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2/6/2014

Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

Present Perfect Tense


It is used to express an action which has just been happened or completed at the moment of speaking. Present + Perfect means completion of action in present, in other words action has just happened.

Hindi main Present Perfect Tense ki pehchaan Vakya kay ant main aaya hai gaya hai gayee hai liya hai chuka hai chuki hai chukay hai aadi ka prayog hota hai. Action jo abhi haal hi main ghata ho ya pura hua ho, Present perfect tense kay antargat aata hai. Present + Perfect - vartmaan + purn arthaat kriya ka vartmaan main purn hona, doosray shabdo main karya abhi haal hi main sampann hua hai.

Present Perfect Tense - Positive


Present Perfect Tense - Positive Type of Sentence Positive Rule

Subject + Has/Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)

In Present Perfect Tense, 'has/have' and 3rd form of Verb is used. 'Has' is used only when subject is third person-singular. In all other cases, 'Have' is used in Present Perfect Tense.

Present Perfect Tense main 'have/have' aur verb kee 3rd form ka prayog hota hai. 'Has' ka prayog third person-singular kay saath hota hai aur baaki sab kay saath 'have' ka prayog hota hai. Present Perfect Tense - Positive Person Ist person Ist Person -Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person -Singular 3rd Person -Plural Subject I We You He/She/It/Ram/Seema They/boys Mainay nayee car khareed lee hai. Has/Have + Verb (3rd Form) have bought have bought have bought has bought have bought Object a new car. a new car. a new car. a new car. a new car.
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http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html

2/6/2014

Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

Present Perfect Tense - Negative


Present Perfect Tense - Negative Type of Sentence Negative Rule

Subject + Has/Have + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)

In Negative sentence, 'Not' is added after helping verb-Has/Have and before '3rd form of Verb'.

Iskay Negative vakya main 'Not' ko helping verb-Has/Have kay baad aur verb kee third form sey pehlay lagatay hai. Present Perfect Tense - Negative Person Ist person Ist Person -Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person -Singular 3rd Person -Plural Subject I We You He/She/It/Ram/Seema They/boys Usnay mera kaam khatam nahi kiya hai. Has/Have + Not + Verb(3rd Form) have not finished have not finished have not finished has not finished have not finished Subject my work. my work. my work. my work. my work.

Present Perfect Tense - Interrogative And Interrogative & Negative


Present Perfect Tense - Interrogative And Interrogative & Negative Type of Sentence Rule
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http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html

2/6/2014

Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

Interrogative Interrogative & Negative

Has/Have + Subject + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?) Has/Have + Subject + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?)

Present Perfect Interrogative sentence starts with 'Has/Have'. Question Mark (?) is affixed at the end of sentence in place of Full Stop (.). In Interrogative and Negative Sentence, 'not' is added just before 'verb(3rd Form)'

Present Perfect Interrogative vakya 'Has/Have' sey shuru hota hai. Negative vakyo main 'verb (3rd form)' sey pehlay 'not' lagatay hai. Vakya kay ant main full stop (.) kay sthan par prashnavachak chinh (?) lagaya jata hai. Present Perfect Tense - Interrogative Person Ist person Ist Person -Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person -Singular 3rd Person -Plural Has/Have Have Have Have Has Have Subject I we you he/she/it/Ram they/boys Kya vaha subah so chuki hai? Verb (3st form) slept slept slept slept slept Object in the morning? in the morning? in the morning? in the morning? in the morning?

Present Perfect Tense - Interrogative & Negative Person Ist person Ist Person -Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person -Singular 3rd Person -Plural Has/Have Have Have Have Has Have Subject I we you he/she/it/Ram they/boys

Kya tumnay usay fatkaar nahi lagayee hai? Not + Verb (3rd form) not rebuked not rebuked not rebuked not rebuked not rebuked Object him? him? him? him? him?

http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html

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2/6/2014

Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

In Interrogative & Negative sentences, 'Not' is written after Subject but before Verb i.e. Have I not informed you earlier?. However, when we are to write in short form, we can write like this - Haven't I informed you earlier?

Iskay Nakaratmak aur Prashanvachak vakyo main, 'Not' ka prayog subject kay baad parantu verb sey pehlay aata hai jaisay - Has he not gone to school? Jab hum short form main likhtay hai to is prakaar bhi likh saktay hai - Hasn't he gone to school?.
Characteristic of this tense is that work has already been completed but we feel impact of that in present time or we say something about completed work e.g. He has taken his share.

Is Tense ki visheshta yaha hai ki ismay karya to purn ho chuka hota hai lekin us karya ka prabhav vartmaan main mehsoos kartay hai ya uskay sambandh main kuchh kehtay hai - jaisay - Vaha match jeet chuka hai (isliye ab vaha khush hai).
The exact time when the action happened, is not given in the sentence. If time is given in the sentence, then it will not remain Present Perfect Tense and it will become Past Indefinite Tense e.g. I have taken my meal - Present Perfect Tense. After mentioning time 'at 3pm' if we write 'I have taken my meal at 3pm' is incorrect. When time comes in the sentence it becomes Past Indefinite and it will be written as - I took my meal at 3pm (we shall learn later about Past Indefinite Tense)

Is Tense kay vakyo main karya ghatit honay ka samay nahi diya hota hai. Agar vakya main samay diya ho, to vaha Present Perfect Tense nahi rehta bulki vaha Past Indefinite ban jaata hai jaisay - Mainay khana kha liya hai - Present Perfect Tense hai. Ismay samay jodnay kay baad ' Mainay teen bajay khana kha liya hai' - vakya Past Indefinite ban gaya (iskay baaray main aagay padhengay)
Adverbs of Past Time e.g. last night/year/month/week, ago, short while ago, yesterday, day before yesterday does not come in Present Perfect Tense. Certain indicator words may come in between sentence e.g. "just, yet, so far, upto now, recently, etc" which shows that it is past indefinite, but they are present perfect tense. In present perfect tense, use of continuous time may also come means some work started in past and continues upto present like for few days, for ten days, since Wednesday, since 2011. In such cases, for is used for uncertain period and since is used for certain period. Present Perfect Tense is used for an action started in past and still continuing like - Mandeep has worked in our factory for five years. In this example, Mandeep is still working in the factory. If now Mandeep is not working, then correct sentence would be - Mandeep worked in our factory for five years. (means now he is not working in the factory) In conversation, for past action, normally Present Perfect Tense is used i.e. Where have you been? I have been to Lotus Temple.

http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html

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Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

Past Time kay adverb e.g. Pichhli(pichhlay) raat/saal/mahinay/saptah, pehlay, kal, parso (last night/year/month/week, ago, short while ago, yesterday, day before yesterday) Present Perfect Tense main nahi aatay hai. Vakya main kuch shabd abhi, ab tak, tub se, tab tak" ka prayog hota hai. Dekhnay main past indefinite kay vakya lagtay hai, kintu vaha present perfect kay vakya hotay hai jaisay vaha abhi tak nahi aaya. Bhootkaal main shuru hui kriya abhi bhi shuru hai - isko vyakt karnay kay liye bhi Present Perfect Tense ka prayog hota hai. Jaisay -Mandeep ko hamari factory main kaam kartay huay 5 saal ho gaye hai. Iska matlab vah abhi bhi kaam kar raha hai. Agar vaha ab kaam nahi karta to Present Perfect Tense ka prayog nahi hoga aur vakya banega - Mandeep nay hamari factory main 5 saal kaam kiya (ab nahi karta hai). Present perfect tense kay vakyo main lagataar samay ka prayog aa sakta hai. Yaani koi karya bhootkaal sey shuru hokar vartmaan tak hota rahey jaisay kuch dino sey, dus din sey, budhwar sey, 2011 sey. Aisey cases main, for ka prayog anischit samay kay liye kiya jata hai aur since ka prayog nischit samay kay liye prayog kiya jata hai. Kisi past action kay liye baatcheet main normally Present Perfect tense istemaal kiya jaata hai - Tum kaha gaye thay? Main Lotus Temple gaya tha. Yaha vakya jab saamnay wala vyakti abhi hokar hee aaya tha tab Present Perfect Tense main ayega. Agar saamnay wala vyakti past main kuchh ghanto ya dino pehlay hokar aaya ho tab Present Perfect Tense ka prayog nahi hoga. Sentence I have just come. Has he not returned your money as yet? He has not completed the job so far. Doctor has not reached hospital as yet. I have not bathed since Monday. She has not met me for last two months.
http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html 5/6

Vakya Main bus abhi aaya hoon. Kya usnay tumhara paisa abhi tak vapas nahi kiya? Usnay ab tak kaam pura nahi kiya hai. Doctor abhi tak hospital nahi pahuncha hai. Main Somvaar sey nahi nahaya hoon.

2/6/2014

Present Perfect tense* Usage of Rules* Vartman Purn Kaal ka niyam aur prayog

Vaha mujhay do mahinay sey nahi mili hai. We have lived in this city for one year. Have you known me since 2006? Rohit has not gone to office since Wednesday. She has worked in our office for few months. Have I cheated him? He has not taken all precautions. Hum is shahar main ek varsh rah chukay hai. Kya tum mujhay 2006 sey jan gaye ho. Rohit Budhvaar sey office nahi gaya hai. Vaha kuchh mahinay hamaray office main kaam kar chuki hai. Kya mainay usay dhokha diya hai? Usnay puri savdhaani nahi barti hai.

Has any judge given sentence to death to any rapist? Kya kisi judge nay kisi balaatkari ko maut ki sajaa sunaayee hai? Children have now disclosed all the old secrets of their childhood. She has come to see only me & my wife. The king has distributed all his wealth among poor people. Has the king now become a poor man? Bachho nay ab apnay bachpan kay puranay saaray raaj khol diye hai. Vaha kewal mujhay aur meri patni sey milnay aayee hai. Raja nay apna saara dhan garibo main baant diya hai. Kya ab Raja ek gareeb aadmi ban gaya hai?

Master knowledge of Tense by viewing a sentence in all Tenses with their Rule and Brief explanations in Hindi & English in VIEW A SENTENCE IN ANY TYPE OF TENSE

http://www.englishkitab.com/Essential_Grammar/Tenses/Present_Perfect_Tense.html

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