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PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

CHARACTERISTICS
Usually flattened dorsoventrally, triploblastic, acoelomate bilaterally symmetrical Unsegmented worms, some are strobilated Incomplete gut is present, gut absent in Cestoidea Somewhat cephalized, with an anterior cerebral ganglion and usually longitudinal nerve cords

CHARACTERISTICS
Protonephridia as excretory/ osmoregulatory structures. Most forms are monoecious, has complex reproductive system Nervous system is composed of a pair of anterior ganglia with longitudinal nerve cords connected by transverse nerves and located in the mesenchyme.

Outer Body Covering


Covered by a ciliated epidermis Epidermis with rhabdites
Rod shape single cell mucous glands

parasite have syncytial tegument


External body covering

Digestive System
Free living have blind system
The branching intestines, with only one mouth, pharynx and digestive cavity

Reproductive System
Most are monoecious (hermaphrodite)
Practice cross-fertilization

Few are dioecious


Hypodermic impregnation

Parasitic that do not have a complete digestive system

Excretory System
Thin bodies allow for materials to diffuse (respiration, excretion etc.) Protonephridia (flame cells)
that specialized to remove excess water

Nervous System
Primitive
anterior cerebral ganglia (brain), longitudinal nerve cords and some lateral nerves

Possess sensory organs


Ocelli or eyespots Statocysts Rheoreceptors

Class TURBELLARIA

Class MONOGENEA

CLASSES OF PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

Class CESTODA

Class TREMATODA

Platyhelminth Taxonomy
Mostly free-living flatworms Class Turbellaria Solely parasitic species Class Monogenea (Monogenetic Flukes) Class Trematoda (Flukes) Class Cestoidea (Tapeworms)

Class TURBELLARIA

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria


Mostly free living and aquatic Typically are creeping form
Combines muscle and cilia

Others move by gliding

CLASS TURBELLARIA

TYPES OF GLANDULAR CELLS


RHABDITES RELEASING GLANDS ADHESIVE GLANDS

NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

REPRODUCTION : Asexual

Parasitic members of this phylum, such as flukes and tapeworms, are characterized by these modifications:

loss of cephalization producing a head bearing hooks and suckers to attach to the host as opposed to the sensory organs of free-living forms extensive development of the reproductive system coinciding with the loss of other systems (what do they do but gain food from the host's digestion and reproduce, anyway?) lack of a well-developed nervous and gastrovascular system (the live in a fairly stable environment and the host has already digested their food) development of a tegument that protects them from host digestive juices

CLASS TREMATODA

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda


Digenetic flukes that live as parasites Outer body lacks cilia, tegument has a layer of glycoprotiens Possess 2 suckers:
Oral sucker Ventral sucker/acetabulum

Clonorchis sinensis

CLASS CESTOIDEA/ CESTODAThe Tapeworm


endoparasites Lacks pigment in adult (yellow, white or shades Most highly specialized of all of gray) the flatworms

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoda


Have long flat bodies:
Scolex Strobila

Covered with minute projections similar to microvilli Lack digestive system No special sense organs

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Monogenea


Monogenetic flukes Mostly ectoparasites on vertebrates Life cycles are direct with a single host Bear opisthaptor

Platyhelminths Representative
Turbellarian
Dugesia sp. (Planarian)

Trematodes
Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke) Schistosoma japonicum (Blood flukes) Fasciola hepatica (Sheep liver flukes)

Cestodes
Taenia solium (Pork tapeworms)