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In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox or liar's paradox (pseudomenon in Ancient Greek), is the statement "This sentence

is false." Trying to assign to this statement a classical binary truth value leads to a contradiction (see arado!). If "This sentence is false" is true, then the sentence is false, "hich "ould in turn mean that it is actually true, but this "ould mean that it is false, and so on ad infinitum. #imilarly, if "This sentence is false" is false, then the sentence is true, "hich "ould in turn mean that it is actually false, but this "ould mean that it is true, and so on ad infinitum.

History The $pimenides parado! (circa %&& '() has been suggested as an e!ample of the liar parado!, but they are not logically e)uivalent. The fictional speaker $pimenides, a (retan, reportedly stated that "The (retans are al"ays liars."*citation needed+ ,o"ever $pimenides- statement that all (retans are liars can be resolved as false, given that he kno"s of at least one other (retan "ho does not lie. It is unlikely that $pimenides intended his "ords to be understood as a kind of liar parado!, and they "ere probably only understood as such much later in history. *citation needed+ The oldest kno"n version of the actual liar parado! is attributed to the Greek philosopher $ubulides of .iletus "ho lived in the /th century '(. It is very unlikely that he kne" of $pimenides-s "ords, even if they "ere intended as a parado!.*citation needed+ $ubulides reportedly asked, "A man says that he is lying. Is "hat he says true or false0" The parado! "as once discussed by #t. 1erome in a sermon2 "I said in my alarm, -$very man is a liar3- ( salm. 44%244) Is 5avid telling the truth or is he lying0 If it is true that every man is a liar, and 5avid-s statement, "$very man is a liar" is true, then 5avid also is lying6 he, too, is a man. 'ut if he, too, is lying, his statement2 "$very man is a liar," conse)uently is not true. 7hatever "ay you turn the proposition, the conclusion is a contradiction. #ince 5avid himself is a man, it follo"s that he also is lying6 but if he is lying because every man is a liar, his lying is of a different sort."*4+ In early Islamic tradition liar parado! "as discussed for at least 8 centuries starting from late 9th century apparently "ithout being influenced by any other tradition. :a;r al<5;n al<=s;could have been the first logician to identify the liar parado! as self<referential.

Explanation of the paradox and variants

The problem of the liar parado! is that it seems to sho" that common beliefs about truth and falsity actually lead to a contradiction. #entences can be constructed that cannot consistently be assigned a truth value even though they are completely in accord "ith grammar and semantic rules. The simplest version of the parado! is the sentence2 This statement is false. (A) If (A) is true, then "This statement is false" is true. Therefore (A) must be false. The hypothesis that (A) is true leads to the conclusion that (A) is false, a contradiction. If (A) is false, then "This statement is false" is false. Therefore (A) must be true. The hypothesis that (A) is false leads to the conclusion that (A) is true, another contradiction. $ither "ay, (A) is both true and false, "hich is a parado!.