MOMENT OF INERTIA
Moment of Inertia( Second moment area)
The product of the elemental area and square of the
perpendicular distance between the centroid of area and the
axis of reference is the Moment of Inertia about the reference
axis
x
y
x
y
dA
o
I
ox
= da
1
y
1
2
+ da
2
y
2
2
+ da
3
y
3
2
+ 
= da y
2
I
oy
= da
1
x
1
2
+ da
2
x
2
2
+ da
3
x
3
2
+ 
= da x
2
Radius of Gyration
k
k
k
Elemental area
r
1
r
2
r
3
A
A
B
B
Radius of gyration is defined as a constant distance of all
elemental areas which have been rearranged with out
altering the total moment of inertia.
I
AB
= da k
2
+ da k
2
+ 

I
AB
= da k
2
I
AB
= A k
2
k=I
AB
/A
Polar moment of Inertia
(Perpendicular Axes theorem)
The moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpendicular
to the plane of the area is called Polar Moment of Inertia and
it is denoted by symbol I
zz
or J or I
p
. The moment of inertia of
an area in xy plane w.r.to z. axis is I
zz
= I
p
= J = r
2
dA = (x
2
+
y
2
) dA = x
2
dA + y
2
dA = I
xx
+I
yy
O
y
x
r
z
x
Y
Hence polar M.I. for an area w.r.t. an axis perpendicular to its
plane of area is equal to the sum of the M.I. about any two
mutually perpendicular axes in its plane, passing through the
point of intersection of the polar axis and the area.
Polar moment of Inertia
(Perpendicular Axes theorem)
Parallel Axis Theorem
d
A B
x
x
dA
y
*
G
Moment of inertia of any area about an axis AB is equal to the
M.I. about parallel centroidal axis plus the product of the total
area and square of the distance between the two axes.
I
AB
=dA (d +y)
2
= dA (d
2
+ y
2
+ 2 d y)
=dA. d
2
+dA y
2
+ 2ddA y
= dA. d
2
+dA y
2
+ 2d. y dA
In the above term (2d) is constant & y dA = 0
I
AB
= I
xx
+ A.d
2
MOMENT OF INERTIA BY DIRECT INTEGRATION
M.I. about its horizontal centroidal axis :
Find the moment of inertia of rectangular area about
centroidal horizontal axis by direct integration
12
) (
3
2 /
2 /
2
2
2 /
2 /
BD
y dy B
y dA I
D
D
D
D
x x
=
}
=
}
=
+
G
B
x
x
dy
y
D
D/2
Q 4.1
.
Find the Moment of Inertia of rectangular area about its base
(about the line AB) using Parallel Axis Theorem
I
AB
= I
XX
+ A(d)
2
Where d = D/2, the distance
between axes xx and AB
B
A
G
B
x
x
dy
y
D
D/2
=BD
3
/12+(BD)(D/2)
2
=BD
3
/12+BD
3
/4
=BD
3
/3
Q 4.2
From similar triangles
Find the moment of inertia of Triangular area about
the base by direct integration
Q 4.3
h
x
B
h/3
x
b
x
y
(hy)
dy
A
b/h = x/(hy)
x = b . (hy)/h
I
AB
= } dA.y
2
= } (x.dy)y
2
h
I
xx
= } (b . (hy) y
2
.dy) /h
0
= b[ h (y
3
/3) y
4
/4 ]/h
= bh
3
/12
Q 4.3
h
x
B
h/3
x
b
x
y
(hy)
dy
A
Using Parallel axis theorem .
MI about any line(AB) = MI about cenroidal parallel axis + Ad
2
Find the moment of inertia of Triangular area about
the centroidal horizontal axis
Q 4.4
h
x
B
h/3
x
b
x
y
(hy)
dy
A
Centroidal horizontal axis
I
AB
= I
xx
+ Ad
2
I
xx
= MI about centroidal axis x x
I
AB
=
MI about the Base line AB
I
xx
= I
AB
Ad
2
= bh
3
/12 bh/2 . (h/3)
2
= bh
3
/36
I
xx
= } dA . y
2
R 2t
= } } (x.du.dr) r
2
Sin
2
u
0 0
R 2t
=} } r
3
.dr Sin
2
u du
0 0
R 2t
=} r
3
dr } {(1 Cos2u)/2} du
0
R
0
2t
=[r
4
/4] [u/2 Sin2u/4]
0 0
= R
4
/4[t  0] = tR
4
/4
I
XX
= t R
4
/4 = tD
4
/64
B A
x
x
R
u
du
y=rSinu
r
Find the moment of inertia of Circular area about the
centroidal horizontal axis
Q 4.5 X
I
AB
= } dA . y
2
R t
= } } (r.du.dr) r
2
Sin
2
u
0
R
0
t
=} r
3
.dr } Sin
2
u du
0 0
R t
=} } r
3
dr (1 Cos2u)/2) du
0 0
t
=[R
4
/4] [u/2 Sin2u/4]
0
= R
4
/4[t/2  0]
= tR
4
/8 = (D
4
/32)
4R/3t
y
0
y
0
B
A
x
x
R
Find the moment of inertia of Semicircular area about
the Base & centroidal horizontal axis
Q 4.6
using parallel axis theorem:
I
AB
= I
xx
+ A(d)
2
I
xx
= I
AB
A(d)
2
= t R
4
/8 tR
2
/2 . (4R/3t)
2
I
xx
= 0.11R
4
moment of inertia of Semicircular area about the
centriodal horizontal axis
I
AB
= I
CD
R t/2
I
AB
= } } (r.du.dr). r
2
Sin
2
u
0 0
R t/2
=} r
3
.dr } Sin
2
u du
0 0
R t/2
=} r3 dr } (1 Cos2u)/2) du
0 0
t/2
=[R
4
/4] [u/2 (Sin2 u)/4]
0
= R
4
(t/16 0) = tR
4
/16
A
B
x
x
C
D
y
y
4R/3
4R/3
Find the moment of inertia of Quartercircular area
about the base & centroidal horizontal axis
Q 4.7X
Moment of inertia about Centroidal axis,
I
xx
= I
AB
 Ad
2
= tR
4
/16  tR
2
. (0. 424R)
2
= 0.055R
4
Sl.No
Figure I
x
0
x
0
I
y
0
y
0
I
xx
I
yy
1
bd
3
/12

bd
3
/3

2
bh
3
/36

bh
3
/12

3
tR
4
/4
tR
4
/4


4
0.11R
4
tR
4
/8
tR
4
/8

5
0.055R
4
0.055R
4
tR
4
/16
tR
4
/16
b
d
x
0
x
x
0
x
d/2
b
h
x x
x
0
x
0
h/3
x
0
x
0
y
0
y
0
O
R
y
0
y
0
x
x
x
0
x
0
4R/3
x
0
y
y
0
4R/3
4R/3
Y
Y
X
o
Find the moment of Inertia of the shaded area shown in
fig.about its base.
20mm
5 5
5
5 5
25
15
10 10
5
20mm
30mm
X X
Numerical Problems & Solutions
Q 4.8
20mm
5 5
5
5 5
25
15
10 10
5
20mm
30mm
I
xx
= I
xx1
+ I
xx2
+I
xx3
4
mm
3
10 * 297.5 I
] 20 * 10 * 10
12
10 * 10
[
30 * ) 30 * 20 (
2
1
36
30 * 20
10 ) 20 * 20 (
12
20 * 20
xx
2
3
2
3
2
3
=
+
+ +
+ =
X X
1
3
2
Solution:
Q 4.8
Compute the M.I. about the base(bottom) for
the area given in fig.
100mm
200mm
20mm
20mm
80mm
30mm
x
x
25
mm
Q 4.9
100mm
200mm
20mm
20mm
80mm
30mm
x
x
1
2
3 4
5
SOLUTION :
25
Q 4.9
I
x x
= 200*20
3
/3+[25*100
3
/12+(25*100)70
2
]
+2[87.5*20
3
/36+0.5*87.5*20*(26.67)
2
]
+[100*30
3
/12+100*30*135
2
]
I
x x
=71.05*10
6
mm
4
Q 4.9
Find M.I. about the horizontal centroidal axis for the
area shown and also find the radius of gyration.
x
o
463.5mm
250mm 250mm
100
200mm 200mm
100mm
400mm
400mm
1100mm
y=436.5mm
x
o
Q 4.10
Solution:
x
o
463.5mm
250mm 250mm
100
200mm 200mm
100mm
400mm
400mm
1100mm
y=436.5mm
x
o
1
2
3 4
5
6
Q 4.10
A=1100*100+400*100+400*400+2(1/2*100*400)*50
2
=3,42,150 mm
2
AY=1100*100*50+100*400*300+400*400*700+[(1/2)*100*
400*633.3]*2  *50
2
*700 =14,93,38,200mm
3
Y= AY / A=436.5mm
149338200mm
Q 4.10
Moment of Inertia about horizontal centroidal
Axis:
I
XoXo
=[1100*100
3
/12 +1100*100(386.5)
2
]+[100*400
3
/12
+(100*400)*(136.5)
2
]+[400*400
3
/12+400*400*(263.5)
2
]+2
[100*400
3
/36+(1/2*400*100)*(196.8)
2
]
[*(50)
4
/4+*50
2
*(263.5)
2
]
I
XoXo
=32.36*10
9
mm
4
r
XoXo
=(I
XoXo
/A)=307.536mm.
Q 4.10
Compute the M.I. of 100 mm x 150mm rectangular
shown in fig.about xx axis to which it is inclined at an
angle of u = Sin
1
(4/5)
X X
u = Sin
1
(4/5)
A
B
C
D
Q 4.11
X X
u = Sin
1
(4/5)
A
B
C
D
M
N
K
L
sinu =4/5, u =53.13
o
= From geometry of
fig ,
BK=ABsin(9053.13
o
)
=100sin(9053.13
o
)=60mm
ND=BK=60mm
FD= 60/sin53.13
o
= 75mm
AF=150FD=75mm
FL=ME=75sin53.13
o
=60mm
( )
mm
AB
FC AE 125
8 . 0
100
90 cos
= =
= =
u
E
F
Solution:
Q 4.11
I
XX
=I
DFC
+I
FCE
+I
FEA
+I
AEB
=125 (60)
3
/ 36+ (1/2)*125*60*(60+60/3)
2
+125(60)
3
/36+(1/2)*125*60*40
2
+125*60
3
/36 +(1/2)*125*60 *20
2
+125*60
3
/36 +(1/2)*125*60*20
2
Ixx = 36,00,000 mm
4
Q 4.11
Find the M.I. of the shaded area shown about AB
.
40mm 40mm
40mm
A B
40mm
80mm
Q 4.12
40mm 40mm
40mm
A B
40mm
80mm
I
A
= I
A1
+ I
A2
+ I
A3
= [80*80
3
/36
+(1/2)*80*80(80/3)
2
+[(0.11*40
4
)+(1/2)(40)
2
(0.424r)
2
] [*20
4
/4]
I
A
=429.3*10
4
mm
4
Solution:
1
2
3
Q 4.12
Calculate the moment of inertia of the built up section
shown in fig.about the centroidal axis parallel to AB. All
members are 10mm thick.
250mm
250mm
50mm
A B
50mm
10mm
10mm
50mm
50mm
Q 4.13
250mm
250mm
40mm
A
B
50mm
10mm
10mm
1
2
3 4
5
6
50mm
40mm
Solution:
Y=73.03mm
Q 4.13
It is divided into six rectangles. Distance of centroidal X
axis from AB=Y=A
i
Y
i
/A
A=2*250*10+40*4*10=6600mm
2
A
i
Y
i
=
=250*10*5+2*40*10*30+40*40*15+40*10*255
+250*10*135
=4,82,000mm
3
Q 4.13
Y= AiYi / A=482000/6600=73.03mm
Moment of Inertia about centroidal axis
=Sum of M.I. of individual rectangles
= 250*10
3
/
12+250*10*68.03
2
+ [10*40
3
/12 +40*10*(43.03)
2
*2
+40*10
3
/12+40*10 (58.03)
2
+10*250
2
/12+250*
10(73.05135)
2
+40*10
3
/12+40*10(73.05255)
2
I
XoXo
=5,03,99395mm
4
Q 4.13
Find the second moment of the shaded area shown in
fig.about its centroidal xaxis.
R=20
20mm 40mm 20mm
40mm
20mm
30mm 50mm
Q 4.14
solution:
R=20
20mm 40mm 20mm
40mm
20mm
30mm 50mm
1
2
3
4
Xo
Xo
31.5mm
Q 4.14
A=40*80+1/2*30*30+1/2*50*301/2**(20)
2
=3772mm
2
A
i
X
i
=3200*40+450*2/3*30+750*(30+50/3)
1/2* *20
2
*40
=146880mm
3
A
i
Y
i
=3200*20+450*50+750*50628*4*20/3 = 118666.67mm
3
Y =118666.67/3772= 31.5mm
I
XoXo
= [80*40
3
/12+(80*40)(11.5)
2
]+[30*30
3
/36+
1/2 *30*30(18.5)
2
]+ [50*30
3
/36 +1/2+50*30*(18.50)
2
]
[0.11*20
4
)+/2*(20)
2
(31.50.424*20)]
= 970.3*10
3
mm
4
Q 4.14
Find the M.I. about top of section and about two
centroidal axes.
10mm
150mm
10mm
150mm
Q 4.15
solution:
10mm
150mm
10mm
150mm
Yo
Yo
Xo Xo
41.21mm
Q 4.15
It is symmetrical about Y axis, X=0
Y=AY/A =[ (10*150*5) +(10*140*80)]/[(10*150)+(10*140)
=41.21mm from top
I
XX
= 150*10
3
/12 + ( 150*10)*5
2
+10*140
3
/12+(10*140)
*(80)2 = 11296667mm4
I
XX
= I
XoXo
+ A(d)
2
,where A(d)
2
I
XoXo
=6371701.10 mm
4
I
YoYo
=( 10*1503 /12) + (140*103/12)=2824166.7mm
4
I
XoXo
+(150*10+140*10)*(41.21)
2
=11296667mm
3
Q 4.15
Find the M.I. about centroidal axes and radius of
gyration for the area in given fig.
40mm
10mm
50mm
10mm
Q 4.16
solution:
40mm
10mm
50mm
10mm
Xo Xo
Yo
Yo
A B
C D
E
G
F
Y=17.5mm
X=12.5mm
Q 4.16
Centroid
X=ax/a= [(50*10)5+(30*10)25]/800=12.5mm
Y=ay/a= [(50*10)25+(30*10)5]/800=17.5mm
Q 4.16
I
XoXo
= [10*50
3
/12+(50*10)(17.55)
2
]+
[30*10
3
/12+(30*10) (12.5)
2
=181666.66mm
4
I
YoYo
=[(50*10
3
/12)+(50*10)(7.5)
2
]+[10*30
3
/12
+(30*10)*(12.5)
2
]=101666.66mm
4
r
xx
=(181666.66/800) = 15.07 mm
r
yy
=(101666.66/800)= 11.27 mm
Determine he moment of inertia about the
horizontal centroidal axes for the area shown.
100 mm
100 mm
60 mm
Q 4.17
solution:
100 mm
100 mm
60 mm
Y=40.3mm
Xo Xo
1
2
Q 4.17
Y=[(100*100)50(/4)60
2
*74.56]/[(100*100) (/4)60
2
]
=40.3mm
I
XoXo
= [(100*100
3
/12)+100*100*(9.7)
2
]
[0.55*(60)
4
+0.785*(60)
2
*(34.56)
2
]
=83,75,788.74mm
4
Q 4.17
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.1. Determine the moment of inertia about the
centroidal axes.
100mm
20
30mm
30mm
30mm
[Ans: Y = 27.69mm I
xx
= 1.801 x 10
6
mm
4
I
yy
= 1.855 x 10
6
mm
4
]
Q.2. Determine second moment of area about the centroidal
horizontal and vertical axes.
[Ans: X = 99.7mm from A, Y = 265 mm
I
xx
= 10.29 x 10
9
mm
4,
I
yy
= 16.97 x 10
9
mm
4
]
200mm
200
300mm
300mm
900mm
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.3. Determine M.I. Of the built up section about the horizontal
and vertical centroidal axes and the radii of gyration.
[Ans: I
xx
= 45.54 x 10
6
mm
4,
I
yy
= 24.15 x 10
6
mm
4
r
xx
= 62.66mm, r
yy
= 45.63mm]
60
100mm
200mm
140mm
20
20
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.4. Determine the horizontal and vertical centroidal M.I. Of the
shaded portion of the figure.
[Ans: X = 83.1mm
I
xx
= 2228.94 x 10
4
mm
4,
I
yy
= 4789.61 x 10
4
mm
4
]
60
60 60
X
X
20
20
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.5. Determine the spacing of the symmetrically placed vertical
blocks such that I
xx
= I
yy
for the shaded area.
[Ans: d/2 = 223.9mm d=447.8mm]
200mm
600mm
d
400mm
200mm
200mm
200mm
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.6. Find the horizontal and vertical centroidal moment of inertia
of the section shown in Fig. built up with R.S.J. (ISection) 250 x
250 and two plates 400 x 16 mm each attached one to each.
Properties of I section are
I
xx
= 7983.9 x 10
4
mm
4
I
yy
= 2011.7 x 10
4
mm
4
[Ans: I
xx
= 30.653 x 10
7
mm
4,
I
yy
= 19.078 x 10
7
mm
4
]
4000mm
2500mm
160mm
160mm
Cross sectional area=6971mm
2
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.7. Find the horizontal and vertical centroidal moment of inertia
of built up section shown in Figure. The section consists of 4
symmetrically placed ISA 60 x 60 with two plates 300 x 20 mm
2
.
[Ans: I
xx
= 111.078 x 10
7
mm
4,
I
yy
= 39.574 x 10
7
mm
4
]
300mm
Properties of ISA
Cross sectional area = 4400mm
2
Ixx = Iyy ;C
xx
= C
yy
=18.5mm
18.5mm
18.5mm
20mm
200mm
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q.8. The R.S. Channel section ISAIC 300 are placed back to back
with required to keep them in place. Determine the clear
distance d between them so that I
xx
= I
yy
for the composite
section.
[Ans: d = 183.1mm]
Properties of ISMC300
C/S Area = 4564mm
2
I
xx
= 6362.6 x 10
4
mm
4
I
yy
= 310.8 x 10
4
mm
4
C
yy
= 23.6mm
X X
Y
Y
Lacing
d
380mm
23.6mm
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Q9. Determine horizontal and vertical centroidal M.I. for the
section shown in figure.
[Ans: I
xx
= 2870.43 x 10
4
mm
4,
I
yy
= 521.64 x 10
4
mm
4
]
90mm
160mm
40mm
40mm
40mm
EXERCISE PROBLEMS