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ELECTRICAL TRAINING COURSE

CHAPTER 3

POWER FACTOR CAPACITORS

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hat is power factor? It is a measurement of usable productive power from and through your distribution system, its effect on equipment performance and utility costs. By improving power factor you reduce energy costs, and increase equipment performance. To help in understanding power factor, we will first examine a short history of capacitor development and construction. major component of a capacitor is a dielectric. A dielectric is an electrical insulator that may be polarized by the action of an applied electric field. Dielectric materials include all materials that are not conductors. This type of materials is widely used in the manufacture of capacitors. When a dielectric is placed between the plates of a capacitor, the capacitance (ability to store charge) is increased by a factor equal to the dielectric constant. The measurement of the dipole moment of dielectric materials provides two kinds of information about their molecular structure: the extent of permanent-polarized bonding, or ionic bonding, and the angles between chemical bonds. A dipole, in physics and chemistry, is a system composed of two equal and opposite electric charges, or of magnetic poles separated by a small distance. The molecules of certain compounds, such as water and alcohol, are permanent dipoles; although electrically neutral, each molecule maintains a separation of charge. Almost any molecule can become an induced dipole when exposed to an external field. An external electric or magnetic field exerts a torque on a dipole, aligning the particle with the field. An electrical charge is the property of matter responsible for all electrical phenomena. An object is said to be electrically charged if the number of its protons and electrons are not equal. Somewhat arbitrarily, the proton is assigned a positive charge and the electron a negative one. As in magnetic phenomena, charges of the same sign repel each other, whereas protons attract electrons. This concept of charge is the basis of all electromagnetic theory. The fundamental unit for measuring charge is the coulomb. When did this theory originate? The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell's most important achievement was his extension and mathematical formulation of Michael Faraday's theories of electricity and magnetic lines of force. In his research, conducted between 1864 and 1873, Maxwell showed that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behavior of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelated nature; that an oscillating electric charge produces an electromagnetic field. These partial differential equations first appeared in fully developed form in electricity and magnetism (1873). Since known as Maxwell's equations they are one of the great achievements of 19th-century physics.

W A

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Maxwell also calculated that the speed of propagation of an electromagnetic field is approximately that of the speed of light. He proposed that the phenomenon of light is therefore an electromagnetic phenomenon. The oil-drop experiment of American physicist Robert Millikan provided the first reliable determination of the electric charge on an electron. He also provided convincing evidence that this charge was a constant. Starting in 1906, he sought to find an electron's charge by measuring the force exerted by an electric field on an electrically charged oil droplet. Oil was used in order to avoid errors due to evaporation. The oil drop apparatus consisted essentially of two parallel brass plates placed about 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. A minute oil droplet between the plates was observed through a microscope. The upper plate was given a positive electric charge and the lower plate a negative one. When the drop had a net negative charge on it, an upward force was exerted on the drop. By varying the voltage, the force was adjusted to bring the drop to a halt or cause it to move upward with constant velocity. The values of the electric force and field were then determined, and the charge on a specific drop was calculated. Millikan found that the charge was never less than a certain minimum value and always an integral multiple of it. The Leyden jar was an early apparatus for the storage of static electricity. It is named for the University of Leyden in the Netherlands, where it was first made in 1746. Leyden jars are electric condensers comprising a glass jar completely coated on the outside by tin leaf, from the bottom of the jar to about 4/5 of its height. The interior of the jar contains gold leaves, which almost fill it, hiding a metal rod which passes through a cork stopper. The tin leaf is called the outer shield and the gold leaf is the internal shield. The modern Leyden jar, which is used for laboratory demonstrations, is coated inside and out with metal foil. The outer covering is grounded; a brass rod touches the inner covering and extends out of the top of the jar through a rubber stopper. The Leyden jar is important as the ancestor of the modern capacitor. It was with this type of jar that the electric condenser was discovered in 1746. Counes, a pupil of Musschenbroek, was repeating his teacher's experiments with the aim of electrically charging water in a glass vessel held in his hand when he felt a

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violent shock on withdrawing an iron wire whose end was submerged and which was supposed to charge the water. A condenser was thus obtained, with the water being the internal shield and the hand holding the jar, the external one. If the internal shield is electrically linked to the metal conductor of an electrostatic machine, with its outer shield connected to the ground, a violent electrical discharge results when a curved piece of articulated brass, with insulating glass handles, is brought near in such a way that one of its ends touches the outer shield, while the other end is close to the sphere of the condenser that communicates with the internal shield. This discharge is due to the distribution of opposite charges between the internal and external shields. Leyden jars were very important to the development of experimental methods in Physics in the 19th century. Electrical capacitance is the ability of passive circuit elements to store electric charges. Devices that have this property are called capacitors, or condensers (picture at right are motor starting capacitors). Suppose equal but opposite charges are deposited on two nearby conductors separated by a dielectric. A voltage (V) is set up between them. Capacitance (C) is then defined as the ratio of the charge on one of the conductors to the voltage. The value of (C) depends only on the geometry of the two-conductor system and on the nature of the dielectric separating them. It is independent of the charge. If the charge is given in coulombs and the voltage in volts, the capacitance is in farads. Thus the unit of capacitance is the farad, abbreviated f. The farad generally is too large a unit for ordinary purposes. Accordingly, we have the microfarad (abbreviated mf) which is one-millionth (10-6) of a farad. To indicate a capacitors power factor correction capability, they are rated in VARs or kilovar or kVAR. One VAR is the equivalent to one volt-ampere of reactive power and one kilovar (kVAR) equals 1,000 VARs. Therefore one kVAR is the equivalent to one kVA of reactive power and may also be measured in VAR or kilovar units. The VAR or kVAR rating of a capacitor shows how much reactive power the capacitor will supply. Since this kind of reactive power cancels out the reactive power caused by inductance, each kilovar (kVAR) of capacitor value decreases the net reactive power demand by the same
TRUE POWER

3 Capacitance B TO LOAD 2 Inductance A

NORTH

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amount. For example, a 25kVAR capacitor will cancel out 25 kVA of inductive reactive power. Power Factor can be expressed in four different manners, all with the same meaning. It is (1) the ratio of actual power being used in a circuit or (2) the percentage differences between kVA and kW expressed by the formula PF = kW divided by kVA or (3) power factor is a measurement of how effectively electrical power is being used because the higher the power factor, the more effective your power or (4) the relationship between working (active) power and total power consumed (apparent power). The figure you receive from the formula shown in (2) is but the first step in understanding and applying power factor equations and equipment. To comprehend power factor and its application in an AC circuit, we must examine the three different components present in an AC circuit; true power, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance. Reactive powers only function is to develop magnetic fields required by inductive devices. For load devices containing only resistance, such as soldering irons and ovens, the actual and apparent AC power is the same and the power factor is 100%. The formula for figuring power factor is kW divided by kVA. As you can see from previous drawing, True Power is attempting to pull the load to the east, number 2 (inductance or lagging current) attempts to pull the load to the south while number 3 (capacitive reactance or leading current) attempts to pull the load to the north. Neither 2 nor 3 contributes to help the working power but attempts to reduce the efficiency of true power to the load. If only True Power and 2 were pulling, the load would go toward A. The dotted line from the load to A is longer than the solid line to True Power. This illustrates that inductance has an effect on the final results. The same is true with 3 and True Power. Utilities have to compensate for this lack of power factor by introducing additional electrical capacity in their system. When low power factor is not corrected, the utility must provide the non-working reactive power in addition to the working active power. This results in the use of larger generators, transformers, bus bars, wires and other system devices that otherwise would not be necessary. Most loads on an electrical distribution system can be categorized into these three types: resistive, inductive and capacitive. On modern systems, the most common is the inductive load. Typical examples include transformers, fluorescent lighting and AC induction motors. The power factor ratio is of great importance in an AC circuit although it has no significance in purely DC circuits. To find the power required by an electrical load device, it is common practice to multiply the load current by the voltage applied. This product gives the apparent power only, and more elaborate measurements are needed to find the actual or useful power. A wattmeter will show the actual power, which can never exceed the apparent power but often is less.

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Many devices, such as AC motors and transformers, also have a property known as inductance or iron effects and these devices consume less actual or useful power than shown by the products or their operating currents and voltages. Most of these latter devices can be identified by their construction, using coils of electrical wire wound in various ways around iron cores. The inductance of the coils causes the inequality between true and apparent power. A common characteristic of inductive loads is their utilization of a winding in order to operate. The winding produces an electromagnetic field, which allows the motor or transformer to function and requires a certain amount of electrical power to maintain this electromagnetic field. All inductive loads require two kinds of power to function properly: Active power (kW) which actually performs the work and reactive power (kVAR) that sustains which the electromagnetic field. One common example of reactive power can be seen in an unloaded AC motor. When all loads are removed from the motor, one might expect the no-load current to drop near zero. In truth, however, the no-load current will generally show a value between 25% and 30% of full load current. This is because of the continuous demand for magnetizing current by any inductive load. Active power is the total power indicated on a wattmeter and apparent power is the combination of reactive and active power. Where should power factor correction capacitors be installed in a distribution system and what cautions should be observed? Several options exist for the connection on the low voltage distribution as shown in Fig. 17. Please note that National Electric Code states capacitors that are not an integral part of rotary phase conversion systems but are installed for a motor load shall be connected to the line side of the motor overload protective device).

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On the secondary of the overload relay: this is the most efficient since the reactive power (kVAR) is produced at the same spot where it is consumed. Line losses and voltage drop are minimized. The capacitor is switched automatically by the motor starter so it is only energized when the motor is running. No separate switching device or overcurrent protection is required because of the presence of the motor starter components. One caution must be observed when utilizing an installation of this type. Since the capacitor will reduce the amperes through the overloads, you will need to give the same protection to the motor and the overloads will need to be readjusted or resized. a) Between the contactor and the overload relay provides the advantages the same as A except the overload relay can now be set to the full load amps as shown on the nameplate of the motor. b) Between the circuit breaker and the contactor. Since the contactor does not switch the capacitor, it can act as a central kVAR source for several motors fed by the same circuit breaker. This location is recommended for jogging, plugging and reversing applications. Since the capacitor remains energized even when the motor or motors are not running, there exists the possibility of overcorrecting the power factor during lightly loaded periods. Losses are higher than with A and B (Fig.17) as the reactive current must be carried further. c) As a central compensation source connected to the main distribution bus. This provides the advantage of being the most cost efficient because it uses a few large kVAR capacitors rather than many small units. A primary disconnect must be provided for switching and overcurrent protection. It is recommended that automatic control be a partner with capacitors to protect against overcompensation when the system is lightly loaded. d) What is one of the benefits of dry capacitors over wet? The National Electric Code, 460-2(A) states capacitors with more than 3 gallons of flammable liquid shall be enclosed in vaults or outdoor fenced enclosures complying with NEC requirements. This limit shall apply to any single unit in an installation of capacitors. The dry type units must only be installed to prevent accidental contact with live parts. Most dry type capacitors are insulated with vermiculite and contain no liquid. hen installing capacitors on a motor circuit, three articles of the NEC must be observed. Overcurrent protection of a capacitor is covered in 460-8(b) of the NEC. As stated, an overcurrent device shall be provided in each ungrounded conductor for each capacitor bank. An exception to this rule is a separate overcurrent device is not required for a capacitor connected on the load side of a motor overload protective device. However, when installing the capacitor, your overload devices must be resized. Overload devices, as required in the NEC states the following. When a motor installation includes a capacitor connected on the load side of the motor overload device, the rating or setting of the motor overload device shall be based on the improved

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power factor of the motor circuit. The effect of the capacitor shall be disregarded in determining the motor circuit conductor rating. In addition to overcurrent protection a disconnect shall open all ungrounded conductors simultaneously. Again, the exception to this rule does not require a disconnect when a capacitor is connected on the load side of the motor controller. The ampacity of a capacitor circuit conductor shall not be less than 135 percent of the rated current of the capacitor. The ampacity of conductors that connect a capacitor to the terminals of a motor or to motor circuit conductors shall not be less than one-third of the ampacity of the motor circuit conductors and in no case less than 135% of the rated current of the capacitors. The National Electric Code sections mentioned in this chapter are only a part of the NEC requirements. Please review the complete listing of all requirements in current version of the NEC code book. Capacitor problems can be caused by something as simple as office equipment: In a previous chapter, we discussed electrical line noise and harmonics, outlining their effects on systems and equipment. These same problems exist in an installation of power factor correction capacitors. Electronic equipment such as switching power supplies draw current differently than non-electronic equipment. Instead of a load having a constant impedance drawing current in proportion to the sinusoidal voltage, electronic devices change their impedance by switching on and off near the peak of the voltage waveform. Switching loads on and off during part of the waveform results in short, abrupt, nonsinusoidal current pulses during a controlled portion of the incoming peak voltage waveform. These abrupt pulsating current pulses introduce unanticipated reflective currents (harmonics) back into the power distribution system as you can see from figure 6 on the previous page. These currents operate at frequencies other than the fundamental 60hz. Harmonic currents can be likened to the vibration of water in a water line when a valve is open and closed suddenly. One of the largest contributors of reflective harmonic currents for commercial buildings is the personal computer. Some of the large contributors in the industrial environment are arc welding equipment and electric furnaces (see next drawing) battery chargers, computer power units, discharge lighting, elevators, laser printers, local area networks (LAN), rectifiers, telecommunications equipment, UPS systems, welders and a major contributor in an industrial environment is the variable frequency drive. You will remember from our study of cycles and wave notching in previous chapters that any

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change in the sine wave predisposes your system to problems. If you installed your capacitors on the same circuit as the welder, you would be presented with the continual problem of fuses blowing and possible complete failure of the installation. Electronic equipment installations often require the total voltage distortion to be no more than 10%. Voltage distortion can cause poor product performance, but is not normally a safety hazard. Strangely, electronic equipment requires clean power but its power supply generates the reflective harmonic currents that cause the voltage distortion. The actual problem of any building will vary, depending on the types and number of installed harmonic producing loads. Most buildings can withstand nonlinear loads of up to 15% of the total electrical system capacity without concern, but when the nonlinear load exceeds 15% some non-apparent negative consequences can be expected. For buildings that have nonlinear load of more than 25%, particular problems can become apparent. The following list is a short summary of the problems caused by this harmonic: Blinking of incandescent lights transformer saturation. Capacitor failure harmonic resonance Circuit breakers tripping inductive heating and overloading of the circuit. Computer malfunction or lockup voltage distortion. Conductor failure inductive heating. Electromagnetic load failures inductive heating. Electronic equipment shutting down- voltage distortion. Fuses blowing for no apparent reason inductive heating and overload Motor failures (overheating) voltage drop. Neutral conductor and terminal failures additive triplen currents. Transformer failure inductive heating. The heating effects of harmonic currents can be the cause of fires and the destruction of equipment and conductors. The results can have unpredictable legal and financial ramifications. Voltage distortions can lead to overheating of equipment, electronic equipment failure, and expensive downtime and maintenance difficulties.

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Capacitors are a low impedance path for higher frequency currents. They draw higher percentages of harmonic currents when located nearer power electronic loads such as drives or UPS systems. As the frequency of harmonic energy increases capacitor ratings can be exceeded causing premature failure. The resonant circuit formed by shunt capacitors will amplify harmonic currents and voltages in the electrical network. This amplification will cause nuisance fuse blowing and or damage to electrical equipment including capacitors and drives. he following is from an article by MHE Electrical Consultants regarding the true measurement of currents. The non-apparent overload of the electrical system and the associated distortions to the voltage waveforms must be anticipated and understood. Having the right meter is part of the solution of understanding the use of the meter and harmonic currents. If you are not using a true-RMS type meter, then you might actually contribute to further destruction and unsafe practices.

An average response ammeter is basically useless. Average response ammeters are only accurate when measuring 60hz loads having sinusoidal current waveforms and cannot accurately measure the current of nonlinear loads. The reason is that nonlinear loads draw current in non-sinusoidal manner that produces reflective harmonic currents. These reflective harmonic currents operate above 60 Hz. Both of these conditions are beyond the meters design criteria. When an average response ammeter is used to measure nonlinear load currents, the results can be inaccurate readings as much as 25 to 50% below the actual true-RMS current. As a result, the actual current of a circuit can exceed the rating of conductors and equipment. The actual current cannot be detected with the average responding ammeter.
In order to perform basic electrical trouble shooting, you must have an ammeter that provides true-RMS and instantaneous peak current ratings of the circuit. This meter must have the capacity of measuring the electrical characteristics of the waveform by sampling many points along the waveform. True-RMS meters are designed for just that, and are accurate for both simple sinusoidal and complex non-sinusoidal alternating currents. Average response meters are only accurate with simple sinusoidal alternating current waveforms and not the complex waveforms resulting from nonlinear loads. Long story short, if you are not using a true-RMS meter, then you are inviting trouble for you and your company. What are some benefits of power factor improvement? Additional kW working power for the same kVA demand. Eliminates utility power factor penalties.

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Improved voltage regulation due to reduced line voltage drop. Increases in system capacity. Less total plant kVA for the same kW working power Reduces the heating losses of transformers and distribution equipment, prolonging the life of the equipment Reduction in size of transformers, cables and switchgear in new installations. Reduction of power losses in distribution systems. Voltage levels are stabilized. Low power factor means poor electrical efficiency. The lower the power factor, the higher the apparent power drawn from the power company. The higher costs incurred by the utility companies to provide the needed additional power capacity is passed along to the industrial consumer in the form of power factor penalties. How extensive are these penalties? Consider the following example provided by the ABB Company. By increasing power factor to 90% the following savings would be realized. The figures shown can vary depending on the utility, demand rate charge and the customers classification.
Month Actual kW Demand (kW) Actual kVA Demand (kVA) Actual Power Factor (%) New Power Factor (%) New kVA Demand (kVA) Reduction kVA Demand (kVA) Reactive Power Reqd (kVAR) $ $ $ Saved

Jan. 200 245 81.63 90.00 222 23 45 213.41 Feb. 150 224 66.96 90.00 167 57 94 537.16 March 125 175 71.43 90.00 139 36 62 338.33 April 224 256 87.50 90.00 249 7 15 66.62 May 208 289 71.97 90.00 231 58 100 542.36 June 210 299 70.23 90.00 233 66 111 615.23 July 223 289 77.16 90.00 248 41 76 386.21 Aug. 211 278 75.90 90.00 234 44 79 408.07 Sept. 204 265 76.98 90.00 227 38 70 359.15 Oct. 198 245 80.82 90.00 220 25 48 234.23 Nov. 156 198 78.79 90.00 173 25 46 231.10 Dec. 201 265 75.85 90.00 223 42 75 390.38 The above chart shows, by increasing the power factor to 90%, you would have a potential annual saving on utility bills of $4,322.23, or 15% of the total yearly utility expense.

o choose a motor capacitor, select a capacitor size from the following table matching your horsepower and RPM. The capacitor style and catalog number can be chosen from Square D Digest. Capacitors selected from this table will correct motor power factor to approximately 95%. When capacitors are applied on the load side of the

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motor overloads, reduce the overload or relay size by the percent (%AR) in the table. When the motor is controlled by other than full voltage non-reversing across the line starters, locate the capacitor upstream from the controller. DO NOT apply capacitors on the load side of motor starters subject to reversing, inching, hogging or plugging or that are multi-speed, open transition or solid state, or when the load may drive the motor such as with cranes and elevators. Caution is advised in over sizing capacitors when connected on the load side of the motor controller and left to discharge into the motor when turned off. Damaging self-excitation voltages may occur where kVAR current is more than motor no-load current Suggested capacitor rating in kVAR 600v or below T-frame Nema Class B motors
H.P 3600 RPM Cap. % rating AR 1800 RPM Cap. % rating AR 1200 RPM Cap. % rating AR 900 RPM Cap. % rating AR 720 RPM Cap. % rating AR

3 5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

1.5 2 2.5 4 5 6 7.5 8 12 15 18 20 22.5 25 30 35 40 45 50 75 80 100

14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 12 11 10 10 10 11 11 12 10 8 8

1.5 2.5 3 4 5 6 7.5 8 13 18 21 23 30 36 42 50 60 68 75 80 90 120

23 22 20 18 18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 14 12 12 11 10 10 8 8 8 9

2.5 3 4 5 6 7.5 8 10 16 20 22.5 25 30 35 40 50 62.5 75 90 100 120 150

28 26 21 21 20 19 19 19 19 19 17 15 12 12 12 10 10 12 12 12 10 12

3 4 5 6 7.5 9 10 14 18 22.5 26 28 35 42 52.5 65 82 100 120 130 140 160

38 31 28 27 24 23 23 22 21 21 20 17 16 14 14 13 13 14 13 13 12 12

3 4 5 7.5 8 10 12 15 22.5 24 30 33 40 45 52.5 68 87.5 100 140 140 160 180

40 40 38 36 32 29 25 24 24 24 22 14 15 15 14 13 13 13 13 13 14 13

Power factor selection for system or group loads are shown in the Square D Digest. Use the kW power factor table to determine the capacitor kVAR size required improving power factor of a single load or entire power system. Actual power factor, peak kilowatt demand and desired power factor is required. A calculation of each months data for the year is recommended to determine the maximum kVAR required. Example: How much kVAR is required to correct an entire 480-volt system to a .90 power factor when the peak kilowatt demand was 620 kW at a .65 power factor? From the

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following table find the factor that applies to a system with an original power factor of .65 and desired power factor of .90. This factor is read to be .685. kVAR = 620 x .685 = 425kVAR would be required for this system. One caution must be observed. Avoid placement of standard capacitors in the presence of power electronic loads or on systems where harmonic energies are excessive. Use the kW factor table to determine the capacitor kVAR size required improving PF of a single load or entire power system. Actual power factor, peak kilowatt demand and desired PF are required. kW POWER FACTOR TABLE Original Power Factor DESIRED POWER FACTOR
.51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60 .61 .62 .63 .64 .65 .66 .67 .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .74 .75 .76 .77 .78 .79 .80 .87 1.120 1.076 1.033 .982 .952 .913 .875 .838 .802 .766 .732 .699 .666 .634 .602 .571 .541 .511 .482 .453 .425 .397 .369 .342 .315 .288 .262 .235 .209 .183 .88 1.147 1.103 1.060 1.019 .979 .940 .902 .865 .829 .793 .759 .725 .693 .661 .629 .598 .568 .538 .509 .480 .452 .424 .396 .369 .342 .315 .289 .262 .236 .210 .89 1.175 1.131 1.088 1.047 1.007 .968 .930 .893 .857 .821 .787 .754 .721 .689 .657 .626 .596 .566 .537 .508 .480 .452 .424 .397 .370 .343 .317 .290 .264 .236 .90 1.203 1.159 1.116 1.075 1.035 .996 .958 .921 .865 .849 .815 .782 .749 .717 .685 .654 .624 .594 .565 .536 .508 .480 .452 .425 .396 .371 .345 .318 .292 .166 .91 1.231 1.187 1.144 1.103 1.063 1.024 1.006 .949 .913 .877 .843 .810 .777 .745 .713 .682 .652 .622 .593 .564 .536 .508 .480 .453 .426 .399 .373 .346 .320 .294 .92 1.261 1.217 1.174 1.133 1.083 1.054 1.016 .979 .943 .907 .873 .840 .807 .775 .743 .712 .682 .652 .623 .594 .566 .536 .510 .483 .458 .429 .403 .376 .350 .324 .93 1.292 1.248 1.206 1.164 1.124 1.085 1.047 1.010 .974 .938 .904 .871 .838 .806 .774 .743 .713 .683 .654 .625 .597 .589 .541 .514 .487 .460 .434 .407 .361 .365 .94 1.324 1.280 1.237 1.196 1.156 1.117 1.079 1.042 1.006 .970 .936 .903 .870 .838 .806 .775 .745 .715 .686 .657 .629 .601 .573 .546 .519 .492 .466 .439 .413 .387 .95 1.368 1.314 1.271 1.230 1.190 1.151 1.113 1.076 1.040 1.004 .970 .937 .904 .872 .840 .809 .779 .749 .720 .691 .663 .635 .607 .580 .553 .526 .500 .473 .447 .421 .96 1.395 1.351 1.308 1.267 1.227 1.186 1.150 1.113 1.077 1.041 1.007 .974 .941 .909 .877 .846 .816 .785 .757 .728 .700 .672 .644 .617 .590 .563 .537 .510 .484 .458 .97 1.436 1.382 1.348 1.308 1.268 1.229 1.191 1.154 1.118 1.082 1.048 1.015 .962 .950 .918 .887 .857 .827 .796 .769 .741 .713 .685 .658 .631 .604 .578 .551 .525 .499 .98 1.484 1.440 1.397 1.356 1.316 1.277 1.239 1.202 1.166 1.130 1.096 1.063 1.030 .998 .966 .935 .905 .875 .846 .817 .789 .761 .733 .706 .679 .652 .626 .599 .573 .547 .99 1.544 1.500 1.457 1.416 1.376 1.337 1.299 1.262 1.226 1.190 1.156 1.123 1.090 1.068 1.026 .995 .965 .935 .906 .877 .849 .821 .793 .766 .739 .712 .686 .659 .633 .609

he next article will illustrate the need to understand demand and demand charges from your utility and the consequences if you do not. The article was published in the October 21st, 1993 issue of Plant Engineering Magazine.

A spare 300 horsepower pump in a food processing plant out east was given a one-hour full load test following an overhaul. Electric energy costs for the test was $15.67 while electric power demand charges came to $32,256.00

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The test was run in mid-afternoon in the peak of the processing season, with all production lines operating at full capacity. It was also one of the hottest days of the year, and the plant refrigeration and air-conditioning load was especially high. At the time the pump test was run, the plant was already operating at a newly established power demand peak. Had the test been deferred to the second or third shift, demand charges for the test would have been zero. The plant purchase contract called for an energy rate of $0.07 per kW and a demand charge of $12.00 per kW. The 224 kW demanded by the 300 horsepower motor added $2,688.00 to the demand charge on the months electric bill. However, the plant power purchase contract contained a demand peak ratchet clause multiplying an entirely avoidable $2,688.00 demand charge by a factor of 12. With a ratchet clause, any newly established peak is carried over for the succeeding 12 months as the basis for the minimum monthly demand charge. This minimum remains in effect even if actual monthly demand peaks fall significantly below the billing base-peak.
Why do utilities have a pay on demand charge? Utilities must stand ready, both with facilities and spinning reserve online generating capacity to satisfy all of the customers power demands, even if the customers peak usage is demanded. This holds true for only a few minutes per month. The following picture illustrates a typical capacitor block bank installed by utilities. The rationale for ratchet clauses is that the utility must be prepared to meet the customers demands year round, and not only on a month-to-month basis. As the long-term outlook for ample generation, transmission and distribution facilities dwindles, ratchet clauses are increasing in popularity around utility companies. How are demand charges accessed? The utilities demand meter continuously samples power demand over a prescribed interval and integrates usage over the interval to determine integrated demand for the period. The highest demand registered for any interval in the billing period is the basis on which the demand charge is levied. Demand charges vary widely from utility to utility and range from a low of about $3.00 per kW to more than $19.00 per kW. throughout the 12-month period. The demand interval is typically of 30 or 15-minute duration. Many utilities, however, have gone to a 7- minute interval to discourage a practice called interval splitting. With interval splitting, heavy,

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brief loads are purposefully introduced at a time when they bisect two demand intervals, thereby halving their impact on demand as seen by the utility meter. What is the theory of demand control? Demand control is not intended to be an energy conservation measure; its purpose is simply to save money. The intent is not to curtail energy use but to defer its use to another time. Every plant has some discretionary loads that could be shed for a brief period and deferred to shift their impact to a subsequent lesser demand interval. Ideal candidates for shedding are loads with a built-in cushion, such as air conditioning, refrigeration, electric heating and compressed air. Specific electric intensive processes such as electric welding, furnaces and tempering/annealing operations worked by schedule into a demand control scheme. Some very effective demand control measures can be implemented with no monetary investment. Employee education and awareness of the impact of demand charges on plant operating costs can produce greater savings than a turning off the light energy conservation campaign. If, for example, the leader of the crew responsible for the pump overhaul described at the beginning of this article had been cognizant of the effect of demand charges on the electric bill, the pump would never have been test-run on the first shift. Scheduling of large, recurring loads for off-peak periods is another effective measure. In many cases, scheduling heavy loads for off-peak operation saves money, even if it involves overtime pay or adding another shift to the workday. Other measures involve only a modest investment in programmable monitors that alarm when a prescribed demand limit condition is approached. Steps can be taken to manually switch off and on in accordance with an established schedule. (Picture above is of an E-Mon meter). The best results are obtained by automating the demand control function. Automatic demand controllers vary widely in capability and price. All however, share a common capability. They can be user programmed to switch loads in and out in accordance with kW demand set points and on/off time duration criteria established by the user. Automatic controllers operate on one of four basic operating principles or hybrids thereof, with the operating principle determining the specific manner in which control is exercised. The simplest automatic controllers operate on this rate limiter (instantaneous demand) principle and are usually lower in cost than other types. A control band is established between shed and restore set points. Shedding and restoration occurs within the established control bandwidth, with loads cycling in and out of service between setpoints. This type of controller is generally not suited to processing operations where

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the capability for temporarily extending a give load might be important. he ideal rate principle controller compares pulses from the utilitys demand meter, which are compared with a controller generated reference signal. This signal represents the ideal or desired plant load. Control action is initiated when the plant load deviates from the reference point beyond an established threshold. Ideal rate controllers typically shed loads sequentially as needed through the demand interval and restore all loads at the end of the interval. ontrollers operating on the average forecast principle track power use and elapsed time in the metering interval to compute the average rate of use up to that point. Loads are then shed in accordance with calculated projection of what average use for the full interval will be if usage continues at the same rate. In-plant generation in demand control: Standby generators can play an important role in reducing demand charges. At times of peak demand, load normally served by the utility can be cut loose and served from the generator. If, for example, the demand charge is $12.00 per kW, bringing a 500kW generator into play will offset a demand peak and save $6,000.00 in demand charges on the months electric bill. In many cases, the dual role a standby generator can play justifies installing a generator in plants where backup power is presently considered to be desirable but not necessarily essential. All of the previous discussion has been about low voltage systems (up to 600-volt). Are correction capacitors used or required on medium voltage systems? Yes. (above 600-volt) The Square D 5841 medium voltage Reactivar power factor capacitors MV5000, MV6000 & MV7000 medium voltage banks will cover most application needs. Large industrial power users (> 5MW) can benefit from centralized medium voltage compensation of power factor and harmonics. Medium voltage solutions usually require lower initial capital expenditures ($/kVAR) than low voltage solutions while addressing most common power quality problems. Typical applications include: Heavy Manufacturing Large Institutions Mining Packaging Petrochemical Plastics Pharmaceuticals Pulp & Paper

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Steel Processing Utilities Power Factor Correction Capacitors offload the utility grid by supplying the reactive power required by inductive loads. Power factor is improved by reducing the reactive power component. Capacitors provide the reactive power required by inductive loads. The installation of capacitors will improve the power factor from the point of connection back to the source as shown in figure 2. In this example, the load is 10,000 kVA at a power factor of 80%. This results in demand for 8,000 kW of active (real) power and 6,000 kVAR of reactive power. With the installation of a capacitor in figure 2 (b) most of the reactive power is supplied locally and the power supply sees a power factor of 97%. Since the power supply provides reduced reactive power with the installation of power factor capacitors, peak currents are reduced. Power factor capacitors are rated in kVAR. Power factor capacitors help bring the network current in phase with the network voltage by supplying leading current to effectively cancel lagging inductive current. Reactive energy is continuously swapped between the capacitor and inductive load. The result of improved power factor is reduced utility demand resulting in lower utility demand bills, released system capacity and lower system losses. Power Factor Correction Capacitors off load the utility grid by supplying the reactive power required by inductive loads. Power factor is improved by reducing the reactive power component. Capacitors provide the reactive power required by inductive loads. The installation of capacitors will improve the power factor from the point of connection back to the source as shown in figure 2 on the previous page). In this example, the load is 10,000 kVA at a power factor of 80%. This results in demand for 8,000 kW of active (real) power and 6,000 kVAR of reactive power. With the installation of a capacitor in figure 2 (b) most of the reactive power is supplied locally and the power supply sees a power factor of 97%. Since the power supply provides reduced reactive power with the installation of power factor capacitors, peak currents are reduced. Power factor capacitors are rated in kVAR. Power factor capacitors help bring the network current in phase with the network voltage by supplying leading current to effectively cancel lagging inductive current. Reactive energy

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is continuously swapped between the capacitor and inductive load. The result of improved power factor is reduced utility demand resulting in lower utility demand bills, released system capacity and lower system losses.
NETWORK OFF LOADING : Even where power factor correction is not an issue (eg. no power factor penalty), capacitors can be used to reduce total power (kVA) loading on the distribution network including transformers, switchgear and cabling. In the above example, total power above the point of connection was reduced from 10,000 kVA to 8,250 kVA (17.5% reduction). As a result, additional load can be added to the network without fear of overloading the distribution equipment.

When would you apply an anti-resonant capacitor bank? It is recommended that, if more than 15% of the facility load is non-linear and power factor correction is desired, an antiresonant or filtered bank should be applied. Below this value, a standard capacitor bank can be applied. For example, if a facility has 10,000 kW of connected load, of which 2,000 kW is variable speed drives (AC or DC), then the non-linear load percentage is 20% (2000/10000). Control Cabinet: All control wiring, relays and instrumentation are housed in a separate cabinet to allow easy access without exposing maintenance personnel to the high voltage components. Protection: There are three options for additional bank protection: Three phase unbalance and overload protection via phase current sensing for either wye or delta connected capacitor banks (standard) neutral current sensing on WYE connected capacitor steps for unbalance protection (optional) neutral to ground potential transformer for unbalance protection for WYE connected banks (optional).

his chapter will end with an article from the Square D PowerLogic Solutions, vol.1-4 newsletter which fully examines an actual capacitor application.

Managing the monthly electric bill is an ongoing challenge. For most industrial plants, reducing electricity costs means limiting peak demand or installing energy-saving equipment. But there is a portion of the monthly bill that can be decreased without altering usage or usage patterns. Power factor represents a significant part of the electric bill for many plants, yet is often one of the most controllable costs. Further, poor power factor increases power system costs in three other ways. This article describes the full benefits of installing power factor correction capacitors (PFCs). This also includes sample calculations and closes with a caution about applying PFCs on circuits containing harmonic-producing loads. Power factor is the difference between the total power your utility delivers to your facility and the portion of total power that does useful work. Real power, in kilowatts, measures
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useful work; reactive power, in kilovars (kVAR), measures the fields needed to allow real power to be consumed. Reactive power is expensive to deliver to loads with large reactive requirements. Utilities charge power factor penalties to recover the additional costs they incur serving poor power factor loads. Penalty amounts depend on utility rate structures and commission policies. Although some customers do not pay additional charges for poor power factor, improving power factor can still save money in three other ways. Poor power factor loads require the power system to transmit more current, delivering more total power than necessary to do useful work. In effect, poor power factor loads can be thought of as requiring two different kinds current: the part that supplies real power, and the part that provides reactive. Both are necessary in ac power systems, but it is not necessary for the reactive portion to be provided by the source of real power. As we will see, power factor correction capacitors can supply reactive current anywhere on the power system. There are at least four reasons to correct poor power factor at a facility: Reduce power factor penalties Reduce energy losses due to excessive currents (I2R) Improve voltage regulation Release system capacity Figure 1 is a diagram of a typical power circuit. It contains a utility source, two transformers, and a load with a poor power factor. The first transformer is the utility-owned service entrance transformer, perhaps 23-kvolt to 4,160-volt. The second transformer is a 4,160-volt to 480-volt step-down unit located inside the facility. The poor power factor load could be a lightly loaded induction motor. Figure 1 shows the effect of the poor power factor load on the electrical distribution system. Without PFCs, the utility system

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as well as transformers, all the transformers, all the switchgear, and conductors to the load must transmit excessive current and total power. This unnecessarily burdens the utility and the power system components. The following sections describe in detail the benefits of PFCCs at different locations on the power circuit.
Reduce power factor penalties: In order to eliminate or reduce power factor penalties, many customers install power factor correction capacitors at main substations, or at the main service entrance to the facility. Figure 2 shows the relative effect of capacitors at the service entrance. The capacitor supplies the reactive portion of the current locally, relieving the utility and its transformer of transformer of transmitting the additional current. The revenue meter registers less total power and an improved power factor (make sure the capacitor bank is located on the load side of the meter connection point). PFCCs are most often installed to reduce power factor penalties without considering other benefits, because the savings are significant and easily estimated. Utilities sometimes help customers with this calculation.

Example 1 gives a simple pay back analysis. Savings Estimate: Improving an average peak demand of 672 kW from 80% to 95% dpf requires 283 kVAR in PFCCs. Table 1 lists the multipliers. Multiply the fraction from table 1 by the existing real power to estimate the amount of capacitance in kVAR. In this example, the multiplier to improve from 80% to 95% is 0.421. The PFC required is 672 x 0.421 = 283 kVAR. The amount saved is equal to the total annual power factor penalty: $14,400. The cost is approximately equal to 283 kVAR x $40/kvar = $11,300. The simple payback of the installation is about one year.
Release System Capacity: As figure 3 illustrates, load on the power system can be reduced by the correction of poor power

PFCCs are especially useful if the capacitors can be used to delay or cancel expensive additions to existing switchgear. The additions may be new transformers, switchgear, or rewiring existing circuits. There is little energy cost benefit to releasing system capacity, so

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transformer and switchgear energy savings alone rarely justify power factor correction. The cost of the PFCs must be weighed against the cost of the other improvements that increase system capacity. Example 2 shows an estimate of system capacity that released with a PFC installed. Why not always locate capacitors adjacent to the poor power factor loads? Primarily because the proportional cost of capacitors is greater at lower voltage than at higher voltage. Capacitance effect is proportional to the square of the applied voltage, so low voltage capacitors require much more material than high voltage devices. PFCCs rated at 240-volt, for example, can cost over four times as much as 480-volt capacitors of the same kVAR value.
Reduce Energy Losses. Current-carrying conductors suffer a heating loss, which is related to their dc resistance. This loss is proportional to the total current (real and reactive components), and can be reduced with PFCCs. The maximum savings are achieved if the maximum length of conductor is relieved of excessive current. Figure 4 shows the optimum location for capacitors when I2R loss reduction is the desired result. Improve Voltage Regulation Capacitors will raise a circuits voltage, but it rarely economical to install them in industrial or commercial facilities for that benefit alone. This voltage increase is usually less than three percent, and should be considered as an additional benefit of installing capacitors. PFCCs on a lightly loaded circuit can raise the load voltage to a level above the source voltage. This condition can be detrimental to electronic or other sensitive electrical equipment. Voltage improvement will be achieved by locating PFCCs at any of the

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locations in figures 3, 4, or 5. Savings Estimate: The existing 2000 kVA transformer loading is determined as follows: Load = 1330 kW/0.7 dpf = 1900 kVA.Adding 350 kVA will overload the transformer. Capacitors can be added to improve the displacement power factor on the 2000 kVA transformer to 95%. This amount of capacitance is 1330 x 0.691 kVAR/kW = 919 kVAR. (The multiplier 0.691 was read from Table 1 next page.) At 95% dpf, the 1330 kW load represents 1400 kVA. This load, plus the 350 kVA in additional equipment, is adequately served by the 2000 kVA transformer. One caution must be mentioned regarding Harmonics. PFCCs do not generate harmonics, but their connection to a power system can change that systems ability to transmit harmonic currents. If the changes are severe enough to send the power system into resonance, equipment protection and control system operation errors will occur and damage can result. Harmonic resonance can be avoided by installing harmonic filters instead of PFCCs. Filters provide power factor correction, but are also designed to remove specific harmonic currents from the power system. In addition to possible resonance problems, harmonic loads can fool you into believing that PFCCs are needed when they are not. Harmonic loads reduce true power factor, the ratio of real power to total power, which includes all power system frequencies. They may or may not contribute to poor displacement power factor, which is the time lag between fundamental (60 Hz) voltage and current. PFCCs correct only displacement power factor. Fortunately, Square D Powerlogic circuit monitors measure both true power factor and displacement power factor.
How can you determine if harmonics will be problem? With any sizable (kvar more than about 25% of the transformer rating in kVA) PFC installation, a harmonic assessment should be conducted. This involves measuring the amount of harmonic currents at the proposed PFC site, and calculating the resonance potential. Square D Engineering Services Group provides power quality assessments and studies, for information contact your local Kriz-Davis office. Complete turnkey PFC and harmonic filter installations can be also be furnished through Kriz-Davis. ELECTRONIC SAGS: Voltage sags are inevitable due to the physical nature of the utility grid. Most voltage sags are the result of faults occurring in the utility network. Sources of faults include: animal or tree branch contact with power lines, inclement weather and

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vehicle collisions with utility poles. The three types of faults are: single-line-to-ground, line-to-line, and, rarely, a three-phase to ground fault. Aside from faults, voltage sags are created by high in-rush currents associated with the cycling of large loads. Voltage sags are, in fact, the most frequent power quality variation. The sag magnitude and duration depend on the distance to the fault and the utilitys circuit protection devices. Customers near the fault will experience a deep voltage sag followed by a complete interruption when the utility circuit breaker or fuse operates. More distant customers will be isolated from the fault by several transformers. The impedances of these transformers decrease the depth of the voltage sag. Until recently, the frequency and impact of voltage sags in North America was not well characterized. In the largest power quality study ever done, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) found that sags to 50% of nominal and momentary outages represented over 92% of all power quality events. According to figure 1, the EPRI Distribution Power Quality Study found a sag to 80% of nominal lasting up to 10 cycles was most common. The increased dependence of modern manufacturing facilities on sensitive electronic equipment has led to an increase in problems resulting from voltage sags. Sensitive electronic devices, such as variable speed drives (VSDs) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are prone to shut down when a voltage sag occurs. Depending on the process, this shut down may cause substantial losses from equipment downtime and creation of scrap material. Recognizing the severity of the problem has led the microelectronics industry to implement a new standard, SEMI F47 "Provisional Specification for Semiconductor Processing Equipment Voltage Sag Immunity" (figure 2). However, the microelectronics industry is not the only industry where voltage sags can cause significant problems. Other industries utilizing both batch and continuous processes with high sensitivity to voltage sags include: Automotive Food & Beverage Pharmaceutical Plastics Pulp & Paper Steel Processing Petrochemical Even though we have covered a lot of information in this chapter, we have not begun to scratch the surface on the subject of capacitors. For information on Square D or other

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power factor correction capacitor styles, devices, and free software, please contact the manufacturer. To recap, power factor correction capacitors will save you money and will:

Reduce heat loss of transformers and distribution equipment.


Prolong the life of distribution equipment. Stabilizes voltage levels. Increase your systems capacity, etc. Remember that any device with non-linear operating characteristics can produce harmonics in your electrical network. Harmonic current can cause a disturbance on the supply network and adversely affect the operation of other electrical equipment. Remember, harmonic current can cause: Excessive heating and failure of different distribution apparatus Nuisance tripping of circuit breakers and fuses Noise that leads to erroneous operation of control system components Damage to sensitive equipment Electronic communication interference, etc.

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