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CONSULTATION DRAFT 1.

1
(circulated to Site Team)

LUDGERSHALL CASTLE CONSERVATION STATEMENT

AMANDA CHADBURN
INSPECTOR OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS ENGLISH HERITAGE

March 2002

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. History descri!tion and !"asin# 3. Si#ni%icance &. O'ners"i! and le#al status (. Current situation *. +escri!tion o% land !arcels $. ,ecent 'or- and studies ). O!!ortunities and issues .. /olicies xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx1(-1$ 3-x xxxxxx-$ xxxxxx13-1& xxxxxx xxxxxx)-12

10. Summary 1c-no'led#ements 2urt"er readin# 1!!endices Contents3 4a!s xxxxxx xxxxxx1) xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx1.-2$

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Backgro !"

T"is Conser5ation Statement "as 6een !re!ared 6y En#lis" Herita#e !artly as a res!onse to an underta-in# to t"e +e!artment o% Culture 4edia and S!ort to !roduce conser5ation !lans or statements %or all its !ro!erties 6y 1!ril 2002. T"e Statement "as also 6een !roduced 6ecause o% t"e need to esta6lis" t"e si#ni%icance o% 7ud#ers"all Castle in ad5ance o% re!air 'or- . It is intended to #uide t"e %uture maintenance and de5elo!ment o% t"e site. It s"ould 6e em!"asised t"at t"is is 5ery muc" a conser5ation statement not a %ull !lan. Ot"er 'or- commitments "a5e !re5ented t"e aut"or %rom s!endin# as muc" time on t"is statement as t"e site deser5es. S"ould any lar#e scale !ro!osals arise '"ic" 'ould a%%ect t"e castle t"en a %ull Conser5ation /lan 'ill certainly 6e needed. T"is statement sim!ly !resents t"e main conser5ation needs o% t"e monument. It does not ta-e into account '"at resources are a5aila6le to !ut t"e recommendations and !olicies into !lace8 t"ese are decisions %or mana#ement to ma-e. 1.2 Th# $o! $#!%

7ud#ers"all Castle com!rises t"e remains o% a medie5al royal castle and "untin# lod#e and is situated in east 9ilts"ire on t"e ed#e o% t"e medie5al "untin# %orests o% C"ute and Sa5erna-e. It com!rises t'o con:oined eart"'or- enclosures lyin# on t"e nort" side o% t"e current 7ud#ers"all to'n 6ot" 'it" lar#e dou6le 6an-s and ditc"es. 9it"in t"e nort"ern enclosure stand t"e %oundations o% medie5al 6uildin#s exca5ated 6et'een 1.*&-$2 and t"e remains o% a lar#e t"ree-storied to'er '"ic" "as sur5i5ed since t"e medie5al !eriod. T"e sout"ern enclosure is li-ely to re!resent t"e remains o% an Iron 1#e rin#'or- or "ill%ort '"ic" 'as reused '"en t"e castle 'as %ounded. 1 %urt"er smaller eart"'or- runs %rom t"e sout"-east !art o% t"e monument to'ards t"e to'n and "as 6een inter!reted as t"e remains o% a %urt"er enclosure o% t"e castle. T"e castle 'as in disre!air and ruinous 6y t"e 1(&0s and a modern %arm no' exists 'it"in t"e monument. 1.& Th# #'ca(a%)o!*

In t"e early 1.*0s t"e +e!artment o% t"e En5ironment 6e#an to clear some %arm 6uildin#s %rom !arts o% t"e castle and exca5ations 'ere concei5ed as a met"od o% tryin# to ma-e t"e castle intelli#i6le to t"e !u6lic. T"ere "ad 6een no !re5ious exca5ations. T"e !ro:ect 'as set 'it"in a 'ider researc" %rame'or- 6y t"e ,oyal 1rc"aeolo#ical Institute '"ic" "ad 6een set u! to ex!lore t"e ori#in and de5elo!ment o% t"e En#lis" castle. Exca5ations 'ere underta-en !rinci!ally as a Sout"am!ton ;ni5ersity exca5ation s!onsored 6y t"e Ins!ectorate o% 1ncient 4onuments o% t"e +e!artment o% t"e En5ironment. Exca5ations 'ere underta-en 6et'een 1.*&-$2 under t"e direction o% /eter 1ddyman. 1rc"aeolo#ists unco5ered a series o% 6uildin#s datin# %rom t"e C12-C1& includin# !art o% Henry III<s =reat Hall o% 12&& '"ic" %ormed !art o% t"e royal >uarters o%

successi5e -in#s and >ueens in t"e nort"ern o% t"e t'o 7ud#ers"all enclosures. 1 lime-iln 6read o5en and ot"er ser5ice structures 'ere exca5ated in t"e sout"ern enclosure. 1 si#ni%icant collection o% %inds 'ere exca5ated re5ealin# t"e la5is" li%estyles and 'ealt" o% t"e occu!ants and t"e resources s!ent in constructin# and maintainin# it. 1.+ Th# co!%#$,orar- *#%%)!g

T"e modern to'n o% 7ud#ers"all lies on o!en c"al-land on t"e eastern ed#e o% t"e Salis6ury /lain Trainin# 1rea. T"e castle is located on t"e nort" o% t"e to'n at S; 2*&(13 and alt"ou#" t"e #round rises sli#"tly "ere t"ere are no o65ious ad5anta#es o% t"e site to ex!lain its location. /er"a!s t"is %act #i5es more credence to t"e !ro!osal t"at t"e sout" enclosure is !re"istoric as a !re-existin# rin#'or- or "ill%ort 'ould !ro5ide an o65ious c"oice o% location %or a medie5al castle. E5erson (in Ellis 2000 10&-11&) sets out t"e de5elo!ment o% t"e castle in relation to t"e to'n '"ic" ex!lains its location on t"e nort"ern side o% t"e to'n 6et'een t'o medie5al !ar-s3 Sout" /ar- and Nort" /ar-. T"e Salis6ury /lain Trainin# 1rea exists immediately to t"e east and nort" o% t"e =uardians"i! site alt"ou#" t"eir land "ere is ?Sc"edule 1@ land not currently used %or military trainin# 6ut %armland '"ic" acts as a 6u%%er 6et'een t"e military trainin# areas and t"e ci5ilian !o!ulation. T"e small to'n o% 7ud#ers"all exists to t"e sout" o% t"e site. 1.. S $$ar- o/ S)g!)/)ca!c#

4ore o% a "untin# lod#e t"an a %ortress 7ud#ers"all is -no'n to "a5e 6een in royal "ands 6y t"e early t'el%t" century and to "a5e 6een a %a5ourite residence o% Henry III (rei#ned 121*-12$2). It 'as in royal o'ners"i! %or many years 6ut #radually %ell out o% %a5our and 'as ruinous 6y t"e 1(&0s '"en 5isited 6y Ao"n 7eland. T"e site includes t"e remains o% a rare royal C13 residence includin# a royal "all '"ic" a!!ears to "a5e 6een im!ortant in t"e arc"itectural transition %rom !late to 6ar tracery in 'indo's. T"e site also includes t"e remains o% im!ortant and 'ell-!reser5ed eart"'or-s some o% '"ic" are medie5al and some '"ic" are li-ely to date to t"e Iron 1#e !eriod . T"ese are t"ere%ore im!ortant 6ot" in t"eir o'n ri#"t and %or t"e study o% t"e reuse o% !re"istoric eart"'or-s in t"e medie5al !eriod a !"enomenon '"ic" a!!ears es!ecially !re5alent in 9ilts"ire. 2.0 2.1 HISTOR01 DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND PHASING H)*%or)ca2 *o rc#*

T"e %irst documentary re%erence '"ic" !ro6a6ly re%ers to this 7ud#ers"all rat"er t"an ot"ers in En#land is dated 101( '"en a land"oldin# at 7ud#ers"all o% t"ree "ides

&

!assed %rom its t"en o'ner 1et"elin# 1et"elstan to =od'ine t"e +ri5eller. It is !ossi6le t"ere%ore t"at some Saxon acti5ity mi#"t 6e unco5ered at some sta#e in t"e castle (!er"a!s in or around t"e sout"ern enclosure) alt"ou#" t"ere is no arc"aeolo#ical e5idence as yet to su!!ort t"is. T"e %irst %orti%ied residence at t"e castle 'as !ro6a6ly t"at o% Ed'ard t"e S"erri%% also -no'n as Ed'ard o% Salis6ury '"o "eld it at t"e time o% +omesday in 10)* and t"ere is some arc"aeolo#ical e5idence to su!!ort a structure o% t"is date in t"e nort"ern enclosure. +ocumentary e5idence s"o's t"at t"e castle 'as %irst 6ecame Cro'n !ro!erty around 1100 (Henry I 'as datin# documents ?at 7ort#arsal@ in 1103) and it 'as enlar#ed and maintained 6y successi5e monarc"s and o'ners o5er t"e next 300 years. T"e "istory o% t"e 6uildin#s and landsca!e are 'ell documented and muc" o% t"e e5idence is !u6lis"ed 6y 1ddyman and Bi#"tly (in Ellis 2000 11-1)) to '"ic" t"e reader is re%erred. T"e reader is also re%erred to t'o additional texts (Ste5enson 1..28 CCH 9ilts"ire 1..( 11.-3() '"ic" co5er t"e same su6:ect. 2i#ure DDD re!roduced "ere %rom Ellis 2000 2&& 2i#ure 1$ sets t"e main "istoric e5ents a#ainst t"e arc"aeolo#ical e5idence.

Dxxxxxxxxxxxxx %i# 1$

2.2.

D#%a)2#" "#*cr),%)o! 2.2.1 Or)g)!*

2ield'or- 6y t"e ,CH4E in 1..) (Ero'n and Eo'den 1.))8 Ellis 2000) esta6lis"ed t"e !ossi6ility t"at t"e sout"ern enclosure 'as ori#inally a !re"istoric "ill%ort or rin#'or- to '"ic" t"e medie5al nort"ern enclosure 'as added t"e t'o enclosures t"en %ormin# 6aileys o% t"e medie5al castle o% 7ud#ers"all. /re5iously 1ddyman "ad considered t"at t"e eart"'or-s 'ere o% t"e same date. It is 5ery interestin# to note in t"is re#ard t"at t"e nearest medie5al castles at Old Sarum and 4arl6orou#" and also sited on !re"istoric eart"'or-s (in an Iron 1#e "ill%ort and utilisin# '"at is almost certainly a lar#e Neolit"ic mound res!ecti5ely8 t"e near6y royal medie5al site o% Clarendon /alace too may "a5e utilised !re-existin# eart"'or-s). Some ,omano-Eritis" !ottery 'as %ound durin# t"e exca5ations 6y 1ddyman (Ellis 2000 !a#eDDDD) indicatin# some %orm o% acti5ity in t"e area at t"at time. T"ere is no arc"aeolo#ical e5idence to su!!ort Saxon acti5ity at t"e Castle alt"ou#" t"ere is some documentary e5idence %rom t"is !eriod relatin# to t"e land "oldin# o% 7ud#ers"all. 2.2.2 Th# M#")#(a2 Ca*%2#

T"e #rass-#ro'n de%ences o% 7ud#ers"all Castle #i5e little clue to t"eir %ormer a!!earance. Exca5ation in t"e 1.*0s s"o'ed t"at today<s eart" ram!arts are in %act t"e slum!ed remains o% massi5e tim6er caissons '"ic" 'ere !ac-ed ti#"t 'it" eart" to !ro5ide solidity. T"e 5ertical %ace-tim6ers may e5en "a5e 6een rendered o5er and lime'as"ed to create t"e illusion o% stone'or-. 1 modern 'or-in# %arm occu!ies t"e middle o% t"e castle 6ut t"e ori#inal outline - 'it" inner and outer courtyards arran#ed in a ?%i#ure o% ei#"t@ !lan can clearly 6e seen. T"rou#"out t"e castle<s "istory many o% its 6uildin#s 'ere made o% tim6er ta-en %rom t"e near6y "untin# %orest o% Sa5erna-e. Only t"ose re6uilt in stone sur5i5e today and e5en t"ese "a5e 6een ro66ed o% t"eir ori#inal %acin#s lea5in# a %lint-s!ec-led as!ect >uite di%%erent %rom t"eir ori#inal smoot"%ronted a!!earance. T"e castle may "a5e 6een %irst 6uilt durin# t"e early Norman !eriod alt"ou#" t"ere is de6ate as to exactly '"en t"e nort"ern enclosure 'as added to t"e !re"istoric eart"'or-s. One model su##ests t"is 'as early in t"e !ostCon>uest !eriod8 anot"er t"at t"ey 'ere constructed as a !art o% a desi#ned landsca!e c.11$(-1200 (E5erson in Ellis 2000 11(). T"e castle 'as once a !lace o% clear im!ortance. 1t some time durin# t"e 5ery early 12t" Century it castle came into t"e "ands o% t"e Cro'n. It 'as later ado!ted 6y Bin# Ao"n (rei#ned11..-121*) as a use%ul sto!!in# !oint on t"e

road to t"e 'est country. Ao"n !ro6a6ly !ro5ided 7ud#ers"all 'it" t"e stron# to'er '"ose remains are t"e most cons!icuous %eature o% t"e site today. Ao"n<s son Henry III (rei#ned 121*-$2) 'as an ent"usiastic 6uilder. His most %amous !ro:ect 'as t"e re-6uildin# o% 9estminster 166ey 6ut t"e royal accounts are %ull o% !ayments %or im!ro5ements to "is many residences includin# 7ud#ers"all. In many o% Henry<s 6uildin#s t"e 'alls 'ere !ainted 'it" colour%ul scenes %rom t"e Ei6le t"e %loors 'ere co5ered 'it" "eraldic tiles and t"e c"a!els 'ere %urnis"ed 'it" ric" "an#in#s and ma#ni%icently decorated altars. Henry<s 6uildin#s at 7ud#ers"all 'ould "a5e 6een similarly %urnis"ed. 1dditional rooms 'ere !ro5ided %or HenryFs ex!andin# "ouse"old. Bin# Ao"nFs =reat To'er 6ecame a !ri5ate c"am6er (solar) lin-ed 6y a co5ered 'ay to an ad:oinin# =reat Hall 'it" a lar#e central "eart" and containin# a 'all !aintin# o% +i5es and 7aGarus situated o!!osite t"e royal dias commissioned in 12&*. Else'"ere documents su##est t"ere 'as once a #ate'ay to'er to#et"er 'it" ot"er accommodation and ser5ice areas. In addition to its %unction as a royal residence a "untin# castle and an estate "ead>uarters 7ud#ers"all occasionally acted as a !rison. 1%ter t"e C12 no attem!t seems to "a5e 6een made to add to t"e castleFs main de%ences since 7ud#ers"all 'as more o% a !alatial "untin# lod#e t"an a %ortress. Ho'e5er t"ere is documentary e5idence %or emer#ency 6astions at eit"er or 6ot" castles o% 4arl6orou#" and 7ud#ers"all '"ic" 'ere !ro6a6ly emer#ency eart"'or-s t"ro'n u! 6et'een 12*3-& durin# t"e Earons 9ar. Traces o% t"ese may exist outside t"e currently sc"eduled area. 1dditionally E5erson ar#ued stron#ly (Ellis 2000 112-3) t"at in t"e mid-C1& a ne' area ta-en %rom t"e to'n 'as enclosed %or use 6y t"e castle8 some o% t"ese ne' de%ences can still 6e seen on t"e sout"-east side o% t"e castle runnin# to'ards t"e to'n. 7ater -in#s %a5oured Sa5erna-e less and 7ud#ers"all #radually %ell out o% use. Ey t"e 1*t" Century it 'as totally ruined and unli-e many castles t"ere 'as to 6e no %inal moment o% #lory in t"e En#lis" Ci5il 9ar. It is li-ely t"at t"e ?!ar-er@ or o%%icer '"o "eld t"e 6uildin#s on 6e"al% o% t"e Cro'n "ad al'ays li5ed in t"e #ate"ouse and t"at t"ese 6uildin#s 'ere re6uilt t"rou#" time. T"e current Castle 2arm '"ic" 'as in !lace 6y t"e late C1) is li-ely to 6e 6uilt on t"e site o% t"e #ate"ouse 6ut t"e royal 6uildin#s 'ere not used and t"ere%ore %ell into total disre!air. T"e %oundations o% t"e exca5ated medie5al masonry 6uildin#s as 'ell as t"e more su6stantial remains o% t"e =reat To'er are 5isi6le %or 5isitors to 5ie' today and t"e ma:ority o% t"e eart"'or-s are also accessi6le. 2.2.& Th# h)*%or)c *#%%)!g

1 lon# narro' !ar- existed to t"e nort" su##estin# t"at one %unction o% t"e medie5al castle 6uildin#s 'as to ena6le acti5ities and sta#ed e5ents to 6e

5ie'ed on t"e le5el #round o% Nort" /ar-. Ey contrast t"e Sout" /ar- a!!ears to "a5e 6een a more ty!ical detac"ed "untin# !ar-. T"e near6y medie5al "untin# %orests o% C"ute and Sa5erna-e alon# 'it" t"e muc" nearer Sout" and Nort" /ar-s !ro5ide t"e immediate settin# %or t"e Castle and underline t"e im!ortance o% "untin# as a leisure acti5ity %or t"e royal o'ners o% t"e Castle. 2.2.+ Th# #'ca(a%)o!* 134+562

T"ree areas 'ere exca5ated one in t"e nort"ern enclosure and t'o in t"e sout"ern. 1 6road se>uence o% e5ents 'as re5ealed '"ic" is %ully detailed in Ellis 2000 to '"ic" t"e reader is re%erred %or more in%ormation. 2i#ure 1.& (Ellis 2000) re!roduced "ere sets out t"e areas '"ic" 'ere exca5ated.

2.2..

Th# Gr#a% To7#r 8B )2")!g 119

T"is 6uildin# (sometimes re%erred to as t"e -ee!) 'as t"e only sur5i5in# a6o5e-#round masonry %rom t"e castle until t"e exca5ations in t"e 1.*0s. T"e ruined to'er "as 6een extensi5ely studied 6y +a5id Stoc-er (in Ellis 2000 )3-.1). He concludes t"at t"e =reat To'er may 'ell "a5e 6een constructed under t"e orders o% Bin# Ao"n c.1200-1210 on t"e %oundations o% earlier =reat To'ers. Ori#inally 1(m "i#" it re!resents a ruined exam!le H its sur5i5al is !oor H o% a small 6ut 'ell-detailed =reat To'er o% t"e later C12 or early C13 ori#inally 'it" stora#e on t"e #round %loor and t'o ma:or domestic c"am6ers on t"e %irst and second %loors. 1lt"ou#" secure its main %unction 'as not military8 rat"er it 'as to !ro5ide secure and "i#"->uality c"am6ers %or t"e royal o'ners at t"e %ar end o% t"e !ri5y c"am6er 6loc-. and to act as a status sym6ol %or t"e same. 2.2.4 H#!r- III:* Gr#a% Ha22 8B )2")!g 1+9

Henry III ordered t"e construction o% t"e =reat Hall in 4ay 12&& and it 'as com!leted late in 12&$ to re!lace an older one. 1#ain it "as 6een extensi5ely discussed 6y Stoc-er (in Ellis 2000 .1-.*). It 'as a care%ully desi#ned 6uildin# 'it" some "i#" >uality car5ed detail as 'ell as 6ein# ela6orately !ainted. Its scale %or t"is ty!e o% 6uildin# "o'e5er 'as small and intimate. T"e most stri-in# %eature 'as its unusual %ull-"ei#"t 'indo's '"ic" "a5e 6een com!letely reconstructed (on !a!er) 6ecause o% t"e extensi5e %ra#ments reco5ered durin# exca5ation. Ho'e5er t"ere 'ere %la's in its desi#n and alt"ou#" it sur5i5ed into t"e C1( it 'as e5entually demolis"ed to ma-e it sa%e "a5in# "ad a li%e o% around 200 years. Only !art o% t"e "all "as 6een exca5ated. T"e rest lies 6eneat" t"e #ardens o% Castle 2arm and it is li-ely t"at t"e 6uttery and !antry o% t"e "all are in t"is area as are t"e t'o #reat !osts ori#inally !ainted to resem6le mar6le '"ic" su!!orted t"e roo%. 2.2.6 Th# archa#o2og)ca2 arch)(#

1lt"ou#" most %inds and t"e arc"i5e is in +e5iGes 4useum some arc"itectural %ra#ments are alle#edly "eld 6y EH S9 ,e#ion and some %inds are lost. T"ere is a re%erence to some stone'or- 6ein# re6uried in a mar-ed %ilin# ca6inet on site 6y a ACE in t"e S9 sector exca5ation area (1rea 1) (Eeric 4orley "ando5er notes). 1 %ull study s"ould 6e made to ensure t"e location o% all %inds and t"e !a!er arc"i5e is -no'n. 2.& Pha*)!g a!" "a%)!g

T"e 6road de5elo!ment o% 7ud#ers"all can 6e %ound in Ellis 2000 (111-3 and 2&&(&) 'it" indi5idual elements o% t"e castle dated in detail 6ecause o% t"e exca5ations 6et'een 1.*&-$2. /a#es 111-& (ibid) !resent t"e 6road !"asin# and C"a!ter 3 (ibid) t"e detail o% t"e medie5al castle !"asin#. T"e !"asin# set out 6elo' di%%ers %rom t"at in Ellis as it co5ers all !eriods o% t"e castle<s de5elo!ment not :ust t"e medie5al and !ost-medie5al. T"ere are di%%iculties 'it" t"e datin# and !"asin# as !resented in Ellis. T"e !"asin# o% to'n and castle de5elo!ment di%%er (E5erson in Ellis 2000 111-3) 'it" ( 6road !"ases co5erin# t"e !eriod %rom ?6e%ore t"e C12 ?to ?1((0 and later@ %or t"e de5elo!ment o% t"e to'n and castle '"ereas t"e datin# o% t"e masonry remains %rom t"e castle is more detailed. 1not"er main !ro6lem 'it" t"e !"asin# as set out in Ellis is t"at t"e exca5ator "as assi#ned t"ree di%%erent date ran#es to "is !eriods in t"e t"ree areas exca5ated. T"is ma-es true com!arisons across t"e t"ree exca5ated areas im!ossi6le. 2or exam!le t"e ta6le 6elo' s"o's /eriod 2 'it" t"ree di%%erent date ran#es3 Sout"ern enclosure 1rea 1 /eriod 2 Sout"ern enclosure 1rea 2 /eriod 2 Nort"ern enclosure /eriod 2 1200-12(0 1200-12)0 113(-11&(

T"is ma-es t"e re!ort di%%icult to use in !laces and %or all t"ese reasons I "a5e t"ere%ore re5ised t"e 6road !"asin# as set out 6elo'. 2.&.1 S $$ar- o/ ,ha*)!g o/ a22 ,#r)o"*

Pha*# A; Pr#h)*%or)c T"e earliest surmised !"ase is t"e Iron 1#e '"en a 6i5allate rin#'or- or "ill%ort 'as 6uilt - !resuma6ly in t"e later Iron 1#e. Pha*# B; Sa'o! No arc"aeolo#ical e5idence 6ut some documentary e5idence %or a Saxon settlement "ere !er"a!s in t"e 5icinity o% t"e "ill%ort. Pha*# C; c.10445c.1100 1 c"a!el "ad 6een %ounded near t"e !re"istoric enclosure. /ossi6le early tim6er 6uildin#s in t"e nort"ern enclosure date to t"is !eriod as mi#"t t"e construction o% t"e nort"ern enclosure itsel% (Ellis !eriod 11 and 1E). T"ese may relate to an early military !"ase %or t"e castle. T"e site !assed to t"e Cro'n c.1100. Pha*# D; c.110051130 1 6orou#" 'as %ounded and a num6er o% residential stone 6uildin#s (includin# at least successi5e t'o =reat To'ers) a!!eared in t"e area o% t"e nort"ern enclosure.

10

Pha*# E; c.12005c.1&+0 Bin# Ao"n<s =reat To'er 'as 6uilt c.1200-10 on t"e site o% earlier ones and Bin# Henry III<s =reat Hall 'as 6uilt c.12&&-$. 1 5ariety o% stone-6uilt domestic and ot"er 6uildin#s 'ere constructed in t"e nort"ern enclosure and ot"er structures 'ere 6uilt in t"e sout" 6ailey includin# a lime -iln an o5en and a de' !ond. Eur#a#e !lots 'ere de5elo!ed around t"e c"urc" outside t"e castle. T"is !"ase is an alternati5e date %or t"e construction o% t"e nort"ern enclosure IEllis /eriod ( (c.1200-121*)J and !er"a!s re!resents t"e %loruit o% t"e site. Pha*# F; c.1&+<5c.1..0 1 ne' enclosure 'as laid out o5er existin# !arts o% t"e to'n to t"e sout" '"ic" 6ecame !art o% t"e castle. /resuma6ly "ouses and #ardens 6elon#in# to %ormer to'ns%ol- 'ere le5elled. 9it"in t"e older !arts o% t"e castle some re6uildin# 'or- too- !lace and some minor ne' 6uildin#s 'ere constructed. In t"e later !art o% t"is !"ase a#ricultural and industrial use started in t"e %ormer royal 6uildin#s. Pha*# G; c.1..0 a!" 2a%#r Some castle 6uildin#s 'ere acti5ely destroyed8 t"e castle "ad 6y no' lost its %a5oured royal status and t"e 6uildin#s 'ere ruinous. T"e site came into use as a #entleman<s residence and %arm. T"e to'n 'as a#ain reor#anised and t"e ne' castle enclosure 'as 6uilt o5er and 6ecame !art o% t"e to'n once more. 2.&.2 D#%a)2#" ,ha*)!g )! %h# !or%h#r! #!c2o* r#

T"is is set out in Ta6le 1 (Ellis 2000 *). 2.&.& D#%a)2#" ,ha*)!g )! %h# *o %h#r! #!c2o* r#

T"is is set out in Ta6le 2 (Ellis 2000 *). &.0 &.1 SIGNIFICANCE Mo! $#!%

T"e monument a!!ears to "a5e ori#inated as an Iron 1#e "ill%ort. 1lt"ou#" "ill%ort interiors 5ary #reatly some containin# 5ast >uantities o% arc"aeolo#ical remains and ot"ers 6ein# a!!arently nearly em!ty t"ere is at least t"e !otential to unco5er some remains datin# to t"is !eriod. Exca5ations "a5e re5ealed muc" a6out t"e met"ods o% eart" and tim6er %orti%ication in t"e C12 '"ic" 'ere not at all 'ell-understood 6e%ore t"e exca5ations.

11

T"e date o% t"e nort"ern enclosure is dis!uted 6ut it could %orm !art o% a desi#ned landsca!e o% t"e C12 or C13. &.2 B )2")!g*

T"ere are %e' sur5i5in# C13 royal "ouses and t"e remains o% t"e residence at 7ud#ers"all alt"ou#" modest 6y royal standards t"ere%ore "a5e a clear im!ortance. T"e exca5ations in t"e nort"ern enclosure 'ere s!eci%ically sited on t"e 6uildin#s '"ic" %unctioned as t"e royal >uarters at least %rom t"e later C12. Since t"ese exca5ations are lar#ely com!lete t"ey !ro5ide a detailed account o% t"e most im!ortant !art o% t"e nort"ern enclosure '"ic" em!"asises t"e scale and so!"istication o% 6uildin#s at t"e castle. T"ese com!are on scale and #randeur 'it" ot"er royal sites suc" as Clarendon /alace. 1n im!ortant o6ser5ation to come %rom t"e exca5ations relates to t"at si#ni%icant royal 6uildin# Henry III<s =reat Hall (Euildin# 1&). T"is relates to t"e %ra#ments o% t"e %ull "ei#"t 'indo's '"ic" sur5i5ed in su%%icient >uantities %or t"e 'indo's to 6e %ully reconstructed. It is clear t"at t"e desi#ner o% t"e 7ud#ers"all 'indo's H !er"a!s Elias de +ere"am H made a critical ste! %rom !late- to 6ar-tracery '"en "e desi#ned t"em. 2or exam!le some 9inc"ester Castle 'indo's desi#ned in t"e 1220s em!loy a sin#le !ierced tym!anum '"ereas t"e 7ud#ers"all 'indo's '"ic" 'ere !ro6a6ly desi#ned in 12&& em!loy structurally distinct and indi5idually moulded mem6ers. T"is is si#ni%icant as con5ention "as it t"at 6ar-tracery 'as 6rou#"t %rom 2rance to En#land a%ter 12&( to 6e used %irst at 9estminster 166ey. Ho'e5er t"ere are no' t'o sites in sout"ern En#land (Salis6ury Cat"edral and 7ud#ers"all Castle) '"ere t"is de5elo!ment a!!ears to "a5e ta-en !lace 6e%ore t"e construction o% t"e 9estminster 166ey 'indo's. T"is !laces 7ud#ers"all as an im!ortant site in t"e de5elo!ment o% arc"itectural "istory in En#land. 2urt"er discussion on t"is issue 6y Stoc-er can 6e %ound in Ellis 2000 .(-*. T"e 6uildin#s o% Henry III in !articular demonstrate t"at t"e castle must "a5e a!!eared as an im!ortant and im!osin# arc"itectural com!lex 6et'een t"e little medie5al to'n o% 7ud#ers"all and t"e "untin# #rounds and royal !ar- to t"e nort" at least in t"e C13. Henry III too- a -een !ersonal interest in t"e 6uildin# o% 7ud#ers"all and 5isited it re#ularly (5isitin# t"e castle on 21 documented occasions alone). One can deduce t"at t"e castle 'as a %a5oured royal "untin# lod#e and residence. T"e small siGe o% its C13 =reat Hall ?em!"asiGes its intimacy and its c"aracter as a retreat@ (Stoc-er in Ellis 2000 .() '"ic" may also %it is 'it" its %a5oured and a!!arently 'elcomin# atmos!"ere to Henry III. T"e 6uildin#s are also si#ni%icant 6ecause t"ey are exce!tionally 'ell documented es!ecially in t"e C13-C1&. 1lt"ou#" t"e C12 documentation is less %ull t"ere is still enou#" to s"o' it 'as re#arded as an exce!tional residence. 1dditionally its 6uildin# accounts "a5e !ro5ided muc" in%ormation a6out medie5al 6uildin# !ractice #enerally (SalGman 1.(2).

12

On occasion e5ents o% national "istorical im!ortance too- !lace at t"e castle. 2or exam!le durin# t"e 1narc"y Ao"n t"e 4ars"all (2itG=il6ert) and Em!ress 4atilda a6andoned 7ud#ers"all durin# t"eir %li#"t o% 11&1. 9e also -no' t"at Ao"n 2itG=il6ert "as !re5iously %orti%ied 7ud#ers"all in 113) (Ste5enson 1..( 12&) on 6e"al% o% t"e Em!ress. 1dditionally 7ud#ers"all !layed some !art in t"e Earon<s 9ar (12*3-*$) 6et'een Henry III and t"e re6el 6arons under Simon de 4ont%ort8 t"ere 'as a raid on t"e castle around +ecem6er 12*3 '"en K30 'as seiGed and a%ter "is de%eat at t"e Eattle o% 7e'es on 4ay 1&t" 12*& Henry 'as as-ed to "and o5er t"e castles and 6astions at 7ud#ers"all and 4arl6orou#". 7ater t"is 'as amended a%ter a !eace settlement 'as reac"ed and 7ud#ers"all !assed to Henry<s son t"e %uture Ed'ard I in +ecem6er 12*&. It is li-ely t"at t"e ,oyal Court 'ould "a5e 5isited 7ud#ers"all on a re#ular 6asis 6ut t"at durin# t"e rest o% t"e time t"e 6uildin#s 'ere -e!t u! and !er"a!s in"a6ited 6y a muc" smaller num6er o% retainers. &.& S#%%)!g

E5erson (in Ellis 2000 11() considers t"at t"e "istoric settlin# o% t"e Castle 'as o% t"e "i#"est im!ortance and t"at t"e 5ery %unction o% t"e Castle could 6e deduced 6y its relations"i! to its surroundin# desi#ned landsca!e (alt"ou#" t"is is assumin# t"at t"e nort"ern enclosure 'as 6uilt in t"e C12 and 'as not immediately !ost-Con>uest and military). +.0 O=NERSHIP AND LEGAL STATUS +.1 Th# *)%# c rr#!%2- )! %h# charg# o/ E!g2)*h H#r)%ag#

7ud#ers"all Castle "ad !assed %rom t"e Cro'n into !ri5ate "ands 6y t"e C1*. In 1).$ t"e estate 'as 6ou#"t 6y t"e 9ar O%%ice '"o 'ere at t"at time ma-in# lar#e !urc"ases in t"is area in order to %orm t"e military trainin# area no' -no'n as t"e Salis6ury /lain Trainin# 1rea. 7ud#ers"all Castle is still com!letely o'ned 6y t"e 4inistry o% +e%ence 6ut muc" is in t"e State =uardians"i! o% t"e +e!artment o% Culture 4edia and S!ort '"o "a5e !assed t"e day to day mana#ement o% t"e ) ?=uardians"i!@ acres o% t"e site to EH. 4a! D s"o's t"e =uardians"i! 1rea. T"e Castle 'as trans%erred in a series o% transactions %rom t"e 9ar +e!artment (in 1.1( in 1.3$ and in 1.*&) to t"e O%%ice o% 9or-s and t"e +e!artment o% t"e En5ironment (!o'ers no' "eld 6y +C4S) as t"e military "ad no use %or t"e site. Ho'e5er t"ere 'as a si#ni%icant "andin# 6ac- o% a !iece o% land in 1.*& %rom t"e O%%ice o% 9or-s to t"e 4inistry o% +e%ence (my 7and /arcel .) %or reasons '"ic" are not clear on %ile.

13

T"e roads do not %orm !art o% t"e =uardians"i! and t"eir u!-ee! remains 'it" t"e 4o+. T"e %arm"ouse %arm 6uildin#s and !olice "ouses and #ara#es are excluded %rom t"e =uardians"i! area. 2encin# remains t"e res!onsi6ility o% EH (alt"ou#" t"ere is some dou6t a6out t"e %ences around t"e %ormer !olice "ouses '"ic" 'ere rene'ed 6y t"e /olice 1ut"ority in 1.*) and '"ic" EH is no' a!!arently assumin# to 6e t"e res!onsi6ility o% t"e o'ners o% t"ose "ouses). +.2 Th# Sch#" 2#" A!c)#!% Mo! $#!% +es!ite 6ein# a =uardians"i! 4onument %rom 1.1( it a!!ears t"at 7ud#ers"all 'as ne5er %ormally sc"eduled alt"ou#" it 'as #i5en a county num6er3 9ilts"ire 2).. T"e castle 'as ?con%irmed@ in t"e Sc"edule on .t" Octo6er 1.)1 seemin#ly t"e %irst time it 'as le#ally sc"eduled and 'as resc"eduled under t"e 4// on 2*t" Aune 1..0. T"e main Inner and Outer 9ards o% t"e Castle are no' totally sc"eduled (exce!t %or some 6uildin# exclusions and a !ossi6le corner o% t"e rin#'or- de%ences in t"e sout" 'est corner '"ic" are in !ri5ate #ardens ) alon# 'it" a s"ort stretc" o% t"e ?to'n de%ences@ as National Num6er3 100$0. T"e re5ised sc"edulin# under En#lis" Herita#e<s 4onuments /rotection /ro#ramme (4//) 'as !art o% t"e Salis6ury /lain Trainin# 1rea !ilot sc"eme to #et t"e 4// u! and runnin#. T"e documentation is not u! to current 4// standards8 in !articular t"e Constraint 1rea ,ecord and t"e 1rc"aeolo#ical Item ,ecords are 5ery t"in indeed and a!!ear ne5er to "a5e reac"ed 6eyond a dra%t sta#e on t"e %ile (11 $133.L1 /t 2). T"ere is a note on %ile dated ..(.1..0 %rom t"e 4// Ins!ector Ste5e Tro' to t"e /IC Ins!ector Erian +a5ison to indicate t"at t"e sc"edulin# s"ould 6e re#arded as an interim measure and t"at 7ud#ers"all 'ould 6e resc"eduled in due course. I a#ree 'it" t"is and consider t"is s"ould 6e done loo-in# a#ain at t"e 6oundaries o% t"e sc"eduled area and ta-in# into consideration t"e !ro6a6le !re"istoric ori#in o% t"e castle. (See /olicy 1 6elo') T"is is also considered necessary as since t"e sc"edulin# in 1..0 ne' academic researc" "as ta-en !lace (Ellis 2000 112-3) and it is no' considered li-ely t"at t"e Castle extended some 'ay to t"e sout" durin# t"e !eriod c.13&)-1((0. T"e remains o% t"e ?to'n de%ences@ (see a6o5e) are no' considered to 6e !art o% t"e ne' Castle 6oundaries o% t"is !eriod '"en t"e curtela#e o% t"e Castle 'as extended o5er t"e !reexistin# 6ur#a#e !lots. T"is means t"at a relati5ely lar#e !art o% t"e Castle 6et'een c.13&)-1((0 is unsc"eduled and lies 6eneat" !art o% 7ud#ers"all. T"e castle 'as unusually also #i5en a 10m 6u%%er Gone as !art o% t"e sc"eduled monument rat"er t"an t"e usual 2m 6u%%er Gone. Ho'e5er t"e ma!!ed de!iction o% t"e site does not a!!ear to re%lect t"is lar#e 6u%%er Gone and t"is needs loo-in# at a#ain. +.& L)*%#" B )2")!g*

T"e castle remains (?t"e remains o% a C12 %lint to'er in extensi5e eart"'or-s@) are listed =rade I.

1&

2arm"ouseM +.+ Co!*#r(a%)o! Ar#a

T"e entire area o% t"e castle as it is currently understood %alls 'it"in t"e Conser5ation 1rea (see 4a! D). +.. O%h#r co!*%ra)!%* +...1 Loca2 P2a! To 6e inserted +...2 O%h#r 7ud#ers"all is one o% t"e to'ns currently 6ein# studied 6y 9ilts"ire County Council ('it" an EH #rant) as !art o% t"e extensi5e ur6an sur5ey o% 9ilts"ire. T"e Gones o% t"e to'n 'it" arc"aeolo#ical !otential are 6ein# ma!!ed %or !lanners in Bennet +istrict Council to use and ta-e account o%. T"ese 'ill include t"e castle and its %ull extent and t"e medie5al to'n. Ot"ersM ..0 CURRENT SITUATION ..1 Loca%)o! On t"e nort" side o% 7ud#ers"all o%% t"e 13&2. OS 4a! 1)& S; 2*&(13 ..2 Ho7 %o g#% %h#r# Ey road3 2rom t"e 1303 'est6ound :ust !ast 9ey"ill ta-e t"e 13&2 to 7ud#ers"all (& miles)8 t"e castle is on t"e nort" side o% t"e to'n. Ey !u6lic trans!ort3 Some !u6lic trans!ort is a5aila6le. Euses run to 7ud#ers"all (Sta#ecoac" Ham!s"ire Eus 9ilts N +orset $-.) and t"e nearest rail'ay station is 1ndo5er3 $ miles. ..& Car ,ark)!g 1 small #ra5elled car !ar- is a5aila6le at t"e entrance to t"e site 'it" s!aces %or around & 5e"icles (cars and mini6uses only). O%ten "o'e5er at least one o% t"e s!aces is occu!ied 6y local residents (I "a5e noticed a cam!er 5an t"ere %or lon# !eriods o% time). Ho'e5er car !ar-in# does not a!!ear a ma:or !ro6lem at t"is !oint in time. Coac"es "o'e5er 'ould "a5e to %ind alternati5e !ar-in# else'"ere in 7ud#ers"all and t"is may limits sc"ool and ot"er 5isits. ..+ R#/r#*h$#!%* 15aila6le in 7ud#ers"all near6y.

1(

... To)2#%* 15aila6le in 7ud#ers"all near6y. ..4 Acc#** T"ere is easy access %rom t"e car !ar- to t"e castle8 t"e actual ruins are %airly le5el. +isa6led access is only !ossi6le to !art o% site only and t"e near6y to'n cross. 1n access audit "as recently 6een underta-en (re%) 'it" es!ecially re%erence to disa6led access '"ic" "as made 5arious recommendations in relation to xxxxxxxx ..6 O,#!)!g Ho r* 1ny reasona6le time8 no need to !re-6oo-. 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF LAND PARCELS T"e site 'as 5isited in No5em6er 2001 and t"e %ollo'in# o6ser5ations made. /"oto#ra!"s o% t"e site 5isit are a5aila6le on 11 DDDDDDL2 !tDD 2i#ure D s"o's t"e main land !arcels in =uardians"i! area or its immediate 5icinity. T"e descri!tion 6elo' itemises t"e main !ro6lems 'it" eac" land !arcel. T"ese !ro6lems are %urt"er ex!lored in section ).0 6elo'. (T"is section does not co5er t"e !art o% t"e Castle '"ic" 'as in use in c. 13(0-1(00 and '"ic" no' lies 6eneat" modern 7ud#ers"all. See section DDDDDDDD). Parc#2 1; M ch o/ %h# !or%h#r! #!c2o* r#. Current !ro6lems3 Cisitor erosion. Candalism. Exact date o% eart"'or-s in dis!ute H needs %urt"er researc". 7itter. 2ence maintenance. /resentation. Not all o% t"e im!ortant remains are in =uardians"i!. T"e litter 6in 'as crus"ed and needed re!lacin#. T"e lectern inter!retation !anel needs resitin# a'ay %rom t"e 6an- to'ards t"e ruins H or !er"a!s could 6e !laced 'it"in a room i% it is to 6e rene'ed in terms o% in%ormation. I% le%t on t"e #rass a co66led area needs to 6e !ro5ided in %ront o% it. 1t !resent t"e lectern is 5andalised so t"ere is no inter!retation. T"ere are a %e' moles. Some small tree remo5al is needed es!ecially on t"e 6an-s. T"e settin# o% t"e monument is 5ery scru%%y on t"e 'est side "ere. T"e %arm 6uildin#s do not a!!ear to 6e 'ell-used and are "ea5ily o5er#ro'n 'it" sorrel. It 'ould 6e desira6le to ta-e t"e %arm 6uildin#s !arcel o% land into =uardians"i! in order to im!ro5e t"is !iece o% land and im!ro5e t"e settin# o% t"e castle. Parc#2 2; Ma*o!r- r#$a)!* o/ Ca*%2#.

1*

Current !ro6lems3 Cisitor erosion. Candalism. 4asonry re!air (on#oin#). 7itter. /resentation. Not all o% t"e im!ortant remains are in =uardians"i!. 7ots o% 6ro-en 6ottles and i5y. T"ere is no su##ested route %or 5isitors around t"e ruins. Parc#2 &; Ca*%2# Far$ ho *# a!" gar"#!. Current !ro6lems3 Im!ortant remains in t"is area are not in =uardians"i! and t"ere%ore cannot 6e accessed 6y t"e !u6lic. T"eir care t"ere%ore de!ends on ade>uate ste'ards"i! 6y t"e occu!iers o% Castle 2arm alt"ou#" t"e remains are sc"eduled and are a%%orded !rotection in t"is 'ay. 2ence maintenance. Parc#2 +; Ea*%#r! ha2/ o/ So %h#r! E!c2o* r# a!" 2a%#r Ca*%2# "#/#!c#* Current !ro6lems3 Cisitor erosion. Candalism. 7itter. /resentation. 1 >uarry o% "istoric %a6ric remains exists 6y t"e %ormer +E7 "uts. 2ence maintenance. T"e condition is not too 6ad alt"ou#" some scru6 and small tree clearance is needed and trees on t"e 6an- need loo-in# at ur#ently 'it" a 5ie' to remo5in# t"em i% t"ey are o5ermature. T"e 6oundary 'it" t"e %ormer !olice "ouse is 5ery scru%%y and it mi#"t 6e as 'ell to !lant a "ed#e to screen t"e !ri5ate #ardens %rom t"e site. T"e %ormer +E7 area needs tidyin# u!. 1ll t"e 6oundaries need loo-in# at 'it" a 5ie' to re!airin# and tidyin# t"em. 4oles are a !ro6lem. T"e +E7 stone store needs to 6e identi%ied and t"e stone remo5ed to anot"er area %or sa%e--ee!in# %or %uture re!air 'or-. Parc#2 .; For$#r ,o2)c# *%a%)o! a!" ,o2)c# ho *)!g. Current !ro6lems3 Im!ortant remains in t"is area are not in =uardians"i! and t"ere%ore cannot 6e accessed 6y t"e !u6lic. T"eir care t"ere%ore de!ends on ade>uate ste'ards"i! 6y t"e o'ners o% t"e %ormer !olice station and "ousin# alt"ou#" t"e remains are sc"eduled and are a%%orded %ull !rotection in t"is 'ay. 1 recent "ouse extension re5ealed t"e remains o% a su6stantial medie5al ditc" (re%). 2ence maintenance is not ideal at !resent. Parc#2 4; Car Park /ro6lems3 Candalism. 7itter. 2ence maintenance. T"e 'ooden %ence around t"e cattle #rid needs rene'in# or re!airin#. Parc#2 6; Pr)(a%# Gar"#!* )! B %% S%r##% /ro6lems3 It is li-ely t"at remains relatin# to t"e Castle exist "ere alt"ou#" t"ey are unsur5eyed and undisco5ered. T"eir care t"ere%ore de!ends on ade>uate ste'ards"i! 6y t"e o'ners. 1ny remains are currently unsc"eduled and are a%%orded no statutory !rotection. Parc#2 <; So %h57#*%#r! ,ar% o/ %h# So %h#r! E!c2o* r# /ro6lems3 Cisitor erosion. Candalism. 7itter. /resentation. Not all o% t"e im!ortant remains are in =uardians"i!. 2ence maintenance.

1$

T"is is o5er#ro'n in !laces 'it" muc" rou#" #rass H rou#"er t"an /arcel &. T"ere are %ar too many small trees on t"e 6an- '"ic" need remo5in#. T"e "ed#e 'it" /arcel . could ultimately 6e remo5ed in /arcel . comes 6ac- into =uardians"i!. In t" meantime t"is "a't"orn "ed#e s"ould 6e layed or cut to %our-%i5e %eet "i#". T"e #raGin# re#ime seems to 6e !atc"y "ere. T"e sout"ern !art is done 'ell 6ut t"e nort"-'est and 'est !arts are o5er#ro'n. 1ll t"e sycamores could 6e remo5ed. T"e ultimate aim in t"is area (as in t"e rest o% t"e monument) is to clear t"e 6an-s o% trees. T"e inner 6an- ad:acent to t"e %arm 6uildin#s is in a scru%%y state and 5ery o5er#ro'n. T"e 6an-s are dama#ed in !laces and are in a 5ery !oor state next to t"e 6arn. 1 6ranc" 'as do'n %rom a mature tree. T"ere 'as an o!en man"oleLdrain '"ic" 'as a6out t"ree %eet dee! !resentin# a "ealt" and sa%ey issue. T"e eart"'or-s in t"is area a!!ear to extent to t"e 'est o% t"e >uarry and t"e eart"'or- sur5ey s"ould 6e extended to !ic- u! all t"e arc"aeolo#ical remains. Parc#2 3; F)#2" %o #a*% o/ G ar")a!*h), *)%# /ro6lems3 /resentation and !reser5ation o% remains as t"is %ield is not in =uardians"i!. Only "al% o% t"is %ield %alls 'it"in t"e sc"eduled monument. 4aintenance o% %ences. It 'ould 6e desira6le to ta-e t"is area 6ac- into =uardians"i! or to ma-e it !art o% t"e site '"ic" can 6e 5isited 6y a Section 1$ #rant. Parc#2 10; Far$ B )2")!g* o/ Ca*%2# Far$ /ro6lems3 /resentation and !reser5ation o% remains as t"is !arcel is not in =uardians"i! alt"ou#" t"e remains are sc"eduled. Some !ro6lems o% dum!in# onto t"e monument. 4aintenance o% %ences. Parc#2 11; Roa"* 7)%h)! Sch#" 2#" Mo! $#!%. Current !ro6lems3 Erosion ruttin# maintenance o% %ences and cattle #rid. 7itter. 6.0 RECENT =OR>S AND STUDIES T"ere is >uite a lot o% in%ormation on t"e %iles a6out t"is includin# t"e ta-in# do'n o% a 6ric- 6oundary 'all on t"e sout"ern side o% t"e castle and re!lacin# it 'it" a %ence. T"e monument "as under#one %a6ric consolidation o5er a lon# !eriod. Time "as not !ermitted a %ull examination o% t"e %iles !"otos or !lans in t"e N4, 6ut all sources s"ould 6e searc"ed and a "istory o% %a6ric consolidation and maintenance constructed.

1)

I "a5e made extensi5e notes on t"e N4, records '"ic" can 6e made a5aila6le to %uture researc"ers. T"e +E7 'ere 6ased at t"e site %or many years '"ilst main !ro#rammes o% re!air and consolidation 'ere carried out. T"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2e6 2001 notes t"at items o% routine maintenance suc" as "ed#e trimmin# monitorin# o% %ences #ate re!air 'eed s!rayin# seem to "a5e ceased since 1..0. T"e ma:or c"an#e in t"e monument since 1.*& "as o65iously 6een t"e exca5ations '"ic" "a5e altered t"e eart"'or-s on t"e interior and ex!osed medie5al 6uildin#s '"ic" 'ere %ormerly com!letely 6uried ('it" t"e exce!tion o% t"e =reat To'er). 1n ecolo#ical sur5ey 'as underta-en in 1..2 '"ic" s"o'ed t"at t"ere 'ere some !lants and %auna o% interest at t"e site. T"ere "as 6een a dra%t Condition Sur5ey !re!ared in 2e6 2001 '"ic" needs %inalisin#. 1ccess 1udits are in !ro#ress and a meetin# 'as "eld in 2001 on t"is issue. <.0 ISSUES1 OPPORTUNITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

<.1 Ma*o!r- r#,a)r 7ork T"ere 'ill 6e a continual need to maintain t"e masonry remains at t"e site and a re#ular rollin# !ro#ramme o% re!air s"ould 6e !ut in !lace to ensure t"is is done '"ene5er needed. T"e monument 'as 6etter !reser5ed '"en t"ere 'as a re#ular 'or-%orce at t"e site '"o could ensure t"at any 5andalised stones 'ere !ut 6ac- in !lace immediately and t"at t"e masonry did not deteriorate too muc" 6e%ore it 'as re!aired. 1t !resent too #reat a time inter5al is ela!sin# 6et'een e!isodes o% masonry re!air and %a6ric is 6ein# lost 6ecause o% t"is. +etailed !ro!osals %or masonry re!airs are to 6e %ound in t"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2001 and t"ese s"ould 6e actioned 'it"in an a!!ro!riate timescale. Some o% t"ese s"ould "a5e 6een underta-en in t"e %inancial year 2001-2 and are no' extremely ur#ent. Ot"ers 'ere recommended %or t"e %inancial year 2002-3 and are also no' ur#ent. <.2 Tr##* Trees are usually !ro6lematic on arc"aeolo#ical sites and 7ud#ers"all is no exce!tion. Tree roots can dama#e arc"aeolo#ical strati#ra!"y and masonry a6o5e-#round. On t"e 6an-s o% t"e monument trees are es!ecially !ro6lematic 6ecause t"ey s"ut out li#"t '"ic" means t"at t"e #rass dies and t"e 6an-s 6ecome es!ecially 5ulnera6le to animal and 'eat"er erosion. T"is is occurrin# at 7ud#ers"all es!ecially in /arcel ) next to t"e %arm 6uildin#s.

1.

+etailed !ro!osals %or tree 'or- are to 6e %ound in t"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2001 and t"ese s"ould 6e actioned 'it"in an a!!ro!riate timescale. <.2.1 Tr## I!*,#c%)o! Trees s"ould 6e ins!ected annually and recommendations made %or %ellin# and sur#ery. <.2.2 Tr## S rg#r+an#erous 6ranc"es and tree lim6s s"ould 6e remo5ed as soon as !ossi6le to !re5ent t"em %allin# and 6ecomin# a "aGard to 5isitors and animals. <.2.& Tr## F#22)!g 4ature trees s"ould stay until t"ey 6ecome o5er-mature and lia6le to 'indt"ro'. 1t t"at sta#e t"ey s"ould 6e %elled alon# 'it" any ot"ers in t"e 5icinity '"ic" are lia6le to 'indt"ro' due to t"e c"an#e in t"e tree cano!y. Sel% seeded trees and sa!lin#s s"ould 6e remo5ed as soon as !ossi6le. T"ere is a !articular !ro6lem 'it" a tree next to Henry III<s "all '"ic" s"ould 6e %elled as soon as !ossi6le (see dra%t condition sur5ey 2001) <.2.+ Tr## P2a!%)!g No ne' trees s"ould 6e !lanted 'it"in t"e =uardians"i! areas. <.& Scr ? T"e monument is relati5ely scru6 %ree 6ut t"ere are areas '"ere it is a !ro6lem. Scru6 6ecomes mature and causes !ro6lems to arc"aeolo#ical remains 6ecause o% its roots. It can also %orm a co5er %or 6urro'in# animals. Scru6 s"ould 6e controlled 6y a re#ular routine o% #raGin# and mo'in#. Existin# lar#er 6us"es and scru6 s"ould 6e cleared %rom t"e #uardians"i! area on a re#ular 6asis. T"e aim is to ensure t"e monument is entirely cleared o% scru6 and t"en -e!t %ree o% it in %uture. +etailed !ro!osals %or scru6 clearance are to 6e %ound in t"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2001 and t"ese s"ould 6e actioned 'it"in an a!!ro!riate timescale. <.+ Ear%h7ork a!" *car r#,a)r +etailed !ro!osals %or scar re!air are to 6e %ound in t"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2001 and t"ese s"ould 6e actioned 'it"in an a!!ro!riate timescale. <.. Ear%h7ork a!" gro !"* $a)!%#!a!c#

20

/ro!osals %or re#ular monitorin# maintenance and re!air are to 6e %ound in t"e dra%t condition sur5ey o% 2001 and t"ese s"ould 6e actioned 'it"in an a!!ro!riate timescale. T"e mo'in# re#ime in t"e nort"ern !arcel (/arcel 1) seems to 'or- >uite 'ell alt"ou#" t"ere are areas '"ere t"e #rass is rou#". 7itter is a !ro6lem H it needs to 6e remo5ed on a more re#ular 6asis. T"is 'as somet"in# t"e +E7 "el!ed 'it" '"en t"ey 'ere on site. <.4 Gra@)!g T"is is not currently a !ro6lem at 7ud#ers"all alt"ou#" #raGiers are increasin#ly di%%icult to %ind in t"is !art o% 9ilts"ire es!ecially since t"e recent crises in %armin# and t"ere "a5e 6een !ro6lems in %indin# suita6le #raGiers in t"e recent !ast. Only /arcels ) and & are #raGed. T"e current #raGin# licence runs out on 31st 4arc" 2002. <.6 B rro7)!g a!)$a2* T"ere is a !ro6lem 'it" moles alt"ou#" as t"ey do not usually tunnel too dee!ly moles are not considered a serious t"reat to t"e arc"aeolo#y o% 7ud#ers"all. Ho'e5er t"ey s"ould 6e controlled to !re5ent t"em #ettin# out o% "and. ;nusually t"ere are not too many !ro6lems 'it" ra66its and 6ad#ers at !resent at 7ud#ers"all alt"ou#" 'it" t"e "u#e increase in 6ad#ers num6ers in 9ilts"ire H es!ecially on t"e nei#"6ourin# S/T1 H sadly it must only 6e a matter o% time 6e%ore 6ad#ers create setts at 7ud#ers"all. It is di%%icult to o5er-em!"asiGe t"e immense dama#e t"at 6ad#ers can do to arc"aeolo#ical sites and ra66its too can cause "u#e !ro6lems i% le%t unc"ec-ed. T"ere s"ould 6e re#ular ins!ections to see i% 6ad#ers and ra66its create 6urro's and setts at t"e site. T"ere s"ould 6e an immediate !lan to #et rid o% t"e 6ad#ers 'it" t"e usual licences %rom En#lis" Nature and a relia6le 6ad#er consultant s"ould 6e identi%ied no' to assist 'it" t"is. ,a66its s"ould 6e controlled in t"e usual 'ay to !re5ent t"eir num6ers increasin#. <.< Bo !"ar)#* T"e 6oundaries o% t"e #uardians"i! area need re5isin# (see ).10 6elo'). 2ence maintenance is a continual !ro6lem and some "ed#es are scru%%y and need maintenance and more %re>uent attention. <.3 Roa"* T"e u!-ee! o% all roads is t"e res!onsi6ility o% t"e 4inistry o% +e%ence. Some roads are rutted and need maintainin#.

21

<.10 Th# G ar")a!*h), Ar#a T"e !resence o% t"e %arm is not ideal %rom t"e !oint o% 5ie' o% t"e monument. T"ere "as 6een some dum!in# o% a#ricultural 'aste and access to !arts o% t"e site are not !ossi6le. Some o% t"e %arm 6uildin#s 6ot" 'it"in and outside t"e site are not attracti5e and some !resent an unused and scru%%y settin# %or t"e site. See also ).2& 6elo'. <.11 I$,ro(#$#!%* %o %h# )$$#")a%# *#%%)!g o/ %h# Ca*%2# Ideally /arcel . s"ould 6e 6rou#"t 6ac- into t"e !u6lically accessi6le !arts o% t"e %arm alon# 'it" t"e unused %arm 6uildin#s on t"e nort"-'est side. <.12 I$,ro(#$#!%* %o %h# 7)"#r *#%%)!g o/ %h# Ca*%2# T"e to'n o% 7ud#ers"all "as some #ood "istoric 6uildin#s 6ut many could 6e im!ro5ed alon# 'it" t"eir surroundin#s. Im!ro5ements to t"e Conser5ation 1rea in #eneral 'ould #reatly en"ance t"e settin# o% t"e Castle. <.1& Va!"a2)*$ T"is is one o% t"e main issues at 7ud#ers"all. Oout"s o%ten con#re#ate in t"e >uiet unlit remains a%ter !u6 closin# "ours to drin- and ta-e dru#s. T"e arc"aeolo#ical remains are o%ten littered 'it" 6ro-en #lass %rom smas"ed 6ottles. 4oreo5er t"e masonry remains and in%ormation !anels are o%ten attac-ed 6y 5andals. ,e#ular ins!ections o% t"e site are needed to monitor t"is. <.1+ S)%# I!%#r,r#%a%)o! a!" Pr#*#!%a%)o! T"e inter!retation on-site (and indeed in in%ormation readily a5aila6le to t"e !u6lic o%%-site) is extremely !oor es!ecially 'it" re#ard to t"e masonry remains. T"ere are only t'o on-site inter!retation !anels (!artly 6ecause t"ese #et 5andalised so muc") H t"e =uardians"i! !anel '"ic" #i5es #eneral in%ormation and a com!letely 5andalised lectern in t"e nort"ern enclosure. T"ere is no indication o% t"e %unction dates or !"asin# o% t"e 6uildin# %oundations. T"is in%ormation is o% course a5aila6le in Ellis (2000) 6ut 5ery %e' !eo!le 'ould tra'l t"rou#" t"is academic 5olume to #et t"is in%ormation e5en assumin# t"ey could #et "old o% t"e 5olume in t"e %irst !lace. Considerin# t"at one o% t"e !rinci!al aims o% t"e exca5ations 'as to ensure t"at t"e !u6lic 'ere a6le to readily understand a castle t"is aim must 6e considered to "a5e %ailed H at least at !resent. Only t"e most dedicated researc"ers 'ould come a'ay %rom a site 5isit 'it" an understandin# o% t"e castle. T"e ori#inal idea 'as to s"o' '"at 'as an interior s!ace 6y #ra5ellin# t"e rooms and t"is is still lar#ely in use. Ho'e5er 6etter maintenance o% t"e #ra5el is needed alon# 'it" 'eed remo5al. Ho'e5er matters could 6e readily im!ro5ed 6y some relati5ely easy on-site and o%%22

site inter!retation. ,ooms and -no'n 6uildin#s could 6e num6ered (e.#. Euildin# 11) 'it" small !la>ues or 6y anot"er suita6le met"od so t"ey can 6e cross re%erenced 6ot" to t"e academic 5olume (Ellis 2000) and to material '"ic" s"ould 6e a5aila6le on-line 5ia t"e EH 'e6site or %rom t"e re#ional o%%ice at Eristol T"e dates o% construction o% t"e 5arious masonry remains and t"eir !resumed %unction s"ould 6e readily a5aila6le alon# 'it" !lans H includin# a coloured !"ase !lan reconstructions and #eneral in%ormation a6out t"e im!ortance %unction and "istory o% t"e castle. T"is 'ould !artly ma-e u! %or t"e lac- o% a #uide6oo-. Ey only !uttin# u! num6ers 'it"in t"e rooms t"ey 'ould 6e less 5ulnera6le to 5andalism and it 'ould ensure t"at sc"ool c"ildren could still #uess t"e %unctions o% t"e rooms and 6uildin#s '"ilst a teac"er and t"e interested mem6ers o% t"e !u6lic 'ould "a5e %ull access to t"e in%ormation a6out t"e remains !resented includin# t"e date t"e room 'as constructed and its %unction. T"ere is no #uide 6oo- to t"e site alt"ou#" t"ere is some e5idence t"at /eter 1ddyman 'as commissioned to 'rite one in 1.)3 ("ando5er notes %rom Eeric 4orley). T"ere is a #reat need %or a #uide6oo- or at t"e 5ery least se5eral com!re"ensi5e !a#es o% in%ormation on t"e EH 'e6site. T"e 6uildin# %oundations as !resented on site date %rom /eriod $EL) in Ellis 2000. T"e reconstruction on t"e %ront co5er o% Ellis 2000 is %rom t"e same !eriod and s"ould 6e used on at least one o% t"e inter!retation !anels on site or !er"a!s on 6ot" re!lacin# t"e medie5al "untin# scene on t"e #uardians"i! !anel and !er"a!s 6ein# used in an inset on a redesi#ned lectern 6oard %or t"e nort"ern enclosure. <.1. E" ca%)o! a!" 2#ar!)!g o,,or% !)%)#* Pr)$ar;n%ortunately ?4edie5al ,ealms@ is not currently tau#"t 'it"in t"e En#lis" state !rimary system and so it is unli-ely t"at many !rimary sc"ool c"ildren 'ill 5isit t"e castle on account o% its "istorical im!ortance. T"ose t"at do and '"o "a5e to tra5el 6y coac" are more li-ely to 5isit Old Sarum or ot"er more %amous sites. Ho'e5er t"ere may 6e sco!e to ex!lore ot"er su6:ects at t"e site es!ecially !rimary sc"ools 'it"in easy 'al-in# distance. T"ere is one local sc"ool 7ud#ers"all Castle /rimary Sc"ool S"ort Street 7ud#ers"all '"o mi#"t 6e encoura#ed to 5isit t"e castle on t"is 6asis or e5en to ?ado!t@ t"e monument. Ho'e5er ?In5aders and Settlers@ is tau#"t at Bey Sta#e 2 '"ic" includes t"e Normans. It 'ould 6e !ossi6le %or teac"ers to ex!lore t"e Norman as!ects o% t"e Castle H a%ter all it 'as not :ust ?any old Norman castle@ 6ut actually a Norman ,oyal ,esidence '"ic" 6elon#ed to t"e Norman Bin#s Henry I (rei#ned 1100-3() and Ste!"en ( rei#ned 113(-(&). T"e Norman Em!ress 4atilda (rei#ned 11&1) '"o 'as ar#ua6ly t"e le#itimate "eiress to t"e t"rone also "ad a !art to !lay in t"e 7ud#ers"all story as s"e "eld it %or a 6rie% !eriod. S#co!"ar-

23

?4edie5al realms@ are currently tau#"t at Bey Sta#e 3 at secondary le5el and t"e castle !resents a c"ea! and easily accessi6le o!!ortunity %or sc"oolc"ildren to learn a6out a royal court at %irst "and (6ut see sections on car !ar-in#). Ho'e5er little remains at 7ud#ers"all to su##est t"e s!lendour and luxury o% Henry IIIFs court and to ima#ine t"e castle as it 'as !u!ils 'ould "a5e to loo%irst at !ictures o% a sur5i5in# castle li-e Sto-esay in S"ro!s"ire '"ic" "ad a similar !lan on a more modest scale. T"e 6asic elements o% a lar#e medie5al residence "ardly 5aried3 t"ere 'ould 6e a great hall '"ere all t"e "ouse"old came to eat se!arated 6y a !assa#e %rom t"e Fo%%icesF '"ere %ood 6rou#"t %rom t"e -itc"en 'as made ready %or ser5in#8 a solar or set o% !ri5ate a!artments o%ten on t"e %irst %loor reac"ed 6y stairs %rom t"e "all8 at least one chapel8 one or more kitchens, usually identi%ia6le 6y t"eir %ire!laces and o5ens8 and se5eral sets o% lodgings %or #uests and t"eir ser5ants includin# garderobes. /u!ils could sur5ey t"e %oundations at 7ud#ers"all to see "o' many o% t"ese elements t"ey can identi%y. T"e amount o% %ood consumed 6y Henry and "is #uests 'as !rodi#ious3 $000 "ens 'ere ordered %or one %east )0 6uc-s (deer) %or anot"er. T"ere must "a5e 6een a constant comin# and #oin# o% carts and !ac-"orses enterin# and lea5in# t"e castle '"ene5er t"e -in# 'as in residence. T"e !u!ils could ima#ine t"e "ustle and 6ustle in t"e courtyard - scenes 'ell re-created in some recent "istorical ad5enture %ilms 6ut 5ery di%%erent to t"e !eace%ul scene at 7ud#ers"all today. T"e %ine medie5al mar-et cross (also an EH !ro!erty) near6y could also 6e studied alon# 'it" t"e de5elo!ment o% t"e to'n. T#r%)ar- a!" 2)/#2o!g 7ud#ers"all Castle is easy to access and students o% "istory and arc"aeolo#y can easily ex!lore t"is site '"ic" !resents o!!ortunities %or 6ot" Iron 1#e and t"e 4edie5al studies. =eneral arc"aeolo#ical s-ills suc" as sur5eyin# and dra'in# s-ills could also 6e easily !ractised "ere alon# 'it" #eo!"ysical sur5eyin# s-ills (su6:ect o% course to t"e correct S&2 7icence 6ein# o6tained %irst %rom En#lis" Herita#e in PS). T"e %ine medie5al mar-et cross (also an EH !ro!erty) near6y could also 6e studied and 7ud#ers"all itsel% and its castle !resents o!!ortunities %or "istorical #eo#ra!"ers. <.14 To r)*%* a!" ()*)%or* T"ere are no u! to date 5isitor %i#ures %or t"e Castle. It 'ould 6e desira6le to underta-e an analysis o% 5isitor num6ers and a#e #rou!s in order to 6etter maximise t"e educational and !resentational !otential o% t"e Castle. Ho'e5er it seems unli-ely t"at 5isitor num6ers 'ill 6e so "i#" as to :usti%y a Custodian and a c"ar#in# !olicy. Eut all t"is s"ould 6e re5ie'ed a%ter t"e latest 5isitor num6ers are -no'n.

2&

T"e site is !rone to 5isitor erosion in certain areas es!ecially '"ere t"e masonry remains and t"e 6an-s in 7and /arcel 1. On an o!en site li-e t"is t"ere is little t"at one can do a!art %rom underta-e scar re!air '"en necessary and try and discoura#e users %rom 'al-in# on a%%ected areas and areas '"ic" are "ealin#. ,e#ular ins!ections %or 5isitor erosion are recommended. Some ina!!ro!riate use o% t"e monument "as 6een noted e.#. 6y mountain 6i-e users. T"is situation s"ould 6e monitored to see i% it #ets 'orse. T"ere are recommendations on %ile %or a custodian to man t"e site al6eit %rom some time a#o. T"is s"ould 6e reconsidered i% 5isitor num6ers are su%%iciently "i#". <.16 Acc#** /or %h# ")*a?2#" T"e recommendations o% t"e 1ccess 1udit currently 6ein# 'ritten s"ould 6e acted u!on in %ull. <.1< Car Park 1lt"ou#" small t"is seems to meet t"e current need o% t"e monument alt"ou#" t"ere is no'"ere %or coac"es to !ar-. 1 6ay %or disa6led car users needs to 6e identi%ied. <.13 S)g!ag# T"ere do not a!!ear to 6e !ro6lems 'it" t"e si#ns to t"e monument. <.20 Co$$ !)%- *# a!" *,#c)a2 #(#!%* S!ecial e5ents and community use '"ic" do not "arm t"e %a6ric o% t"e castle its eart"'or-s or t"e 6elo'-#round arc"aeolo#y s"ould 6e allo'ed and encoura#ed su6:ect to sta%% resources 6ein# su%%icient at t"at time to deal 'it" t"e costs o% administerin# and monitorin# t"e e5ent or use. I% t"ere are insu%%icient sta%% in !lace t"en some t"ou#"t s"ould 6e #i5en to a c"ar#in# !olicy '"ic" 'ould allo' t"is and ot"er sites to 6e used 6y t"e community. <.21 Archa#o2og)ca2 a!" h)*%or)ca2 r#*#arch 1 !ro#ramme o% arc"aeolo#ical and "istorical researc" s"ould 6e !re!ared and a!!ro!riate arc"aeolo#ical and "istorical 6odies and indi5iduals encoura#ed to underta-e t"is researc" ('it" t"e a!!ro!riate consents and usual sa%e#uards). T"ese could include in-"ouse ex!erts in our t"e Centre %or 1rc"aeolo#y and t"e 1rc"aeolo#y and Sur5ey section. T"e site is one 'it" #reat !otential %or arc"aeolo#ical and "istorical researc" es!ecially %or t"e Iron 1#e and 4edie5al !eriods alt"ou#" t"ere is Saxon !otential too. 2or exam!le t"ree t"emes 'ort"y o% %urt"er researc" are3 Identi%yin# t"e dates o% t"e nort"ern and sout"ern enclosures

2(

Ex!lorin# '"y medie5al castles in t"is !art o% sout"ern En#land reuse ancient sites - t"is is 'ort"y o% %urt"er researc" as !art o% t"e ori#in o% En#lis" Castles. Identi%yin# and con%irmin# t"e %ull extent date and de5elo!ment o% t"e Castle includin# any out'or-s and 6astions and enclosures.

T"ere are numerous ot"er t"emes and !ro6lems to 6e ex!lored 6ut t"is conser5ation statement is not t"e !lace to set t"em out. <.22 >#- >##,#r /ro6lems NiallM <.2& F r%h#r * r(#- 7ork T"e masonry remains as de!icted in t"e 1..) !lan 6y t"e ,CH4E !u6lis"ed in Ellis 2000 do not a!!ear %ully accurate. It 'ould 6e "el!%ul to "a5e a %ull detailed and accurate !lan o% t"e masonry remains as t"ey no' exist on site ('e only "a5e t"e !lans o% t"e masonry remains as exca5ated). <.2+ B )2")!g* 7)%h)! a!" aro !" %h# G ar")a!*h), S)%# a!" Sch#" 2#" Ar#a T"ere are currently a num6er o% 6uildin#s 'it"in and around t"e sc"eduled area '"ic" may need to 6e rene'ed or re!aired %rom time to time (e.#. a#ricultural 6arn). T"ere may also 6e !ressure to extend existin# 6uildin#s in and around t"e monument. Some 6uildin#s are o% !oor >uality and it 'ould 6e %ar 6etter %or t"e monument i% t"ey 'ere remo5ed and not re!laced. 9"ere t"ere is !ressure %or re!lacement t"is s"ould not 6e at t"e ex!ense o% t"e settin# and 5isual amenity o% t"e monument or at t"e ex!ense o% any 6uried remains. T"e usual !olicies relatin# to t"e !rotection o% sc"eduled monuments 'ill a!!ly. See also ).10 a6o5e. 3.0 POLICIES

THIS SECTION NEE+S ED/1N+IN= 1N+ D-,E2E,ENCIN= 1N+ 4;CH 4O,E 9O,BQ 3.1 G#!#ra2 Po2)c- 1; T"e sc"edulin# o% 7ud#ers"all Castle 'ill 6e re5ised 'it"in t"e next %i5e years. Po2)c- 2; 1 %ull conser5ation !lan %or 7ud#ers"all Castle 'ill 6e !re!ared i% ma:or !ro!osals arise '"ic" 'ould a%%ect t"e castle. In any e5ent a %ull !lan s"ould 6e !re!ared 'it"in t"e next 10 years. 3.2 S%a% * a!" U*# o/ %h# Co!*#r(a%)o! S%a%#$#!% Po2)c- &; T"e Statement 'ill 6e a#reed 6y EH Committee and 'ill 6ecome o%%icial EH !olicy %or t"e site. 1ny si#ni%icant %uture !ro!osals %or t"e Castle
2*

'"ic" are not co5ered 6y t"is Statement or '"ic" di%%er %rom t"e !olicies in t"is Statement 'ill need to 6e ta-en to Committee %or a!!ro5al. Po2)c- +; T"e Statement 'ill %orm t"e 6asis %or %uture decision ma-in# at 7ud#ers"all Castle. Po2)c- .; T"e Statement s"ould 6e re5ie'ed re5ised and u!dated as a!!ro!riate !ro6a6ly in %i5e years time and certainly in ten years time i% t"ere "as 6een no re5ision 6y t"en. 3.& R#,a)r a!" Ma)!%#!a!c# Po2)c- 4; 4onitorin# and re!airs to all "istoric %a6ric 6ot" eart"'or- and masonry needs to 6e underta-en %ar more re#ularly. =rounds maintenance and monitorin# s"ould also 6e carried out more re#ularly. Consideration s"ould 6e #i5en to settin# u! a term contract 'it" a re!uta6le com!any to underta-e rollin# re!airs as and '"en needed. 3.+ S)%# I!%#r,r#%a%)o!1 ,r#*#!%a%)o! a!" acc#** Po2)c- 6; T"e !resentation o% t"e monument s"ould 6e im!ro5ed 6y on-site and o%%-site actions as outlined a6o5e. T"e current 5ery !oor inter!retation is a ma:or %la'. Po2)c- <; T"e recommendations in t"e access audit s"ould 6e %ollo'ed and actioned. Po2)c- 3; T"e settin# and 5isual amenity o% t"e monument (i.e. 6ot" 'it"in and around t"e sc"eduled monument) s"ould not dama#ed or ad5ersely a%%ected 6y de5elo!ment !lantin# utilities or ot"er structures suc" as military structures. 3.. E" ca%)o! a!" 2#ar!)!g o,,or% !)%)#* Pr)$arPo2)c- 10; T"e local !rimary sc"ool s"ould 6e encoura#ed to ?ado!t@ t"e monument and t"e ,e#ional Education O%%icer s"ould try and %acilitate t"is. Po2)c- 11; 4ore in%ormation on t"e site s"ould 6e a5aila6le on-line and 5ia Pueen S>uare %or teac"ers '"ic" s"ould 6e #eared to'ards Bey Sta#e to!ics. S#co!"arPo2)c- 12; 4ore in%ormation on t"e site s"ould 6e a5aila6le on-line and 5ia Pueen S>uare %or teac"ers '"ic" s"ould 6e #eared to'ards Bey Sta#e to!ics. T#r%)ar- a!" 2)/#2o!g Po2)c- 1&3 4ore in%ormation on t"e arc"aeolo#y "istory and recent t"eories a6out t"e site s"ould 6e a5aila6le on line and %rom Pueen S>uare.
2$

Po2)c- 1+; 1 researc" a#enda (see section ..) 6elo') s"ould 6e a5aila6le online %or interested arc"aeolo#ical 6odies and uni5ersities to consider and action. 3.4 To r)*%* a!" ()*)%or* G#!#ra2 Po2)c- 1.; 4ore in%ormation on t"e arc"aeolo#y "istory and recent t"eories a6out t"e site s"ould 6e a5aila6le on line and %rom Pueen S>uare. Po2)c- A; 1 5isitor sur5ey s"ould 6e underta-en to determine num6ers and usa#e o% t"e site. Car Park* Po2)c- 14; Consideration s"ould 6e #i5en to %indin# coac" !ar-in# s!ace 'it"in easy 'al-in# distance. T"is in%ormation could t"en 6e made a5aila6le %or interested !arties includin# educational esta6lis"ments '"o mi#"t need to tra5el some 'ay to 5isit t"e site. Co$$ !)%- *# a!" *,#c)a2 #(#!%* Po2)c- 16; S!ecial e5ents '"ic" do not "arm t"e %a6ric o% t"e castle its eart"'or-s or t"e 6elo'-#round arc"aeolo#y s"ould 6e allo'ed su6:ect to sta%% resources 6ein# su%%icient at t"at time to deal 'it" t"e costs o% administerin# and monitorin# t"e e5ent. I% not some t"ou#"t s"ould 6e #i5en to a c"ar#in# !olicy. 3.6 S#c r)%Po2)c- 1<; =rounds ins!ections and re!airs need to 6e underta-en %ar more re#ularly and 'ays o% ac"ie5in# t"is need to 6e ex!lored 'it" a 5ie' to reducin# 5andalism and dama#e. 3.< Archa#o2og)ca2 r#*#arch Po2)c- 13; 1 !ro#ramme o% arc"aeolo#ical researc" (researc" a#enda) s"ould 6e commissioned and !re!ared and a!!ro!riate arc"aeolo#ical 6odies encoura#ed to underta-e t"is researc" ('it" t"e a!!ro!riate consents and usual sa%e#uards). T"is could include in-"ouse ex!erts suc" as t"e Centre %or 1rc"aeolo#y. Po2)c- 20; Intrusi5e in5esti#ations 'ould 6e encoura#ed 6ut only i% all a!!ro!riate met"ods o% non-intrusi5e arc"aeolo#ical sur5ey "ad 6een a!!lied and underta-en %irst. Po2)c- 21; 2urt"er arc"aeolo#ical sur5ey 'or- s"ould 6e underta-en.

2)

10.0 S $$arT"e main conser5ation needs o% t"e monument are 4ore re#ular rollin# re!airs to t"e eart"'or-s and masonry 4ore re#ular #rounds maintenance to reduce 5andalism and litter Im!ro5ed inter!retation 5ia a 5ariety o% means.

2.

Ack!o72#"g#$#!%* I 'ould li-e t"an- t"e %ollo'in# EH sta%% '"o "a5e "el!%ully discussed t"is Statement 'it" me or '"o "a5e !ro5ided in%ormation3 Niall 4orrissey +a5id Stoc-er numerous sta%% at t"e N4, (+. /ar-er ,o6in Ste'ard Cynt"ia Ho'ell Baty Birsty and ot"ers) Helen Ae%%eries Ao"n Oar-er +a5id 2ield 1manda 2eat"er Carole O'en EliGa6et" 1llison C"ris Eally =ary Stone and Ao"n Hum!"rey in t"e S, ,e#istry. Outside EH t"e %ollo'in# indi5iduals "a5e "el!ed in similar 'ays3 Helena Ca5e-/enney and ,oy Can"am o% 9ilts"ire County Council 1rc"aeolo#ical Ser5ices and Ste5e 4ac+onald. (To 6e circulated to 2rancis Belly EB+ Niall 4 1manda 2 +a5id Stoc-er ,oy Can"am Ian Earnes =ary Stone C"ris Eally EliGa6et" 1llison) I "a5e dra'n "ea5ily %rom t"e main !u6lis"ed 'or- on 7ud#ers"all (Ellis 2000) and also on teac"in# material !ro5ided 6y t"e En#lis" Herita#e re#ional education o%%icer 1manda 2eat"er. F r%h#r R#a")!g DDDDDDDDD/;T IN 7OTS O2 OTHE, ,E2SDDDDDDDD 1ddyman /.C. Reports on the Excavation of Ludgershall Castle in 4edie5al 1rc"aeolo#y Columes .-1* commencin# 1.*(. Eeaumont-Aames T. Clarendon: A Medieval Royal alace Salis6ury N 9ilts"ire 4useum 1.)) ISEN 0-.&$(3(-0*-3. Ero'n =. and Eo'den 4. 1..). An Earth!ork "urvey at Ludgershall Castle, #iltshire. ;n!u6lis"ed ,CH4E Sur5ey ,e!ort. Co!eland T.1..&, A $eacher%s &uide to 'sing Castles En#lis" Herita#e ISEN 1)(0$&-32$-& +a5ison E. 1.)) $he (e! )bserver%s *ook of Castles 9arne ISEN 0-$232-333.-D. Ellis (ed) 2000 Exca5ations at 7ud#ers"all Castle En#lis" Herita#e. ;ndated. +nfor,ation for teachers=reen +. 1..2. 'npublished ecological survey/"illi!s E. 2001- An archaeological !atching brief at ./ Castle "treet, Ludgershall, #iltshire (LC01). ;n!u6lis"ed re!ort. /latt C.1.)2 $he Castle in Medieval England and #ales Sec-er and 9ar6ur# ISEN 0-&3*-3$(((-..

30

Steane A. $he Archaeology of the English Monarchy Eats%ord 1..3 ISEN0-$13&$2&*-&. Can der Steen Hall /artners"i!. 2001. 2raft Condition "urvey of Ludgershall Castle;n!u6lis"ed !reliminary ty!escri!t. 2e6ruary 2001.

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APPENDICES CONTENTS 1. 2iles searc"ed %or t"is conser5ation statement. 2. Ot"er sources o% in%ormation searc"ed. 3. Com!lete listin# o% internal %iles "eld 6y EH. &. Com!lete listin# o% Certical and O6li>ue 1ir /"oto co5er "eld 6y EH at t"e N4, *. Co!ies o% t"e index record cards %or 7ud#ers"all Castle at t"e N4, /lans ,oom $. N4, Entry %or 7ud#ers"all ). 1ncient 4onuments Terrier .. 9ilts"ire CC S4, entry %or 7ud#ers"all Castle APPENDICES

MAPS 1rea in =uardians"i! T"e Sc"eduled 4onument T"e Conser5ation 1rea 7and /arcels Sur5ey o% t"e Site in 1..) 6y t"e ,CH4E

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