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# CL 251: Chemical Engineering Lab I Experiment-03 Two Dimensional Heat Conduction

## Sagar Chawla 12110081

Abstract:The purpose of this experiment is to study the relation between voltages at different nodes and predicted temperature. Voltage is measured at different nodes of two dimensional electrical resistance grids by using voltmeter. Heat generated is calculated using two dimensional heat conduction method. Temperature is found out of any given particular node because at steady state condition sum of heat generation at any particular node is equal to zero. After Iterating the value of voltage, the final voltage calculated is nearly equal to the measured voltage. Introduction:Energy or heat flow is due to temperature gradient. In this experiment energy or heat flows in electrical resistance grid due to voltage difference between two nodes. Voltage difference and temperature gradient are considered to be same. Temperature in a two-

dimensional body is expressed as a function of the two independent coordinates x and y. Then the heat flow in the x and y directions is given by Fourier equation

= Thermal conductivity = Area normal to x axis = Area normal to y axis Let us consider the figure 1 shown in appendix. In figure there are five points named 0,1,2,3 and 4. Centre point is designated 0 and other four points are named 1 to 4 in clockwise direction. Heat Flow point 1 to 0 will be given by

## Similar expression can be written for remaining three points

( ( (

) ) )

Under the condition of steady state, net heat flow into the control volume has to be equal to the net heat flow out of the control volume, which gives the equation

+
Or

=0

*[T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 4*T0] = 0
Since k cannot be equal to zero, so bracket quantity has to be zero, which gives

By using last equation we can find temperature of any node Procedure:Two dimensional electrical grid is connected to 10 V DC supply. Voltage is measured at different nodes (reference: zero voltage line) by voltmeter. Actual value of voltage is measured in excel sheet and the value of actual voltage is iterated until it becomes nearly equal to the measured voltage. Result:In tables 1, 2 and 3 it can be seen that the Voltage predicted by two dimensional heat conduction methods nearly equal to that measured using voltmeter for each and every node.Difference between measured value and predicted value is due to the fact that there

is some heat lost to surrounding due to low efficiency of the apparatus). Heat is continuously flown through resistance grid, so value of voltage changes continuously. Discussion & Conclusion:Since measured value of voltage is very close to predicted value of voltage, efficiency of two dimensional heat conduction methods is quite high. Here, flow of heat due to temperature difference is quite similar to flow of current due to voltage difference in electrical circuit. Moreover analysis of thermal conductivity of material can also be done if we know the amount of heat flow and temperature between two points. As the engine of a car is turned on the hood becomes warm due to the conduction of heat from the engine to the hood of the car. A cube of ice is placed onto the hand of the man. Over time, heat conducted from the mans hand to the ice cube will cause the ice to melt. These are some of the daily life examples of heat conduction. Solar power system and air craft window are the real life heat transfer problems.

Appendix:-

## 10.28 8.31 6.18 3.64 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10.28 8.74 7.11 5.38 3.64 3.01 2.76 2.66 2.61 2.61 2.63

10.28 9.24 8.17 7.11 6.18 5.65 5.38 5.26 5.21 5.19 5.22

10.28 9.76 9.24 8.74 8.3 8.03 7.87 7.79 7.76 7.75 7.77

10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28 10.28

## Table II: - Predicted voltage and error analysis for grid 10 to 17

Point Number

10

11 2.63

12 2.65

13 2.70

14 2.82

15 3.87

16 3.70

17 5.43

Voltage measured at 2.63 point Voltage predicted at 2.63 point %Error 0.00

2.61

2.62

2.66

2.76

3.01

3.64

5.34

0.76

1.14

1.50

2.17

28.57

1.64

1.68

## Table III: - Predicted voltage and error analysis for grid 20 to 28

Point Number

20

21 5.17

22 5.23

23 5.26

24 5.40

25 5.68

26 6.21

27 7.17

28 8.23

Voltage measured at 5.22 point Voltage predicted at 5.22 point %Error 0.00

5.19

5.21

5.26

5.38

5.65

6.18

7.11

8.17

0.38

0.38

0.00

0.37

0.53

0.48

0.84

0.73

## Table IV: - Predicted voltage and error analysis for grid 30 to 39

Point Number

30

31 7.75

32

33

34

35

36

37

38 9.20

39 9.75

Voltage measured 7.77 at point Voltage predicted 7.77 at point %Error 0.00

8.31 8.68

7.75

8.31 8.74

9.24

9.76

0.00

0.00 0.68

0.43

0.10