ernel panics. A panic may also occur as a result of a hardware failure or a bug in the operating system. Di))ere"t t&#e o) 8ac7!# This article e6plains different types of bac)up available in windows (ntbac)up.e6e . The =ac)up utility supports five methods of bac)ing up data on your computer or networ). 'opy bac)up A copy bac)up copies all selected files but does not mar) each file as having been bac)ed up Daily bac)up

A daily bac)up copies all selected files that have been modified the day the daily bac)up is performed. The bac)ed%up files are not mar)ed as having been bac)ed up Differential bac)up A differential bac)up copies files created or changed since the last normal or incremental bac)up. It does not mar) files as having been bac)ed up Incremental bac)up An incremental bac)up bac)s up only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental bac)up. It mar)s files as having been bac)ed up 2ormal bac)up A normal bac)up copies all selected files and mar)s each file as having been bac)ed up #trategy C 2ormal J Incremental =ac)ing up your data using a combination of normal bac)ups and incremental bac)ups re(uires the least amount of storage space and is the (uic)est bac)up method. #trategy C 2ormal J Differential =ac)ing up your data using a combination of normal bac)ups and differential bac)ups is more time%consuming! especially if your data changes fre(uently! but it is easier to restore the data because the bac)up set is usually stored on only a few dis)s or tapes. Ho1 to (o t $!%ti#%e 1e8 ite ! i"g IIS 9'> 3very /eb site has a descriptive name! and can support one or more host header names. $rgani8ations that host multiple /eb sites on a single server often use host headers because this method enables them to create multiple /eb site identities without using a uni(ue I& address for each site. Eou must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer To add a /eb site using a host header identifier using the /eb #ite 'reation /i8ard :. In II# Manager! e6pand the local computer! right%clic) the /eb #ites directory! point to 2ew! and then clic) /eb #ite. ". 'lic) 2e6t. *. In the Description bo6! type the name you have selected for the /eb site! and then clic) 2e6t. ,. In the 3nter the I& address to use for this /eb site bo6! clic) the I& address used by all sites on the server. ;. In the T'& port this /eb site should use bo6! type the port number used by all sites on the server. +. In the 4ost 4eader for this /eb site (DefaultC2one bo6! type the host header name to identify the /eb site. The host header name must contain the full name of the site! for e6ample! www.microsoft.com. K. If ##9 encryption is not enabled on the server! the ##9 port bo6 does not appear. If ##9 encryption is enabled on the server! type the ##9 port number! and then clic) 2e6t. 2ote that you cannot use host headers with ##9 encryption. L. In the &ath bo6! type or browse to the path of your /eb site home directory. M. To create a secured or private /eb site! clear the Allow anonymous access to this /eb site chec) bo6! and clic) 2e6t. (/eb sites are configured for anonymous access by default. : In the /eb #ite Access &ermissions bo6! set the permissions for the home I. directory. : 'lic) 2e6t! and then clic) Binish.

:. Nt%dr'e6e i $i i"g i" 1i" 6# o 1(at 1i%% &o! do? If ntldr is missing ! to fi6 it ! insert the /indows P& bootable 'D into your 'D%drive and reboot your computer. /hen your computer prompted a message to press any )ey to boot from the 'D! press the any )ey. $nce in the /indows P& setup menu press the 7R7 )ey to repair and now log into your /indows installation by pressing the 7:7 )ey then pressing enter. 4ere 3nter the administrator password and then copy the below two files to the root directory copy eCTi*L+Tntldr cCT copy eCTi*L+Tntdetect.com cCT $nce copy both files! remove the 'D and reboot your system. Ho1 to c(a"ge t(e 1i"do1 6# #rod!ct 7e& i) 1ro"g%& i" ta%%ed 1it( ot(er #rod!ct 7e& 8!t &o! (ave origi"a% #rod!ct 7e&? W(at &o! 1i%% do to Ma7e &o!r o a Ge"!i"e? Ao to run and type UsystemrootUT#ystem*"ToobeTmsoobe.e6e Ta change your product )ey here W(at i t(e 0ogica% ; P(& ica% Str!ct!re o) t(e AD E"viro"$e"t? P(& ica% tr!ct!re o) Active Director&+ The physical structure of Active Directory contains all the physical subnets present in your networ) li)e domain controllers and replication between domain controllers. The physical structure of Active DirectoryC Domain 'ontrollersC These computers run Microsoft /indows #erver "II*>"III! and Active Directory. 3very Domain 'ontroller performs specific functions li)e replication! storage and authentication Active Directory #itesC These sites are collection of well%connected computers. The reason why we create site is domain controllers can communicate fre(uently within the site. It minimi8es the latency within site! changes made on one domain controller to be replicated to other domain controllers. The other reason behind creating a site is to optimi8e bandwidth between domain controllers which are located in different locations. Active Directory &artitionsC 3ach Domain 'ontroller contains the following active directory partitionsC The Domain &artition contains a copy of all the ob1ects in that domain. Replication in Domain &artition is only to other domain controllers which are in the same domain. The #chema &artition is forest wide. 3very forest has one schema with consistent ob1ect class. The #chema and 'onfiguration ta)e part in replication! and get replicated to all domain controllers in a forest. Application &artition which is optional carries ob1ects which are not related to security and can be used by one or more applications. Application &artition replicates to specific domain controller in the forest. 0ogica% Str!ct!re o) a" Active Director&+ 'omponents of AD 9ogical #tructure The logical structure components have relationship with each other so it manage to control access to stored data @ finds how the data will be managed betn different domains in a forest. $b1ectsC li)e a user! computer! group! printer etcX $rgani8ational .nits G li)e any folder but in control of Active Directory Domains G 9ogical boundaries for ob1ects

Trees G 9ogical boundary for multiple domains Borests G 9ogical boundary for multiple trees /hat are the roles of B#M$5 /hich are Borest level roles and Domain level roles5 B#M$ Roles In a forest! there are at least five B#M$ roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. The five B#M$ roles areC #chema MasterC The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. Domain naming masterC The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. Infrastructure MasterC The infrastructure is responsible for updating references from ob1ects in its domain to ob1ects in other domains. At any one time! there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. Relative ID (RID MasterC The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool re(uests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. At any one time! there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. &D' 3mulatorC The &D' emulator is a domain controller that advertises itself as the primary domain controller (&D' to wor)stations! member servers! and domain controllers that are running earlier versions of /indows. Bor e6ample! if the domain contains computers that are not running Microsoft /indows P& &rofessional or Microsoft /indows "III client software! or if it contains Microsoft /indows 2T bac)up domain controllers! the &D' emulator master acts as a /indows 2T &D'. W(at are t(e te# ta7e" 1(i%e $ovi"g t(e FSMO ro%e ? /indows "III>"II* Active Directory domains utili8e a #ingle $peration Master method called B#M$ (Ble6ible #ingle Master $peration Eou can transfer B#M$ roles by using the 2tdsutil.e6e command%line utility or by using an MM' snap%in tool. Depending on the B#M$ role that you want to transfer! you can use one of the following three MM' snap%in toolsC Active Directory #chema snap%in Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap%in Active Directory .sers and 'omputers snap%in To transfer the B#M$ role the administrator must be a member of the following groupC B#M$ Role #chema Domain 2aming RID &D' 3mulator Infrastructure To Transfer the Domain%#pecific RID Master! &D' 3mulator! and Infrastructure Master B#M$ RolesC :. $pen the Active Directory .sers and 'omputers snap%in from the Administrative Tools folder. Domain Admins Administrator must be a member of #chema Admins 3nterprise Admins

". If you are 2$T logged onto the target domain controller! in the snap%in! right% clic) the icon ne6t to Active Directory .sers and 'omputers and press 'onnect to Domain 'ontroller. *. #elect the domain controller that will be the new role holder! the target! and press $<. ,. Right%clic) the Active Directory .sers and 'omputers and press $peration Masters. ;. #elect the appropriate tab for the role you wish to transfer and press the 'hange button. +. &ress $< to confirm the change. K. &ress $< all the way out. To Transfer the Domain 2aming Master RoleC :. $pen the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap%in from the Administrative Tools folder. ". If you are 2$T logged onto the target domain controller! in the snap%in! right% clic) the icon ne6t to Active Directory Domains and Trusts and press 'onnect to Domain 'ontroller. *. #elect the domain controller that will be the new role holder and press $<. ,. Right%clic) the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press $peration Masters. ;. &ress the 'hange button. +. &ress $< to confirm the change. K. &ress $< all the way out. Transferring the #chema Master Role :. 'lic) #tart! clic) run! type mmc! and then clic) $<. ". $n the 'onsole! menu clic) Add>Remove #nap%in. *. 'lic) Add. ,. 'lic) Active Directory #chema. ;. 'lic) Add. +. 'lic) 'lose to close the Add #tandalone #nap%in dialog bo6. K. 'lic) $< to add the snap%in to the console. L. Right%clic) the Active Directory #chema icon! and then clic) 'hange Domain 'ontroller. M. 'lic) #pecify Domain 'ontroller! type the name of the domain controller that will be the new role holder! and then clic) $<. :I.Right%clic) Active Directory #chema! and then clic) $peration Masters. ::.In the 'hange #chema Master dialog bo6! clic) 'hange. :".'lic) $<. :*.'lic) $< . :,.'lic) 'ancel to close the dialog bo6. To transfer the B#M$ roles from the 2tdsutil commandC :. $n any domain controller! clic) #tart! clic) Run! type 2tdsutil in the $pen bo6! and then clic) $<. :. Type roles! and then press 32T3R. :. Type connections! and then press 32T3R. :. Type connect to server YservernameZ! where YservernameZ is the name of the server you want to use! and then press 32T3R. :. At the server connectionsC prompt! type (! and then press 32T3R again. :. Type transfer YroleZ. where YroleZ is the role you want to transfer.

:. Eou will receive a warning window as)ing if you want to perform the transfer. 'lic) on Ees. ". After you transfer the roles! type ( and press 32T3R until you (uit 2tdsutil.e6e. :. Restart the server and ma)e sure you update your bac)up. W(at i active director&? Active Directory is a centrali8ed and standardi8ed system that automates networ) management of user data! security and distributed resources and enables interoperation with other directories. Active Directory is designed especially for distributed networ)ing environments. /indows #erver "II* Active Directory provides a single reference! called a directory service! to all the ob1ects in a networ)! including users! groups! computers! printers! policies @ permissions. Active Directory provides a single hierarchical view from which to access and manage all of the networ)-s resources. W(at i 1i"do1 i" ta%%er? The /indows Installer is a software component used for the installation! maintenance! and removal of software. W(at i t(e co$#o"e"t o) 8%!etoot(? Any =luetooth solution consists of four ma1or componentsC antenna>RB component! =luetooth hardware and firmware (baseband and 9in) 'ontroller ! =luetooth software protocol stac)! and the application itself. 3ach of these components is a product in itself! and companies e6ist that have entire business models based around solving only one of these four areas. I )orget t(e tart!# #a 1ord o" Wi"do1 /P (o1 to re$ove? Insert your /indows P& 'D into your 'D drive and boot your computer. If you receive the message 7press any )ey to boot from 'D!7 press any )ey. &ress 73nter7 to set up /indows. After you accept the license agreement! you will be as)ed if you want start a repair process. &ress 7R7 to begin the repair process. #etup will now chec) your dis)s and start copying files! which can ta)e several minutes. After this! reboot. 9et the computer boot normally (do not press a )ey to boot from 'D . <eep your eye on the lower left portion of the screen. /hen you see the Installing Devices progress bar! press 7#hift7 and 7B:I7 at the same time. This will open a command line console. Type 72.#RMAR.'&97 (without (uotes at the prompt! then press 73nter.7 This will give you access to .ser Accounts. Remove or change your password. /rite it down. After the repair is finished! you will be able to log on with your new password. W(& 'D%% )i%e i $i i"g ? 1(at t(e rea o" )or $i i"g ? A missing or corrupt .dll file can be caused by any of the below possibilities.

:. Another program was uninstalled that removed a .dll file that was re(uired by another program or the operating system. ". A program was installed that overwrote the .dll file with either an older version or a version that is incompatible with other programs causing .dll errors. *. A bad installation of a program corrupted one or more files causing the .dll errors. ,. Another user or program maliciously or mista)enly deleted the .dll file or an associated file. ;. A hardware issue e6ists with the computer! such as a bad hard dis) drive! causing the data on the drive to become corrupt! casing the .dll errors. W(at are t(e )eat!re o) Wi"do1 /P? E"(a"ced Device Driver Veri)ier Wi"do1 Fi%e Protectio" &rotects core system files from being overwritten by application installations. Wi"do1 I" ta%%er A system service that helps users install! configure! trac)! upgrade! and remove software programs correctly. E"cr&#ti"g Fi%e S& te$ 3EFS4 1it( M!%ti<! er S!##ort 3ncrypts each file with a randomly generated )ey. In /indows P& &rofessional! 3B# can allow multiple users acccess to an encrypted document. IP Sec!rit& 3IPSec4 4elps protect data transmitted across a networ). @er8ero S!##ort &rovides industry%standard and high%strength authentication with fast! single logon to /indows "III%based enterprise resources. I"tegrated CD B!r"i"g #upport for burning 'Ds on 'D%R and 'D%R/ drives is integrated into /indows 36plorer. Re$ote De 7to# Allows users to create a virtual session onto their des)top computers using Microsoft-s Remote Des)top &rotocol (RD& . S&"c(ro"iEatio" Ma"ager 9ets users compare and update their offline files and folders with those on the networ). Adva"ced Co")ig!ratio" a"d Po1er I"ter)ace 3ACPI4 &rovides the latest in power management and &lug and &lay support. Wire%e Net1or7i"g S!##ort &rovides secured access! as well as performance improvements! for wireless networ)s. Re$ote A i ta"ce Remote Assistance enables a user to share control of his or her computer with someone on a networ) or the Internet. S& te$ Re tore The #ystem Restore feature enables users and administrators to restore a computer to a previous state without losing data. Recover& Co" o%e &rovides a command%line console for administrators to perform administrative tas)s.

I"ter"et Co""ectio" Fire1a%% A firewall client that can protect small businesses from common Internet attac)s. Net1or7 Set!# WiEard Ma)es it easy for a small business owner to set up and manage a networ). I"ter"et Co""ectio" S(ari"g 3ICS4 'onnects a small office networ) to the Internet! using a dial%up or broadband connection. . erState Migratio" Too% 4elps administrators to migrate a user-s data and application>operating system settings from an old computer to a new /indows P& &rofessional des)top computer. S& te$ Pre#aratio" Too% 3S& Pre#4 #ys&rep helps administrators clone computer configurations! systems! and applications. A single image! which includes the operating system and business applications! can be restored to multiple different machine configurations. Re$ote OS I" ta%%atio" Micro o)t Ma"age$e"t Co" o%e 3MMC4 &rovides a centrali8ed and consistent environment for management tools. W(at i Mar (a%%i"g? The process of gathering data and transforming it into a standard format before it is transmitted over a networ) so that the data can transcend networ) boundaries. In order for an ob1ect to be moved around a networ)! it must be converted into a data stream that corresponds with the pac)et structure of the networ) transfer protocol. This conversion is )nown as data marshalling. W(at are t(e di))er"t )i%e & te$ i" 1i"do1 ? /indows supports the BAT:+! BAT*"! and 2TB# file systems. W(at i t(e $a6i$!$ a$o!"t o) data8a e t(at ca" 8e (o ted o" E6c(a"ge ,>>- E"ter#ri e? The standart port nos are respectively #MT& ";!&$&* ::I! IMA&, :,*!R&' :*;!9DA& +*+!A9$=A9 'ATA9$A *"+M W(at i t(e $a6i$!$ a$o!"t o) data8a e t(at ca" 8e (o ted o" E6c(a"ge ,>>- E"ter#ri e? :+%gigabyte(A= database limit per database W(at - t&#e o) do$ai" co"tro%%er doe E6c(a"ge acce ? Alobal 'atalog! 2ormal Domain 'ontroller! and 'onfiguration Domain 'ontroller W(at E6c(a"ge #roce i re #o" i8%e )or co$$!"icatio" 1it( AD? D#A''3##% Directory service access W(at $! t 8e do"e to a" AD )ore t 8e)ore E6c(a"ge ca" 8e de#%o&ed? Run the following commandC % #etup.e6e >forestprep W(at are t(e reF!ired co$#o"e"t o) Wi"do1 Server ,>>- )or i" ta%%i"g E6c(a"ge ,>>-?

36change "II* #etup re(uires that the following components and services be installed and enabled on the serverC .23T Bramewor) A#&.23T Internet Information #ervices (II# /orld /ide /eb &ublishing #ervice #imple Mail Transfer &rotocol (#MT& service 2etwor) 2ews Transfer &rotocol (22T& service I) 1e o#e" CD<ROM drive t(e" t(e re #o" e i =#%ea e i" ert CD i"to drive= W(at i t(e #ro8%e$? I it 1it( CD<ROM #ro8%e$ o) o$e ervice #ro8%e$? Ho1 ca" 1e o%ve t(i #ro8%e$? If we open the 'D R$M Drive and then the response is 7&lease insert the 'D into the drive7 than the result is that 'D R$M drive is as)ing for the 'D R$M we should put a 'D R$M into the Drive. If it is as)ing for the 'D R$M even after putting the 'D R$M than the problem could be with the 'D R$M Drive sensor because it is not sensing the 'D R$M into the drive. W(ic( o) t(e )o%%o1i"g API i ! ed to (ide a 1i"do1? a #how /indow b 3nable /indow c Move /indow d #et /indow &lacement 3 2one of the above A2#%#how window W(at i Pagi"g? a"d Seg$ae"tatio"? &agingCIn computer operating systems! paging is one of the memory%management schemes by which a computer can store and retrieve data from secondary storage for use in main memory. In the paging memory%management scheme! the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same%si8e bloc)s called pages. #egmantationCIn a computer system using segmentation! an instruction operand that refers to a memory location includes a value that identifies a segment and an offset within that segment. A segment has a set of permissions! and a length! associated with it. If the currently running process is allowed by the permissions to ma)e the type of reference to memory that it is attempting to ma)e! and the offset within the segment is within the range specified by the length of the segment! the reference is permitted? otherwise! a hardware e6ception is raised. Ho1 $a"& t&#e o) o#erati"g & te$? T&#e o) o#erati"g & te$ There are several types of operating system! defined according to whether they can simultaneously manage information measuring :+ bits! *" bits! +, bits or more. Progra$$i Si"g%e M!%ti< Si"g%e S& te$ M!%ti<ta 7 "g ! er ! er ta 7 D$# :+ bits P P not pre% /indows*.: :+>*" bits P emptive /indowsM;>ML>M *" bits P cooperative e /indows2T>"III *" bits P pre%emptive /indowsP& *">+, bits P pre%emptive

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Di))ere"tiate 8et1ee" RAM a"d ROM? R$M (Read $nly Memory and RAM (Random Access Memory are both vital components to any fast and productive computer. 4owever! contrary to what many believe! the two have almost nothing in common. 4ere are 1ust a few of the differences between RAM and R$M. RAM i ''' :. RAM is Random Access Memory. This is reusable memory that the computer uses to run programs. ROM i ''' ". R$M is Read $nly Memory. This is memory that has data permanently written on it and is usually not reusable. T&#e o) RAM *. DDR (Double Data Rate ! DDR" and #DRAM are all types of RAM. T&#e o) ROM ,. &R$M (&rogrammable Read%$nly Memory and 'D%R$M are 1ust two of the many types of R$M. Si$i%aritie ;. /hile RAM and R$M are (uite different! they both have similarities. =oth are types of memory and both are vital for your computer to operate properly. W(at are ca%%ed No"<G.I c%ie"t 2 G.I C%ie"t a"d OO.I C%ie"t ? 2on%A.I 'lientC These are applications! generate server re(uests with a minimal amount of human interaction. A.I 'lientsC These are applicatoins! where occassional re(uests to the server result from a human interacting with a A.I (36ampleC /indows *.6! 2T *.; $$.I clients C These are applications! which are highly%iconic! ob1ect%oriented user interface that provides seamless access to information in very visual formats. (36ampleC MA' $#! /indows M;! 2T ,.I W(at are t(e )ive $aAor tec("o%ogie t(at ca" 8e ! ed to create C%ie"t;Server a##%icatio" ? Database #ervers T& Monitors Aroupware Distributed $b1ects Intranets. W(at i $ea"t 8& HoriEo"ta% ca%i"g a"d Vertica% ca%i"g? 0ertical #caling means to add more hardware resources to the same machine! generally by adding more processors and memory. 36pensive

3asy to implement (generally! no change re(uired in your application #ingle point of failure (if main server crashes! what do you do5 4ori8ontal #caling means to add more machines into the mi6! generally cheap commodity hardware 'heap(er % at least more linear e6penditures 4ard to implement (much harder than vertical Many points of failure and therefore can usually handle failures elegantly The devices found in datalin) layer are Router =ridge 2I' Repeater Memory 2I' (networ) interface card

W(at i Net1or7i"g? A computer networ) is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to e6change data. W(& i it a%1a& TCP over IP? =ecause the Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol runs on the Internet &rotocol Ho1 ca" i i" ta%% active director& i" 1i"do1 ,>>D? Install Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# on a member server that runs /indows #erver "IIL or /indows #erver "IIL R" by using the Active Directory Domain #ervices Installation /i8ard (Dcpromo.e6e . The member server should be located in the forest root domain. After you install AD D# successfully! the member server will become a domain controller. Eou can install AD D# on any member server that meets the domain controller hardware re(uirements. Eou can install AD D# using the /indows user interface (.I . The /indows .I provides two wi8ards that guide you through the installation process for AD D#. $ne wi8ard is the Add Roles /i8ard! which you can access in #erver Manager. The other wi8ard is the Active Directory Domain #ervices Installation /i8ard (Dcpromo.e6e ! which you can access in either of the following waysC /hen you complete the steps in the Add Roles /i8ard! clic) the lin) to start the Active Directory Domain #ervices Installation /i8ard. 'lic) Start! clic) R!"! type dc#ro$o'e6e! and then clic) O@. To i" ta%% AD DS o" a $e$8er erver 8& ! i"g t(e Wi"do1 i"ter)ace 1. 'lic) Start! and then clic) Server Ma"ager. 2. In Ro%e S!$$ar&! clic) Add Ro%e . 3. If necessary! review the information on the Be)ore Yo! Begi" page! and then clic) Ne6t. 4. $n the Se%ect Server Ro%e page! select the Active Director& Do$ai" Service chec) bo6! and then clic) Ne6t. 5. If necessary! review the information on the Active Director& Do$ai" Service page! and then clic) Ne6t. 6. $n the Co")ir$ I" ta%%atio" Se%ectio" page! clic) I" ta%%. 7. $n the I" ta%%atio" Re !%t page! clic) C%o e t(i 1iEard a"d %a!"c( t(e Active Director& Do$ai" Service I" ta%%atio" WiEard 3dc#ro$o'e6e4. 8. $n the We%co$e to t(e Active Director& Do$ai" Service I" ta%%atio" WiEard page! clic) Ne6t. If you want to install from media! identify the source domain controller for AD D# replication! or specify the &assword Replication &olicy (&R& for an R$D' as part of

the installation of the additional domain controller! clic) . e adva"ced $ode i" ta%%atio". 9. $n the O#erati"g S& te$ Co$#ati8i%it& page! review the warning about the default security settings for /indows #erver "IIL domain controllers! and then clic) Ne6t. 10. $n the C(oo e a De#%o&$e"t Co")ig!ratio" page! clic) E6i ti"g )ore t! clic) Add a do$ai" co"tro%%er to a" e6i ti"g do$ai"! and then clic) Ne6t. 11. $n the Net1or7 Crede"tia% page! type the name of any e6isting domain in the forest where you plan to install the additional domain controller. .nder S#eci)& t(e acco!"t crede"tia% to ! e to #er)or$ t(e i" ta%%atio"! clic) M& c!rre"t %ogged o" crede"tia% or clic) A%ter"ate crede"tia% ! and then clic) Set. In the Wi"do1 Sec!rit& dialog bo6! provide the user name and password for an account that can install the additional domain controller. To install an additional domain controller! you must be a member of the 3nterprise Admins group or the Domain Admins group. /hen you are finished providing credentials! clic) Ne6t. 12. $n the Se%ect a Do$ai" page! select the domain of the new domain controller! and then clic) Ne6t. 13. $n the Se%ect a Site page! select a site from the list or select the option to install the domain controller in the site that corresponds to its I& address! and then clic) Ne6t. 14. $n the Additio"a% Do$ai" Co"tro%%er O#tio" page! ma)e the following selections! and then clic) Ne6tC DNS erverC This option is selected by default so that your domain controller can function as a D2# server. If you do not want the domain controller to be a D2# server! clear this option.

G%o8a% Cata%ogC This option is selected by default. It adds the global catalog! read% only directory partitions to the domain controller! and it enables global catalog search functionality. Read<o"%& do$ai" co"tro%%er. This option is not selected by default. It ma)es the additional domain controller read only. 15. If you selected . e adva"ced $ode i" ta%%atio" on the We%co$e page! the I" ta%% )ro$ Media page appears. Eou can provide the location of installation media to be used to create the domain controller and configure AD D#! or you can have all the replication done over the networ). 2ote that some data will be replicated over the networ) even if you install from media. Bor information about using this method to install the domain controller! see Installing AD D# from Media. 16. If you selected . e adva"ced $ode i" ta%%atio" on the We%co$e page! the So!rce Do$ai" Co"tro%%er page appears. 'lic) 0et t(e 1iEard c(oo e a" a##ro#riate do$ai" co"tro%%er or clic) . e t(i #eci)ic do$ai" co"tro%%er to specify a domain controller that you want to provide as a source for replication to create the new domain controller! and then clic) Ne6t. If you do not choose to install from media! all data will be replicated from this source domain controller.

browse to the volume and folder locations for the database file! the directory service log files! and the system volume (#E#0$9 files! and then clic) Ne6t. /indows #erver =ac)up bac)s up the directory service by volume. Bor bac)up and recovery efficiency! store these files on separate volumes that do not contain applications or other nondirectory files. 18. $n the Director& Service Re tore Mode Ad$i"i trator Pa 1ord page! type and confirm the restore mode password! and then clic) Ne6t. This password must be used to start AD D# in Directory #ervice Restore Mode (D#RM for tas)s that must be performed offline. 19. $n the S!$$ar& page! review your selections. 'lic) Bac7 to change any selections! if necessary. To save the settings that you have selected to an answer file that you can use to automate subse(uent Active Directory operations! clic) E6#ort etti"g . Type the name for your answer file! and then clic) Save. /hen you are sure that your selections are accurate! clic) Ne6t to install AD D#. 20. $n the Co$#%eti"g t(e Active Director& Do$ai" Service I" ta%%atio" WiEard page! clic) Fi"i (. 21. Eou can either select the Re8oot o" co$#%etio" chec) bo6 to have the server restart automatically or you can restart the server to complete the AD D# installation when you are prompted to do so. W(at i di))ere"ce a)e $ode "or$a% $ode? #afe mode is a troubleshooting option for /indows that starts your computer in a limited state. $nly the basic files and drivers necessary to run /indows are started. In normal mode all basic files and drivers are necessary to run windows. Thin) about ur college networ) if three departments where there and and "; computers in each department and if someone as) u to group the computer s!what will be ccriteria to do that. with the help of subnetting W(at i Fire1a%% a"d t&#e o) )ire1a%%? A firewall is a part of a computer system or networ) that is designed to bloc) unauthori8ed access while permitting authori8ed communications. It is a device or set of devices that is configured to permit or deny networ) transmissions based upon a set of rules and other criteria. There are several types of firewall techni(uesC :. &ac)et filterC &ac)et filtering inspects each pac)et passing through the networ) and accepts or re1ects it based on user%defined rules. Although difficult to configure! it is fairly effective and mostly transparent to its users. It is susceptible to I& spoofing. ". Application gatewayC Applies security mechanisms to specific applications! such as BT& and Telnet servers. This is very effective! but can impose a performance degradation. *. 'ircuit%level gatewayC Applies security mechanisms when a T'& or .D& connection is established. $nce the connection has been made! pac)ets can flow between the hosts without further chec)ing. ,. &ro6y serverC Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the networ). The pro6y server effectively hides the true networ) addresses.

17. $n the 0ocatio" )or Data8a e2 0og Fi%e 2 a"d SYSVO0 page! type or

W(at i tro!8%e (ooti"g? To isolate the source of a problem and fi6 it. W(at i (ado1 co#&? #hadow 'opy (0olume #napshot #ervice > 0olume #hadow 'opy #ervice > 0## ! is a technology included in Microsoft /indows that allows ta)ing manual or automatic bac)up copies or snapshots of data. It is implemented as a /indows service called the Volume Shadow Copy service. Ho1 do &o! c(ec7 1(et(er Active Director& (a 8ee" i" ta%%ed #ro#er%& or "ot? =y chec)ing #R0 Records In D2# #erver. chec) active directory users and computers active directory domain and trust active directory site and services database folder sysvol folder log file W(at i We8 Server2 A##%icatio" Server2Data8a e Server? A web server can be referred to as either the hardware (the computer or the software (the computer application that helps to deliver content that can be accessed through the Internet. A web server is what ma)es it possible to be able to access content li)e web pages or other data from anywhere as long as it is connected to the internet. Application server is a program that handles all application operations between users and an organi8ation-s bac)end business applications or databases. An application server is typically used for comple6 transaction%based applications. A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers! as defined by the clientGserver model. #uch a server is accessed either through a 7front end7 running on the users computer which displays re(uested data or the 7bac) end7 which runs on the server and handles tas)s such as data analysis and storage. I" ca e DHCP )ai% i" &o!r erver t(e" (o1 do &o! ati )& t(at #ro8%e$ 1it(i" o$e $i"!te ? Eou can 73nable 2et=I$# over T'&>I&7 this will solve the problem within some minutes following the below pathC My 2etwor) &laces%%%%%%right clic) properties%%%%%%%select Internet &rotocol%%%%%% Advanced settings%%%%%/ins%%%%%3nable 2et=I$# over T'&>I& and save changes and chec) for the same. W(at i t(e Protoco%? Ho1 i it di))ere"t t(a" BOOTP or RARP? D4'& is based on =$$T& and maintains some bac)ward compatibility. The main difference is that =$$T& was designed for manual pre%configuration of the host information in a server database! while D4'& allows for dynamic allocation of networ) addresses and configurations to newly attached hosts. Additionally! D4'&

allows for recovery and reallocation of networ) addresses through a leasing mechanism. RAR& is a protocol used by #un and other vendors that allows a computer to find out its own I& number! which is one of the protocol parameters typically passed to the client system by D4'& or =$$T&. RAR& doesn-t support other parameters and using it! a server can only serve a single 9A2. D4'& and =$$T& are designed so they can be routed. Ho1 to re"a$e do$ai" "a$e i" 1i" ,>>- erver? To rename a domain controller $pen 'ommand &rompt. TypeC netdom computername 'urrent'omputer2ame>addC2ew'omputer2ame 3nsure the computer account updates and D2# registrations are completed! then typeC netdom computername 'urrent'omputer2ame >ma)eprimaryC2ew'omputer2ame Restart the computer. Brom the command prompt! typeC netdom computername 2ew'omputer2ame >removeC$ld'omputer2ame To perform this procedure! you must be a member of the Domain Admins group or the 3nterprise Admins group in Active Directory. This command%line method re(uires the 2etdom /indows support tool. To enumerate the names with which the computer is currently configured! at a command prompt! typeC netdom computername ComputerName>enumerateC{ lternateNames ! "rimaryName ! llNames# To rename a domain controller in a domain that contains a single domain controller Install a /indows #erver "II* member server in the domain. $n the new server! create an additional domain controller by installing Active Directory. After Active Directory is installed! enable the global catalog on the new domain controller. Transfer the operations master roles from the domain controller that you want to rename to the new domain controller. 2ote that you must transfer the roles! do not sei8e them. 0erify that the new domain controller is functioning correctly by doing the followingC 0erify authentications and global catalog searches. Run Dcdiag.e6e against the domain controller. &erform any other appropriate tests to verify that the new domain controller can provide all of the domain functions of the first domain controller. 0erify that the Tsysvol and Tnetlogon drives are shared on the new domain controller by doing the followingC $n the new domain controller! open 'ommand &rompt. TypeC 2et share In the list that is generated! verify the e6istence of #ysvol and 2etlogon. .ninstall Active Directory from the domain controller that you want to rename to be a member server. Rename the member server.

Install Active Directory on the renamed server to create an additional domain controller. Transfer the operations master roles bac) to the renamed domain controller. 3nable the global catalog on the renamed domain controller. W(at i Wi<Fi? W(at i t(e %ate t ver io"? The name of a popular wireless networ)ing technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high%speed Internet and networ) connections. The /i%Bi Alliance! the organi8ation that owns the /i%Bi (registered trademar) term specifically defines /i%Bi (/ireless Bidelity as any 7wireless local area networ) (/9A2 products that are based on the Institute of 3lectrical and 3lectronics 3ngineers- (I333 LI".:: standards.7 W(at i $ea" to#o%og& a"d t&#e o) to#o%og&? 2etwor) topology refers to the way that your computer networ) is arranged. The networ) can have a physical or a logical topology. The physical topology describes the layout of computers and where the wor)stations are positioned. The logical networ) topology describes how the information flows through the networ). The different )inds of topology areC =us topology #tar topology Ring topology Tree topology Mesh topology B! to#o%og& In bus topology! all computers are lin)ed to the same transmission line by using a cable! usually coa6ial. The word 7bus7 refers to the physical line that 1oins all the machines on the networ). The advantages of this topology are that it is easy to implement and functions easily? on the other hand! it is highly vulnerable! since if one of the connections is defective! the whole networ) is affected. Star to#o%og& In star topology! the networ) computers are lin)ed to a piece of hardware called a hub. .nli)e networ)s built with bus topology! networ)s which use star topology are much less vulnerable! as one of the connections can easily be removed by disconnecting it from the hub! without paraly8ing the rest of the networ). 4owever! a star topology networ) is bul)ier than a bus networ)! as additional hardware is re(uired (the hub . Ri"g to#o%og& A ring topology is a networ) topology where each node (device on the networ) connects to two other nodes. This forms a continuous path for the signal through each device. This wor)s because data travels from node to node (device to device . In a ring topology (also called a ring networ) ! each node handles the data pac)ets itself! then passes it to the ne6t node! which also handles the pac)ets. Me ( to#o%og& A mesh topology is made up of a networ) where each device has a point%to%point connection to every other device on the networ). This provides the dedicated capacity of a point%to%point lin) to each device and significant fault tolerance. Tree to#o%og&

The Tree Topology is a combination of the bus and the #tar Topology. The tree li)e structure allows you to have many servers on the networ) and you can branch out the networ) in many ways. This is particularly helpful for colleges! universities and schools so that each of the branches can identify the relevant systems in their own networ) and yet connect to the big networ) in some way. W(at i a 1i%d card certi)icate? A wildcard certificate allows you to secure multiple web sites with a single ##9 certificate. /ildcard certificates are a service provided under 'ertificate Management #ervice. Ho1 $a"& co#e co" create i" o"e d(c#? Eou can configure as many scopes on a D4'& server as is re(uired in your networ) environment. W(at i VPN a"d 1(at are t(e $ai" adva"tage ? A virtual private networ) (0&2 is the e6tension of a private networ) that encompasses lin)s across shared or public networ)s li)e the Internet. /ith a 0&2! you can send data between two computers or two networ)s across a shared or public networ) in a manner that emulates a point%to%point private lin). 0irtual private networ)ing is the act of creating and configuring a 0&2. Reduce cost implementation (/e dont need to use lease line> I#D2> BR! mobile only need to dial local I#& to connect to branch office #ecurity (0&2 provide strong security mechanism through encryption! authentication More Ble6ible #imple Management Tunnel topology Interoperability of devices from multiple vendors 'entrali8ed 0&2 management 3asy implementation 3asy usability #calability &erformance =andwidth management 4igh availability &rotect traffic across internet &rotect data through hac)ers W(at i d(c#? 1(at i t(e ! e a"d adva"tage ? Dynamic 4ost 'onfiguration &rotocol (D4'& is a standard protocol that allows a server to dynamically distribute I& addressing @ configuration information to clients. =enefits of D4'& In /indows #erver "II*! the D4'& #erver service provides the following benefitsC Reliable I& address configuration. D4'& minimi8es configuration errors caused by manual I& address configuration! such as typographical errors! or address conflicts caused by the assignment of an I& address to more than one computer at the same time.

Reduced networ) administration. D4'& includes the following features to reduce networ) administrationC 'entrali8ed and automated T'&>I& configuration. The ability to define T'&>I& configurations from a central location. The ability to assign a full range of additional T'&>I& configuration values by means of D4'& options. The forwarding of initial D4'& messages by using a D4'& relay agent! thus eliminating the need to have a D4'& server on every subnet.

W(at i ec!red oc7et %a&er a"d 1(at i t(e reF!ire$e"t o) it i" "et1or7i"g? ##9 (#ecure #oc)ets 9ayer is the standard security technology for establishing an encrypted lin) between a web server and a browser. This lin) ensures that all data passed between the web server and browsers remain private and integral. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" HTTP a"d HTTPS 1(ere ! ca" ! e HTTPS? 4ttp is hyper te6t transfer protocol which is responsible for transmitting and receiving information across the Internet where as https is secure http! which is used e6changing confidential information with a server! which needs to be secured in order to prevent unauthori8ed access. 4TT& is 4yper Te6t Transport &rotocol and normally use when you are browsing the web! it-s not secure. 4yperte6t Transfer &rotocol #ecure (4TT&# is a combination of the 4yperte6t Transfer &rotocol with the ##9>T9# protocol to provide encrypted communication and secure identification of a networ) web server. 4TT&# is a /eb protocol developed by 2etscape and built into its browser that encrypts and decrypts user page re(uests as well as the pages that are returned by the /eb server. W(at i Peer to #eer Net1or7? &eer to peer is an approach to computer networ)ing where all computers share e(uivalent responsibility for processing data. &eer%to%peer networ)ing (also )nown simply as peer networ$ing differs from client%server networ)ing! where certain devices have responsibility for providing or 7serving7 data and other devices consume or otherwise act as 7clients7 of those servers. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" a Virt!a% Server a"d a Dedicated Server? A dedicated server is a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone. This is more fle6ible than shared hosting! as organi8ations have full control over the server(s ! including choice of operating system! hardware! etc. A dedicated server could also be a computer that manages printer resources. 4owever! that not all servers are dedicated. In some networ)s! it is possible for a computer to act as a server and perform other functions as well. In the /eb hosting business! a dedicated server is typically a rented service. The user rents the server! software and an Internet connection from the /eb host. A server! usually a /eb server! that shares computer resources with other virtual servers. 0irtual /eb servers are a very popular way of providing low%cost web hosting services. Instead of re(uiring a separate computer for each server! do8ens of virtual servers can co%reside on the same computer. In most cases! performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server. If too many virtual servers reside on the same computer! or if one virtual server starts hogging resources! /eb pages will be delivered more slowly.

W(at i A"tivir! ? Antivirus software is a computer program that detects! prevents! and ta)es action to disarm or remove malicious software programs! such as viruses and worms. W(at are Co%d Boot a"d War$ Boot? A hard reboot (also )nown as a cold reboot! cold boot or cold start is when power to a computer is abruptly turned off! then turned bac) on. A soft reboot (also )nown as a warm reboot is restarting a computer under software control! without removing power or (directly triggering a reset line. W(at i t(e t&#e o) d % tec("o%ogie ? Digital #ubscriber 9ine (D#9 is high%speed Internet access that uses e6isting copper telephone lines. According to the B''! the different types of D#9 technologies provide transmission speeds ranging from several hundred thousand bits per second to millions of bits per second. All types of D#9 Internet service can be categori8ed as either asymmetric or symmetric. ADS0 Asymmetric Digital #ubscriber 9ine (AD#9 is the most widely available type of D#9 technology and typically used by homes and small businesses. Asymmetric means that most of the bandwidth is for sending data to the user (downloading and only a small amount is available for uploading data. AD#9 re(uires a splitter at the user-s end to split the Internet data signal from the telephone signal. D#9 9ite (also )nown as A.9ite is a slower version of AD#9 that doesn-t re(uire a splitter at the user-s end because the splitting happens remotely at the telephone company. Rate%Adaptive D#9 (RAD#9 is an AD#9 technology that uses software to determine the rate that a customer phone line can transmit signals and ad1usts the delivery rate for that phone line. SDS0 #ymmetrical D#9 (#D#9 means that data downloads and uploads at the same speed. 9arger businesses often use #D#9. Two types of #D#9 are high%data%rate Digital #ubscriber 9ine (4D#9 and very%high%data%rate Digital #ubscriber 9ine (0D#9 . A newer version of 4D#9 is 4D#9"! which transmits data at the same speeds as 4D#9 but re(uires only two wires instead of four. Also! the encoding for 4D#9" is more efficient than for HDS0' Another technology! based on 4D#9"! is A.#4D#9! which is faster and can optimi8e performance based on telephone line conditions. IDS0 I#D2 D#9 (ID#9 is a hybrid of Integrated #ervices Digital 2etwor) (I#D2 and D#9 technologies. ID#9 runs over a single pair of wires. .nli)e I#D2! ID#9 is always on. Ho1 to ta7e 8ac7!# o) O!t%oo7 E6#re e6#%ai" a%% t(e te# i" detai%' To bac) up $utloo) 36press items Ste# *+ 'opy message files to a bac)up folder #tep AC 9ocate the #tore folder :. #tart $utloo) 36press. ". 'lic) Tools! and then clic) $ptions. *. $n the Maintenance tab! clic) #tore Bolder.

,. In the #tore 9ocation dialog bo6! copy the store location. To do this! follow these stepsC a. &ut the mouse pointer at one end of the bo6 under the Eour personal message store is located in the following folder bo6. b. &ress and hold the left mouse button! and then drag the mouse pointer across the Eour personal message store is located in the following folder bo6. c. &ress 'TR9J' to copy the location. ". 'lic) 'ancel! and then clic) 'ancel again to close the dialog bo6. #tep =C 'opy the contents of the #tore folder :. 'lic) #tart! clic) Run! press 'TR9J0! and then clic) $<. ". $n the 3dit menu! clic) #elect All. *. $n the 3dit menu! clic) 'opy! and then close the window. #tep 'C 'reate a bac)up folder :. Right%clic) any empty area on your des)top! clic) 2ew! and then clic) Bolder. ". Type Mail =ac)up for the folder name! and then press 32T3R. #tep DC &aste the contents of the #tore folder into the bac)up folder :. Double%clic) the Mail =ac)up folder to open it. ". Right%clic) inside the Mail =ac)up folder window! and then clic) &aste. Ste# ,+ 36port the Address =oo) to a .csv file To e6port the Address =oo) to a .csv file! follow these stepsC :. $n the Bile menu! clic) 36port! and then clic) Address =oo). ". 'lic) Te6t Bile ('omma #eparated 0alues ! and then clic) 36port. *. 'lic) =rowse. ,. #elect the Mail =ac)up folder that you created. ;. In the Bile 2ame bo6! type address boo) bac)up! and then clic) #ave. +. 'lic) 2e6t. K. 'lic) to select the chec) bo6es for the fields that you want to e6port @ then clic) Binish. L. 'lic) $<! and then clic) 'lose. Ste# -+ 36port the mail account to a file :. $n the Tools menu! clic) Accounts. ". $n the Mail tab! clic) the mail account that you want to e6port! and then clic) 36port. *. In the #ave In bo6! select the Mail =ac)up folder! and then clic) #ave. ,. Repeat these steps for each mail account that you want to e6port. ;. 'lic) 'lose. Ste# :+ 36port the newsgroup account to a file :. $n the Tools menu! clic) Accounts. ". $n the 2ews tab! clic) the news account that you want to e6port! and then clic) 36port. *. In the #ave In bo6! select the Mail =ac)up folder! and then clic) #ave. ,. Repeat these steps for each news account that you want to e6port. ;. 'lic) 'lose. To restore $utloo) 36press items Ste# *+ Import messages from the bac)up folder :. $n the Bile menu! point to Import! and then clic) Messages. ". In the #elect an e%mail program to import from bo6! clic) Microsoft $utloo) 36press ; or Microsoft $utloo) 36press +! and then clic) 2e6t. *. 'lic) Import mail from an $3; store directory or Import mail from an $3+ store directory! and then clic) $<.

,. ;. +. Ste# :. ". *. ,. ;. +. Ste# :. ". *. ,. ;. +. Ste# :. ". *. ,. ;. +.

'lic) =rowse! and then clic) the Mail =ac)up folder. 'lic) $<! and then clic) 2e6t. 'lic) All folders! clic) 2e6t! and then clic) Binish. ,+ Import the Address =oo) file $n the Bile menu! clic) Import! and then clic) $ther Address =oo). 'lic) Te6t Bile ('omma #eparated 0alues ! and then clic) Import. 'lic) =rowse. #elect the Mail =ac)up folder! clic) the address boo) bac)up.csv file @ then clic) $pen. 'lic) 2e6t! and then clic) Binish. 'lic) $<! and then clic) 'lose. -+ Import the mail account file $n the Tools menu! clic) Accounts. $n the Mail tab! clic) Import. In the 9oo) In bo6! select the Mail =ac)up folder. 'lic) the mail account that you want to import! and then clic) $pen. Repeat these steps for each mail account that you want to import. 'lic) 'lose. :+ Import the newsgroup account file $n the Tools menu! clic) Accounts. $n the 2ews tab! clic) Import. In the 9oo) In bo6! select the Mail =ac)up folder. 'lic) the news account that you want to import! and then clic) $pen. Repeat these steps for each news account that you want to import. 'lic) 'lose.

W(at i )o%der (ari"g? E6#%ai" (idde" (ari"g a"d o#e" (ari"g Bloder sharing is a utility of modern $#! through this we can share the necessary files and documents over the networ)>within the networ) for accessing remotely. 4iden #haringC%%Z The hiden sharing means we share the drive with #ign [ @ we can-t see the drive in 2etwor). $pen #haringC%%Z The $pen sharing means we can see the drive in 2etwor). W(at i t(e Di))ere"ce 8et1ee" Broadca te Do$ai" a"d Co%%i o" Do$ai" a"d 1(ere it i ! ed? Broadca t Do$ai"+ =roadcast domain is a restricted area in which information can be transmitted for all devices in the domain to receive. More specifically! 3thernet 9A2s are broadcast domains. Any devices attached to the 9A2 can transmit frames to any other device because the medium is a shared transmission system. Brames are normally addressed to a specific destination device on the networ). /hile all devices detect the frame transmission on the networ)! only the device to which the frame is addressed actually receives it. A repeater is a device that 1oins two 9A2s to e6tend the distance of the 9A2. All networ) traffic is sent across the repeater unaltered. A bridge is a device that 1oins two 9A2s into a single broadcast domain! but isolates them so that problems on one 9A2 do not propagate to the other 9A2. In addition! bridges maintain separate collision domains! so that computers on each segment only contend with other computers on the same segment for access. Co%%i io" Do$ai"+

3thernet networ)s use a collision%sensing protocol called '#MA>'D (carrier sense multiple access>collision detection . The protocol allows multiple devices connected to a shared networ) cable to use that cable by ta)ing turns accessing it. The basic strategy goes li)e thisC :. A computer listens on the cable to see if another computer is transmitting! which is indicated by a voltage change on the cable. If busy! the computer waits and listens. ". /hen the cable is not busy! a computer attempts to transmit. *. Another computer may attempt to transmit at the same time! which causes a collision. ,. =oth computers that attempted to transmit must bac) off! wait! and then attempt to transmit again. 'omputers on the networ) detect collisions by loo)ing for abnormally changing voltages. #ignals from multiple systems overlap and distort one another. $verlapping signals will push the voltage above the allowable limit. This is detected by attached computers! which re1ect the corrupted frames (called runts . Ho1 do &o! c(ec7 t(e %i te"i"g #ort o" a 1i"do1 8o6? Co$$a"d %i"e' netstat Ga C displays ip ! listening port ids netstat >5 C help Di))re"t t&#e o) ca8%e ! ed i" %a" ca8%i"g? Different types of networ) cables li)e 'oa6ial cable! $ptical fiber cable! Twisted &air cables are used depending on the networ)-s topology! protocol and si8e :I=ase" 'oa6ial :I=aseT 'at; :II=aseTP Bast 3thernet 'at; :III=aseT 'at;e>'at+>'at+e Biber $ptic .DP $ea" .D& (.ser Datagram &rotocol is a communications protocol that offers a limited amount of service when messages are e6changed between computers in a networ) that uses the Internet &rotocol (I& . .D& is an alternative to the Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& and! together with I&! is sometimes referred to as .D&>I&. .D& uses the Internet &rotocol to actually get a data unit (called a datagram from one computer to another. 4owever! .D& does not provide the service of dividing a message into pac)ets (datagrams and reassembling it at the other end. This means that the application program that uses .D& must be able to ma)e sure that the entire message has arrived and is in the right order. 2etwor) applications that want to save processing time because they have very small data units to e6change (and therefore very little message reassembling to do may prefer .D& to T'&. The Trivial Bile Transfer &rotocol (TBT& uses .D& instead of T'&. E6#%ai" A##%icatio" 0a&er 1it( t(e (e%# o) a##%icatio" %a&er #rotoco%? In the $pen #ystems Interconnection ($#I communications model! the application layer provides services for an application program to ensure that effective communication with another application program in a networ) is possible. The application layer is not the application itself that is doing the communication. The protocol that wor)s on application layer are ftp(file transfer protocol used for transferring files! telnet for remote access!dhcp(dynamic host configuration

protocol used for assigining ip address automatically! http(hyper te6t transfer protocol !and udp(user datagram protocol W(at i $ode$ a"d 1(at ! e o) i" "et1or7i"g? A modem is a Modulator and Demodulator. It-s li)e a bridge between computer and ordinary telephone lines. Telephone lines only accept analog signals but computers only accept digital (binary signals so modems help lin) them. Routers then emit the digital signal. A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to incode digital infomation. Ho1 to co""ect t1o (o t 1it( di))ere"t !8"et eac( ot(er to co$$!"icate? Ho1 to co""ect *B,'*9'>'> a"d *B,'*B'>'>2 !8"et+ ,??',??'>'> co""ect eac( ot(er Through 9* Device (Router or 9ayer * switch Ho1 to co")ig!re SMTP co""ector i" e6c(a"ge erver ,>>- )or e6ter"a% o!tgoi"g $ai%? To create and securely configure the #MT& connector follows these stepsC *' #tart 36change #ystem Manager. Co")ig!re S& te$ Ma"ager to Di #%a& Ro!ti"g a"d Ad$i"i trative Gro!# ' :. #tart the #ystem Manager from the Microsoft 36change program group. ". Right clic) the top%level node and on the shortcut menu! clic) &roperties. *. In the &roperties dialog bo6! select the Display Routing Aroups and Display Administrative Aroups chec) bo6es! and then clic) $<. ,. In the message bo6 that informs you that you need to restart the #ystem Manager! clic) $<! and then restart #ystem Manager. ;. There should be a container called Administrative Aroups in the console tree. 36pand the nodes. +. 'lic) the Members container within the Birst Routing Aroup ob1ect. Eour server is the Master server in the Birst Routing Aroup. ,' 36pand the Administrative Aroups container. -' 'lic) the administrative group that you want to wor) with! and then e6pand it. :' 36pand the Routing Aroups container. ?' 'lic) the routing group that you want to wor) with! and then e6pand it. 9' 'lic) the Co""ector container. Right%clic) the Co""ector container! @ then clic) Ne1. B' 'lic) SMTP Co""ector. D' $n the Ge"era% tab! provide an appropriate identifying name for the connector. G' 'hoose to use D2# or forward to a smart host (if you are relaying through an Internet service provider send%mail server . If you are forwarding to a smart host! use the I& address of the smart host in s(uare brac)ets. *>' .nder 0oca% Bridge(ead ! clic) Add. Add the server that becomes the bridgehead server for the routing group. Designate an #MT& virtual server as a bridgehead server for the #MT& connector. This can be either the server that you are wor)ing on or another server in the same routing group. Alternatively! this duty can be shared by multiple servers.

**' 'lic) the Addre S#ace tab. .nder Co""ector Sco#e! clic) either E"tire Orga"iEatio" or Ro!ti"g Gro!#. As in earlier versions of 36change #erver! when you configure the Internet Mail #ervice! clic) Add! clic) SMTP! and then clic) O@. Accept the default (W unless you re(uire outbound e%mail domain restriction! and leave the cost as :. If you have accepted the default of (W ! you should never clic) to select the A%%o1 $e age to 8e re%a&ed to t(e e do$ai" chec) bo6. 'lic)ing to select the A%%o1 $e age to 8e re%a&ed to t(e e do$ai" chec) bo6 would open your server for relay to the world. The A%%o1 $e age to 8e re%a&ed to t(e e do$ai" chec) bo6 should be for secure domain to domain connections only. *,' If you have chosen forward all mail to a smart host! clic) the Adva"ced tab. 'lic) the O!t8o!"d Sec!rit& option! and then select an appropriate authentication method for your relay host. The default is Anonymous Access. Anonymous is the method that must be used if you are forwarding to an I#&! unless you have made prior arrangements with the I#& for another security level. If you are forwarding to your own server or to another server outside your environment! wor) with the administrator of that server to select the appropriate security level for both servers. Eou can add more than one smart host . *-' 'lic) O@ to e6it $utbound #ecurity. *:' 'lic) O@ to e6it the Adva"ced tab. *?' 'lic) O@ to e6it the #MT& connector. *9' Eou must restart the Microsoft 36change Routing 3ngine service and the #MT& service for these changes to ta)e effect. /hat are two characteristics of clients in data networ)s5 Initiate data e6changes. May upload data to servers W(at i 0*2 0,2 0- S!##ort? 0eve% *30*4 This is the initial support level responsible for basic customer issues. The first 1ob of a Tier I specialist is to gather the customers information and to determine the customers issue by analy8ing the symptoms and figuring out the underlying problem. Technical support specialists in this group typically handle straightforward and simple problems while Npossibly using some )ind of )nowledge management tool.O This includes troubleshooting methods such as verifying physical layer issues! resolving username and password problems! uninstalling>reinstalling basic software applications! verification of proper hardware and software set up! and assistance with navigating around application menus. 0eve% ,30,4 This is a more in%depth technical support level than Tier I containing e6perienced and more )nowledgeable personnel on a particular product or service. Technicians in this realm of )nowledge are responsible for assisting Tier I personnel solve basic technical problems and for investigating elevated issues by confirming the validity of the problem and see)ing for )nown solutions related to these more comple6 issues. If a problem is new and>or personnel from this group cannot determine a solution! they are responsible for raising this issue to the Tier III technical support group. This may include! but is not limited to onsite installations or replacements of various hardware components! software repair! diagnostic testing! and the

utili8ation of remote control tools used to ta)e over the users machine for the sole purpose of troubleshooting and finding a solution to the problem. 0eve% -30-4 This is the highest level of support in a three%tiered technical support model responsible for handling the most difficult or advanced problems. These individuals are e6perts in their fields and are responsible for not only assisting both Tier I and Tier II personnel! but with the research and development of solutions to new or un)nown issues. 2ote that Tier III technicians have the same responsibility as Tier II technicians in reviewing the wor) order and assessing the time already spent with the customer so that the wor) is prioriti8ed and time management is sufficiently utili8ed. 0eve% :30:4 /hile not universally used! a fourth level often represents an escalation point beyond the organi8ation. This is generally a hardware or software vendor. /ithin a corporate incident management system it is important to continue to trac) incidents even when they are being actioned by a vendor and the #ervice 9evel Agreement (#9A may have specific provision for this. W(at i S#&1are a"d Fir$1are? S#&1are is a type of malware that can be installed on computers! and which collects small pieces of information about users without their )nowledge. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user! and can be difficult to detect. Typically! spyware is secretly installed on the user-s personal computer. In electronics and computing! )ir$1are is a term often used to denote the fi6ed! usually rather small! programs and>or data structures that internally control various electronic devices. Di))ere"ce 8et1ee" Tra" $i io" Co"tro% Protoco% 3TCP4 a"d . er Datagra$ Protoco% 3.DP4 Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& : Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& is a connection oriented protocol! which means the devices should open a connection before transmitting data and should close the connection gracefully after transmitting the data. " Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& assure reliable delivery of data to the destination. * Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& protocol provides e6tensive error chec)ing mechanisms such as flow control and ac)nowledgment of data. , #e(uencing of data is a feature of Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& . ; Delivery of data is guaranteed if you are using Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& . + Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& is comparatively slow because of these e6tensive error chec)ing mechanisms K Multiple6ing and Demultiple6ing is possible in Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& using T'& port numbers. L Retransmission of lost pac)ets is possible in Transmission 'ontrol &rotocol (T'& . .ser Datagram &rotocol (.D& : .ser Datagram &rotocol (.D& is Datagram oriented protocol with no overhead for opening! maintaining! and closing a connection. " .ser Datagram &rotocol (.D& is efficient for broadcast>multicast transmission.

* .ser Datagram protocol (.D& has only the basic error chec)ing mechanism using chec)sums. , There is no se(uencing of data in .ser Datagram protocol (.D& . ; The delivery of data cannot be guaranteed in .ser Datagram protocol (.D& . + .ser Datagram protocol (.D& is faster! simpler and more efficient than T'&. 4owever! .ser Datagram protocol (.D& it is less robust then T'& K Multiple6ing and Demultiple6ing is possible in .ser Datagram &rotcol (.D& using .D& port numbers. L There is no retransmission of lost pac)ets in .ser Datagram &rotcol (.D& . W(ic( i t(e )a ter #rotoco% eit(er .DP or TCP? .ser Datagram protocol (.D& is faster! simpler and more efficient than T'&. W(at i di))ere"ce 8et1ee" tatic i# addre a"d d&"a$ic i# addre ? A dynamic I& is one that changes every time you connect to the networ) @ a static I& is one that remains the same no matter how many times you connect and disconnect from the networ). W(& 0DAP i ca%%ed %ig(t 1eig(t? 9DA& (9ightweight Directory Access &rotocol is a protocol for communications between 9DA& servers and 9DA& clients. 9DA& servers store 7directories7 which are access by 9DA& clients. 9DA& is called lightweight because it is a smaller and easier protocol which was derived from the P.;II DA& (Directory Access &rotocol defined in the $#I networ) protocol stac). W(at5 t(e $ea"i"g o) ARP C RARP ddress Resolution "rotocol, a networ) layer protocol used to convert an I& address into a physical address. AR& and RAR&. The AR& protocol is used to map I& addresses to MA' addresses. RAR&! the Reverse AR& &rotocol! is used to map MA' addresses to I& addresse. W(at i t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" TFTP a"d FTP a##%icatio" %a&er #rotoco% ? BT& depends on T'&! is connection oriented! and provides reliable control. TBT& depends on .D&! re(uires less overhead! and provides virtually no control. BT& provides user authentication. TBT& does not. BT& uses well%)nown T'& port numbersC "I for data and ": for connection dialog. TBT& uses .D& port number +M for its file transfer activity. W(at i a "et1or7 $a"age$e"t & te$? A 2etwor) Management #ystem (2M# is a combination of hardware and software used to monitor and administer a networ). I) A e"d a $e A public )ey age to B 1it( e"cr&#tio" t(e" 7e& i

Ho1 do &o! do!8%e<8oot a Wi" ,>>- erver 8o6? The =oot.ini file is set as read%only! system! and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. To change the =oot.ini timeout and default settings! use the #ystem option in 'ontrol &anel from the Advanced tab and select #tartup.

W(at do &o! do i) ear%ier a##%icatio" doe "Ht r!" o" Wi"do1 Server ,>>-? /hen an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of /indows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions! you must run the compatibility mode function. This is accomplished by right%clic)ing the application or setup program and selecting &roperties GZ 'ompatibility GZ selecting the previously supported operating system. I) &o! !"i" ta%% Wi"do1 Server ,>>-2 1(ic( o#erati"g & te$ ca" &o! revert to? /in M3! /in ML! "III! P&. 2ote! however! that you cannot upgrade from M3 and ML to /indows #erver "II*. Ho1 do &o! get to I"ter"et Fire1a%% etti"g ? #tart GZ 'ontrol &anel GZ 2etwor) and Internet 'onnections GZ 2etwor) 'onnections. W(at are t(e Wi"do1 Server ,>>- 7e&8oard (ortc!t ? /in)ey opens or closes the #tart menu. /in)ey J =R3A< displays the #ystem &roperties dialog bo6. /in)ey J TA= moves the focus to the ne6t application in the tas)bar. /in)ey J #4IBT J TA= moves the focus to the previous application in the tas)bar. /in)ey J = moves the focus to the notification area. /in)ey J D shows the des)top. /in)ey J 3 opens /indows 36plorer showing My 'omputer. /in)ey J B opens the #earch panel. /in)ey J 'TR9 J B opens the #earch panel with #earch for 'omputers module selected. /in)ey J B: opens 4elp. /in)ey J M minimi8es all. /in)ey J #4IBTJ M undoes minimi8ation. /in)ey J R opens Run dialog. /in)ey J . opens the .tility Manager. /in)ey J 9 loc)s the computer.

W(at i Active Director&? Active Directory is a networ)%based ob1ect store and service that locates and manages resources! and ma)es these resources available to authori8ed users and groups. An underlying principle of the Active Directory is that everything is considered an ob1ect\people! servers! wor)stations! printers! documents! and devices. 3ach ob1ect has certain attributes and its own security access control list (A'9 . W(ere are t(e Wi"do1 NT Pri$ar& Do$ai" Co"tro%%er 3PDC4 a"d it Bac7!# Do$ai" Co"tro%%er 3BDC4 i" Server ,>>-? The Active Directory replaces them. 2ow all domain controllers share a multimaster peer%to%peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory.

Ho1 %o"g doe it ta7e )or ec!rit& c(a"ge to 8e re#%icated a$o"g t(e do$ai" co"tro%%er ? #ecurity%related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. These changes include account and individual user loc)out policies! changes to password policies! changes to computer account passwords! and modifications to the 9ocal #ecurity Authority (9#A . W(atH "e1 i" Wi"do1 Server ,>>- regardi"g t(e DNS $a"age$e"t? /hen D' promotion occurs with an e6isting forest! the Active Directory Installation /i8ard contacts an e6isting D' to update the directory and replicate from the D' the re(uired portions of the directory. If the wi8ard fails to locate a D'! it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fi6 the problem. In order to be located on a networ)! every D' must register in D2# D' locator D2# records. The Active Directory Installation /i8ard verifies a proper configuration of the D2# infrastructure. All D2# configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation /i8ard. W(e" (o!%d &o! create a )ore t? $rgani8ations that operate on radically different bases may re(uire separate trees with distinct namespaces. .ni(ue trade or brand names often give rise to separate D2# identities. $rgani8ations merge or are ac(uired and naming continuity is desired. $rgani8ations form partnerships and 1oint ventures. /hile access to common resources is desired! a separately defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions. Ho1 ca" &o! a!t(e"ticate 8et1ee" )ore t ? Bour types of authentication are used across forestsC (: <erberos and 2T9M networ) logon for remote access to a server in another forest? (" <erberos and 2T9M interactive logon for physical logon outside the users home forest? (* <erberos delegation to 2%tier application in another forest? and (, user principal name (.&2 credentials. W(at "a#<i" ad$i"i trative too% are avai%a8%e )or Active Director&? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager! Active Directory #ites and #ervices Manager! Active Directory .sers and Aroup Manager! Active Directory Replication (optional! available from the Resource <it ! Active Directory #chema Manager (optional! available from adminpa) W(at t&#e o) c%a e e6i t i" Wi"do1 Server ,>>- Active Director&? Str!ct!ra% c%a . The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory ob1ects are created. #tructural classes are developed from either the modification of an e6isting structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. A8 tract c%a . Abstract classes are so named because they ta)e the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts and structural and au6iliary classes. Thin) of abstract classes as framewor)s for the defining ob1ects.

A!6i%iar& c%a . The au6iliary class is a list of attributes. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class! it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action. DD c%a . The LL class includes ob1ect classes defined prior to :MM*! when the :MLL P.;II specification was adopted. This type does not use the structural! abstract! and au6iliary definitions! nor is it in common use for the development of ob1ects in /indows #erver "II* environments. Ho1 do &o! de%ete a %i"geri"g o8Aect? /indows #erver "II* provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering ob1ects in the Active Directory. W(at i G%o8a% Cata%og? The Alobal 'atalog authenticates networ) user logons and fields in(uiries about ob1ects across a forest or tree. 3very domain has at least one A' that is hosted on a domain controller. In /indows "III! there was typically one A' on every site in order to prevent user logon failures across the networ). Ho1 i ! er acco!"t ec!rit& e ta8%i (ed i" Wi"do1 Server ,>>-? /hen an account is created! it is given a uni(ue access number )nown as a security identifier (#ID . 3very group to which the user belongs has an associated #ID. The user and related group #IDs together form the user accounts security to)en! which determines access levels to ob1ects throughout the system and networ). #IDs from the security to)en are mapped to the access control list (A'9 of any ob1ect the user attempts to access. I) I de%ete a ! er a"d t(e" create a "e1 acco!"t 1it( t(e a$e ! er"a$e a"d #a 1ord2 1o!%d t(e SID a"d #er$i io" ta& t(e a$e? 2o. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password! the #ID will be different. W(at do &o! do 1it( ec!re ig"<o" i" a" orga"iEatio" 1it( $a"& roa$i"g ! er ? 'redential Management feature of /indows #erver "II* provides a consistent single sign%on e6perience for users. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. The 'redential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and P.;IM certificates. A"&t(i"g #ecia% &o! (o!%d do 1(e" addi"g a ! er t(at (a a Mac? 7#ave password as encrypted clear te6t7 must be selected on .ser &roperties Account Tab $ptions! since the Macs only store their passwords that way. W(at re$ote acce o#tio" doe Wi"do1 Server ,>>- !##ort? Dial%in! 0&2! dial%in with callbac). W(ere are t(e doc!$e"t a"d etti"g )or t(e roa$i"g #ro)i%e tored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system! and! when the user logs off! all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. Therefore! the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may ta)e some time! depending on how large his profile folder is.

W(ere are t(e etti"g )or a%% t(e ! er tored o" a give" $ac(i"e? TDocument and #ettingsTAll .sers W(at %a"g!age ca" &o! ! e )or %og<o" cri#t ? ]ava#cipt! 0=#cript! D$# batch files (.com! .bat! or even .e6e W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" %oca%2 g%o8a% a"d !"iver a% gro!# ? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. Alobal groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. .niversal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains. I a$ tr&i"g to create a "e1 !"iver a% ! er gro!#' W(& ca"Ht I? .niversal groups are allowed only in native%mode /indows #erver "II* environments. 2ative mode re(uires that all domain controllers be promoted to /indows #erver "II* Active Directory. W(at i 0SDO.? Its group policy inheritance model! where the policies are applied to 9ocal machines! #ites! Domains and $rgani8ational .nits. W(ere are gro!# #o%icie tored? U#ystemRootU#ystem*"TAroup&olicy W(at i GPT a"d GPC? Aroup policy template and group policy container. W(ere i GPT tored? U#ystemRootUT#E#0$9TsysvolTdomainnameT&oliciesTA.ID Yo! c(a"ge t(e gro!# #o%icie 2 a"d "o1 t(e co$#!ter a"d ! er etti"g are i" co")%ict' W(ic( o"e (a t(e (ig(e t #riorit&? The computer settings ta)e priority. Yo! 1a"t to et !# re$ote i" ta%%atio" #roced!re2 8!t do "ot 1a"t t(e ! er to gai" acce over it' W(at do &o! do? gponameGZ .ser 'onfigurationGZ /indows #ettingsGZ Remote Installation #ervicesGZ 'hoice $ptions is your friend. W(atH co"tai"ed i" ad$i"i trative te$#%ate co")'ad$? Microsoft 2etMeeting policies Ho1 ca" &o! re trict r!""i"g certai" a##%icatio" o" a $ac(i"e? 0ia group policy! security settings for the group! then #oftware Restriction &olicies. Yo! "eed to a!to$atica%%& i" ta%% a" a##2 8!t MSI )i%e i "ot avai%a8%e' W(at do &o! do? A %&ap te6t file can be used to add applications using the #oftware Installer! rather than the /indows Installer. W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" So)t1are I" ta%%er a"d Wi"do1 I" ta%%er?

The former has fewer privileges @ will probably re(uire user intervention. &lus! it uses .8ap files. W(at ca" 8e re tricted o" Wi"do1 Server ,>>- t(at 1a "Ht t(ere i" #revio! #rod!ct ? Aroup &olicy in /indows #erver "II* determines a users right to modify networ) and dial%up T'&>I& properties. .sers may be selectively restricted from modifying their I& address and other networ) configuration parameters. Ho1 )reF!e"t%& i t(e c%ie"t #o%ic& re)re (ed? MI minutes give or ta)e. W(ere i secedit? Its now gpupdate. Yo! 1a"t to create a "e1 gro!# #o%ic& 8!t do "ot 1i ( to i"(erit' Ma)e sure you chec) =loc) inheritance among the options when creating the policy. W(at i =tattooi"g= t(e Regi tr&? The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. If the group policy is removed or changed! the user preference will persist in the Registry. Ho1 do &o! )ig(t tattooi"g i" NT;,>>> i" ta%%atio" ? Eou cant. Ho1 do &o! )ig(t tattooi"g i" ,>>- i" ta%%atio" ? .ser 'onfiguration % Administrative Templates % #ystem % Aroup &olicy % enable % 3nforce #how &olicies $nly. W(at doe I"te%%iMirror do? It helps to reconcile des)top settings! applications! and stored files for users! particularly those who move between wor)stations or those who must periodically wor) offline. W(atH t(e $aAor di))ere"ce 8et1ee" FAT a"d NTFS o" a %oca% $ac(i"e? BAT and BAT*" provide no security over locally logged%on users. $nly native 2TB# provides e6tensive permission control on both remote and local files. Ho1 do FAT a"d NTFS di))er i" a##roac( to ! er (are ? They dont! both have support for sharing. E6#%a" t(e List Folder Contents #er$i io" o" t(e )o%der i" NTFS' #ame as Read @ 36ecute! but not inherited by files within a folder. 4owever! newly created subfolders will inherit this permission. I (ave a )i%e to 1(ic( t(e ! er (a acce 2 8!t (e (a "o )o%der #er$i io" to read it' Ca" (e acce it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission. This involves simply )nowing the path of the file ob1ect. 3ven if the user

cant drill down the file>folder tree using My 'omputer! he can still gain access to the file using the .niversal 2aming 'onvention (.2' . The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into RunX window.

For a ! er i" evera% gro!# 2 are A%%o1 #er$i io" re trictive or #er$i ive? &ermissive! if at least one group has Allow permission for the file>folder! user will have the same permission. For a ! er i" evera% gro!# 2 are De"& #er$i io" re trictive or #er$i ive? Restrictive! if at least one group has Deny permission for the file>folder! user will be denied access! regardless of other group permissions. W(at (idde" (are e6i t o" Wi"do1 Server ,>>- i" ta%%atio"? Admin[! Drive[! I&'[! 23T9$A$2! print[ and #E#0$9. W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" ta"da%o"e C )a!%t<to%era"t DFS 3Di tri8!ted Fi%e S& te$4 i" ta%%atio" ? The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus! if a shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down! users are left with no lin) to the shared resources. A fault%tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active Directory! which is replicated to other domain controllers. Thus! redundant root nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders. WeHre ! i"g t(e DFS )a!%t<to%era"t i" ta%%atio"2 8!t ca""ot acce it )ro$ a Wi"GD 8o6' .se the .2' path! not client! only "III and "II* clients can access #erver "II* fault%tolerant shares. W(ere e6act%& do )a!%t<to%era"t DFS (are tore i")or$atio" i" Active Director&? In &artition <nowledge Table! which is then replicated to other domain controllers. Ca" &o! ! e Start<ISearc( 1it( DFS (are ? Ees. W(at #ro8%e$ ca" &o! (ave 1it( DFS i" ta%%ed? Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time! with no file% loc)ing involved in DB#! changing the contents and then saving. $nly one file will be propagated through DB#. I r!" Micro o)t C%! ter Server a"d ca""ot i" ta%% )a!%t<to%era"t DFS' Eeah! you cant. Install a standalone one. I @er8ero e"cr&#tio" &$$etric or a &$$etric? #ymmetric.

Ho1 doe Wi"do1 ,>>- Server tr& to #reve"t a $idd%e<$a" attac7 o" e"cr&#ted %i"e? Time stamp is attached to the initial client re(uest! encrypted with the shared )ey. W(at (a (i"g a%gorit($ are ! ed i" Wi"do1 ,>>- Server? R#A Data #ecuritys Message Digest ; (MD; ! produces a :"L%bit hash! and the #ecure 4ash Algorithm : (#4A%: ! produces a :+I%bit hash. W(at t(ird<#art& certi)icate e6c(a"ge #rotoco% are ! ed 8& Wi"do1 ,>>- Server? /indows #erver "II* uses the industry standard &<'#%:I certificate re(uest and &<'#%K certificate response to e6change 'A certificates with third%party certificate authorities. W(atH t(e "!$8er o) #er$itted !" !cce )!% %ogo" o" Ad$i"i trator acco!"t? .nlimited. Remember! though! that its the Administrator account! not any account thats part of the Administrators group. I) (a (i"g i o"e<1a& )!"ctio" a"d Wi"do1 Server ! e (a (i"g )or tori"g #a 1ord 2 (o1 i it #o i8%e to attac7 t(e #a 1ord %i t 2 #eci)ica%%& t(e o"e ! i"g NT0Mv*? A crac)er would launch a dictionary attac) by hashing every imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes. W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" g!e t acco!"t i" Server ,>>- a"d ot(er editio" ? More restrictive in /indows #erver "II*. Ho1 $a"& #a 1ord 8& de)a!%t are re$e$8ered 1(e" &o! c(ec7 =E")orce Pa 1ord Hi tor& Re$e$8ered=? .sers last + passwords. W(at i #re e"tatio" %a&er re #o" i8%e )or i" t(e OSI $ode%? The presentation layer establishes the data format prior to passing it along to the networ) applications interface. T'&>I& networ)s perform this tas) at the application layer. Doe Wi"do1 Server ,>>- !##ort IPv9? Ees! run ipv+.e6e from command line to disable it. Ca" Wi"do1 Server ,>>- )!"ctio" a a 8ridge? Ees! and its a new feature for the "II* product. Eou can combine several networ)s and devices connected via several adapters by enabling I& routing. W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" t(e 8a ic di 7 a"d d&"a$ic di 7? The basic type contains partitions! e6tended partitions! logical drivers! and an assortment of static volumes? the dynamic type does not use partitions but dynamically manages volumes and provides advanced storage options

W(atH a $edia #oo%? It is any compilation of dis)s or tapes with the same administrative properties. Ho1 do &o! i" ta%% recover& co" o%e? 'CTi*L+Twin*" >cmdcons! assuming that your /in server installation is on drive '. W(atH "e1 i" Ter$i"a% Service )or Wi"do1 ,>>- Server? #upports audio transmissions as well! although prepare for heavy networ) load. W(at cri#t (i# 1it( IIS 9'>? iiswe'%vs' to create! delete! start! stop! and list /eb sites! iisftp%vs' to create! delete! start! stop! and list BT& sites! iisdir%vs' to create! delete! start! stop! and display virtual directories! iisftpdr%vs' to create! delete! start! stop! and display virtual directories under an BT& root! iiscnfg%v's to e6port and import II# configuration to an PM9 file. W(atH t(e "a$e o) t(e ! er 1(o co""ect to t(e We8 ite a"o"&$o! %&? I.#R^computername W(at ec!re a!t(e"ticatio" a"d e"cr&#tio" $ec(a"i $ are !##orted 8& IIS 9'>? =asic authentication! Digest authentication! Advanced digest authentication! 'ertificate%based /eb transactions that use &<'# _K>&<'# _:I! Borte88a! ##9! #erver%Aated 'ryptography! Transport 9ayer #ecurity W(atH t(e re%atio" 8et1ee" SS0 a"d T0S? Transport 9ayer #ecurity (T9# e6tends ##9 by providing cryptographic authentication. W(atH t(e ro%e o) (tt#' & i" IIS? It is the point of contact for all incoming 4TT& re(uests. It listens for re(uests and (ueues them until they are all processed! no more (ueues are available! or the /eb server is shut down. W(ereH ASP cac(e %ocated o" IIS 9'>? $n dis)! as opposed to memory! as it used to be in II# ;. W(at i oc7et #oo%i"g? 2on%bloc)ing soc)et usage! introduced in II# +.I. More than one application can use a given soc)et. De cri8e t(e #roce o) c%! teri"g 1it( Wi"do1 ,>>- Server 1(e" a "e1 "ode i added' As a node goes online! it searches for other nodes to 1oin by polling the designated internal networ). In this way! all nodes are notified of the new nodes e6istence. If other nodes cannot be found on a pree6isting cluster! the new node ta)es control of

the (uorum resources residing on the shared dis) that contains state and configuration data. W(at a##%icatio" are "ot ca#a8%e o) #er)or$i"g i" Wi"do1 ,>>- Server c%! ter ? The ones written e6clusively for 2et=3.I and I&P. W(atH a (eart8eat? 'ommunication processes between the nodes designed to ensure nodes health. W(atH a t(re (o%d i" c%! tered e"viro"$e"t? The number of times a restart is attempted! when the node fails. Yo! "eed to c(a"ge a"d ad$i" #a 1ord o" a c%! tered Wi"do1 8o62 8!t t(at reF!ire re8ooti"g t(e c%! ter2 doe "Ht it? 2o! it doesnt. In "II* environment you can do that via cluster.e6e utility which does not re(uire rebooting the entire cluster. For t(e doc!$e"t o) iEe * MB2 1(at iEe 1o!%d &o! e6#ect t(e i"de6 to 8e 1it( I"de6i"g Service? :;I%*II <=! :;%*IU is a reasonable e6pectation. Doe "Ht t(e I"de6i"g Service i"trod!ce a ec!rit& )%a1 1(e" a%%o1i"g acce to t(e i"de6? 2o! because users can only view the indices of documents and folders that they have permissions for. W(atH t(e t&#ica% iEe o) t(e i"de6? 9ess then :II< documents % up to :"L M=. More than that % ";+J M=. W(ic( add<o" #ac7age )or Wi"do1 ,>>- Server 1o!%d &o! ! e to $o"itor t(e i" ta%%ed o)t1are a"d %ice" e co$#%ia"ce? #M# (#ystem Management #erver . W(ic( ervice do &o! ! e to et !# vario! a%ert ? M$M (Microsoft $perations Manager . W(at #ort doe te%"et ! e? Telnet use port number "* W(at i SMTP? #imple Mail Transfer &rotocol, a protocol for sending e%mail messages between servers. Most e%mail systems that send mail over the Internet use #MT& to send messages from one server to another? the messages can then be retrieved with an e%mail client using either &$& or IMA&. In addition! #MT& is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both the &$& or IMA& server and the #MT& server when you configure your e%mail application. Ho1 1o!%d &o! tro!8%e (oot a #ri"ter? &rinter does not have power indicator

'ables not connected properly &rinter error (orange or blin)ing light 2o paper or paper 1am &rinter drivers Ho1 doe tracero!te 1or7? The 7traceroute7 program uses I'M& messaging and the time to live (TT9 field in the I& header. It wor)s by sending a pac)et to the intended host with a TT9 value of :. The first router will send bac) the I'M& 7time e6ceeded7 message to the sending host. Then the traceroute program will send a message with a TT9 of "! then *! etc. This way it will get information about each router using the information received in the I'M& pac)ets. To get information about the receiving host! the message is sent to a port that is not li)ely to be serviced by that host. A I'M& 7port unreachable7 error message is generated and sent bac). W(at i a G%o8a% Cata%og? The global catalog is a distributed data repository that contains a searchable! partial representation of every ob1ect in every domain in a multidomain Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# forest. The global catalog is stored on domain controllers that have been designated as global catalog servers and is distributed through multimaster replication. #earches that are directed to the global catalog are faster because they do not involve referrals to different domain controllers. E6#%ai" t(e )!"ctio" o) DNS' Domain 2ame #ystem (D2# is the name resolution protocol for T'&>I& networ)s! such as the Internet. A D2# server hosts the information that enables client computers to resolve memorable! alphanumeric D2# names to the I& addresses that computers use to communicate with each other.

E6#%ai" a JT1o<Wa& Tra" itiveK tr! t' O"e<Wa& Tr! t A one%way trust is a unidirectional authentication path created between two domains (trust flows in one direction! and access flows in the other . This means that in a one%way trust between a trusted domain and a trusting domain! users or computers in the trusted domain can access resources in the trusting domain. 4owever! users in the trusting domain cannot access resources in the trusted domain. #ome one%way trusts can be either nontransitive or transitive! depending on the type of trust being created. T1o<Wa& Tr! t A two%way trust can be thought of as a combination of two! opposite%facing one%way trusts! so that! the trusting and trusted domains both trust each other (trust and access flow in both directions . This means that authentication re(uests can be passed between the two domains in both directions. #ome two%way relationships can be either nontransitive or transitive depending on the type of trust being created. All domain trusts in an Active Directory forest are two%way! transitive trusts. /hen a new child domain is created! a two%way! transitive trust is automatically created between the new child domain and the parent domain.

I" #ea7i"g a8o!t tr! t 2 1(at doe JTra" itive C No"<tra" itiveK $ea"? Tra" itive a"d No"tra" itive Tr! t A two%way trust relationship is established by creating two one%way trust relationships. Domains can be connected by e6plicit one%way or two%way trust relationships for the purpose of enabling access to resources! but they are not necessarily related in any other way. In /indows "III! domains can be 1oined to a domain tree or forest! and each child domain has an automatic two%way trust relationship with the parent domain. This trust relationship is also transitive. Transitive trust means that the trust relationship e6tended to one domain is e6tended automatically to any other domain that is trusted by that domain. Transitive trust is applied automatically for all domains that are members of the domain tree or forest. In /indows "III! transitive trust relationships are always two%way trust relationships. A nontransitive trust relationship can be created between /indows "III domains when a transitive trust relationship is not appropriate! but this trust relationship must be created e6plicitly. It can be created! for e6ample! between two /indows "III domains that are not in the same forest. A trust relationship between a /indows "III domain and a /indows 2T ,.I domain is always a nontransitive trust relationship. If one of these domains is an account domain and the other is a resource domain the trust relationship is usually created as a one%way trust relationship. If there are user accounts in both domains! two one% way trust relationships can be created between them.The trust relationship between two domains \ whether one%way or two%way! transitive or nontransitive \ is stored as an interdomain trust account ob1ect in Active Directory. Ho1 $a"& #a 1ord 8& de)a!%t are re$e$8ered i" a" active director&? .ser-s last + passwords W(at i a C "a$e record 3i" DNS4? A '2AM3 record or 'anonical 2ame record is a type of resource record in the Domain 2ame #ystem (D2# that specifies that the domain name is an alias of another! canonical domain name. W(at i a 0M (o t )i%e ! ed )or? The 9M4$#T# (9A2 Manager 4osts file is used to enable domain name resolution under /indows when other methods! e.g. /I2#! fail. It is used in con1unction with wor)groups and domains. A local hosts file used by Microsoft /ins 'lients such as Microsoft /indows ML! /indows 2T! /indows P&! and later versions of /indows to provide mappings of I& addresses to 2T computer names (2et=I$# names . The lmhosts file is located in either the root /indows directory! the /indowsT#ystem*"TdriversTetc directory! or /inntT#ystem*"TdriversTetc depending on the version of /indows and is called lmhost.sam. E6#%ai" Active Director& ite a"d ervice a"d %i"7ed co t ro!ti"g? Eou can use the Active Directory #ites and #ervices snap%in to manage the site% specific ob1ects that implement the intersite replication topology. These ob1ects are stored in the #ites container in Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# .

In addition! Active Directory #ites and #ervices provides a view of the #ervices container! which you can use to view service%related ob1ects that are published in AD D#. W(at i t(e SYSVO0 )o%der? The S& tem Vo%ume (#ysvol is a shared directory that stores the server copy of the domain-s public files that must be shared for common access and replication throughout a domain. The term #E#0$9 refers to a set of files and folders that reside on the local hard dis) of each domain controller in a domain and that are replicated by the Bile Replication service (BR# . 2etwor) clients access the contents of the #E#0$9 tree by using the 23T9$A$2 and #E#0$9 shared folders. #ysvol uses 1unction points%a physical location on a hard dis) that points to data that is located elsewhere on your dis) or other storage device%to manage a single instance store. W(at are a##%icatio" #artitio" ? Ho1 do &o! create a "e1 a##%icatio" #artitio"' An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. $nly domain controllers running /indows #erver "II* can host a replica of an application directory partition. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application%specific data. Application directory partitions can contain any type of ob1ect! e6cept security principals. TA&I is an e6ample of a service that stores its application%specific data in an application directory partition. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. Members of the 3nterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the 2tdsutil command%line tool. To create or delete an application directory partition :. $pen 'ommand &rompt. ". TypeC ntdsutil *. At the ntdsutil command prompt! typeC domain management ,. At the domain management command prompt! typeC connection ;. At the server connections command prompt! typeC connect to server #erver2ame +. At the server connections command prompt! typeC (uit K. At the domain management command prompt! do one of the followingC o To create an application directory partition! typeC create nc ApplicationDirectory&artition Domain'ontroller o To delete an application directory partition! typeC delete nc ApplicationDirectory&artition

Ho1 do &o! vie1 re#%icatio" #ro#ertie )or AD #artitio" a"d DC ? =y using replication monitor go to start Z run Z type repadmin go to start Z run Z type replmon

Ho1 do &o! vie1 a%% t(e GC i" t(e )ore t? 'CTZrepadmin >showreps domain^controller $R Eou can use Replmon.e6e for the same purpose. $R AD #ites and #ervices and nsloo)up gc.^msdcs. To find the in A' from the command line you can try using D#D.3RE command. ds(uery server %isgc to find all the gc-s in the forest you can try ds(uery server %forest %isgc. W(& "ot $a7e a%% DC i" a %arge )ore t a GC ? .nless you have some really bad connections that may not be able to handle the e6tra traffic! you should ma)e every D' a A'. In A2E single domain forest! it is recommended and beneficial to ma)e all D's A's since it has no replication impact and serves to better distribute (uery load. W(at are t(e S!##ort Too% ? W(& do I "eed t(e$? #upport Tools are the tools that are used for performing the complicated tas)s easily. you can use the /indows #upport Tools to manage networ)s and to troubleshoot networ) problems /indows #erver "II* #&: includes updates for the following #upport ToolsC Acldiag.e6e Adsiedit.msc =itsadmin.e6e Dcdiag.e6e Dfsutil.e6e Dnslint.e6e Dsacls.e6e Iadstools.dll <tpass.e6e 9dp.e6e 2etdiag.e6e 2etdom.e6e 2tfrsutl.e6e &ort(ry.e6e Repadmin.e6e Replmon.e6e #etspn.e6e The /indows #upport Tools are not automatically installed when you install /indows #erver "II* #&:. To install the /indows #upport Tools on a computer that is running /indows #erver "II*! run the #uptools.msi program that is in the #upportTTools folder on the /indows #erver "II* #&: 'D.

W(at i 0DP? W(at i REP0MON? W(at i ADSIEDIT? W(at i NETDOM? W(at i REPADMIN? Replmon is the first tool you should use when troubleshooting Active Directory replication issues.

AD#I3dit is a Microsoft Management 'onsole (MM' snap%in that acts as a low%level editor for Active Directory. It is a Araphical .ser Interface (A.I tool. 2etwor) administrators can use it for common administrative tas)s such as adding! deleting! and moving ob1ects with a directory service. 23TD$M is a command%line tool that allows management of /indows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts! 1oining computers to domains! verifying trusts! and secure channels. R3&ADMI2.3P3 is a command line tool used to monitor and troubleshoot replication on a computer running /indows. This is a command line tool that allows you to view the replication topology as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. It performs the following actionsC 'hec)s replication consistency between replication partners. Monitors replication status. Displays replication metadata. Borces replication events. <nowledge 'onsistency 'hec)er (<'' recalculation Important .sage In order to replicate the new 2# record to all the domain controllers! run the R3&ADMI2 >syncall command from the command prompt. To immediate replicate the AD information! choose either of two% Brom the AD #ites and #ervices console! select the e6isting connection ob1ects and force replication. $r! use R3&ADMI2.3P3 to force replication between the site connection ob1ects. .se the R3&ADMI2 tool to synchroni8e new user information between all sites to enable new users to log on to the domain in a remote site. W(at i t(e @CC? /ith in a #ite! a /indows server "II* service )nown as the <'' automatically generates a topology for replication among the domain controllers in the domain using a ring structure.Th <cc is a built in process that runs on all domain controllers. The <'' analy8es the replication topology within a site every :; minute to ensure that it still wor)s. If you add or remove a domain controller from the networ) or a site! the <'' reconfigures the topology to relect the change. W(at i t(e ISTG? W(o (a t(at ro%e 8& de)a!%t? Bor inter%site replication! one domain controller per site has the responsibility of evaluating the inter%site replication topology and creating Active Directory Replication 'onnection ob1ects for appropriate bridgehead servers within its site. The domain controller in each site that owns this role is referred to as the Inter%#ite Topology Aenerator (I#TA . W(at ca" &o! do to #ro$ote a erver to DC i) &o!Hre i" a re$ote %ocatio" 1it( %o1 WAN %i"7? Ta)e the system state bac)up of current Alobal 'atalog server write>burn it on the 'D send the 'D to the destination ( remote location $n the new server which needs to be promoted to be D' type dcpromo>adv on run then follow the steps.

` clic) Run! type dcpromo >adv to open the Active Directory Installation /i8ard with the option to create an additional domain controller from restored bac)up files. ` $n the Domain 'ontroller Type page! clic) Additional domain controller for an e6isting domain! and then clic) 2e6t. ` $n the 'opying Domain Information page! can do any of the following stepsC o 'lic) Brom these restored bac)up files! and type or =rowse to locate the restored files! and then clic) 2e6t. ` $n the 2etwor) 'redentials page! type the user name! password! and user domain of the user account you want to use for this operation! and then clic) 2e6t. The user account must be a member of the Domain Admins group for the target domain. ` $n the Database and 9og Bolders page! type the location in which you want to install the database and log folders! or clic) =rowse to choose a location! and then clic) 2e6t. ` $n the #hared #ystem 0olume page! type the location in which you want to install the #ysvol folder! or clic) =rowse to choose a location! and then clic) 2e6t. ` $n the Directory #ervices Restore Mode Administrator &assword page! type and confirm the password that you want to assign to the Administrator account for this server! and then clic) 2e6t. .se this password when starting the computer in Directory #ervices Restore Mode. Restart the computer. Ho1 ca" &o! )orci8%& re$ove AD )ro$ a erver2 a"d 1(at do &o! do %ater? Ca" I get ! er #a 1ord )ro$ t(e AD data8a e? Demote the server using dcpromo >forceremoval! then remove the metadata from Active directory using ndtsutil. There is no way to get user passwords from AD Another way out too Restart the D' is D#RM mode a. 9ocate the following registry sub)eyC 4<3E^9$'A9^MA'4I23T#E#T3MT'urrent'ontrol#etT'ontrolT&roduct$ptions b. In the right%pane! double%clic) &roductType. c. Type #erver2T in the 0alue data bo6! and then clic) $<. Restart the server in normal mode its a member server now but AD entries are still there. &romote teh server to a fa)e domain say A='.com and then remove gracefully using D'promo. 3lse after restart you can also use ntdsutil to do metadata as told in teh earlier post W(at are t(e DSL co$$a"d ? Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# command%line tools ! they are available if you have the AD D# or Active Directory 9ightweight Directory #ervices (AD 9D# server role installed. To use these tools! you must run them from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt! clic) #tart! right%clic) 'ommand &rompt! and then clic) Run as administrator. 'omman Description d 36tends the Active Directory schema and updates permissions as Adprep necessary to prepare a forest and domain for a domain controller that runs the /indows #erver "IIL operating system. Imports and e6ports data from Active Directory using files that store data 'svde in the comma%separated value ('#0 format. Eou can also support batch operations based on the '#0 file format standard.

Dcdiag Dcpromo Dsacls Dsadd Dsamain Dsdbutil Dsget Dsmgmt Dsmod Dsmove Ds(uery Dsrm 9difde 9dp 2etdom

Analy8es the state of domain controllers in a forest or enterprise and reports any problems to help in troubleshooting. Installs and removes Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# . Displays and changes permissions (access control entries in the access control list (A'9 of ob1ects in AD D#. Adds specific types of ob1ects to the directory. 36poses Active Directory data that is stored in a snapshot or bac)up as a 9ightweight Directory Access &rotocol (9DA& server. &rovides database utilities for Active Directory 9ightweight Directory #ervices (AD 9D# . Displays the selected properties of a specific ob1ect in the directory. &rovides management facilities for Active Directory 9ightweight Directory #ervices (AD 9D# . Modifies an e6isting ob1ect of a specific type in the directory. Moves a single ob1ect in a domain from its current location in the directory to a new location or renames a single ob1ect without moving it in the directory tree. Dueries AD D# according to specified criteria. Deletes an ob1ect of a specific type or any general ob1ect from the directory. 'reates! modifies! and deletes directory ob1ects on computers running /indows #erver "II* or /indows P& &rofessional operating systems. Ma)es it possible for users to perform operations against an 9DA&% compatible directory! such as AD D#. These operations include connect! bind! search! modify! add! and delete. Ma)es it possible for administrators to manage /indows #erver "II* and /indows "III domains and trust relationships from a command prompt.

2et Adds or deletes a computer from a domain database. computer 2et Adds! displays! or modifies global groups in domains. group 2et user Adds or modifies user accounts! or displays user account information. 2ltest &erforms networ) administrative tas)s. 2tdsutil &rovides management facilities for AD D#. Redirects the default container for newly created computers to a specified Redircmp target organi8ational unit ($. so that newly created computer ob1ects are created in the specific target $. instead of in '2H'omputers. Redirects the default container for newly created users to a specified Redirusr target $. so that newly created user ob1ects are created in the specific target $. instead of in '2H.sers. Ma)es it possible for administrators to diagnose Active Directory Repadmi replication problems between domain controllers running /indows n operating systems. Ma)es it possible for administrators to read! modify! and delete the #etspn #ervice &rincipal 2ames (#&2 directory property for an Active Directory service account.

W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" 0DIFDE a"d CSVDE? . age co" ideratio" ? 9difde 9difde creates! modifies! and deletes directory ob1ects on computers running /indows #erver "II* operating systems or /indows P& &rofessional. Eou can also use 9difde to e6tend the schema! e6port Active Directory user and group information to other applications or services! and populate Active Directory with data from other directory services. The 9DA& Data Interchange Bormat (9DIB is a draft Internet standard for a file format that may be used for performing batch operations against directories that conform to the 9DA& standards. 9DIB can be used to e6port and import data! allowing batch operations such as add! create! and modify to be performed against the Active Directory. A utility program called 9DIBD3 is included in /indows "III to support batch operations based on the 9DIB file format standard. 'svde Imports and e6ports data from Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# using files that store data in the comma%separated value ('#0 format. Eou can also support batch operations based on the '#0 file format standard. 'svde is a command%line tool that is built into /indows #erver "IIL in the>system*" folder. It is available if you have the AD D# or Active Directory 9ightweight Directory #ervices (AD 9D# server role installed. To use csvde! you must run the csvde command from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt! clic) #tart! right%clic) 'ommand &rompt! and then clic) Run as administrator. 'svde.e6e is a command%line utility that is located in the #ystemRootT#ystem*" folder after you install /indows "III. 'svde.e6e is similar to 9difde.e6e! but it e6tracts information in a comma%separated value ('#0 format. Eou can use 'svde to import and e6port Active Directory data that uses the comma%separated value format. .se a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft 36cel to open this .csv file and view the header and value information. Although 'svde is similar to 9difde! 'svde has a significant limitationC it can only import and e6port Active Directory data by using a comma%separated format (.csv . Microsoft recommends that you use the 9difde utility for Modify or Delete operations. I 1a"t to %oo7 at t(e RID a%%ocatio" ta8%e )or a DC' W(at do I do? :.install support tools from $# dis)($# InstC Dis)HZsupportHZtoolsHZsuptools.msi ".In 'ommand prompt type dcdiag >testCridmanager >sCsystem: >v (system: is the name of our D' W(& ca"Ht &o! re tore a DC t(at 1a 8ac7ed !# : $o"t( ago? =ecause of the tombstone life which is set to only +I days W(at are GPO ? Aroup &olicy gives you administrative control over users and computers in your networ). =y using Aroup &olicy! you can define the state of a user-s wor) environment once! and then rely on /indows #erver "II* to continually force the Aroup &olicy settings that you apply across an entire organi8ation or to specific groups of users and computers. Aroup &olicy Advantages C%

Eou can assign group policy in domains! sites and organi8ational units. All users and computers get reflected by group policy settings in domain! site and organi8ational unit. 2o one in networ) has rights to change the settings of Aroup policy? by default only administrator has full privilege to change! so it is very secure. &olicy settings can be removed and can further rewrite the changes. Aroup &olicy ob1ects store their Aroup &olicy information in two locationsC Aroup &olicy 'ontainerC The A&' is an Active Directory ob1ect that contains A&$ status! version information! /MI filter information! and a list of components that have settings in the A&$. 'omputers can access the A&' to locate Aroup &olicy templates! and domain controller does not have the most recent version of the A&$! replication occurs to obtain the latest version of the A&$. Aroup &olicy TemplateC The A&T is a folder hierarchy in the shared #E#0$9 folder on a domain controller. /hen you create A&$! /indows #erver "II* creates the corresponding A&T which contains all Aroup &olicy settings and information! including administrative templates! security! software installation! scripts! and folder redirection settings. 'omputers connect to the #E#0$9 folder to obtain the settings. The name of the A&T folder is the Alobally .ni(ue Identifier (A.ID of the A&$ that you created. It is identical to the A.ID that Active Directory uses to identify the A&$ in the A&'. The path to the A&T on a domain controller is systemroot#E#0$9sysvol. Na$e a )e1 8e"e)it o) ! i"g GPMC' Microsoft released the Aroup &olicy Management 'onsole (A&M' years ago! which is an ama8ing innovation in Aroup &olicy management. The tool provides control over Aroup &olicy in the following mannerC 3asy administration of all A&$s across the entire Active Directory Borest 0iew of all A&$s in one single list Reporting of A&$ settings! security! filters! delegation! etc. 'ontrol of A&$ inheritance with =loc) Inheritance! 3nforce! and #ecurity Biltering Delegation model =ac)up and restore of A&$s Migration of A&$s across different domains and forests /ith all of these benefits! there are still negatives in using the A&M' alone. Aranted! the A&M' is needed and should be used by everyone for what it is ideal for. 4owever! it does fall a bit short when you want to protect the A&$s from the followingC Role based delegation of A&$ management =eing edited in production! potentially causing damage to des)tops and servers Borgetting to bac) up a A&$ after it has been modified 'hange management of each modification to every A&$ W(at are t(e GPC a"d t(e GPT? W(ere ca" I )i"d t(e$? A&$s store group policy settings in two locationsC a Aroup &olicy container (A&' (preferred and a Aroup &olicy template (A&T . The A&' is an Active Directory ob1ect that stores version information! status information! and other policy information (for e6ample! application ob1ects .

The A&T is used for file%based data and stores software policy! script! and deployment information. The A&T is located on the system volume folder of the domain controller. A A&$ can be associated with one or more Active Directory containers! such as a site! domain! or organi8ational unit. Multiple containers can be associated with the same A&$! and a single container can have more than one associated A&$. W(at are GPO %i"7 ? W(at #ecia% t(i"g ca" I do to t(e$? To apply the settings of a A&$ to the users and computers of a domain! site! or $.! you need to add a lin) to that A&$. Eou can add one or more A&$ lin)s to each domain! site! or $. by using A&M'. <eep in mind that creating and lin)ing A&$s is a sensitive privilege that should be delegated only to administrators who are trusted and understand Aroup &olicy. Ho1 ca" &o! deter$i"e 1(at GPO 1a a"d 1a "ot a##%ied )or a ! er? Na$e a )e1 1a& to do t(at' #imply use the Aroup &olicy Management 'onsole created by M# for that very purpose! allows you to run simulated policies on computers or users to determine what policies are enforced. 9in) in sources Na$e o$e GPO etti"g i" t(e co$#!ter a"d ! er #art ' Aroup &olicy $b1ect (A&$ computerH'omputer 'onfiguration! .serH.ser 'onfiguration2ame some A&$ settings in the computer and user parts. W(at are ad$i"i trative te$#%ate ? Administrative templates! (or .adm files ! enable administrators to control registry settings using Aroup &olicy. These settings appear under the Administrative Templates folder for both user configuration and computer configuration in the console tree of the Aroup &olicy $b1ect 3ditor! and in 4TM9 reports produced by A&M'. The .adm file is simply a template file (implemented as te6t file with an .adm e6tension that provides the friendly name for the setting and an e6planation. This template file is used to populate the user interface. The settings that are deployed to clients are contained in the registry.pol file inside the A&$. $n /indows P& and /indows #erver "II*! each registry setting contains a 7#upported on7 tag that indicates which operating system versions support that policy setting. If a setting is specified and deployed to a client operating system that does not support that setting! the settings are ignored. These .adm files are stored in two locations by defaultC inside A&$s! and in the UwindirUTinf folder on the local computer. W(atH t(e di))ere"ce 8et1ee" o)t1are #!8%i (i"g a"d a ig"i"g? &ublishing #oftware /hen you publish software to users! you provide them with the options of downloading and using it if they need it! or removing it if they no longer have a use for it. Assigning #oftware /hen you assign software! users must download and install the software. 3ven if they change computers! the tas) to download and install the software will follow

them. If the software is assigned to the computer! the software will download automatically on the user-s ne6t login. It cannot be installed by the user. W(at i Active Director& c(e$a? Active Directorya #chema is a Microsoft Management 'onsole (MM' snap%in that you can use to view and manage the Active Directory Domain #ervices (AD D# schema @ Active Directory 9ightweight Directory #ervices (AD 9D# schema ob1ects. The schema contains formal definitions of every ob1ect class that can be created in an Active Directory forest. The schema also contains formal definitions of every attribute that can or must e6ist in an Active Directory ob1ect. The Active Directory #chema snap%in includes two containersC the C%a e container and the Attri8!te container. These containers store the class and attribute definitions. These definitions ta)e the form of class#chema ob1ects! which you can view in the C%a e container! and attribute#chema ob1ects! which you can view in the Attri8!te container. W(at are t(e do$ai" )!"ctio"a% %eve% i" Wi"do1 Server ,>>-? Wi"do1 Server ,>>- Do$ai" F!"ctio"a% 0eve% /indows #erver "II* domain functional level is the highest level that can be specified for a domain. All domain controllers in the domain are running /indows #erver "II*. This basically means that /indows 2T , and /indows "III domain controllers are not supported these domains. $nce the domain level is set as /indows #erver "II* domain functional level! it cannot be lowered to any of the previous domain functional levels. All Active Directory domain features are availa'le in /indows #erver "II* domain functional levelC 9ocal and Alobal groups Distribution Aroups Distribution group nesting #ecurity group nesting universal Aroups Aroup conversion between #ecurity Aroups and Distribution Aroups Alobal 'atalog support #ID 4istory .p to :!III!III domain ob1ects are supported Renaming domain controllers .pdate logon timestamp .sers>'omputers container redirection 'onstrained delegation .ser password support on the Inet$rg&erson ob1ect How to check which domain function level is set for the domain :. $pen the Active Directory Domains And Trusts console ". Right%clic) the particular domain whose functional level you want verify! and select Raise Domain Bunctional 9evel from the shortcut menu. *. The Raise Domain Bunctional 9evel dialog bo6 opens ,. Eou can view the e6isting domain functional level for the domain in 'urrent domain functional level.

How to raise the domain functional level to the Windows 2000 native domain functional level or Windows Server 2003 domain functional level =efore you can raise the domain functional level to /indows #erver "II* domain functional level! each domain controller in the domain has to running /indows #erver "II*. To raise the domain functional level for a domain! :. $pen the Active Directory Domains And Trusts console ". Right%clic) the particular domain whose functional level you want to raise! and select Raise Domain Bunctional 9evel from the shortcut menu. *. The Raise Domain Bunctional 9evel dialog bo6 opens. ,. .se the #elect An Available Domain Bunctional 9evel list to choose the domain functional level for the domain. ;. 'lic) Raise +. 'lic) $< W(at are t(e )ore t )!"ctio"a% %eve% i" Wi"do1 Server ,>>-? Wi"do1 Server ,>>- Fore t F!"ctio"a% 0eve% All domain controllers in the forest have to be running /indows #erver "II* in order for the forest functional level to be raised to the /indows #erver "II* forest functional level. In the /indows #erver "II* forest functional level! all forest%wide Active Directory features are available! including the followingC Domain renaming Borest Trust Defunct schema ob1ects Dynamic au6iliary classes Application groups .niversal Aroup caching Application directory partitions Alobal 'atalog replication enhancements Installations from bac)ups The Active Directory (uota feature #I# for system access control lists (#A'9 Improved <nowledge 'onsistency 'hec)er (<'' replication algorithms 9in)ed value replication Inet$rg&erson ob1ect'lass 2TD#.DIT si8e reduction How to check which forest functional level is set for the forest :. $pen the Active Directory Domains And Trusts console ". Right%clic) Active Directory Domains and Trusts in the console tree! and select Raise Borest Bunctional 9evel from the shortcut menu. *. The Raise Borest Bunctional 9evel dialog bo6 opens ,. Eou can view the e6isting domain functional level for the domain in 'urrent forest functional level. How to raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2003 forest functional level 3ach domain controller in the forest has to be running /indows #erver "II* before you can change the forest functional level to /indows #erver "II*. /hen you raise the forest functional level! all domains in the forest will automatically have their domain functional level raised to /indows #erver "II*.

To raise the forest functional level for a forest! :. $pen the Active Directory Domains And Trusts console ". Right%clic) Active Directory Domains And Trusts in the console tree! and select Raise forest Bunctional 9evel from the shortcut menu. *. The Raise Domain Bunctional 9evel dialog bo6 opens ,. 'lic) Raise ;. 'lic) $< W(at i IPv9? I&v+ ((nternet "rotocol Version ) is also called I&ng ((nternet "rotocol ne*t generation and it is the newest version of the Internet &rotocol (I& reviewed in the I3TB standards committees to replace the current version of I&v, ((nternet "rotocol Version + . The official name of I&ng is I&v+! where I& stands for (nternet "rotocol and v+ stands for version ). I&v+ is designed to allow the Internet to grow steadily! both in terms of the number of hosts connected and the total amount of data traffic transmitted. I&v+ is an Internet &rotocol (I& for pac)et%switched internetwor)ing that specifies the format of pac)ets (also called datagrams and the addressing scheme across multiple I& networ)s. In comparing the two protocols I&v+ e6pands upon the addressing and routing capabilities of I&v, in a number of ways includingC In I&v+ the I& address si8e is increased from *" bits to :"L bits I&v+ supports a greater number of addressable nodes I&v+ provides more levels of addressing hierarchy I&v+ offers simpler auto%configuration of addresses Ipv+ also supports simplified header format The biggest benefit of I&v+ is that it will replace the I&v, *"%bit address scheme with a much longer :"L%bit address scheme. The I&v, *"%bit address scheme allows for a total of "b*" addresses while I&v+ allows for "b:"L total addresses. W(at i t(e )i%e t(atH re #o" i8%e )or 7ee# a%% Active Director& data8a e? The Active Directory Database is #tored in U#E#T3M R$$TUT2DT# folder. The file is called as ntds.dit. Along with this file there are other files also present in this folder. 9ist of files and use of those files are listed below :. ntds.dit C This is the main database file for active directory. ". edb.log C /hen a transaction performed to ad database! li)e writing some data first the data will be stored to this file. And after that it will be sent to database. #o the system performance will be depends on how this data from edb.log file will be written to ntds.dit *. res:.log C .sed as reserve space in the case when drive had low space. It is basically :IM= in si8e and creted when we run dcpromo. ,. res".log C #ame as res:.log. It is also :IM= in si8e and the purspose also same. ;. edb.ch) C This file records the transactions committed to ad database. During shutdown! shutdown statement is written to this file. If it is not found when the system rebooted! the ad database tries to chec) with edb.log for the updated information. 3db corruption or 3db active directory corruption is really serious. 4owever you can get this repaired by using edb repair tool.