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# INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU MALAYSIA KAMPUS SULTAN MIZAN,

22200 BESUT,
TERENGGANU DARUL IMAN.

PPISMP
SEMESTER 1

PHYSIC REPORT
PRACTICAL SCIENCE 2
EXPERIMENT 3

## NAME : SITI QURRATUL AINI ULFA BINTI RODIN JAYA

I/C NO : 910606-03-6028
COURSE : SCIENCE
SUBJECT : SCIENCE (PHYSIC)
TOPIC : KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS
SUPERVISOR : EN.ROSDI BIN OMAR

Experiment 3

## Topic : Kinematics and Dynamics

Purpose : To verify the principle of conversation of linear momentum for a
collision of two bodies of equal mass.
Theory : Figure 1 below shows the bob of the pendulum being released from
P to Q.

If v is the velocity of the bob at Q and m is the mass of the bob, then,
mgh = 12mv2…………(1)

## If z = horizontal displacement of bob from Q

L = length of pendulum
and θ = angular displacement of the bob, then
h =L(1-kos θ)
=L(2sin2θ2)
For θ smaller than 15°, sin2 θ2 =(θ2)2 ;z=Lθ
Then, h=12 Lθ2=12z2L
From equation (1),v2=2gh,
Then v2=z2gL and kinetic energy Ek=12mv2=mgz22L
∴v∝z and kinetic energy Ekccz2

Apparatus :
(I) Hooking plank
(II) Two bobs equal mass
(III) Two threads of length about 2 m
(IV) Two retort stands and clamps
(V) A metal wire as indicator
(VI) A screen to act as marker to the distance of collision
(VII) A meter rule
(VIII) Plasticine
(IX) A pair of vernier calipers
(X) Blocks for raising the height of the retort stands

Procedure :
(a) Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 2.
(b) Using a pair of vernier calipers, measure the diameter of the pendulum bob.
(c) Hook the pendulum bob on the hooking plank as shown in the diagram above
and make sure that the center of the two pendulum bobs rest at the same level
and not less than 80 cm from the hooking plank.
(d) Place a meter rule below the bobs. Adjust the meter rule so that the 50 cm mark
is just below the point of contact of the bobs.
(e) Move one of the bobs away, and determine the position of the centre of other
bob and record corresponding reading on the meter rule as X01. Repeat the
process, and record the position of the centre of the other bob as X02.
(f) Displace one of the bobs about 20 cm away. Record the position of the centre of
the bob as X1. Release the bob so as to make direct head-on collision with the
other bob (The first bob should be almost at rest after the head-collision).
(g) If it is a head-on collision, record the position of the screen that serves as a
marker for the distance of collision. Repeat the process if the collision is not the
head-on collision.
(h) Record the position of the centre of the second bob, X2, if the collision is a head-
on collision.
(i) Repeat steps (e) through (g) for displacements between 20 cm to 10 cm.
(j) Record all your readings and tabulate X1, Z1=X1-X01, (Z)2, X2,
Z2=X2-X02, (Z2)2, and (Z2Z1)2
(k) Stick a small lump of plasticine on one of the pendulum bobs and repeat steps
(e) through (g). After the collision, both the pendulum bobs move as one body.
(l) Record all your readings, and tabulate X'1, Z'1=X'1-X'01, (Z')2, X'2,
Z'2=X'2-X'02, (Z'2)2, and (Z'2Z'1)2.
(m)From the results obtained, deduce a conclusion on the momentum and kinetic
energy of the two systems.

State whether the collisions in the first and second systems are elastic or not.

Results :

## a) Result without plasticine(Elastic collision)

X1 Z1=(X1-X01) (Z1)2 X2 Z2=(X2-X02) (Z2)2 (Z2/Z1)2
20.0 19.4 376.36 18.3 17.7 313.29 0.832
18.0 17.4 302.76 17.6 17.0 289.00 0.955
16.0 15.4 237.16 15.7 15.1 228.01 0.961
14.0 13.4 179.56 13.6 13.0 169.00 0.941
12.0 11.4 129.96 11.9 11.3 127.69 0.983
10.0 9.4 88.36 9.8 9.2 84.64 0.958

## b) Result with plasticine(Inelastic collision)

X’1 Z’1=(X’1-X’01) (Z’1)2 X’2 Z’2=(X’2-X’02) (Z’2)2 (Z’2/Z’1)2
20.0 11.5 132.25 11.5 11.0 121.00 0.915
18.0 10.6 112.36 10.6 10.1 102.01 0.908
16.0 9.7 94.09 9.7 9.2 84.64 0.900
14.0 8.8 77.44 8.8 8.3 68.89 0.890
12.0 7.2 51.84 7.2 6.7 44.89 0.866
10.0 6.0 36.00 6.0 5.5 30.25 0.840

Discussion :
1) Kinetic energy and momentum are conserved in the collision between two bobs
without plasticine because the ratio of kinetic energy and momentum before
collision to kinetic energy and momentum after collision is 0.94 which is near to
1.0.
2) This show the kinetic energy and momentum before collision is same as kinetic
energy and momentum after collision.
3) Kinetic energy and momentum are not conserved in the collision between two
bobs with plasticine because the ratio of kinetic energy and momentum before
collision to kinetic energy and momentum after collision is 0.39 which is far to
1.0.
4) This show the kinetic energy and momentum before collision is not same as
kinetic energy and momentum after collision.
5) Precaution :
a. When doing this experiment, the fans should be switch off during the
experiment to minimize the air resistance to the collision.
b. The external force should not be acted on the pendulum to make sure the
pendulum bob oscilate with its natural frequency to get more accurate result.

Conclusion :
Kinetic energy and momentum are conserved in elastic collision but not conserved in
inelastic collision.