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Student Name: Cory Lincoln Student ID: 4000677 Date: 8 Apr 2012 Course and Section Num er:

SCIN1!1 "00! Lesson 4 Lab: Chromatography and Ionic versus Covalent Bonds

PART 1 Begin by viewing the following Thinkwell video 27.1.2 CIA Demonstration: Chromatography After you watch the above video, answer the questions below in sufficient detail: (a) (3 pts.) This video discusses 3 different types of chromatography. List each one mentioned, and describe their differences in as much detail as possible. Which one was used in this lab demonstration? Answer: Gas chromatography (GC), high performance/pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC). GC is used to separate gases, HPLC is used to separate the various compounds forming a particular mixture, and TLC is used to separate the various type/layers of organic matter. (b) (2 pts.) How did chromatography get its name, and how is it used differently now compared to in the past (according to the video)? What is it and how does it work? Answer: Chromatography got it's name from the process of separating colors, while now it is used to separate various subjects into their component parts. It uses a stationary phase, a mobile phase, and a substrate. (c) Suppose I melted a green popsicle and ran a chromatogram of the resulting substrate. [i] (1 pts.) In the simplist case, what would I expect to see? Include as much detail as possible. Answer: In the simplest case, you would expect to see the the green substrate separate into yellow and blue areas. [ii] (4 pts.) Suppose that the dot/area representing the longest wavelength of color in this situation was located 29 mm from the baseline, and the dot/area representing the shortest wavelength of color was located 44 mm from the baseline (see Figure 9.4 on page 288 for help). If the solvent traveled 65 mm from the baseline, what was the Rf for each of these two components of the

sample? [SHOW ALL WORK] Answer: Shorter Rf= 44mm/65mm = 0.68 Longer Rf = 29mm/65mm = 0.45

[iii] (2 pts.) What does this mean? Why, in this case, would one component of the sample travel farther than the other? Whats going on herewhat causes this to happen? Answer: This means that the longer wavelength had more resistance to than the shorter wavelength. This would happen because the components are not exactly the same, their Rf's vary. The resistance to movement through the stationary phase is what causes the separation through use of the mobile phase. (d) (2 pts) What is the difference between the stationary phase and the mobile phase as it relates to this lab? What was the stationary phase in this demonstration? What was the mobile phase in this demonstration? Answer: The stationary phase is what the substrate is placed on/in, while the mobile phase is what is used to cause the striation of the substrate. In this lab, the stationary phase was the filter paper, while the mobile lab was the water.

PART 2 Please watch the following Thinkwell video: 9.1.3 CIA Demonstration: Conductivity Apparatus-Ionic versus Covalent Bonds

After you watch the above video, answer the questions below in sufficient detail: (a) (1 pts.) Please state in the blanks provided whether the following samples from the lab were an electrolyte or a nonelectrolyte: Pure water: Ethanol: _nonelectrolyte__ Drain cleaner: _electrolyte__ __nonelectrolyte__ Sucrose: nonelectrolyte__

Sodium chloride: __electrolyte__ (b) (2 pts.) Explain your answers to (a) above detail according to what you witnessed in this lab demonstration. What is the evidence for each? How did you arrive at your answers? What does the type of chemical bond have to do with this? Be specific.

Answer: The evidence for each is that the light bulb either lit, or it remained dark. The ionic compounds conducted electricity, thus are electrolytes, while the covalent compound did not, and are nonelectrolytes. (c) (3 pts.) If you have ever been to a public pool, you know that you are required to exit the pool when there is lightning in the sky. But consider your results from part (a) above and what you learned in this lab, paying particular attention to the very first demonstration that the instructor shows you regarding the light bulb. Does this protocol make sense in light of the data from this demonstration, or is it contradictory? Why or why not? We are talking about water, here, right? Is there anything else going on in this case, chemically speaking, that would change the way we look at this situation? Answer: Yes, it does make sense. Pool water is not pure water, because the disinfectant used is Cl2. When added to H20, the Cl2 dissolves into H20, which forms a strong electrolyte (HCl), and weak electrolyte (HClO). Classifying electrolytes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/chemistry/courses/toolkits/121/js/naming/elec.htm Hypochlorous acid. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://human.freescience.org/htmx/hypochlorous_acid.php DON'T FORGET TO INCLUDE REFERENCES IN ORDER TO FULLY DEVELOP YOUR ANSWERS AND GO BEYOND THE BASICS OF THE QUESTION!!!