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FoundationDesignPhilosophyforRotatingEquipment Referenceshasbeentakenfrom, DesignofstructuresandfoundationsforvibratingmachinesbyS.Arya,M.O'NeillandG.Pincus FoundationanalysisanddesignbyJ.E.Bowels DynamicsofbasesandfoundationsbyD.Barkan DesignofMachineFoundationsLectureNotesofProfessorM.H.ElNaggar,DepartmentofCivil Engineering,TheUniversityofWesternOntario,London,Ontario,Canada,N6A5B9 InthispageIwilltalkabouttherigidblockfoundationforCentrifugal(Pump)andReciprocating machines(Compressor).Weareconsideringtheconcreteblockisinfinitelyrigidandthusalumpmass modelcanbeconsideredincomputer3Dmodelling.Tostartthedesignofablockfoundation,weneed tofollowthefollowingstepstocollectthedesigndata: Step1:Reviewofpump/compressordrawing(VendorEquipmentDrawing) Themachinedatapertinenttothedynamicanalysisanddesignoftheblockfoundationshouldbe obtainedfromvendors.

s. Plandimensionofpump/compressorbaseframe Heightofrotor/shaftcenterlinefromthebottomofskid Anchorboltlocation,sizeandembedmentdepth Weightofmachinepartsandtherotorparts(pump/compressorrotorandmotorrotor) Locationofcenterofgravitybothverticallyandhorizontally Operatingspeedofmachinesandpowerratingofmotor(RPM) Magnitudeanddirectionofunbalancedforces. Forreciprocatingmachinesbothprimaryandsecondaryunbalancedforcesandcouplesandrespective CGlocationsneedstobechecked. Limitofdeflectionandvibrationamplitudesatcenterlineofrotor. Step2:CollectionofGeotechnical/soildata(Pldiscusswithsoilconsultantandlookintoproject designcriteria) TheGeotechnicaldataareusedforevaluatingthesoil/pilestiffnessanddampingcoefficients,andare requiredforbothstaticanddynamicdesignandanalysisofofblockfoundations.Followingsoil parametersarerequired: Soilweightdensity Poisson'sratio Dynamicshearmodulus(G) Shearwavevelocity(vs) Dynamicmodulusofsubgradereaction(ks) Allowablesoilbearingpressureorpileloadcarryingcapacityfordesignoffoundation Step3:Categorizationofrotatingmachinesbasedonmachinespeed: Therotatingmachinesarecategorizedbasedonmachinespeed.Followingaredifferentcategoriesof machines: LowSpeedmachine:Thelowspeedmachinesoperateataspeedrangeoflessthan500RPM.High tunedfoundations,havingfirstnaturalfrequencymorethanmachine'soperatingspeed,shouldbe designedforthistypeofmachines.Inthiscasemachinedonotpasstheresonanceduringmachinestart upandcoastdowncondition.

Intermediatespeedmachine:Theintermediatespeedmachinesoperateataspeedrange500RPMto 1000RPM.Foundationsshouldbedesignedforthistypeofmachineshightunedorlowtunedside whchevermorepractical.Ifthefoundationislowtuned,dynamicamplitudeshallbecheckedduring startupandcoastdowncondition. HighSpeedmachine:Thehighspeedmachinesoperateataspeedrangeofmorethan1000RPM.Low tunedfoundations,havingfirstnaturalfrequencylessthanmachine'soperatingspeed,shouldbe designedforthistypeofmachines.Inthiscasemachinewillpasstheresonanceduringmachinestartup andcoastdowncondition.Dynamicamplitudeshallbecheckedduringstartupandcoastdown condition.Youneedtoensurethatthereisnoadverseeffecttomachineoperationduringtheresonant conditions. VariableSpeedmachine:Thevariablespeedmachinesoperateataspeedrangeasprescribedby vendor.Foundationsshouldbedesignedforthistypeofmachineshightunedorlowtunedside whchevermorepractical.Adetaildynamicanalysisoffoundationisrequiredforarangeofmachine operatingspeedstoensurethatthedynamicdesigncriteriaaremet. Step4:Preliminarysizingoffoundations: Ablockfoundationconsistsofmassiveconcreteblocks,piersandmatfoundation.Thepreliminary sizinngofblockshouldbebasedonthefollowing: Weightoftheblockfoundationshouldbeatleast4timestheweightofreciprocatingmachinesand3 timestheweightofcentrifugalmachines. Thewidthoffoundationshouldbeatleast1.5timestheverticaldistancefromthebottomoffoundation tothecenterlineoftheshaft/rotor. Thecenterofmassofmachinefoundation(machine+foundationsystem)shouldcoincidewiththe centroidofthesoilfoundationorpilegroupresistance.Horizontaleccentricityshouldbelimitedto5% ofthecorrespondingfoundationdimension. Forarigidmat,followingcriteriatobefollowed: Minimumthicknessofthematwillbe600mmor1/5thofleastfoundationdimensionsor1/10thof largestfoundationdimensions,whicheverisgreater. Maximumthicknessofthematwillbe1500mm Minimumthicknessofmat,t=0.0012x(ksx(a)4)1/3ft,ks=soildynamicmodulusofsubgrade reaction,lbs/in3,fromsoilreport,a=maximumcantileverprojection(inches),measuredfromfaceof block(Refer:FoundationanalysisanddesignbyJEBowles) Step5:Requirementfordynamicanalysisoffoundations: Dynamicanalysisofconcretefoundationsarenotrequiredforallthefoundationssupportingrotating equipment.Youneedtoreferyourprojectdesigncriteriafortheconditionsfordynamicanalysis. Followingarethegeneralcriteriafornotperforminganydynamicanalysisoffoundationsupporting rotatingequipment: Dynamicanalysisisnotrequirediftheweightofmachineislessthan25kN. Dynamicanalysisisnotrequiredifthepowerratingofmotorislessthan200hp. Ifyouarenotdoinganydynamicanalysisofconcreteblockfoundation,thenfollowStep4for foundationsizingandputitinto3Dmodelforanyinterferencecheck. Ifyouaredoingthedynamicanalysisofconcreteblock,thenfollowthefollowingsteps.

Step6:Calculationofunbalancedforcesfordynamicanalysisoffoundations: IfunbalanceforceisnotmentionedintheVendorequipmentdrawing,thenyouwillcalculatetheforce asfollows: Unbalanceforceforpump:Fpump=mprotorxexw2 Unbalanceforceformotor:Fmotor=mmrotorxexw2 Where,mprotor=weightofpumprotor,mmrotor=weightofmotorrotor w=circularfrequency=2xpix(f/60),f=speedofmachinefromvendordrawing(RPM). e=rotoreccentricity,dependsonmachinespeed EccentricityTable(Referreference1) Machine OperatingSpeed(finRPM) Eccentricitye(mils) Pump/compressor f<3000 (1.8107)/(f)2 Pump/compressor f>3000 (12000/f)1/2 Motor f<1500 1.5 Motor 1500<f<3000 1 Motor f>3000 0.5