Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

Individual Source Control

Description Input Parameters Output Parameters


V ref = 1.0 pu A ref = 0.0 deg

V m Pm 0 [kV ] RL

Individual Source Control


V F RRL

ctrl bus Ph 0 []

Description
This component is part of the Model verification library to control multiple sources in a network. The Individual Source Control sets the Voltage magnitude, Frequency and Phase angle of an individual source according to the Global Source Control component. The advantage of the Individual Source Control together with the Global Source Control components is that once the network is constructed the user can easily switch between different control modes without changing the input parameters of the different sources in the network.
Comment [C1]: Hyper link required

The Individual Source Control uses an integrator circuit to adjust the internal voltage (V) and phase angle (Ph) of a source to match the reference voltage (Vref) and phase angle (Pref) on an external busbar. The reference voltage and phase angle comes from a previously solved loadflow.
1.0 B V ref + V m D P * I SH 400.0 kV *

V bus

3 Phase RM S

V bus Phase Difference V ref

10.0 B Pref + Pm D

1 sT

Ph

SH

The Individual Source Control component can be operated in four different modes as controlled by the Global Source Control component:

Comment [C2]: Hyper link required

Frequency scan: The source voltage and phase angle are set to V = 0.0 pu and Ph = 0.0 deg. Fault level: The source voltage and phase angle are set to V = 1.0 pu and Ph = 0.0 deg. Load flow: The source voltage and phase angle are controlled by their individual integrators as shown above. Fixed values: The source voltage and phase angle are set according to values from a list that are entered by the user.

More: Global Source Control

Comment [C3]: Hyper link required

Input Parameters
General

Nominal Voltage for Per-Unitizing (kV,LL,rms) # of samples in a cycle for voltage Per-Unitizing Source frequency Initial Voltage for Per-Unitizing

REAL

Constant

Enter the nominal Line-to-Line RMS voltage that will be used for per-unit calculations [kV]. Number of samples needed for voltage measurement. The Digital RMS Volt Meter function is used to measure the voltage. A typical value is 64. The source and measurement frequency [Hz]. The initial expected voltage needed for voltage measurement. The Digital RMS Volt Meter function is used to measure the voltage. A typical value is 0.0. The name of the variable that contains the array of 7 values given by the Global Source Control.

INTEGER

Constant

REAL REAL

Constant Constant

Control input variable name Source voltage

Text

REAL

Constant

The time that the source needs to ramp

ramp up time

up in [s]. A linear ramp is used. Typical value for a 50Hz network is 0.06[s] and for a 60Hz network is 0.05[s]. Drop List Drop List Real Constant Enabled the display of the reference voltage and phase values. NO/YES Enabled the display of the voltage and phase output values. NO/YES Enabled when input or output display values are visible. This value specifies at which rate the input and output display values will be refreshed [s]. 3 phase or 1 line view.

Display input values Display output values Display refresh rate

Connected to a node loop with

Drop List

Controller

Reference voltage (scaled) Voltage proportional constant Voltage integration Initial voltage output Initial voltage units Voltage display value

REAL

Constant

The reference voltage that the voltage controller will use to solve the load flow [pu]. This value is scaled according to the Voltage scaling factor in the Global Source Control. Proportional constant of the PI controller that the voltage controller uses to solve the loadflow. Integrator time constant of the PI controller that the voltage controller uses to solve the loadflow [s]. Initial voltage output value of the PI controller before it starts to integrate when it is released to solve the loadflow [pu or kV]. The initial voltage output can be entered in [pu] or [kV]

Comment [C4]: Hyper link required

REAL

Constant

REAL

Constant

REAL

Constant

Drop List REAL Constant

The voltage display value is the output of the voltage controller and is updated during the run. At the end of the run this value can be

copied to the initial voltage output value to speed up the initialization of the next run. Once steady state is reached this value can be stored in the fixed value list for future use [pu or kV]. Reference Angle Phase integration Initial phase output Phase display value REAL REAL REAL Constant Constant Constant The reference phase angle that the phase controller will use to solve the load flow [deg]. Integrator time constant that the phase controller uses to solve the loadflow [s]. Initial phase angle output value of the phase controller before it starts to integrate when it is released to solve the loadflow [deg]. The phase angle display value is the output of the phase controller and is updated during the run. At the end of the run this value can be copied to the initial phase, output value to speed up the initialization of the next run. Once steady state is reached this value can be stored in the fixed value list for future use [deg].

REAL

Constant

Fixed values

Fixed Voltage #1 to 3 (check Vunit) Fixed Angle #1 to 3

REAL

Constant

Up to three voltage values can be entered. In fixed value mode the selected values set will be applied to the voltage output. The value will be applied according to the Initial voltage unit as selected above. Up to three phase values can be entered. In fixed value mode the selected values set will be applied to the phase output.

REAL

Constant

Output Parameters
Vm The measured bus voltage [pu]. Pm The measured bus phase angle [deg]. V The L-L rms source voltage [kV].

F The source frequency [Hz]. Ph - The source phase angle [deg].

Global Source Control


Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
Global Source Control
M ode = 0 Freq scan 6 Frequency = 50 [Hz] V oltage = 0 pu, 0 deg

Global Source Control


M ode = 2 Load Flow 6 Frequency = 50 [Hz] V oltage = 1 [pu] Time to enable = 0.2 [s] Time to lock = 0.8 [s]

Global Source Control


M ode = 3 Fixed values 6 Frequency = 50 [Hz] V alue set #1 : 1.0pu

Description
This component is part of the Model verification library to control multiple sources in a network. The Global Source Control sets the operating mode and values of the Individual Source Control components. The advantage of the Global Source Control component is that once the network is constructed the user can easily switch between different control modes without changing the input parameters of the different sources in the network.
Comment [C1]: Hyper link required

There are four modes that control the output of the sources that are connected to the Individual Source Control components:

Comment [C2]: Hyper link required Comment [C3]: Hyper link required

Frequency scan: When the Harmonic Current Injection component is used to determine the harmonic frequency of the network it requires that all other voltage sources are removed from the network, but there source impedance must remain in circuit. This is achieved by setting the source voltage to zero. Fault level: The fault level in a network is defined with all sources set to have a magnitude of 1 pu and a phase angle of 0 deg. Load flow: The Global Source Control component allows the Individual Source Controls to set the internal source voltage and phase of the individual sources to match the required busbar voltage and angles. The individual sources are locked at the start of the run until the voltage settled. Where after the individual source controls are allowed to integrate to preset voltage and angle values to match a specific loadflow. Once the loadflow has reached steady state the individual integrators are locked again to allow fault studies. Fixed values: The load flow mode can be used to solve the voltage and phase angles for different loadflows or at different voltages. The steady state values can

be entered as initial values to speed up the startup process of the next run. Up to three sets of initial values can be stored. The fixed values mode is used to select between the different values.

More: Individual Source Control

Comment [C4]: Hyper link required

Input Parameters
General

Control mode Frequency Time to enable integrators Time to lock integrators Voltage scaling

Button List REAL REAL REAL REAL Constant Constant Constant Constant

Select the required individual source control mode. Frequency of the reference signal for phase comparison [Hz]. Enabled in Load Flow mode. Time to enable Load Flow integrators [s]. Enabled in Load Flow mode. Time to lock Load Flow integrators [s]. Enabled in Load Flow mode. A voltage scaling factor that is applied to all the individual sources [pu]. Enabled in Fixed mode. Select which of the three fixed value modes is active. Up to three descriptions can be given to identify the different fixed value sets. This description is only used for display purposes.

Fixed value set # Description for fixed value set #1 to 3

Drop List Text

Output Parameters
The output is an array of 7 values, with the following description: (1) VsyncA - A per unit sine wave that gets updated every time step. This is used as a synchronising signal for the Individual Source Controllers to use as a reference for the phase angle.

(2) VsyncB - A per unit sine wave, phase shifted -120 deg from the first reference signal, and gets updated every time step. (3) VsyncC - A per unit sine wave, phase shifted +120 deg from the first reference signal, and gets updated every time step. (4) SH - In mode 2 and this signal is HIGH it allows the integrators to run free. (5) Mode - The required mode. (6) Vscale - In mode 2 (load flow) this signal contains the voltage scaling factor and in mode 3 (fixed value set) this signal contains the fixed value set number.

Three phase voltage measurement with display


Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
Bus 400.0 [kV ] 1.0 [pu] 0.0 []

Description
The Three phase voltage measurement component is placed at the top of a busbar to measure the rms voltage magnitude and phase angle. The measured values are updated during the run. The yellow block displays the busbar name and nominal voltage. The phase angle can be synchronized to an external or internal reference signal.

More:

Input Parameters
General

Description Enable measurements

TEXT Drop List

Enter a description to be displayed in the yellow block. Select YES to enable the measurement algorithm. If NO is selected the component display only the description and nominal voltage. Constant Nominal voltage for display and perunitizing [kV L-L rms].

Nominal Voltage for Per-Unitizing (L-L,RMS)

REAL

Fundamental Frequency # of samples in a cycle Initial Voltage (LL, RMS) Enable Voltage display Display voltage

REAL

Constant

Fundamental frequency is used to calculate the voltage magnitude and angle [Hz]. Number of samples per cycle that are used to calculate the voltage magnitude. Initial voltage magnitude used for voltage magnitude measurement [kV L-L rms]. Enable the voltage magnitude display.

REAL REAL Drop List REAL

Constant Constant

Constant

The voltage magnitude display value is updated during the run according to the Display interval. Enable the voltage angle display. The voltage phase angle display value is updated during the run according to the Display interval. The voltage phase angle can be referenced to an external source like the Global Source Control component or internally. If external source is selected, an array variable with a dimension of 3 is needed to be specified in Voltage sync variable name. The variable requires 3 sinusoidal waves that are 120 degrees phase shifted. If internal source is selected the 3 sinusoidal waves are generated internally and start at zero degrees at time zero. The interval at which the display is updated. By increasing the display interval the simulation runs faster. A typical value is once per cycle [s]. Enable the voltage and phase angle output. The component can be connected to a 3 phase view or single line view node.

Enable Angle display Display angle

Drop List REAL

Synchronisation source for angle calc

Drop List

Comment [C1]: Requires Hyper Link

Display interval for voltage

REAL

Enable output Connected to a node loop with

Drop List Drop List

Output Parameters
V The measured bus voltage [pu]. A The measured bus phase angle [deg].

Fault current
Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
Fault Current 2000 ID 2 13.22 [kA ] 3 -54 [deg] ABC

Description
This component is part of the Model verification library. It determines the fault current at a busbar. The Fault Current component incorporates three breakers to ground that can be controlled individually to calculate the 3-phase or 1-phase fault current magnitude and angle. The 3-phase magnitude is calculated as the positive sequence value. The component can be incorporated together with a multiple run to measure the fault current at numerous busbars.

More:

Input Parameters
General

Fault number Fault location variable

INTEGER INTEGER

Constant Variable

Enter a number to identify the fault. This can be a busbar number. The Fault Current component is active if this value corresponds to the Fault location ID. Can be a variable when used with a multiple run with more than one Fault Current component in the network.

Fault location ID Fault type variable (0,1,2,3,7)

Drop List INTEGER Variable

Select a number that will act as the location ID from the list. The type of fault to apply. Can be a variable when used with a multiple run with more than one Fault Current component in the network. 0 No fault 1 A-phase to ground 2 B-phase to ground 3 C-phase to ground 7 ABC-phases to ground Fault on resistance in [ohm]. Fault off resistance in [ohm]. The display fault current is the measured fault current magnitude output and is updated once every half a cycle during the run [kA]. Constant Base frequency used for angle calculations. The display fault current angle is the measured fault current angle output and is updated once every half a cycle during the run [deg]. The animation state is used to display if the A, B or C phase is faulted.

Fault resistance Open resistance Display fault current (RMS) Frequency Display fault current angle

REAL REAL REAL

Constant Constant

REAL REAL

Animation state ABC

Output Parameters
The output is an array of 3 values, with the following description: (1) Location The value of Fault number. (2) Current The value of Display fault current (RMS) [kA]. (3) Angle The value of Display fault current angle [deg].

Power flow
Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
10 [M W ] 10 [M V A R]
5 [M W ] 15 [M V A R] 10 [M W ] 10 [M V A r]

10 [M W ] 10 [M V A r]

5 [M W ] 5 [M W ] 5 [M V A r] 5 [M V A R] P1 Q1 P2 Q2

Description
The Power Flow component is part of the Model verification library to display the power flow in a network. Target power flow values and a margin can be entered to allow the component to change the color of the back ground. If the values are with in the margin, the background is white. The background is red if the value is higher and green if it is lower than the target values. By setting the target values to zero disable the comparison for that measurement, but the measurement display is still active. The Power Flow component inserts 0.001 ohm resisters between the FROM nodes and the TO nodes to measure the power flow. The component can be used in a 3-phase system or a 6-phase system or a combination of 3 and 6-phases. Example a 6-phase double circuit line can be connected to a 3-phase busbar, using the Power Flow component. More: Real/Reactive power meter

Input Parameters
General

Display interval

REAL

The interval at which the display is updated. By increasing the display interval the simulation runs faster. A typical value is once per cycle [s]. The measured real power value is updated during the run according to the Display interval [MW].

Display Real Power

REAL

Connection nodes

Drop List

The power flow can be measured where the FROM nodes and TO nodes are connected as follow: FROM = 3, TO = 3 FROM = 3, TO = 6 FROM = 6, TO = 6 The measured reactive power value is updated during the run according to the Display interval [MVAr]. Used for calculating the real and reactive power [s]. Target real power, obtained from a power flow [MW]. Target reactive power, obtained from a power flow [MVAr]. The allowable margin around the target power to determine the change in background color [pu]. Updated during the run to change the background color of the real power. Updated during the run to change the background color of the reactive power. Enable the real and reactive power outputs.

Display Reactive Power Smoothing Time Constant Target Real Power Target Reactive Power Margin Real Power outside Margin Reactive Power outside Margin Enable P&Q Outputs

REAL

REAL REAL REAL REAL INTEGER INTEGER Drop List

Output Parameters
P The measured real power [MW]. Q The measured reactive power [MVAr].

Load
Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
R 0.00999900009999 [ohm] LC 0.00318278058378 [H/uF]
Load 1.0 [M W ] 0.95 [pu]
0.0008 [H] -1.0 [M V A R]

0.01 [M W ] 1.0 [M V A R]

Description
The Load component is part of the Model verification library and model a constant impedance RLC branch connected to ground. The component has the functionality to use different input values to calculate the RLC values. More:

Input Parameters
General

Description (optional) (P,pf) or (S,pf) or (P,Q) or Cap type load?

Text Radio Buttons

A description that can be displayed. Allow the user to select between different forms of available data. The user can select between: Real power and power factor, Apparent power and power factor, Real and Reactive power, Capacitor bank with inrush reactor. Selection is made to the type of node loop the component is connected to: 3 phase view, single line view. Different Icons can be displayed: Load, Inductor, Capacitor or Other

Connected to a node loop with

Drop List

Icon

Drop List

Display R and L or C values Display resistance value Display impedance value Enable (Disable = show graphics, no electrics)

Radio Buttons REAL REAL Radio Buttons

The calculated R and L or C values can be displayed in ohms and H or uF. The displayed resistance [ohm]. The displayed inductance or capacitance [H or uF]. The complete component can be switched out of circuit while the graphics stay in the network. This allows the component to remain in the file without taking part in the mathematical solution.

Values

Base Voltage (L-L rms) Base frequency Apparent Power (3-ph) Real Power (3-ph) Power factor Imaginary power (3-ph) (+Ind, -Cap) Inrush reactor Type of scaling

REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL

Constant Constant Constant Constant Constant Constant

The voltage base that are used for the impedance calculations [kV L-L rms]. The frequency base that are used for the inductance or capacitance calculations [Hz]. The apparent power that are used for the impedance calculations [MVA 3-ph]. The real power that are used for the impedance calculations [MW 3-ph]. The power factor that are used for the impedance calculations [pu]. The reactive power that are used for the impedance calculations [MVAr 3-ph]. The inrush reactor when the Capacitor type load is selected [H]. Direct scaling of the load can be applied for example when only 50% of the load is required. Or, (1/Scale^2) can be applied when the load value is available at a different voltage than the base value for example at 1.05 pu voltage.

REAL Radio Buttons

Constant

Scaling factor

REAL

The load scaling value that will be applied according to Type of scaling [pu].

Internal outputs

Current A,B,C phase

REAL

The A, B and C phase current values [kA].

Output Parameters

Display value
Description Input Parameters Output Parameters
variable 0 pu

variable @ t=0.5 [sec] 0 pu

Description
The Display Value component is part of the Model verification library. It dynamically display the value of a variable on the component graphic. The value is updated continuously or only once during the run. When the value is updated only once it can be used as a sample and hold feature. If more than one Display Value component is connected to the same variable with different sample and hold times, the value before and after an event can be seen at the end of the run. For example, the power flow before and after a fault on the network can be displayed. The variable name and units are only for display purposes and can be omitted. More:

Input Parameters
General

Description(optional) Display interval

Text REAL

A description can be added to be displayed on top of the component. The interval at which the display is updated [s]. By increasing the display interval the simulation runs faster. The value is updated independently from the simulation Plot Step. Allow the user to Hide or Display the update time value. Repeat - allows the value to be updated

Display update time Type of display

Radio Buttons Radio

update

Buttons

incrementally according to the Display Interval. Once - updates the value only once during the run. The measured value is updated during the run according to the Display interval and Type of display update. A scaling factor can be applied to the display value [pu]. A description for the units of the value being measured can be added.

Display value

REAL

Scaling factor Units (optional)

REAL Text

Output Parameters

6 to 3-Phase Splitter / Connector


Description Input Parameters

Description
The phase split component can be used to split a six-dimensional, electrical signal into two separate three-dimension electrical signals or connect them to a single threedimensional electrical signal.

The image below illustrates this components use:


T TLine1

3 phase S ource

6 phase line

2 x3 phase loads

NOTE: The blue box symbol on this component indicates the first three-dimensional array output (i.e. 1, 2 and 3 of 6).

More: Valid Connections

Input Parameters

P+jQ P+jQ