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Nature of light Particles of light = photons Black body = a perfect emitter and absorber of EM radiation, capable of absorbing and

radiating all wavelengths Photon = Discrete package of electromagnetic energy E=hf where E is the energy of the photon, h is Plancks constant and f is the frequency Radiationg flux = A measure of how intensely light shines on something ORThe power P per unit area A F= P/A (Flux = Power / Area) Flux = Wm-2 Metals can lose electrons if given enough energy Glass absorbs UV light strongly UV can give enough energy to electrons in a metal to allow them to escape from the metal surface. The electrons liberated in this way = PHOTOELECTRONS. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT: A SINGLE PHOTON INTERACTS WITH A SINGLE ELECTRON AT THE SURFACE OF A METAL IN THIS INTERACTION, ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE PHOTON, TO THE ELECTRON, WHICH ALLOWS THE ELECTRON TO BE EMITTED FROM THE METALS SURFACE Threshold frequency = When the photons energy is just enough to release a photoelectron, its frequency = THRESHOLD FREQUENCY. For a given surface, there is a minimum frequency of light below which no emission of photoelectrons occurs, which is why visible light has no effect on electroscopes. Intensity of light determines the number of photoelectrons emitted from the metal surface, moving UV lamp closer = more intense light = higher rate at which photoelectrons are ejected from the plate An electron absorbs energy from an incident photon in order to escape from the metal. Energy remaining after work has been done to escape from metal = kinetic energy of the photoelectron. Work function = Minimum energy required to completely release the photoelectron from the metal surface When photons hit the metal surface, three things can happen: Photon energy isnt enough, so no photoelectrons are produced, metal just heats up slightly Photon energy is greater than the minimum energy required to eject an electron from the metal, photoelectrons have a range of kinetic energies Photon energy is just right to eject a photoelectron from the metal surface, they have zero kinetic energy

Energy required to escape from the metal surface must happen in a single interaction with a photon! No multiple collisions to acquire this energy are allowed. Hf = + mv2max where Hf is the energy of the photon Electronvolt = Unit of energy = 1eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J = Energy transferred when an electron travels through a pd of 1V. mv2max = eVstop Spectrometer = A device that can separate the wavelengths in a beam of radiation, to show those wavelengths that are present. Two different types of emission spectra may appear: One consisting of lines LINE SPECTRA: o Consists of a set of coloured lines against a dark background, each line being a particular wavelength of light emitted by the source. Can include other wavelengths, not only those in the visible spectra. It can be used to identify their sources. o Each coloured line arises when an electron from one energy level drops to another, and a photon of light is emitted. The other of a continuous range of colours CONTINUOUS SPECTRA: o Can be observed using a light from a tungsten filament lamp. They cannot be used to identify their source, however, the wavelength of maximum intensity of the spectrum is linked to the temperature of the source.

The spectrum of sunlight has a series of dark lines ABSORPTION SPECTRUM Photon with a particular wavelength = Fixed amount of energy. Therefore, each line in an emission spectrum means that the atom has lost a fixed amount of energy, given out as a photon of light. Downward pointing arrow = Energy level dropped, a photon released Energy level One of the energies of an electron