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By: Ayalasomayajula Somashekara Koushik

ABSTRACT

Arc-welding is the most commonly and widely used welding technique for variety of purposes. Welded joint may not be very reliable unless the weld is of reasonably good quality. Improving the weld quality is of prime concern. This project work is intended to investigate the effect of magnetic field on the structure and properties of weld in shielded metal arc welding. The objective is to study the effect of welding parameters and to use magnetic field advantageously to improve the weld qualities and properties such as strength and hardness!. "owever there is lack of information for optimum parameters# very little work has been reported in this direction. A magnetic field e$ternally applied to the welding arc# deflects the arc by electromagnetic force in the plane normal to the field lines. The magnetic field e$erts force on the electrons and ions within the arc# which causes the arc to be deflected away from the normal arc path. The welding arc can be deflected forward# backward# or sideways with respect to electrode and welding direction depending upon the direction of an e$ternal magnetic field In this project work various mechanical properties tests as tensile strength# harness# toughness etc. are conducted to see the effect of e$ternal magnetic field on it. A set of weld-pieces with magnetic field and without magnetic field! are tested for various mechanical properties and comparable study is done to know the change in these properties.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

page %&'TI(I%AT& ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))).ii *&%+&'ATI,- )))))))))))))))))))))))))))). ))..iii A%.-,W+&*/&0&-T ))))))))))))))))))))))))))) iv A12T'A%T ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))..v %hapter 34 Introduction 3.3 /eneral )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))).3 3.5 2hielded metal arc welding 20AW! ))))))))))))))))))))...5 3.6 /as Tungsten Arc Welding /TAW! ))))))))))))))))))))...6 3.7 /as 0etal Arc Welding /0AW! )))))))))))))))))))))....7 3.8 /as Welding))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))..8 %hapter 54 'eview of +iterature 5.3 2ummary of shielded metal arc welding )))))))))))))))))))...9
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5.5 A%:*% ;ower 2ources))))))))))))))))))))))))))..<


2.3 &lectrode used in

20AW)))))))))))))))))))))))))...= 5.7 Welding process))))))))))))))))))))))))))))...3>


2.5 Influence of magnetic

field))))))))))))))))))))))))...33
2.6 ,bjective

)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))..36 %hapter 64 application of magnetic field 6.3 +ongitudinal magnetic field)))))))))))))))))))))))).37 6.5 Transverse magnetic field))))))))))))))))))))))))) 38

%hapter 74 Weld quality and weld geometry 7.3 *efects in weldpieces)))))))))))))))))))))))))).39 7.5 /eometry of weldpieces))))))))))))))))))))))))).3= %hapter 84 Welding set-up on lathe
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8.3

Automation

to

welding

process))))))))))))))))))))))...5> 8.5 Arrangement for magnetic

field))))))))))))))))))))))...53 8.6 &quipments and instruments

used)))))))))))))))))...................53 8.7 +ine diagram of set-

up)))))))))))))))))))))))))).56 %hapter 94 Welding with the set-up 9.3 ;reparation specimens))))))))))))))))))))))))...57 9.5 Welding with magnetic field 0!)))))))))))))))))))))) 57 9.6 Welding without magnetic field W0! of

)))))))))))))))))))...58 9.7 /rouping and cutting of weld-pieces )))))))))))))))))))) 59 %hapter <4 Weld tests <.3 "ardness )))).5= <.5 Tensile ))))..63 <.6 Impact test))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 69 %hapter ?4 &ffect of magnetic field
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test)))))))))))))))))))))))))..

strength

test))))))))))))))))))))))..

By: Ayalasomayajula Somashekara Koushik

?.3

@isual ))))).6?

effects)))))))))))))))))))))))).

?.5

&ffect

on

weld

properties))))))))))))))))))))))))).7> ?.6 &ffect on weld

geometry)))))))))))))))))))))))))..76

%hapter =4 conclusion and suggestions for further work =.3 %onclusions)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 78 =.5 2uggestions for further

work)))))))))))))))))))))))..79 'eferences)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))..7 <

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INTRODUCTION

3.3

General Welding is a process in which materials of the same fundamental type or class are brought together and caused to join and become one! through the formation of primary chemical bonds under the combined action of heat and pressure . The definition found in I2> standard is AWelding is an operation in which continuity is obtained between parts for assembly# by various meansB. "ence# the welding is the fusion of two or more pieces of metal together by using the heat produced from an electric arc welding machine. Arc welding dates back to the late 3?>>Cs# when a man was welding with a bare metal rod on iron# the sparks from the welding caught a stack of newspapers on fire near him and while welding# he noticed that his welds started looking a lot better. The reason for this was the smoke took the o$ygen out
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of its welding environment and decreased porosity. The arc is struck between the electrode and the metal. It then heats the metal to a melting point. The electrode is then removed# breaking the arc between the electrode and the metal. This allows the molten metal to AfreeDeB or solidify. The arc is like a flame of intense heat that is generated as the electrical current passes through a highly resistant air gap. Types of arc Welding processes ! E E E 20AW 2hielded 0etal Arc Welding! /0AW /as 0etal Arc Welding! /TAW /as Tungsten Arc Welding!

E E

"#$ S%AW &S'ielded (e)al arc *elding+ S0AW is the most common form of welding. An arc welding machine supplies electric current to an electrode wire. The electric current travels through the air gap between the end of the electrode wire and the base metal. As the electric current flows through this air gap# an electric arc is formed. The electric arc produces heat that heats the base metal to its melting temperature. The heat from the base metal produces a shielding gas that protects the base metal# arc# electrode# and weld from the atmosphere during the welding process. As the flu$ covering on the electrode wire melts# a shielding gas is created. When the flu$ cools# it solidifies and forms a protective slag over the weld bead. As the electrode wire melts# it becomes the filler metal to the weld.

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(ig -3.3 2hielded metal arc GTAW &Gas T,ngs)en Arc Welding+ /as Tungsten Arc Welding /TAW!# also known as tungsten inert gas TI/! welding is a process that produces an electric arc maintained between a non consumable tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. The heat-affected Done# the molten metal and the tungsten electrode are all shielded from atmospheric contamination by a blanket of inert gas fed through the /TAW torch. Inert gas usually Argon! is inactive or deficient in active

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chemicalproperties.

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(ig 3.5 -/as Tungsten Arc Welding The shielding gas serves to blanket the weld and e$clude the active properties in the surrounding air. Inert gases such as Argon and "elium do not chemically react or combine with other gases. They pose no odor and are transparent# ;ermitting the welder ma$imum visibility of the arc. In some instances "ydrogen gas may be added to enhance travel speeds. The /TAW process can produce temperatures of up to 68#>>>F ( 3=#759F %!. The torch contributes heat only to the work-piece. If filler metal is required to make the weld# it may be added manually in the same manner as it is added in the o$yacetylene welding process. /TAW is used to weld stainless steel# nickel alloys such as 0onel and in conel# titanium# aluminum# magnesium# copper# brass# bronDe and gold. /TAW can also weld dissimilar metals to one another such as copper to brass and stainless to mild steel. 3.5 G%AW &Gas %e)al Arc Welding+ /as 0etal Arc Welding /0AW! is a welding process which joins metals by heating the metals to their melting point with an electric arc. The arc is between a continuous# consumable electrode wire and the metal being welded. The arc is shielded from contaminants in the atmosphere by a shielding gas.

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(ig.3.6- /as 0etal Arc Welding C-A.TER $ RE/IEW OF LITERATURE

$#"

S,((ary of S'ielded %e)al Arc Welding The process produces a protective slag that will need to be removed for cleanliness and to prevent slag inclusions in multiple pass welds. The process also produces spatter# which is a visual defect. "owever# the spatter can be easily removed with a grinder. There are several advantages to 20AW.

+ow 2tart Gp %osts - 20AW welding machines are relativity ine$pensive ;ortability - 20AW is a very portable process because it does not require any e$ternal shielding gas and equipment due to the ability of the electrode to produce its own shielding gases.

,utdoor Weld ability - 20AW welding can be done outdoors. The shielding of the weld puddle from the coating of the electrode is not susceptible to winds and draft# and therefore# is an e$cellent choice for outdoor welding.

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All ;osition Welding - 20AW can be done in all welding positions# which eliminates the need for e$pensive fi$ture or manipulation of the part being welded. @ariety of 0aterials - 0any base materials and alloys can be welded with the 20AW process.

There are certain disadvantages of 20AW4

+ow &fficiency - The efficiency of a 20AW electrode can be defined as the percentage of the electrode that is consumed and becomes part of the weld. 20AW electrodes are 9>H98H efficient. The primary reason for this low efficiency is stub loss# or the portion of the electrode that is unused and discarded. .

,perating (actor - ,perating factor can be defined as the amount of arc on time in a shift of work# labeled as a percentage. 20AW welding has an operating factor of appro$imately 58H - 6>H--workday is spent arc welding.

'estarts - 20AW electrodes are only =B-3?B in length. When the electrode is consumed in the arc# it needs to be replaced with a new one. This means that welding stops# and time is taken to replace each electrode.

,perator 2kill - 20AW welding requires a high level of operator skill. This process is one of the hardest arc welding processes to learn. 2lag I 2patter.

$#$

AC0DC po*er so,rces A% Alternating %urrent!-- %urrent direction alternates# between positive I negative. *% *irect %urrent! -- %urrent flows in one direction a. *% ;ositive 2T'AI/"T! &lectrode negative# work positive b. *% -egative '&@&'2&! &lectrode positive# work negative
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A%:*% 'ectifiers

(ig.5.3- A% ;ower source

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(ig.5.5 - *% ;ower source

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5.6

Elec)rode ,sed in S%AW The American Welding 2ociety or AW2 sets guidelines for 20AW electrodes with which manufacturers have to comply. These guidelines include chemistry and mechanical properties# and usability tests. &ach letter and digit stands for something very specific. The & stands for electrode. AW2 defines an electrode as the current carrying device# not necessarily the consumable that becomes the weld-ment. In the case of 20AW# the electrode core is consumed as well as any metallic elements in the coating to become the weld deposit. <> stand for minimum tensile strength in 3>#>>> psi. The weld deposit made by this 20AW electrode must consistently meet a minimum tensile strength requirement of <>#>>> pounds per square inch psi!. The ne$t digit is either a 3 or a 5 and indicates welding position. A A3B indicates that the electrode is an all position electrode-- flat# horiDontal# vertical up# vertical down# and overhead!. While the 5 stands for welds that can only be made in the flat:horiDontal position. The 6rd and 7th digit combined indicates the type of current the electrode operates on and the type of coating.

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(ig.5.6- *esignation of welding electrode

$#1

Welding process of S%AW 2hielded metal arc welding 20AW+# also known as manual metal arc 00A! welding# flu$ shielded arc welding or informally as stick welding# is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated with flu$ to lay the weld. An electric current# in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply# is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid# the flu$ coating of the electrode disintegrates# giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag# both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.

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(ig.5.7- Welding process with end view

5.8

Infl,ence of %agne)ic Field Application of e$ternal magnetic field has been reported in the literature to affect the characteristics of the welding arc and the weld properties. 0agnetic field can be applied to the welding arc in three different modes. If magnetic field is in the direction of electrode

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travel# it is considered to be a longitudinal magnetic field. if the field is perpendicular to the direction of electrode travel and electrode a$is# it is referred to as a transverse field. (actors which affect the arc behavior during the application of a magnetic field are as follows4 3. *istance between the electrodes 5. 0agnetic field intensity 6. Arc current 7. Weld material

(ig.5.8- Without magnetic field

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(ig. 5.9- Arc deflection in magnetic field

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(ig.5.<(lemingCs +eft "and 'ule

5.9

O23ec)i4e ! The objective of this project work is to study effect of magnetic field on the weld quality and geometry when the field is applied longitudinal to the electrode travel i.e. the field lines are perpendicular to the electrode travel. The material of the weld-piece taken is mild steel and the welding process is shielded metal arc welding. The weld quality of the pieces will be checked by conducting different weld test as hardness# tensile strength and impact test. The tensile test will be conducted on the GT0 and hardness test is on hardness tester with steel ball penetrator. The impact test will be conducted on the impact testing machine. %harpy test will be conducted to check the toughness of the weld-piece. The weld geometries will be checked through the visual inspection and penetration depth# reinforcement height and weld bead width will be considered.

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To study the effect of magnetic-field on weld-quality and weld geometry when the field is applied-longitudinal to electrode.

To compare the process of arc-welding with magnetic-field and without magnetic-field.

C-A.TER 5 A..LICATION OF %AGNETIC FIELD 5#" Longi),dinal (agne)ic field A magnetic force acts on the arc# in this system when the angle between the direction of the electron stream and magnetic lines of force are not Dero. As the arc has a conical shape and the current carrying electrons also moves along the surface of the arc# their motions can be resolved in two components# one along the a$is of the arc and other perpendicular to it. The component along the arc does not contribute to the magnetic movement. The component perpendicular to arc e$erts a force on the arc causing the arc to rotate clockwise or anticlockwise depending upon the direction of the magnetic field and polarity used.

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(ig.6.3- +ongitudinal magnetic field 5#$ Trans4erse (agne)ic field !

According to the (lemings left hand rule the arc in the influence of transverse magnetic field will be deflected forward or backward depending upon the direction of magnetic field lines force and the polarity of welding system. Work of earlier investigation can be analyDed keeping this in mind. .ovalev showed that the transverse magnetic field can be used as automatically regulating the depth of penetration. "icken and Jackson found beneficial effects of constant transverse magnetic field when the arc was deflected forward with respect to the electrode travel speed. It was possible to increase the welding speed four times and steel obtains the welds free from undercuts. Weld width was found to reduce with increase in magnetic field. 2heinkin found the application of transverse magnetic field to increase the productivity of the submerged arc welding process used for making butt joints between prepared edges.
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(ig.6.5 Transverse magnetic field

C-A.TER! 1 WELD 6UALIT7 AND WELD GEO%ETR7

7.3 Weld 8,ali)y4 To ensure the satisfactory performance of a welded structure# the quality of the welds must be as per acceptance standards. The quality of the welds must be determined by adequate
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testing procedures. These tests includes measure of various defects occur in a weld. The acceptance standards are the minimum weld quality which must be achieve for satisfactory performance of welds. Defec)s in *eld!pieces! The defects which occur in the weld-pieces due to the imperfect welding conditions and their causes are as follows4

3.

Underc,))ing4Gndercutting is the burning away of the base metal at the toe of the weld. %auses4

%urrent adjustment that is too high. Arc gap that is too long. (ailure to fill up the crater completely with weld metal.

5.

Inco(ple)e pene)ra)ion ! This term is used to describe the failure of the filler and base metal to fuse together at the root of the joint.

%auses4 The rate of travel is too high. The welding current is too low

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5#

Lac9 of f,sion !

+ack of fusion is the failure of a welding process to fuse together layers of weld metal or weld metal and base metal.

%auses4 (ailure to raise to the melting point the temperature of the base metal or the previously deposited weld metal. *irty plate surfaces. Improper electrode siDe or type. Wrong current adjustment.

1#

Slag incl,sion !

2lag inclusions are elongated or globular pockets of metallic o$ides and other solid compounds. They produce porosity in the weld metal.

Ca,ses

(ailure to remove the slag between the layers causes slag inclusions

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:#

.orosi)y

;orosity is the presence of pockets which do not contain any solid material. They differ from slag inclusions in that the pockets contain gas rather than a solid.

/ases are derived from4 /as released by cooling weld /ases formed by the chemical reactions in the weld.

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(ig.7.3- Welding defects

1#$

Geo(e)ry of *eld!pieces !

Weld Bead Geo(e)ry K


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The mechanical properties of the welded joints greatly depend on weld bead geometry# which in turn# is influenced by welding parameters like arc current arc voltage# and arc travel speed. The bead geometry is specified by weld bead width# reinforcement height# reinforcement area# penetration height# penetration area and the contact angle of weld bead. ,ther factors like nugget area# percent dilution# pool shape factor# bead shape factor and ripple shape factor may also be included in the bead geometry. (ig shows some aspects of weld bead geometry. The Weld 1ead Width is the ma$imum width of the weld metal deposited. It increases with arc current# arc voltage# electrode weaving and decreases as arc travel speed increases.

.ene)ra)ion *epth of penetration or simply penetration is the distance from base plate top surface to the ma$imum e$tent of the weld nugget. ;enetration determines the load carrying capacity of a welded structure. ;enetration area is that covered by the fusion line below the base metal level. ;enetration area affects the weld strength.

Reinforce(en) -eig')4 'einforcement height is the ma$imum distance between the base metal level and the top point of the deposited metal and 'einforcement Area is one included between the contour line of the deposited metal above the base metal level.

C-A.TER : WELDING SET!U. ON LAT-E


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:#" A,)o(a)ion )o *elding process A lathe machine is used to provide the semi-automation to the welding process. A wooden block covered by a metallic sheet is fi$ed on the carriage and the means of magnetic field is attached with the tailstock. The arrangement is shown in fig.

(ig.8.3- Welding set-up on lathe The welding electrode with holder is to be operated manually while the weld-piece is moved through the lead screw of lathe automatically with a fi$ed speed. A metallic rod is also used to provide the electric connection within the work-piece. This rod is so connected

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that there will be no any gap produce which can fluctuate the electric supply. There is a proper gap maintained within the magnet and work-piece throughout the welding process.

:#$ Arrange(en) for (agne)ic field

A bar magnet is used for the production of magnetic field. In the first arrangement we used a solenoid but a problem occurred with current carrying capacity and the strength of produced magnetic field. A /auss-meter is used for measuring the magnetic field.

(ig.8.5- 0agnetic field measurement by /auss-meter

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:#5 C,rren) and /ol)age (eas,re(en)

%urrent and voltage measuring devices used are clamp-meter and multi-meter respectively.

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(ig.8.6- %lamp-meter I 0ulti-met

:#1 Line diagra( of se) ,p

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(ig.8.7- 2et-up on lathe in 0agnetic field 3. 0ulti-meter# 5. 1attery &liminator# 6. &lectric 1oard# 7. /auss-0eter# 8. Table# 9. 0easuring-;robe# <. Transformer Welding-2et# ?. %lamp-meter =. Tail-2tock# 3>. 2leeve# 33. +ink Wood!# 35. 2olenoid# 36. Tool post# 37. Iron sheet# 38. Work-piece# 39. &lectrode# 3<. &lectrode "older# 3?. 0etal2trip %onnected with head stock# 3=. "ead stock# 5>. %onnection Wires.

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C-A.TER ; WELDING WIT- T-E SET!U.

;#" .repara)ion of Speci(ens

The mild steel pieces of the dimension 38> mm L 8> mm L 9 mm are used as a work-piece for the welding. &ach metal piece first cleaned for dust and rust. 1efore the actual welding process the space between the specimens is fi$ed with a support. The space between the specimens for the butt welding is depends upon the thickness of the work-piece. (or a 9 mm thickness there is no requirement of making groove# so a 6 mm gap is maintained during the whole process of welding. The quality and geometry of weld is much depends on correct and same gap throughout length of the specimen.

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;#$ Welding In %agne)ic Field&%+

The magnetic field is applied as per the set-up and then the arc welding machine and electrodes are fi$ed at their respective places. 0ulti-meter# clamp-meter and gauss-meter are placed and connected to take the readings. As per the semi-automation to the process feed rod is connected with the work-piece motion. The weld-pieces obtained after the process is shown in fig. different readings obtained with the process are tabulated and it is shown in the table no. 9.3.

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W,'.;I&%& -,. 03# 05# 06 07# 08# 09 0<# 0?# 0=

%G''&-T A! 33> - 35> 358-368 =>-3>>

@,+TA/ & @! 56-59 3?-55 5<-6>

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Welding Wi)'o,) %agne)ic Field &W%+ The similar setting as with magnetic welding is used in without magnetic field process of welding. ,nly change is that the magnetic field arrangement is removed. The range of current and voltage are remained similar to the magnetic field welding. The weld-pieces obtained in this process are shown below and the readings are tabulated.

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TA1+& -,. 9.5 W,'.;I&%& %G''&-T A! @,+TA/& -,. W03# W05# W06 W07# W08# W09 W0<# W0?# W0= 33> - 35> 358-368 =>-3>> @! 56-59 3?-55 5<-6>

;#5 Gro,ping and c,))ing of *eld!pieces &ach weld-piece with and without magnetic field! cut into three pieces and grouped according to the range of current and voltage and provided a specific code. -ow# the total no. of weld-pieces is = and their corresponding parametric readings are tabulated as below. &ach weld specimen has a code which shows its specifications. The letter shows the weldviii Lovely Professional University

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piece is from the category of magnetic field or without magnetic field. The letter 0 shows magnetic field and W0 shows without magnetic field. The number provided to the code shows its range of current and voltage. The number 3# 5# 6 shows the range of current 33>35> Ampere and voltage 56-59 volts.

Weld!pieces *i)' (agne)ic field ! Table -o. 9.6 W,'.-;I&%& %G''&-T A! -,. 03. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 0<. 0?. 0=. 35> 33> 338 368 358 36> => =8 3>> 57.8 56.< 56 3?.8 53.8 3= 5<.8 5<.< 5?.8 @,+TA/& @! 0A/-&TI%-(I&+* I-T&-2ITM /AG22! <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> W&+*I-/ mm:min ! 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 2;&&*

Weld!pieces *i)'o,) (agne)ic field ! Table -o. 9.7

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W,'.-;I&%& -,. W03. W05. W06. W07. W08. W09. W0<. W0?. W0=.

%G''&-T A!

@,+TA/& @!

W&+*I-/ 2;&&* mm:min!

338 35> 33> 368 358 36> =8 3>> =>

56 57.< 56 3?.9 53.6 56 5?.< 63 63.8

9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9> 9>

C-A.TER < WELD TESTS

<#" -ardness )es)

"ardness may be defined as the ability of a substance to resist indentation of localiDed displacement. A hardness test is used to determine the hardness of weld metal. In the
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'ockwell hardness test# the specimen is mounted on the anvil of the machine and a load is applied against a hardened steel ball which is in contact with the surface of the specimen being tested. The load is allowed to remain 3:5 minute and is then released# and the depth of the depression made by the ball on the specimen is measured. The resultant 'ockwell hardness number is obtained from the dial.

Roc9*ell 'ardness )es)er

The principle of the 'ockwell tester is essentially the same as the 1rinell tester. It differs from the 1rinell tester in that a lesser load is impressed on a smaller ball or cone shaped diamond. The depth of the indentation is measured and indicated on a dial attached to the machine. The hardness is e$pressed in arbitrary figures called N'ockwell numbers.N These are prefi$ed with a letter notation such as N1N or N%N to indicate the siDe of the ball used the impressed load# and the scale used in the test.

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(ig.<.3- 'ockwell "ardness Tester The test result of the hardness test was conducted on both type of weld-pieces with magnetic field and without magnetic field! are shown in the table below. Table -o.<.3

W,'.-;I&%& -,.

;A'&-T '"-!

0&TA+W&+*0&TA+

'"-!

05.

=>

?6

08.

=5

?>

0?.

?=

?7

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Table -o.<.5 W,'.-;I&%& -,. ;A'&-T 0&TA+ '"-! W05. =6 ?8 W&+* 0&TA+ '"-!

W08.

=8

?9

W0?.

=5

??

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<#$ Tensile s)reng)' )es)

This test is used to measure the tensile strength of a welded joint. The tensile strength# which is defined as stress in kgf per square meter. It is calculated by dividing the breaking load of the test piece by the original cross section area of the specimen. The test result which is conducted on universal testing machine GT0! is given in the table. The gripping and rupture points located in the figures. This test is used to measure the strength of a welded joint. A portion of the welded plate is locate the weld midway between the jaws of the testing machine. The width thickness of the test specimen are measured before testing# and the area in square inches is calculated by multiplying these before testing # and the area in square inches is calculated by multiplying these two figures.

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(ig.<.5- Tensile Testing ;rocess The tensile test specimen is then mounted in a machine that will e$ert enough pull on the piece to break the specimen. The testing machining may be either a stationary or a portable type. A machine of the portable type# operating on the hydraulic principle and capable of pulling as well as bending test specimens.

The specimen is ruptured under tensile load# and the ma$imum load in pounds is determined. The shearing strength of the weld in pounds per linear inch is determined by dividing the ma$imum load by the length of fillet weld that ruptured. The shearing strength in pounds per square inch is obtained by dividing the shearing strength in pounds per linear inch by the average throat dimension of the weld in inches. The test specimens are made wider than required and machined down to siDe.

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(ig.<.6-GT0 Gsed for tensile test

(ig. <.7 K specimen for tensile test

(ig.<.8- /ripping of work-piece


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(ig <.9 ('A%TG'& ,( T&2T ;I&%& Ta2le for )'e )ensile )es) of )'e *eld!pieces *i)' (agne)ic field! Table -o.<.6 W,'.-;I&%& -,. T&-2I+& +,A* I- .gf! %',22-2&%TI,-A+ A'&A mmLmm! T&-2I+& 2T'&-/T" 0pa! 03. 3>7?> 5=> 687.83

07.

3>65>

5?<

685.<8

09.

3>89>

5=5

687.<<

lvii Lovely Professional University

By: Ayalasomayajula Somashekara Koushik

Ta2le for )ensile )es) *i)'o,) (agne)ic field speci(ens! Table -o.<.7 W,'.-;I&%& -,. T&-2I+& +,A* I- .gf! %',22-2&%TI,-A+ A'&A mmLmm! T&-2I+& 2T'&-/T" 0;a! W03. 3>39> 6>> 665.56

W07.

3>57>

5=7

666.9<

W09.

3>>>>

6>7

66>.77

<#5

I(pac) Tes) The two kinds of specimens used for impact testing are known as %harpy and IDod. 1oth test pieces are broken in an impact testing machine. The only difference is in the manner that they are anchored. The %harpy piece is supported horiDontally between two anvils and the pendulum strikes opposite the notch. The IDod piece is supported as a vertical cantilever beam and is struck on the free end projecting over the holding vise A %harpy test measures the welds ability to withstand an Impact force. +ow %harpy test readings indicate brittle weld metal "igher %harpy readings indicate the samples toughness.

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(ig.<.<- Weld-pieces for %harpy test

Table -o.<.8

Table -o.<.9

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W,'.;I&%& -,.

T,G/"-&22 J!

W06. W09. W0=.

8= 97 95

The toughness values of the weld-pieces are tabulated above. Weld-pieces are placed at the impact testing machine as simply supported. The hammer of the heavy weight is then released and corresponding values of weight provides the toughness values for weld-pieces.

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C-A.TER = EFFECT OF %AGNETIC FIELD

=#" /is,al effec)s

The welding process is semi-automated and this result there is a little improvement in weld quality. Welding speed is also increasing as the weld width is shaped by itself. The effect of magnetic field is to deflect the arc as perpendicular to the weld bead. This implies to increase in weld speed. 2ome weld defects are also reduced as weld spattering and incomplete penetration. %omplete penetration occurs due to attraction of molten material. Welding process which is applied here is providing the ease to welder and improves the weld quality. 2ome of visual effects are as follows4

Welding speed

Welding speed is the linear rate at which an arc is moved along the weld joint. With any combination of welding voltage and welding current# the effect of changing the welding speed confirms to a general pattern. If the welding speed is increased# power or heat input per unit length of weld is decreased and less filler metal is applied per unit length of the
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weld# resulting in less weld reinforcement. Thus# the weld bead becomes smaller. Weld penetration is affected more by welding speed than any variable other than current. This is true e$cept for e$cessively slow speeds when the molten weld pool is beneath the welding electrode. Then the penetrating force of the arc is cushioned by the molten pool. &$cessive speed any cause undercutting# porosity# arc blow# uneven bead shape# cracking and higher slag inclusion in the weld metal.

"igher welding speed results in less heat affected Done and finer grains. Within limits# welding speed can be adjusted to control weld siDe and penetration. 'elatively slow welding speed provides time for gases to escape from the molten metal# thus reducing porosity. An e$cessive slow speed produces a conve$ bead shape which is subject to cracking and e$cessive arc e$posure which is uncomfortable for the operator. Too low welding speed may also result in a large molten pool that flows around the arc# resulting in rough bead# slag inclusions and burn through of the weld plate. "ere the application of magnetic field is significantly increases the welding seed. The semi-automation provided to the welding process is also helping to increase the welding speed.

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(ig.?.3-2peed vs. *epth of ;enetration

Spa))er on *eld (e)al

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It has appeared that the welding with magnetic field has less spattering action on the weld metal than the without magnetic field. fig shows it below.

(ig .?.5

=#$ Effec) on *eld proper)ies

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The effect of magnetic field on the weld quality is checked through the various tests for mechanical properties. The weld properties which we have considered here are hardness# tensile strength and toughness. The specimens for each welding test are prepared and the tests are conducted on them. Test results for various mechanical properties are tabulated above.

Tensile )es)

The effect of magnetic field on the tensile strength is to increase it. The weld test conducted on the pieces shows the increase of tensile strength. The change in the properties is calculated in terms of percentage and there is an increase of 9.9H on an average. This shows that a magnetic field applied longitudinal to weld bead# deflected the arc such that the tensile properties of the weld-pieces increases.

Table -o.?.3 ;',;&'TI&2 WIT",GT (I&+* T&-2I+& 2T'&-/T" "A'*-&22 ?9.66 ?5.66 <6.99 665.33 687.>3 9.9H I-%'&A2& I-%'&A2& 39.5H I-%'&A2& 0A/-&TI% %"A-/&

0A/-&TI% (I&+*

T,G/"-&22 93.99

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-ardness )es) The hardness of the material and weld section both are checked and result is found which shows the decrease in the hardness of weld metal. When we are comparing the weld-pieces which are welded without magnetic field the hardness is decreases. The hardness value of the materials are taken in terms of '"'ockwell hardness number !. When the '"- increases it shows the increase in hardness of the material. All the hardness reading in our work is taken at the 1 scale of the 'ockwell hardness tester. To,g'ness Toughness test is used to check the ability of a weld to absorb energy under impact without fracturing. This is a dynamic test in which a test specimen is broken by a single blow# and the energy used in breaking the piece is measured in foot-pounds. This test compares the toughness of the weld metal with the base metal. It is useful in finding if any of the mechanical properties of the base metal were destroyed by the welding process. The two kinds of specimens used for impact testing are known as %harpy and IDod. 1oth test pieces are broken in an impact testing machine. The only difference is in the manner that they are anchored. The %harpy test piece is supported horiDontally between two anvils and the pendulum strikes opposite to the notch. The IDod piece is supported as a vertical cantilever beam and is struck on the free end projecting over the holding vice .the magnetic field applied longitudinal to work-piece increases the toughness of the material. This effect is obtained as per the impact test which is conducted on the specimens of %harpy test. 'esult shows the change in the value of impact load sustained by both type of specimens.

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=#5 Effec) on *eld geo(e)ry

Bead *id)'! The effect of longitudinal magnetic field is to deflect the arc perpendicular to welding direction. As alternating current changing its direction# direction of electrons changes and this changes the direction of force on them. "ence arc is deflecting right and left to the line of weld. This movement increases the bead width. The weld bead width is the ma$imum width of the weld metal deposited. It influences the flu$ consumption rate and chemistry of the weld metal. Weld bead width is directly proportional to arc current# welding voltage and electrode diameter and indirectly proportional to the welding speed. The bead width increases with an increase in electrode diameter. It observed that bead width increased with an increase in current until it reaches a critical value and then it decreases with an increase in welding current. The bead width was not affected significantly by the types of power source constant voltage or constant current! when an acidic fused flu$ was used. "owever# using a basic fused flu$ with constant current operation showed somewhat larger bead width than with welds laid using acidic fused flu$. .ene)ra)ion The penetration depth is increased when magnetic field applied. Weld bead penetration is the ma$imum distance between the base plate top surface and depth to which the fusion has taken place. The more the penetration# the less is the number of welding passes required to fill the weld joint which consequently results in higher production rate. It is observed that the penetration is influenced by welding current# polarity# arc travel speed and physical properties of the flu$. It was observed that penetration was directly proportional to welding current. It was further investigated that the penetration was indirectly proportional to welding speed and electrode diameter. ;enetration decreases with the increase in welding speed because the time during which the arc force is allowed to penetrate into the material. The penetration decreases with the increase in electrode diameter due to decrease in current
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density reported that the penetration decreased with the decrease in electrode e$tension and included angle of the joint. The effect of magnetic field when applied longitudinally shows that the depth of penetration is decreases. This is the most significant effect which is found during the visual inspection. Although the value of this change# not measured in this project work. Reinforce(en) -eig')! 'einforcement is decreases as the bead width of the weld increases'einforcement is the ma$imum distance between the base metal level and the top point of the deposited metal. 'einforcement is the crown height of the weld bead from the base plate. It affects the strength of the weld joint and welding wire consumption rate. It increases with the increase in welding wire feed rate irrespective of the welding current and the type of polarity employed .It is indirectly proportional to welding voltage# welding speed and electrode diameter. Increase of reinforcement with an increase of welding filler wire feed rate is mainly due to the larger amount of metal deposited per unit length. The decrease of reinforcement with the increase in voltage is due to increase in weld bead width. The magnetic field increases the bead width and this leads to the decreases in the reinforcement height.

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C-A.TER > CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

>#" Concl,sions

,n the basis of different e$periments# automation of welding process and effect of magnetic field the following conclusions are derived4

3.

The welding set-up on lathe provides automatic motion to the work-piece and welder has to provide only the feed to electrode. This provides the smoothness in welding process.

5.

&ffect of magnetic field applied transverse to welding direction affects the bead width of joint and increases it.

6. 7.

Gndercuts# spatter etc. welding defects are reduced. The tensile strength of the weld joint is on improvement side due the refinement of grains.

8.

"ardness of the weld decreases as compared with the weld-pieces which are welded without magnetic field.

9. <.

'einforcement height of weld reduces as the weld bead width is increasing. Toughness of the weld metal increases.

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"ence# we can say that the use of e$ternal magnetic field transverse to the welding direction is helping in improvement of weld quality and weld geometry. "ere we can say that the transverse magnetic field can also affect the weld quality .

>#$

S,gges)ions For F,r)'er Wor9

In this project we have constrained our work by testing the effect of magnetic field in longitudinal direction only. (urther this can be study for 0agnetic field in transverse direction of weld bead 0agnetic field applied a$ial to the electrode

(urther the study can be e$tended by conducting the following mechanical properties test

1end test -on destructive tests


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By: Ayalasomayajula Somashekara Koushik

In this project work the weld geometry tests are not conducted only the visual inspection is done and the results based on that are considered. (urther the study can be e$tended by performing the macro structure study of the weld metal. This can be done on polishing and grinding machines. This could be result in perfect testing of weld bead width and penetration depth.

REFERENCES

"# Serdy,9? d# 2#? and @ornien9o? a# n#">;5# T'e *elding arc in an al)erna)ing )rans4erse (agne)ic field# Automatic welding &"A+ <B"5# $# A s),dy on )'e (odeling of (agne)ic arc deflec)ion and dyna(ic analysis of arc sensor 2y 7# -# @ang and s# 3# na# Welding 3o,rnal "5!s#

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5# %allya? U# D#? and Srini4as? '# s# ">>5# %agne)ic s)eering of arc and 2ead c'arac)eris)ics in s,2(erged arc s)rip cladding# welding journal <$ &""+ :"<!s )o :$$s 1# Engineering .rinciples of Welding! processes? p'ysics? c'e(is)ry and (e)all,rgy 2y Ro2er)? Wissler $AA1? and *elding 3o,rnal# :# Dennary F#? &">;;+? Elec)ric field dis)ri2,)ion in *elding arc? p'ysics of *elding arc? sy(#IW? Ca( U@# ;# A(s)ead? B#-#? .#F# Os)*ald? and %#L#2eg(an &"><>+? (an,fac),ring processes? 3o'n *iley? N# 7# <# Serd3,9? G#B#?&">;;+? (agne)ic forces in arc *elding (e)al )ransfer? p'ysics of *elding arc? S7%# IW? Ca(2ridge? London# =# @'an %#I# &"><>+? a s),dy of -ardfacing ,nder (agne)ic field? proc# IS%E conf# Ne* Del'i? paper E#.# 1#" Dec#? ..#"<1#!"<;# ># @'an %#I#? &">>$+? s),dy of effec) of s,peri(posi)ion of longi),dinal (agne)ic field onarc c'arac)eris)ics? 2ead geo(e)ry? (icros)r,c),re and (ec'anical proper)ies# Conf# on prod# Engg# Design and con)rol? ,ni4ersi)y of AleCandria? Egyp)? dec# ">>$# "A# %andal? N# R# &$AA1+? Welding and Dis)or)ion Con)rol? Narosa# ""# Need'a(? D#C#? &"><=+? &Tec'# Dir+ Ad4ances in *elding process? 1 )' In)# Conf# -erroga)e? IW Ca(2ridge? London# "$# Ni9olae4? G#? and N# Ols'ans9y? &"><<+? ad4anced *elding processes? (ir p,2#? %osco*#

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