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anuary 4, 2011 Windows Server Support Interview Questions and Answers (L2)

Windows Server Support Interview Questions and Answers (L2) What is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP? To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stops serving the clien ts Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for re plication. Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same si te. Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN link s BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partit ion is not possible to replicate using SMTP How to monitor replication We can user Replmon tool from support tools Brief explanation of RAID Levels Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of di sk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic Disk Storage Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Window s 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basi c volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include multidisc volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and st ripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes . Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows X P Professional. Dynamic Disk Storage Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Window s Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes , striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, y ou can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Hom e Edition-based computers. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers. However, you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RA ID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 20 00 Advanced Server, or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, or the Standard, Enterpri se and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003.

Storage types are separate from the file system type. A basic or dynamic disk ca n contain any combination of FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS partitions or volumes. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. However, all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. To do this, follow these steps: 1. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. 2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. 3. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then doubl e-click Computer Management. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Man age if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. 4. In the left pane, click Disk Management. 5. In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. 6. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then click OK. 7. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Click Conv ert. 8. Click Yes when you are prompted to convert the disk, and then click OK. Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, local access to the d ynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Serv er 2003. Additionally, after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, the dyn amic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dyn amic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up the data or move it to an other volume. Dynamic Storage Terms A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Volumes on dynamic dis ks can have any of the following layouts: simple, spanned, mirrored, striped, or RAID-5. A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple, concatenated regions. A simple volume can be ext ended within the same disk or onto additional disks. If a simple volume is exten ded across multiple disks, it becomes a spanned volume. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from mu ltiple disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A span ned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physic al disks. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant. Striping is also known as RAID-0. A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two phy sical disks. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy. If one of the disks fails, the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. A mirrored volume cannot be extended. Mirroring is also know n as RAID-1. A RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstr uct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. If a physical d isk fails, the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mir rored or extended.

The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load W indows (for example, Ntldr, Boot.ini, and The system volume can b e, but does not have to be, the same as the boot volume. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. The boot volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system volume. RAID 0 Striping

RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required)

RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role, which maintains Indexes about objects. It contains ful l information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the ob jects in other domains. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC s in the forest. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service, which maintains the relationship betwee n resources and enabling them to work together. Because of AD hierarchal structu re windows 2000 is more scalable, reliable. Active directory is derived from X.5 00 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. Acti ve directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. Inf ormation in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol what is the physical and logical structure of AD? Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Fore sts Trees Domains Child Domains Grand Child etc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1.Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3. Domain partition 4. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration, Schema partitions can be replicated between the doma in controllers in the in the entire forest. Whereas Domain partition can be repl icated between the domain controllers in the same domain What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000? After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. User name and encrypted timest amp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. Then D omain controller based on the password information stored in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches t o its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket t o client in an encryption format. Again client decrypts and if produced time sta mp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the do main. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket wh

en accessing network resources What are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global Catalog? Kerberos 88, LDAP 389, Global Catalog 3268

what is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol, which is used to exchange directory informa tion from server to clients or from server to servers what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP? Scope is full with IP addresses no IP s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly e.g. default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc What is the role responsible for time synchronization? PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Time synchronization is im portant because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS? TTL is Time to live setting used for the amount of time that the record should r emain in cache when name resolution happened. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS How to take DNS and WINS, DHCP backup %System root%/system32/dns %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. We can perform fallowing operations from recover y console We can Enable Repair Create copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record and format partitions on drives

What is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physica lly. There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. We cannot provide red undancy for stand alone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain e nvironment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name) . Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed thr ough /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to cre ate DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically s hared) The The The The maximum maximum maximum maximum number of Dfs roots numbers of Dfs root number of Dfs roots number of Dfs links per server is 1. replicas are 31. per domain is unlimited. or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1,000

What is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely. Client requirements PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Active directory Directory service How many root replicas can be created in DFS? 31 What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS? Refer question 17. High Level Can we establish trust relationship between two forests? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In Windows 2003 it is possible What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roles are Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master Brief all the FSMO Roles Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database, such as the Active Directory, provides the flex ibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise, but it also in troduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm han dle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is, "the last writer wins"), while discarding the changes in all oth er DCs. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases, there a re times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. In such cases, it is best to prevent the conflict from occurrin g rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. For certain types of changes, Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003, the Active Directory perfor ms updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. In a single-master model, only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to proc ess updates. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (P DC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4.0), in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain.

In a forest, there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain c ontrollers. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to th e schema. Once the Schema update is complete, it is replicated from the schema m aster to all other DCs in the directory. To update the schema of a forest, you m ust have access to the schema master. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of d omains in the forest. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain fr om the directory. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in exter nal directories. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain, it represents the reference by the GUID, the SID (for references to security pri ncipals), and the DN of the object being referenced. The infrastructure FSMO rol e holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished na me in a cross-domain object reference. At any one time, there can be only one do main controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is because a G lobal Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. As a result, cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog, all the domain controller s have the current data, and it is not important which domain controller holds t he infrastructure master role. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain c ontrollers in a particular domain. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group, it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain), a nd a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. When a DC's allocated RID pool fa lls below a threshold, that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domai n's RID master. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requ esting DC. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as th e RID master in the domain. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000 /2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the K erberos authentication protocol. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authori ty and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage.

The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. The PDC emulator a t the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise, and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. All PDC FSMO role holder s follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partne r. In a Windows 2000/2003 domain, the PDC emulator role holder retains the followin g functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentia lly to the PDC emulator. Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incor rect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure me ssage is reported to the user. Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO co py found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share, unless configured not to do so by t he administrator. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4 .0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4.0-based or earlier clients. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations, me mber servers, and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emula tor master in each domain in the forest. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC s How can I determine who are the current FSMO Roles holders in my domain/forest? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master met hod called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation), as described in Understandin g FSMO Roles in Active Directory. The five FSMO roles are: Schema master - Forest-wide and one per forest. Domain naming master - Forest-wide and one per forest. RID master - Domain-specific and one for each domain. PDC - PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. Infrastructure master - Domain-specific and one for each domain. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually, on the same DC) as has been configured by the Activ e Directory installation process. However, there are scenarios where an administ rator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder D C to a different DC. The transferring method is described in the Transferring FS MO Roles article, while seizing the roles from a non-operational DC to a differe nt DC is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article.

In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess, an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge o f which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role, and what role it holds. With that knowledge in hand, the administrator can make better arrangements in c ase of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC, and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well, one can accomplish th is task by many means. This article will list a few of the available methods. Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role Number of DCs holding this role Original DC holding the FSMO role Schema One per forest The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i.e. the F orest Root Domain) Domain Naming One per forest RID One per domain The first DC in a domain (any domain, including the Forest Ro ot Domain, any Tree Root Domain, or any Child Domain) PDC Emulator One per domain Infrastructure One per domain Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Which snap-in should I use? Schema Schema snap-in Domain Naming AD Domains and Trusts snap-in RID AD Users and Computers snap-in PDC Emulator Infrastructure Finding the RID Master, PDC Emulator, and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master, PDC Emulator, an d Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. 2. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Ope ration Masters. 3. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view. 4. When you're done click close. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. 2. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Oper ation Masters. 3. When you're done click close. Finding the Schema Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ss 8.

Register the Schmmgmt.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: Press OK. You should receive a success confirmation. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC. On the Console menu, press Add/Remove Snap-in. Press Add. Select Active Directory Schema. Press Add and press Close. Press OK. Click the Active Directory Schema icon. After it loads right-click it and pre Operation Masters. Press the Close button.

Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command. Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complet e loss of Active Directory functionality. 1. On any domain controller, click Start, click Run, type Ntdsutil in the Open b ox, and then click OK. 2. Type roles, and then press ENTER. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool, type ?, and then press ENTER. 3. Type connections, and then press ENTER. 4. Type connect to server , where is the name of the server you want to use, and then press ENTER. 5. At the server connections: prompt, type q, and then press ENTER again. 6. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt, type Select operation target, and then press ENTER again. At the select operation target: prompt, type List roles for connected server, an d then press ENTER again. select operation target: List roles for connected server Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN= Sites,CN=C onfiguration,DC=dpetri,DC=net Domain - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN= Sites,CN=C onfiguration,DC=dpetri,DC=net PDC - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sit es,CN=Conf iguration,DC=dpetri,DC=net RID - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sit es,CN=Conf iguration,DC=dpetri,DC=net Infrastructure - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-SiteName,CN=Si tes,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

select operation target: 8. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). Another Note: Microsoft has a nice tool called Dumpfsmos.cmd, found in the Windo ws 2000 Resource Kit (and can be downloaded here: Download Free Windows 2000 Res ource Kit Tools). This tool is basically a one-click Ntdsutil script that perfor ms the same operation described above. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Netdom.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system. The S upport Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools, Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools). 1. On any domain controller, click Start, click Run, type CMD in the Open box, a nd then click OK. 2. In the Command Prompt window, type netdom query /domain: fsmo (where is the n ame of YOUR domain). Close the CMD window. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Just like Netdom, Replmon.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tool s. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks, mostly with those that are re lated with AD replication. But Replmon can also provide valuable information abo ut the AD, about any DC, and also about other objects and settings, such as GPOs and FSMO roles. Install the package before attempting to use the tool. 1. On any domain controller, click Start, click Run, type REPLMON in the Open bo x, and then click OK. 2. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. 3. In the Add Server to Monitor window, select the Search the Directory for the server to add. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. 4. In the site list select your site, expand it, and click to select the server you want to query. Click Finish. 5. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane, and select Proper ties. 6. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results. 7. Click Ok when you're done. How can I forcibly transfer (seize) some or all of the FSMO Roles from one DC to another? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master met hod called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation), as described in Understandin g FSMO Roles in Active Directory.

The five FSMO roles are: Schema master - Forest-wide and one per forest. Domain naming master - Forest-wide and one per forest. RID master - Domain-specific and one for each domain. PDC - PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. Infrastructure master - Domain-specific and one for each domain. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually, on the same DC) as has been configured by the Activ e Directory installation process. However, there are scenarios where an administ rator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder D C to a different DC. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FS MO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring, and is describ ed in the Transferring FSMO Roles article. However, when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operation al for a long period of time, the administrator might consider moving the FSMO r ole from the original, non-operational holder, to a different DC. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is ca lled Seizing, and is described in this article. If a DC holding a FSMO role fails, the best thing to do is to try and get the se rver online again. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well, almost none, the loss of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unles s you fix it in a reasonable amount of time), so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. If a DC becomes unreliable, try to get it back on line, and transfer the FSMO ro les to a reliable computer. Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles. This operation, in most cases, should be performed only if the orig inal FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment. Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connecte d to the network. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the inf o: FSMO Role Loss implications Schema The schema cannot be extended. However, in the short term no one will not ice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO, then you will not miss this F SMO role. RID Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time, unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. PDC Emulator Will be missed soon. NT 4.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate, the re will be no time synchronization in the domain, you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a prob lem. Infrastructure Group memberships may be incomplete. If you only have one domain, then there will be no impact.

Important: If the RID, Schema, or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized, then the origi nal domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Restrictions Schema Original must be reinstalled Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Can transfer back to original Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator 's group membership, as this table lists: FSMO Role Administrator must be a member of Schema Schema Admins Domain Naming Enterprise Admins RID Domain Admins PDC Emulator Infrastructure To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil, follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complet e loss of Active Directory functionality. 1. On any domain controller, click Start, click Run, type Ntdsutil in the Open b ox, and then click OK. 2. Type roles, and then press ENTER. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool, type ?, and then press ENTER. 3. Type connections, and then press ENTER. 4. Type connect to server , where is the name of the server you want to use, and then press ENTER. 5. At the server connections: prompt, type q, and then press ENTER again. 6. Type seize , where is the role you want to seize. For example, to seize the R ID Master role, you would type seize rid master: Options are: 7. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize. Cl ick on Yes. fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure. ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable). Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300, problem 5002 (UN AVAILABLE) data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted.) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection, ldap, or role transfer error. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed, proceeding with seizure ...

Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER200,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN= Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=netDomain - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN =Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net PDC - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sit es,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net RID - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER200,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sit es,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net Infrastructure - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-SiteName,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net fsmo maintenance: Note: All five roles need to be in the forest. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles. Determine which roles are to be on whic h remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server . 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles. 9. After you seize or transfer the roles, type q, and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controll er as the Global Catalog server. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC serve r it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any refer ences to objects that it does not hold. This is because a GC server holds a part ial replica of every object in the forest. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore, Objects that are restored will be replicated to all do main controllers in the domain. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object, which is disturbed in all DC s In non-authoritative restore, Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time. What is Active Directory De-fragmentation? De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by de leted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation The size of NTDS.DIT will often be different sizes across the domain controllers in a domain. Remember that Active Directory is a multi-master independent model where updates are occurring in each of the domain controllers with the changes being replicated over time to the other domain controllers. The changed data is replicated between domain controllers, not the database, so there is no guarantee that the files are going to be the same size across all do main controllers. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 servers running Directory Services (DS) form a directory online defragmentation every 12 hours by default as part of garbage-collection process. This defragmentation only moves data around the abase file (NTDS.DIT) and doesn t reduce the file s size - the database file be compacted while Active Directory is mounted. per the dat cannot

Active Directory routinely performs online database defragmentation, but this is limited to the disposal of tombstoned objects. The database file cannot be comp

acted while Active Directory is mounted (or online). An NTDS.DIT file that has been defragmented offline (compacted), can be much sma ller than the NTDS.DIT file on its peers. However, defragmenting the NTDS.DIT file isn t something you should really need to do. Normally, the database self-tunes and automatically tombstoning the records then sweeping them away when the tombstone lifetime has passed to make that spa ce available for additional records. Defragging the NTDS.DIT file probably won t help your AD queries go any faster in the long run. So why defrag it in the first place? One reason you might want to defrag your NTDS.DIT file is to save space, for exa mple if you deleted a large number of records at one time. To create a new, smaller NTDS.DIT file and to enable offline defragmentation, pe rform the following steps: Back up Active Directory (AD). Reboot the server, select the OS option, and press F8 for advanced options. Select the Directory Services Restore Mode option, and press Enter. Press Enter again to start the OS. W2K will start in safe mode, with no DS running. Use the local SAM s administrator account and password to log on. You ll see a dialog box that says you re in safe mode. Click OK. From the Start menu, select Run and type cmd.exe In the command window, you ll see the following text. (Enter the commands in bold. ) C:\> ntdsutil ntdsutil: files file maintenance: info .... file maintenance:compact to c:\temp You ll see the defragmentation process. If the process was successful, enter quit to return to the command prompt. Then, replace the old NTDS.DIT file with the new, compressed version. (Enter the commands in bold.) C:\> copy c:\temp\ntds.dit %systemroot%\ntds\ntds.dit Restart the computer, and boot as normal. What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC s. After 60 days object will be deleted perman ently from all Dc s. What is white space and Garbage Collection? refer question 7 What are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define a lert mechanism Spot Light , SNMP Need to enable .

How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We need to configure an option called Synchronize with Microsoft software update server option and schedule time to synchronize in server. We nee d to approve new update based on the requirement. Then approved update will be d eployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group poli cy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy What is Clustering. Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology, which is used to provide High Availability for missi on critical applications. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs, which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This cl uster will not provide any high availability. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster. In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. When active server fails the application will FA ILOVER to stand by server automatically. When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situati on. This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fails Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluste r, which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools f rom Add and Remove programs. For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. This can be c onfigured from services.msc--- SNMP service -- Security Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In windows 2003 it is possible. On Domain co ntroller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record, which is a first record in DNS, which contro ls the startup behavior of DNS. We can configure TTL, refresh, and retry interva ls in this record. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to s treamline name resolution, especially in a split namespace scenario. They also h elp reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network, making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. What are the different types of partitions present in AD?

Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partition replicates entire forest Schema Partition replicates entire forest Domain Partition replicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain? We can use, But the BIND version should be 8 or greater What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6? Refer Question 1 What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system; it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. The ASR Wizard , located in Backup, does the backup portion. The wizard backs up the system sta te, system services, and all the disks that are associated with the operating sy stem components. ASR also creates a file that contains information about the bac kup, the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes), and how to p erform a restore. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creat es. It restores all the disk signatures, volumes, and partitions on (at a minimu m) the disks that you need to start the computer. ASR will try to restore all th e disk configurations, but under some circumstances it might not be able to. ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a resto ration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level What is Domain Policy, Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain, because by default it w ill be associated with domain GPO, Where as Domain controller policy will be app lied only on domain controller. By default domain controller security policy wil l be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only. What is the use of SYSVOL FOLDER? Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain con trollers in the domain. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replic ating all policies and scripts What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object, an administrator can designate which f olders to redirect and where To do this, the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder, you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirec tion, and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder shou ld be redirected. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path, thus allowi ng the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to w

hom the policy object applies. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim .etc) what are the domain and forest function levels in a Windows Server 2003-basedAct ive Directory? Functional levels are an extension of the mixed/native mode concept introduced i n Windows 2000 to activate new Active Directory features after all the domain co ntrollers in the domain or forest are running the Windows Server 2003 operating system. When a computer that is running Windows Server 2003 is installed and promoted to a domain controller, new Active Directory features are activated by the Windows Server 2003 operating system over its Windows 2000 counterparts. Additional Act ive Directory features are available when all domain controllers in a domain or forest are running Windows Server 2003 and the administrator activates the corre sponding functional level in the domain or forest. To activate the new domain features, all domain controllers in the domain must b e running Windows Server 2003. After this requirement is met, the administrator can raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003 (read Raise Domain Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Domains for more info). To activate new forest-wide features, all domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows Server 2003, and the current forest functional level must be at Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 domain level. After this requireme nt is met, the administrator can raise the domain functional level (read Raise F orest Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory for more info). Note: Network clients can authenticate or access resources in the domain or fore st without being affected by the Windows Server 2003 domain or forest functional levels. These levels only affect the way that domain controllers interact with each other. Important Raising the domain and forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003 is a nonr eversible task and prohibits the addition of Windows NT 4.0 based or Windows 2000 ba sed domain controllers to the environment. Any existing Windows NT 4.0 or Window s 2000 based domain controllers in the environment will no longer function. Before raising functional levels to take advantage of advanced Windows Server 2003 fea tures, ensure that you will never need to install domain controllers running Win dows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 in your environment. When the first Windows Server 2003 based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest, a set of default Active Directory features becomes available. The fo llowing table summarizes the Active Directory features that are available by def ault on any domain controller running Windows Server 2003: Feature Functionality Multiple selection of user objects Allows you to modify common attributes of mul tiple user objects at one time. Drag and drop functionality Allows you to move Active Directory objects from con tainer to container by dragging one or more objects to a location in the domain hierarchy. You can also add objects to group membership lists by dragging one or more objects (including other group objects) to the target group. Efficient search capabilities Search functionality is object-oriented and provid es an efficient search that minimizes network traffic associated with browsing o

bjects. Saved queries Allows you to save commonly used search parameters for reuse in Ac tive Directory Users and Computers Active Directory command-line tools Allows you to run new directory service comm ands for administration scenarios. InetOrgPerson class the inetOrgPerson class has been added to the base schema as a security principal and can be used in the same manner as the user class. Application directory partitions Allows you to configure the replication scope f or application-specific data among domain controllers. For example, you can cont rol the replication scope of Domain Name System (DNS) zone data stored in Active Directory so that only specific domain controllers in the forest participate in DNS zone replication. Ability to add additional domain controllers by using backup media Reduces the t ime it takes to add an additional domain controller in an existing domain by usi ng backup media. Universal group membership caching Prevents the need to locate a global catalog across a wide area network (WAN) when logging on by storing universal group memb ership information on an authenticating domain controller. Secure Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) traffic Active Directory adm inistrative tools sign and encrypt all LDAP traffic by default. Signing LDAP tra ffic guarantees that the packaged data comes from a known source and that it has not been tampered with. Partial synchronization of the global catalog Provides improved replication of t he global catalog when schema changes add attributes to the global catalog parti al attribute set. Only the new attributes are replicated, not the entire global catalog. Active Directory quotas Quotas can be specified in Active Directory to control t he number of objects a user, group, or computer can own in a given directory par tition. Members of the Domain Administrators and Enterprise Administrators group s are exempt from quotas. When the first Windows Server 2003 based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest, the domain or forest operates by default at the lowest functional le vel that is possible in that environment. This allows you to take advantage of t he default Active Directory features while running versions of Windows earlier t han Windows Server 2003. When you raise the functional level of a domain or forest, a set of advanced fea tures becomes available. For example, the Windows Server 2003 interim forest fun ctional level supports more features than the Windows 2000 forest functional lev el, but fewer features than the Windows Server 2003 forest functional level supp orts. Windows Server 2003 is the highest functional level that is available for a domain or forest. The Windows Server 2003 functional level supports the most a dvanced Active Directory features; however, only Windows Server 2003 domain cont rollers can operate in that domain or forest. If you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003, you cannot intr oduce any domain controllers that are running versions of Windows earlier than W indows Server 2003 into that domain. This applies to the forest functional level as well. Domain Functional Level Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that do main only. The four domain functional levels, their corresponding features, and supported domain controllers are as follows: Windows 2000 mixed (Default) Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows Se rver 2003 Activated features: local and global groups, global catalog support

Windows 2000 native Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 Activated features: group nesting, universal groups, SidHistory, converting grou ps between security groups and distribution groups, you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings Windows Server 2003 interim Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows Server 2003 Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. A ll domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest le vel increases to interim. This mode is only used when you upgrade domain control lers in Windows NT 4.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Windows Server 2003 Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Supported features: domain controller rename, logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. User password support on the InetOrgPerson objectClass. Constrai ned delegation, you can redirect the Users and Computers containers. Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4.0 or created by the promotion of a W indows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional l evel. Windows 2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when W indows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003. After the domain functional level is raised, domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. For example, if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003, domain controller s that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain. The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. Note that with each successive level increas e, the feature set of the previous level is included. Forest Functional Level Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. T hree forest functional levels, the corresponding features, and their supported d omain controllers are listed below. Windows 2000 (default) Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 New features: Partial list includes universal group caching, application partiti ons, install from media, quotas, rapid global catalog demotion, Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) in the Jet Database Engine, I mproved topology generation event logging. No global catalog full sync when attr ibutes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the In tersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role. Windows Server 2003 interim Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows Server 2003. See the "Upgr ade from a Windows NT 4.0 Domain" section of this article. Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replicatio n using Linked Value Replication, Improved Replication Topology Generation. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated. Attributes added to the global catalog. ms-DS-T

rust-Forest-Trust-Info. Trust-Direction, Trust-Attributes, Trust-Type, Trust-Par tner, Security-Identifier, ms-DS-Entry-Time-To-Die, Message Queuing-Secured-Sour ce, Message Queuing-Multicast-Address, Print-Memory, Print-Rate, Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003 Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Activated features: all features in Interim Level, Defunct schema objects, Cross Forest Trust, Domain Rename, Dynamic auxiliary classes, InetOrgPerson objectCla ss change, Application Groups, 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Win dows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000 After the forest functional level is raised, domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. For example, if you raise forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003, domain controllers t hat are running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the for est. Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels . Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode, Windows 2000 Native mode, Win dows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003. Microsoft doesn t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address tra nslation (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN server s and that are located behind network address translators. When a server is behi nd a network address translator, and the server uses IPSec NAT-T, unintended sid e effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translat e network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator, you may experience conn ection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet req uire a public IP address. To reach servers that are located behind network addre ss translators from the Internet, static mappings must be configured on the netw ork address translator. For example, to reach a Windows Server 2003-based comput er that is behind a network address translator from the Internet, configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings: Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500. Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500 . These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NA T-T traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based comp uter How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated o nly to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the

replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a r eplica of an application directory partition. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store appl ication-specific data. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object, except security principals. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that wi ll use them to store and replicate data. For testing and troubleshooting purpose s, members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage applicat ion directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relationship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003? Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. The domain controller obtains the universal group me mbership for that user from a global catalog. Once the universal group membershi p information is obtained, it is cached on the domain controller for that site i ndefinitely and is periodically refreshed. The next time that user attempts to l og on, the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obt ain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. By default, the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display inf ormation like how many policies applied, on which OU s the policies applied, What are the settings enabled in each policy, Who are the users effecting by these po lices, who is managing these policies. GPMC will display all the above informati on. RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Admini strator, including Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Internet Explor er Maintenance, Security Settings, Scripts, and Group Policy Software Installati on. When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example, site, domain, domain controller, and organizational unit), the results can conflict. RSoP can help yo u determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which p olicies are applied). Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how?

Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating .ms i package for that application With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is app lied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer . If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. It will be appear in Start menu Programs. Once user click the shortcut or open any d ocument having that extension then the application install into the local machin e. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. With Publish option you can apply only on users. It will not install automatical ly when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. DFS in windows 2003? Refer Question 17 on level 2 How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start f rom the Windows 2000 Setup program. Using the Recovery Console, you can start an d stop services, format drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS), and perform many other administrative tasks. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by cop ying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to r econfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Be cause the Recovery Console is quite powerful, it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000. In addition, you must be a n administrator to use the Recovery Console. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: If you are unable to start your computer, you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you c an start your computer from your CD-ROM drive). As an alternative, you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. You can then selec t the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that support s multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN), enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT Workstation, Windows 95, and Windows 98 operating systems and other point-to-point protocol (PPP)-ena bled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller