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O F RESTORED F ILMS DEC 2 nd

2012

INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL NOV 27th

CONTENTS
EDITORIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA


THe FILMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

WHen restorAtIons Meet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

InsPIrAtIons: A seLectIon BY MArtIn Scorsese TrIBUte to tHe FILM FoUnDAtIon


THe FILMs/INSPIRATIONS BY MArtIn Scorsese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet!


THe FILMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

TowArDs soUnD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

ENCOUNTERS, WORKSHOPS AND CIN-CONCERTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

PARTNERS/AknoWLeDGMents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

AUrLIe FILIPPettI
MInIster oF CULtUre AnD CoMMUnIcAtIon

The State is delighted by the initiative of Costa-Gavras and Serge Toubiana, respectively president and general manager of La Cinmathque franaise, in creating an international festival devoted to restored lms. Through this event, entitled Toute la mmoire du monde in tribute to the Alain Resnais lm, the public will indeed have a fantastic opportunity to discover or see again in a cinema, lms that have regained their original brilliance. This second youth achieved by restoration is made possible thanks to the joint desire of the rights holders and the expertise of archives, along with the commitment of distributors and DVD producers, the support of laboratories, and indispensable partnerships, be they nancial or institutional, private or public. For this rst edition, which will take place from 27 November to 2 December, La Cinmathque will salute in particular the important work of The Film Foundation, founded on Martin Scorseses initiative. The event will also present the digital restoration of the lm Le Joli Mai by Chris Marker and Pierre Lhomme, carried out in the framework of the lm digitization plan begun in 2012 by the Centre National du Cinma et de lImage Anime (CNC) in order to support rights holders in their process of digitizing and restoring heritage lms. This plan complements another action of the State in the name of which the Deposit and Consignment Ofce signed the Grand emprunt [large loan], an agreement on behalf of the digitization and restoration of 270 lms in the Gaumont catalogue. With the 40-some projections that will be proposed to us, along with lectures, roundtables and workshops dealing with photochemical and digital restoration, this festival will also allow for enhancing the heritage actions of Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC, the Cinmathque de Toulouse, the George Eastman House, and the Deutsche Kinemathek. Because the cinematographic heritage constitutes our common property, it is our duty as authorities to accompany catalogue owners, encouraging them to preserve it, restore it, and further its diffusion, so necessary for passing it on. I wish everyone a good festival!

EDITORIALS

RIC GARANDEAU
PresIDent oF tHe CNC

A shared commitment Toute la mmoire du monde extends an invitation to go to the very heart of our lm heritage. This itinerary is presented to us in the intimacy of cinema and its history, in the image of the virtuoso camerawork and mischievous viewpoint of Alain Resnais, making light of the fascinating universe of the Bibliothque Nationale in 1956. I salute this patronage that makes the dominant characteristics of this festival keen intelligence and the pleasure of discovering, learning, and letting oneself be lled with wonder. This rst international festival organized by La Cinmathque franaise will enable the public to discover the most recent restorations that have mobilized historical and technical skills the world over, giving back to lms from the past an aura that is thoroughly contemporary. The tribute paid to Martin Scorseses Film Foundation will remind us that lm heritage is a preoccupation shared by all, in the North as in the South, and that it is a heritage that must be all the more protected and shown since economies are fragile and democracies threatened. The CNC, the French National Film Institute, has an appetite for peripheries, margins, and extremes: our attentions go from the furthest past (not all that distant, actually!) to the most contemporary and experimental of cinemas. Our geographical curiosity knows no bounds either, as attests the creation for the rst time, in 2012, of aid to the worlds cinemas, a strong commitment in favour of the diversity of writing and of cinematographic universes to help lmmakers from all countries, from the far North to the far South. Something to feed the future memories of the world The exotic also lies at our doorstep. The CNC has joined forces for fascinating propositions made by La Cinmathque franaise, putting together a programme in the form of an invitation to rediscover emblematic sites in Paris, through original cinematographic viewpoints. Some of these lms from Georges Demen in 1899 or the Lumire operators in 1900 necessitated specic restoration procedures given the formats and techniques used originally. It is also these technical aspects, absolutely captivating and, in general, ill known, that this festival will bring to light. Workshops and programmes will let us discover and revive the origins of sound cinema, its moving beginnings, its surprising systems and also its failures, which are just as constitutive of this fantastic adventure. At a time when all cinema is drastically changed by the digital revolution, it was important to show what this technology contributes when it respects the original work to the transmission of lm heritage. The CNC has made available an aid for the digitization and restoration of heritage works so that they might be present on all the screens now offered to the public. One of the rst subsidized lms, Le Joli Mai by Chris Marker and Pierre Lhomme, will take its place in the programming, thus inaugurating, thanks to this festival, a new life, fty years after its debut in the history of cinema

EDITORIALS

COSTA GAVRAS
PRSIDENT OF LA CINMATHQUE FRANAISE

SERGE TOUBIANA
GENERAL DIRECTOR OF LA CINMATHQUE FRANAISE
Safeguarding the memory of cinema has always constituted a basic imperative for La Cinmathque franaise, as for other cinematheques and archives in France and round the world. This challenge is shared with the owners of catalogues, eligible parties, technical industries, and public authorities, of course, as well as various private foundations and patrons. In creating the festival of restored lm, Toute la mmoire du monde, La Cinmathque franaise afrms its vocation of rekindling the memory of cinema in both young spectators and their elders. For ve days, this exceptional event will feature an eclectic selection of 44 showings, and an original cultural accompaniment that will appeal to all lm buffs. This festival is coming into being at a time when digital technologies allow for unprecedented advances in the eld of restoration. Curators and lm restorers can henceforth intervene on the image itself, a possibility not offered by photochemistry. It is now possible to better correct alterations, better reproduce colours (Technicolor and its three-strip separations in particular), or again, further stabilize images. Since the rst restorations in an environment that is entirely digital, a large number of lms have been restored digitally with impressive results. Nonetheless this is also about recalling the methodological and ethical principles that have guided lm restoration since its beginnings in archives in the 1980s. In fact, Toute la mmoire du monde hopes to impose itself as a site of reference in the programming of restored lms and in thinking about the history, preservation and restoration of cinema, on the national and international levels. We are proud to show that many preservations for the rst time in France: All that Jazz by Bob Fosse (1979), The Firemens ball by Milos Forman (1967), Blackmail by Alfred Hitchcock (1929), The Living Corpse by Fedor Ozep (1929), The Spanish Dancer by Herbert Brenon (1923), The Goose Woman by Clarence Brown (1925), The Chase by Arthur Ripley (1946), Falstaff by Orson Welles (1965), They made me a Fugitive by Alberto Cavalcanti (1947), Le Joli mai by Chris Marker and Pierre Lhomme (1962), M by Joseph Losey (1951), Misre au borinage by Joris Ivens and Henri Storck (1933), or the sound version of Lonesome by Paul Fejos (1928). Projections, cin-concerts, carte blanche, tributes, lectures, and workshops will occupy all the spaces of the building designed by Frank Gehry.

EDITORIALS

JeAn-NoL Tronc
MAnAGInG DIrector oF SACEM PresIDent oF tHe FrAnco-AMerIcAn CULtUrAL FUnD

Founded in 1996 on the initiative of SACEM, the Franco-American Cultural Fund (FACF) is a unique collaboration between the Directors Guild of America (DGA), the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), the Writers Guild of America West (WGAW) and the French Society of Authors, Composers and Music Publishers (SACEM). Financed by resources stemming from private copying, the FACFs mission is to promote lm creation and restoration, encourage talents and further the dialogue between professionals of both countries. The FCFA is the creator of City of LightsCity of Angels (COL-COA), currently the leading festival of French lm on American soil. Since 2006, the FACF has been associated with La Cinmathque franaise and Martin Scorseses-Film Foundation to carry out its mission of restoration and preservation of the French and American lm heritage. The Fund is therefore delighted and proud to support the 1st edition of the International Restored Film Festival in Paris, Toute la mmoire du monde. This rst edition has chosen to pay homage to a major player in the world of restoration, The Film Foundation. Its commitment to the preservation of the cinematographic heritage of the entire world is an example for us all. Martin Scorsese is doing us the honour of proposing a selection of lms that have fed his passion for the cinema. The Inspiration programme allows the spectator to discover the universe of this tremendous director, through the exceptional restoration work carried out by The Film Foundation. Toute la mmoire du monde invites the spectator to discover or rediscover the history of cinema, as well as masterpieces that inuenced the lms of today. In addition to the screenings, the Festival is organizing roundtables where the men and women who work on these restorations will be in the spotlight. Long live cinema!

EDITORIALS

THE FILMS

ReSTORATIONS AND INCUNABULA


Another view of Paris (1896-1946) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Sagarmnaga Collection (1897-1906) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Corrick Collection (1901-1914) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Suzanne, Ren Hervil and Louis Mercanton (1916) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The Swallow and the Titmouse / LHirondelle et la Msange, Andr Antoine (1920) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Fever / Fivre, Louis Delluc (1921) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Spanish Dancer, Herbert Brenon (1923) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Chronicles of the Gray House / Zur Chronik von Grieshuus, Arthur von Gerlach (1923-1925) . . . . . 17 The Goose Woman, Clarence Brown (1925) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Paris in 5 days / Paris en 5 jours, Nicolas Rimsky and Pierre Colombier (1925) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Blackmail, Alfred Hitchcock (1929) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Living Corpse / Der Lebende Leichnam / ivoj trup, Fedor Ozep (1929) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Three sponsored lms by Hans Richter (1931-1939) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Life, Portraits (1933-1957) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Five short features by Dino Risi (1946-1949) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Volcano / Vulcano, William Dieterle (1950) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 M, Joseph Losey (1951) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Lawrence of Arabia, David Lean (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Le Joli Mai, Chris Marker and Pierre Lhomme (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Firemens Ball / Hori, m panenko, Milos Forman (1967) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Married Couple of the Year Two / Les Maris de lAn Deux, Jean-Paul Rappeneau (1970) . . . . 31 We Cant Go Home Again, Nicholas Ray (1972-1976) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Two Memories / Les Deux mmoires, Jorge Semprn (1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Charles Laughton directs The Night of the Hunter (1974-2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 All that Jazz, Bob Fosse (1979) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Tess, Roman Polanski (1979) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Documenteur,Agns Varda (1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 And as Midnight Showing: Falstaff, Orson Welles (1965) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

FROm PhOtOChemiCAl tO DiGitAl

WheN ReSTORATIONS meeT


Seated in front of their piece of universal memory, [they] will have put, end to end, fragments of the same secret, which may have a very lovely name which is called happiness. Alain Resnais, All the Memory in the World, 1956

Lawrence of Arabia by David Lean (1962)

Toute la mmoire du monde, the rst edition of the international festival in Paris devoted entirely to recently restored lms, consists of an exceptional hanging of the latest restorations whilst asking questions about the notion of restored work in debates and lectures. What does it mean to restore a lm? This practice, which was related more to a rerelease of lms beginning in the 1930s, consisted essentially of duplicating lms in cellulose nitrate before they deteriorated completely, i.e., through decomposition or combustion. Above all, it was important to save the lms narrative content1, quite often ignoring the photographic or sound/audio qualities of the original works. The restoration had the dual power of making works visible again whilst preserving them at a time when 80% of silent cinema had disappeared, having been deliberately destroyed. The search for a better quality of lm reproduction progressively came about in the world of archives and studios. Great advances took place, in particular thanks to the advent of sound in cinema, insofar as it was quite difcult to duplicate the variable density
1 Marie Frappat, Ractiver les uvres. Histoire et pratiques des professionnels de la restauration des lms, in LHistoire latelier, Nomie tienne and Lonie Hnaut (dir.), PUL, 2012.

optical tracks without causing irremediable losses of sound quality. In this sense, at the request of Hollywood studios, the Kodak Company brought out a better quality ne-grain duplicating positive2 in 1939, intended for better preserving optical sound rendition. At the same time, this new emulsion also improved the denition and clarity of the image. This visual gain was described by cinema professionals as a return to the luster of old ivory3. It was also a sizeable evolution for the proper preservation of original negatives, since they were henceforth used less for making prints. The subsequent arrival of 35mm safety lm in 1950 resulted in gigantic waves of duplication, otherwise designated as nitrate plans and nanced by the public authorities. These plans contributed widely to safeguarding the heritage but not without generating irremediable losses, since some countries considered that the nitrate original, once reproduced on safety lm, could be destroyed. Since then, lm restoration has gone beyond the threshold of simple duplication of the original element and appropriated the codes of ethics that existed for the restoration of the other arts,
2 Otherwise called a master positive in the technical vocabulary. 3 George Blaisdell, Fine Grain Films make strong advance, The American Cinematographer, November 1939.

RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

about which the much older practices were theorized towards the end of the 18th century.4 Those ethical codes are still topical, even in the digital era, dening the respect for the works historical, material and aesthetic integrity. Indeed, sizeable worksites for the reconstruction of works that were partially destroyed or split up have seen the light, the best known being Fritz Langs Metropolis and Abel Gances Napolon. Beyond repairing the materiel, it has become necessary to resort to documentation and, in particular, to the original script. The approach of Henri Colpi, restorer of LHirondelle et la Msange/The Swallow and the Titmouse (Andr Antoine, 1920), programmed in the framework of the Festival, goes beyond the reconstruction process since it involved editing based on the original script for a lm that had never been released commercially and was, in its time, deposited at La Cinmathque franaise as rushes. Numerous cases of vandalism have been registered in the history of art restoration, but what about vandalism in the restoration of lms? Restoration is doubtless also the product of an interpretation linked to a contextual taste or to the technical (r)evolutions of a given era. We have a few cases of agrant modications in the history of restorations, such as this new release of Gone With the Wind, supervised by David O. Selznick in the 1950s. Indeed, he destroyed the academic 1:1.37 framing, in favour of CinemaScope, insofar as the wide screen constituted one of the major technical revolutions of that period. The spread of digital tools has profoundly modied lm restoration processes. In the nal analysis, this technology is related to restoration methods of the other arts since it allows for direct intervention on the textures of the image and sound. Just as one applies a ller to a broken ceramic or retouches areas of a painting with a brush, digital allows for erasing abrasions on part of the image and, even more remarkable, lling in what is non-existent or has disappeared. It is not surprising that the same software used for special effects has henceforth been diverted in favour of restorations. To be specic, digital is a way of getting closest to the colours of lms that have changed with time and also allows for completely erasing dust and mould. From now on, one can create new images, but that does raise ethical issues. Henceforth, the denition of scrap or defect has been profoundly shaken in this transition from photochemical to digital. Have lm restorers overstepped the limits, where an unbounded restoration syndrome is emerging? Is the restored work henceforth taking on an overly intact aspect5that might deprive it of its historicity?

Today more than ever, restoration theorization, ethics and practice must meet to carry on a dialogue together. Toute la mmoire du monde proposes being the crossroads of those exchanges whilst again making visible works little seen or that were believed to have been lost forever. The lms programmed this year great lm classics for some, major (re)discoveries for others instance the different approaches to, or degrees of restoration. It goes without saying that restorations such as Roman Polanskis Tess, David Leans Lawrence of Arabia or Milo Formans The Firemens Ball illustrate the great possibilities of digital, whereas Nicholas Rays We Cant Go Home Again, Herbert Brenons The Spanish Dancer or even Fedor Ozeps The Living Corpse are noteworthy examples of reconstructions. Toute la mmoire du monde gives back its full place to silent cinema, in the tradition of the large festivals of archive lms, with showings accompanied by musicians respectful of the work and often taking inspiration from practices of the period, in particular those that consisted of drawing on the classical repertoires. The Festival is also an occasion for showing archive rarities such as Gabriel Pomerands La Peau du milieu, Nous, les gitans or the lms of the Panaria production company that apparently inspired Stromboli and Vulcano. La Cinmathque franaise is also very pleased to show the restoration of Paris en 5 jours/Paris in 5 Days (1925), a French lm by Nicolas Rimsky and Pierre Colombier. This feature lm coming from La Cinmathques Albatros collection, is a magnicent fresco shot in the middle of Paris, outside the studios. Restored from the original negative and a nitrate print with tints and tonings, Paris en 5 jours will be shown for the rst time in its original colours. CLINe RUIvO Director of the lm collections at La Cinmathque franaise

4 tienne Nomie and Hnaut Lonie (Dir.), Introduction to LHistoire latelier, PUL, 2012.

5 Fabrice Rubiella, Masquer ou restaurer, rexions sur les anciennes restaurations dune amphore phanatnaque, op.cit. LHistoire latelier.

ANOtheR VieW Of PARis


Piano accompaniment by Paul Goussot. Screening introduced by Batrice de Pastre (Archives franaises du lm). These lms were restored by the Archives franaises du lm du CNC.

1896-1946 SATURDAY DEceMBER 1ST, 19:30

LeS HALLeS CeNTRALeS


DIReCTORS Boris Kaufman & Andr Galitzine PRODUCeR France, 1927, black and white, 35 mm, 22 (18 images per second)

MONTpARNASSe
DIReCTOR Eugne Deslaw PRODUCeR Films Jean Sefert France, 1930, black and white, 35 mm, 15 (24 images per second)

UN TROTTOIR ROULANT
DIReCTORS Louis & Auguste Lumire PRODUCeR Lumire France, 1900, black and white, 70 mm (projection element in 35 mm), 1 (16 images per second)

PARIS eN TeChNICOLOR
DIReCTOR Jean-Claude Bernard PRODUCeR Les Films J.-C. Bernard France, 1946, colour (Technicolor), 35 mm, 24

At nighttime, the activity of Les Halles, the central market in Paris, offers a kaleidoscope of images in which men, animals and machines are mobilized to ensure the capitals food supplies. The merchandise is brought in by carts and wagons then carried by men. Boris Kaufman was director of photography for Jean Vigo and later, in the United States, for Elia Kazan and Sidney Lumet. He was the brother of Dziga Vertov.

A poetic, surrealistic stroll in the Montparnasse neighbourhood, where the commonplace and unusual meet in the midst of hectic trafc, onlookers, tramps, sandwich men, acrobats and artistes. Luis Buuel, Fujita, Tommaso Marinetti are caught unawares in their strolls. Eugne Deslaw, born in Ukraine, emigrated to Czechoslovakia where he drew close to the avant-garde. He moved to Paris in 1922 and produced a diversied, original body of work.

The moving walkways were one of the attractions of the 1900 Exposition Universelle, which visitors used with joy and, occasionally, apprehension. During the 1900 Exposition Universelle, a two-speed moving walkway (or carpet), baptized Street of the Future, was a great hit. The lm attests to this innovation.

After the war, a stroll along the Seine is the pretext for rediscovering Paris. The shermen and booksellers have returned to the quays, animals are exhibited on the Quai de la Mgisserie, and Les Invalides perpetuates the memory of the Napoleonic epic. A lyrical, patriotic commentary exalts the beauties of the capital, which, freed from the yoke of the enemy, has recovered all its splendour. Jean-Claude Bernard (1888-1963) directed many documentary shorts about Paris: Les Pompiers de Paris (1933), Le Vrai Paris (id.), Montmartre en couleur (1946), or Chez ceux du Montparnasse (1957). He also made some regional documentaries about Rouergue (1936), Roussillon (1938), Auvergne (1941), etc.

COUR De LA GARe SAINT-LAzARe


DIReCTOR Georges Demen PRODUCeR Lon Gaumont & Cie France, 1896, 60 mm (projection element in 35mm), 1 (16 images per second)

Filmed from the Rue de Rome, the parade of omnibuses heading towards the courtyard of the train station. Assistant to tienne-Jules Marey and precursor of cinema, Georges Demen was the inventor of the phonoscope (1891) and the chronophotographe (1894) the rights to which he would sell to Lon Gaumont..

Montparnasse by Eugne Deslaw (1930)

RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

The SAGARmNAGA COlleCtiON

1897-1906 FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 19:30

In the 1890s, in Bilbao, industrialist Gregorio Antonio Sagarmnaga was passionate about optical devices. He acquired projectors and lms from production companies, such as Path, Parnaland, and Lumire. He edited reels and screened them during showings intended for the local bourgeoisie. He is today considered one of the pioneers of the cinema in Spain. Piano accompaniment by Jacques Cambra. Screening introduced by Camille Blot-Wellens (Film historian).

GRegORIO ANTONIO SAgARmNAgA (1846-1924) Gregorio Antonio Sagarmnaga was a Basque industrialist who was keen on optical techniques and developed a passion for cinema, which was arriving in Bilbao. Between 1897 and 1906, he embarked on the acquisition of magic lanterns and glass plates, stereoscopic views, projection equipment and lms. He thus organized showings at El Sitio, a club where the bourgeoisie of Bilbao gathered.

materials, which were already precarious. The historical research was carried out by Camille BlotWellens, in collaboration with Encarni Rus Aguilar. The restoration was carried out by Alfonso del Amo, director of the restoration department of the Filmoteca Espaola. The Filmoteca Espaola acquired this collection in the 1990s and set about cataloguing and restoring it. At the time, most of the 127 lms were unknown, and each print is unique. The collection bears witness to great technical diversity; indeed, therein one nds some hundred lms in a current format (Edison), as well as twenty or so shot using the Joly-Normandin system. That format, which included ve perforations per frame, disappeared in 1898. Some reels present a clear theme, like those devoted to Alfonso XIII. Similarly, we nd some of the rst lms shot in Spain, lmed by cameramen of the Lumire brothers (Alexandre Promios Hallebardiers de la reine, 1896), as well as lms made by Spaniards for foreign producers (Rception dAlphonse XIII Barcelone, shot in 1904 by Segundo de Chomn, a correspondent at the time of Path Frres in Spain).
Avenue des Champs lyses (Parnaland, 1897-99)

All the lms of the Sagarmnaga collection were restored by the Filmoteca Espaola. The original prints were duplicated in the Iskra laboratories, as well as in those of the Filmoteca Espaola. Fotolm-Deluxe supervised the duplication of new prints and the reintroduction of the tinting of the time. The rst step in this work was to identify the producers of each lm in fact, in those days, there were not always directors but a chief cameraman, then a production company that owned the lm , this identication serving to nd the original title or the year it was made. The age of the lms has forced the restorers to adapt techniques and machines to the physical characteristics of the prints, sometimes necessitating a manual duplication in order not to damage the

The other reels, also organized thematically, bring together rustic scenes, conjurers acts or even phantasmagorical lms; however, a few reels offer a surprising mixture of genres. Even though Sagarmnaga collected comic scenes in particular, we also nd, here and there, military parades, hunting parties, and scenes of daily life. Most of the lms come from France (Lumire, Star FilmMlis, Path, Gaumont, Parnaland), but a few were produced in England (Warwick) and Spain (for foreign producers): Avenue des Champs-Elyses (Parnaland, 1897-99), Ballet sur scne avec orchestre (Baron, 1897-1901), Encierro de toros (Lumire, 1898), Arrive dun train (Path Frres, 1898-1899), Le Pape au

Vatican (Path, 1903), The Kiddies and the Rabbits (Warwick, 1904), La Charit du prestidigitateur (Gaumont, 1905), etc. Projection of nine reels (72min in total) as edited by Gregorio Antonio Sagarmnaga. Exhaustive list of the titles projected can be seen on the website: cinematheque.fr

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The CORRiCK COlleCtiON

1901-1914 THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 19:30

Between 1901 and 1914, the Corricks, a family of musicians and entertainers, introduced the audience of its Australia and New-Zealand tours to cinema. Progressively, they integrated lms showings into their shows. They presented the latest colour lms and special effects from the main production companies of the time. Thanks to the purchase of a camera, they also directed their own lms, which they screened to dazed spectators. Piano accompaniment by Mathieu Regnault. Screening introduced by Paolo Cherchi Usai (Film historian).

The CORRICk fAmILy The Corrick family a couple and their eight children began its tours in New Zealand and Australia in 1897. Their show combined music, dancing, comedy and poems. In 1901, they procured an Edison projector that their 14-yearold son learnt how to run, and short showings of silent lms were then integrated into their show. Given the success, they then added news, travel documentaries and ction lms from the principal production companies: Path, Edison, Gaumont and Itala. The Corricks were very fond of special effects such as those to be found in Path lms (Les Fleurs animes/The Animated Flowers, 1906) or in the English lm The Hand of the Artist (1906). They also projected lms coloured with stencils (La Poule aux ufs dor/The Hen that Laid the Golden Eggs, Path, 1905). Desirous of remaining pioneers, the Corricks took close interest in the new techniques. In 1906, they bought an electric generator to run their projector and lights. In 1907, the purchase of a movie camera enabled them to make and perform in their own lms; thus they shot during the day and projected their images in the evening before an awed audience. The family put an end to its tours in 1914 and stocked the lms and equipment in a garage. Their grandson became the archivist before donating hundreds of reels to the Australian National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA) in 1969.

When restoration began in 2006, study of the nitrate prints revealed only slight alteration in the images, even though decomposition had begun in spots. It was rst necessary to identify and organize certain fragments that occasionally had no title. Thanks to patient research work, the 140-odd lms have been identied. They were then transferred, shot by shot, to the Australian National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA) laboratory. The original photograms were treated by immersion in a liquid (wet-gate) covering the scratches and abrasions. From that ensued the establishing of two 35mm black and white negatives, one for the duplication of prints, the other for preservation. The laboratory carried out the recalibration of lms for which the photograms had been coloured with stencils.

BAByLAS vIeNT DhRITeR DUNe pANThRe


DIReCTOR Alfred Machin Path, France, 1911, black and white, 35 mm, 8 (16 frames per second)

AND A LITTLe ChILD ShALL LeAD Them


DIReCTOR D. W. Grifth Biograph, United States, 1909, black and white, 35 mm, 6 (16 frames per second)

Babylas inherits a panther that terrorizes the residents of his building.

Seven years after the death of their newborn baby, a couple on the verge of separation patches things up thanks to their second child.

LA BeLLe AU BOIS DORmANT


DIReCTORS Lucien Nonguet, Ferdinand Zecca Path, France, 1902, stencil-coloured, 35 mm, 13 (16 frames per second)

HOw JONeS LOST hIS ROLL


DIReCTOR Edwin S. Porter Edison, United States, 1905, black and white, 35 mm, 7 (16 frames per second)

This is the story of a beautiful princess, a sharpened spindle and a spell.

Invited to dinner by his neighbour, Jones gets drunk and is despoiled at cards.

The DAy-POSTLe MATCh AT BOULDeR RACeCOURSe


DIReCTOR Leonard Corrick Australia, 1907, black and white, 35 mm, 6 (16 frames per second)

COmeDy CARTOONS
DIReCTOR Walter R. Booth Charles Urban Trading Co., Great Britain, 1907, colour (tinted print), 35 mm, 5 (16 frames per second)

JAI peRDU mON LORgNON


DIReCTOR Charles Lucien Lpine Path, France, 1906, black and white, 35 mm, 4 (16 frames per second)

Corrick lms a championship race between the Irishman R. B. Day and the Australian A. Postle.

An artist sketches characters in chalk that come to life.

A man drops his eyeglasses and goes to work blindly

Le SCULpTeUR eXpReSS
DIReCTOR Segundo de Chomn Path, France, 1907, black and white, 35 mm, 5 (16 frames per second)

LA POULe AUX UfS DOR


DIReCTOR Gaston Velle Path, France, 1905, stencil-coloured, 35 mm, 15 (16 frames per second)

TOTO eXpLOITe LA CURIOSIT


Path, France, 1909, stencilcoloured, 35 mm, 5 (16 frames per second)

Fable about wealth and greed. Sculptor Lee Yost at work, speeded up.

Toto charges passersby to observe the coloured glass of his kaleidoscope. RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA 11

SUZANNe

ReN HeRVil & LOUis MeRCANtON | 1916 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nd, 12:30

Suzanne, an innocent young girl closely watched by her father, meets Prince Mikael of Sylvania who is spending his holidays with their neighbour Vladimir Varidikin (a count in the Dutch version, a duke in the French version). The prince and Suzanne fall in love and want to marry, but the prince is reminded of his duties and ordered to wed a princess. The count conspires to separate the lovers. Suzanne is driven away by her father and goes to take refuge with an old shepherd. She gives birth to an illegitimate child Piano accompaniment by Paul Goussot. Screening introduced by Pierre Lherminier, author of Annales du cinma franais. Les voies du silence (1895-1929) Nouveau Monde ditions. Book signing at La Cinmathque franaises bookshop at the end of the screening.
SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Ren Hervil et Louis Mercanton PRODUCTION clipse PHOTOGRAPHY George Barnes ACTORS: Suzanne Grandais, Jean Signoret, Georges Trville, Marie-Louise Derval France, 1916, tinted/toned print, 35 mm, Dutch intertitles with French subtitles, 85 (18 frames per second) ReN HeRvIL (1881-1960) & LOUIS MeRCANTON (1879-1932) Hervil began in cinema as an actor, whereas Mercanton is known for the lms in which he directed Sarah Bernhardt (La Reine lisabeth, 1912). Beginning in 1914, Ren Hervil became one of his recurrent actors. In 1916, the two lmmakers made Suzanne, the prelude to a series with actress Suzanne Grandais. These light comedies encountered such success that the actress was nicknamed the French Mary Pickford. Up until 1918, Hervil and Mercanton made several lms including Bouclette and Le Torrent (scripts by Marcel LHerbier), and Un roman damour et daventures, written by Sacha Guitry.

Restoration by the EYE Film Institute Netherlands (formerly, Nederlands Filmmuseum), Haghelm laboratory (Amsterdam), 2006, starting from a nitrate positive, tinted and toned. Duplicata black and white negative, Desmet method colour print. This restoration stems from the sole existing print of the lm, a tinted, toned nitrate positive acquired from a collector by the Nederlands Filmmuseum in 1959. The print was in poor mechanical condition (many

scratches and marks in the emulsion, perforations, damaged edges and splices with loss of frames). It suffered from the beginnings of chemical decomposition (the brown toning faded) and a bit of mould. Fortunately, the colours had remained splendid. We opted for a wet-gate black and white duplicate negative, and the printing of a colour copy with the Desmet method (addition of colours by plotting for the tinting and coloration of the light source for the toning). The insert titles of the nitrate

attest to a rather negligent practice by the Dutch distributor, Casino Film Den Haag: most of the original insert titles were replaced by titles in Dutch, but there remain, here and there, French insert titles; as for the correspondence inserts, only a few were translated. We left all the insert titles as they were. CATheRINe CORmON Archiviste Film (EYE Film Institute, Pays-Bas)

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The SWAllOW AND the TitmOUse


LHIronDeLLe et LA MsAnGe Live musical accompaniment by Quatuor Voce and pianist Hlne Peyrat. Screening introduced by Laurent Mannoni (Cinmathque franaise).

ANDR ANtOiNe | 1920-1984

SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 17:30

Two barges, LHirondelle and La Msange, are going from Antwerp to France. On board, Pieter Van Groot, his wife, Griet, and her sister, Marthe, work and live peacefully. A new pilot, Michel, comes to complete the crew, but his character makes the atmosphere take a dramatic turn.

DIReCTOR Andr Antoine SCRIpT Gustave Grillet PRODUCeR S.C.A.G.L. (Socit Cinmatographique des Auteurs et Gens de Lettres) EDITINg AND pOSTpRODUCTION Henri Colpi, La Cinmathque franaise phOTOgRAphy Ren Guychard ACTORS Louis Ravet, Pierre Alcover, Maylianes, Maguy Deliac France, 1920, black and white, DCP, 79 (18 frames per second)

Id had the idea for a film: the life of boatmen in Flanders, on the canals. [] Magnificent As everything had been shot moving, all the photos came in relief. Gripping. The story was hard, a very simple drama. [] Upon returning, we presented that to the factory, and I was told: But thats not a film. And I replied: Oh no, Sir, its not a film. But if you wish, we can add a diamond-cutting workshop in Amsterdam and a police raid in a London pub. And that was that. The film was never released. Andr Antoine (June 1923)

ANDR ANTOINe (1858-1943) Founder of the Thtre Libre in 1887, Antoine staged some 150 plays. Also director of the Odon in Paris, he signed a contract in 1914 with the Socit Cinmatographique des Auteurs et Gens de Lettres (S.C.A.G.L.). Long fascinated by photography and cinema, he shot his rst lm in 1915, Les Frres corses/The Corsican Brothers, after Alexandre Dumas. Out of a total of nine lms, he only adapted literary works (Les Travailleurs de la mer/The Toilers of the Sea, after Victor Hugo, La Terre/The Earth, after Zola), with the exception of his last lm, LHirondelle et la Msange. Beginning in 1924, he devoted a large part of his time to his career as a drama and lm critic (Comoedia, Le Journal, LInformation).
Maylianes in The Swallow and the Titmouse (1920)

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13

THE VOCe qUARTET founded in 2004, quickly made a name for itself on the international scene performing the great chamber music repertoire. In 2009, it recorded two Schubert quartets for the Nascor label. It is currently collaborating with choreographer Thomas Lebrun on a show based on Schuberts Death and the Maiden. The quartet regularly accompanies silent lms; for LHirondelle et la Msange, it is accompanied by pianist Hlne Peyrat, vocal coach at the Nantes Opera.

Maguy Deliac and Pierre Alcover in The Swallow and the Titmouse (1920)

LHirondelle et la Msange was restored by La Cinmathque franaise. Shot in 1920, the lm was edited and then shown only once, on the occasion of a corporative projection in 1924 (print lost). An unedited negative, six hours of rushes, forgotten for decades, was found in the collections of La Cinmathque franaise in 1982. On the initiative of historian Philippe Esnault, La Cinmathque then entrusted Henri Colpi, lmmaker, editor, and musicologist, with the task of reconstructing and making this never-released lm happen. Starting from Gustave Grillets original script and working documents annotated by Antoine, including lists of insert titles written in his hand, Colpi achieved a 79 feature (in 18 fps), using with a few exceptions Antoines original insert titles.

Raymond Alessandrini composed an original score with three themes borrowed from Maurice Jaubert. The lm was presented a rst time at La Cinmathque franaise on 12 March 1984. In the late 2000s, La Cinmathque franaise had a new duplicate and print made. The duplicate stemmed from the master positive made at the time of the 1984 restoration (and the sole edited master of the lm, the negatives having been left as rushes). In 2012, certain defects having remained from the time of the rst restoration (framings of the cartons in 1.37 rather than 1.33, for example), the master positive was scanned in 2K in order to be corrected. For the rst time, an entirely digital calibration was used in order to recreate the colours of the lm, reproduced at the time by Colpi with the Desmet duplicating process.

This new procedure resulted in heightened quality of image and denition. The digital laboratory work was carried out by Bruno Despas and Digimage. A new restoration was carried out at La Cinmathque franaise by Cline Ruivo and Clarisse Bronchti.

In 1920, for his ninth and, as it turned out, last lm, Andr Antoine embarked on the lming of this story written for the screen by playwright Gustave Grillet, a great friend. The lm was shot in Belgium but never released: Charles Path, distributor of the lm, was alarmed when he saw the rushes, considering this material a documentary... The lms realism, the shooting on location, the use of several cameras to lm the same situation, the use of effects on the lming (wipes, diaphragms,

dissolves, fades) and the sobriety of the acting make this a thoroughly innovative and therefore disconcerting lm. These conditions and lm processes stem directly from Antoines theatrical conception: a spectacle of life captured directly, a realistic conception that he wanted to apply to cinema (the taste for real settings). He developed this conception in several articles and lm reviews: The small evolution [in the theatre], which they say I invented, consisted quite simply of looking at what was happening, and trying, if possible, to be simpler and more logical. Alas, similar good fortune will not happen to me in cinema (December 1919).

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FeVeR
FIvre

LOUis DellUC | 1921 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 13:00

In a working-class bar on the Old Port of Marseilles, the owner, Topinelli, and his wife, Sarah, are pouring drinks for their regulars. A group of sailors, returning from the Orient, comes in. Amongst them is Militis, the lover who had abandoned Sarah in the past. Accordion accompaniment by Daniel Colin. Screening introduced by Pierre Lherminier, author of Annales du cinma franais. Les voies du silence (1895-1929) Nouveau Monde ditions. Book signing at La Cinmathque franaises bookshop at the end of the screening.
SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Louis Delluc PRODUCTION Alhambra-Film (Louis Delluc), Jupiter Films PhOTOgRAphY Alphonse Gibory, Georges Lucas ACTORS ve Francis, Edmond Van Dale, Gaston Modot France, 1921, 35 mm, tinted print, 45 (18 frames per second) LOUIS DeLLUC (1890-1924) Alongside his activities as a critic for the reviews Film then Paris-midi and Cina, Louis Delluc emerged as the leader of the rst French cinematographic avant-garde. His lms are characterized by the intentional slimness of the script (Le Silence 1920, Fivre 1921), characters tormented by the past (Le Chemin dErnoa/ The Way of Ernoa or The American, 1920, La Femme de nulle part/The Woman from Nowhere 1922), and the frequent recourse to ashbacks.
ve Francis in Fever (1921)

La Cinmathque franaise restored Fivre (Fever) from a nitrate negative that was on deposit since 1943, and then duplicated in 1963. An original nitrate release print, which was acquired in 1950, helped to complete the restoration. In 2008, a new print was made from the dupe negative, into which were reintroduced the intertitles from the nitrate print. This same nitrate print served as the reference for elaborating the tints. Tulips Bar is a short story written by Louis Delluc in 1919. The story became the script of La Boue (Mud, the initial title given to Fivre), published in Drames de cinma, with this concise writing that characterises Dellucs lm dramas. Produced by Alhambra-Film, a production company founded by Delluc, La Boue was shot in only eight days, in February 1921, in Gaumonts ButtesChaumont studios in Paris. The set of the working-class tavern in Marseilles was built in four days. The few shots of the harbour, in counterpoint to the closed universe of the bar, were lmed on location in the Old Port.

To play the numerous secondary roles that complete the cast of stars such as Edmond Van Dale and Gaston Modot, Delluc called for amateur actors, including a few friends. In a freezing atmosphere due to the winter temperatures, the protagonists fervour increased as the plot unfolded. For Delluc shot the scenes in continuity, in the order of the writing of the script (except for Militiss wedding scene, which took place in the past), thereby respecting the unity of time and place and stoking the progressive rise of tension and violence in the story. La Boue was presented in April 1921 to the Commission Suprieure dexamen des Films Cinmatographiques of the Ministry of Public Instruction and provoked sharp opposition. Generally speaking, the fact that the action takes place in a dive was found disturbing. The members of the Commission demanded not only that certain scenes, deemed too subversive (scenes of violence, a bared breast) be cut, but also that the title, judged too provocative, be changed. It was only once a few scenes had been removed that the lm was nally accepted by the censors in May 1921, under the title of Fivre. The lm was released theatrically on 24 September 1921. It charmed the public and earned rave reviews.

The main feature will be preceded by a screening of:

LA Fte esPAGnoLe
GeRmAiNe DUlAC | 1920 A former dancer is loved by two men. She incites them to ght, promising to give herself to the winner. Meanwhile, she lets herself be swept away by the whirl of the dance and charmed by a younger suitor.
RALISATION Germaine Dulac SCRIpT Louis Delluc PRODUCTION Les Films Louis Nalpas PhOTOgRAphY Paul Parguel ACTORS ve Francis, Jean Toulout, Gaston Modot France, 1920, 35 mm, black and white, 8 (18 frames per second)

In 1917, Germaine Dulac and Louis Delluc met. From their collaboration came the lm La Fte espagnole (Spanish Fiesta). It was the rst obvious expression of a new avant-garde movement in French cinema. Of Impressionistic inspiration, the framework was realistic and the settings natural. The movements of the bodies express the inner life of the characters.

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The SPANish DANCeR

HeRBeRt BReNON | 1923 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 21:30

Spain, 1625. A gypsy woman, Maritana, falls in love with a penniless aristocrat, Don Cesar de Bazan. When he is about to be seized for debts, the lovers ee. But the king of Spain, having become infatuated with the young woman, sends soldiers in pursuit. Piano accompaniment by Mathieu Regnault. Screening introduced by Elif Rongen (EYE Film Institute Netherlands).

DIReCTOR Herbert Brenon SCRIpT June Mathis PRODUCeR Herbert Brenon PhOTOgRAphY James Wong Howe ACTORS Pola Negri, Antonio Moreno, Wallace Beery United States, 1923, tinted print, 35 mm, 105 (22 frames per second)

Negri, was famous at the time for her roles in the great historical lms that Ernst Lubitsch made after the Great War (e.g., Carmen, Madame du Barry), and when the lmmaker was called to Hollywood in 1922, she followed him. At the outset, the lm was to have been called The Spanish Cavalier, with the lead role going to Rudolph Valentino, but a sex scandal forced the studio to break its contract with the actor. The rights having already been acquired, and for lack of another male star, it was decided to make the lm a promotional vehicle for Pola Negri and change the title. Pola Negri wanted Lubitsch to direct, but he was already committed to make Rosita with Mary Pickford. Coincidentally, both lms took their inspiration from the same theatre play, Don Csar de Bazan by Philippe Dumanoir and Adolphe dEnnery. Disappointed, Pola Negri did not hesitate to describe Brenon as a skilful director, but lacking in inspiration(Pola Negri, Memoirs of a Star, 1971). All the same, a month after the release of Rosita, The Spanish Dancer was a nancial and artistic success, due in particular to the actress, quite believable as a ery exotic dancer. She would again work with Lubitsch in 1924, in Forbidden Paradise.

Pola Negri in Spanish Dancer (1923)

HeRBeRT BReNON (1880-1958) An Irish stage actor, Brenon arrived in the United States at an early age. At the end of the 1900s, he began writing scripts. He progressively stood out as one of the important silent lm directors with, for example, Ivanhoe (1913) and The Two Orphans (1915), also playing in both of them. Some of his most notable lms were adaptations of novels, such as Peter Pan (1924), Beau Geste (1926) and The Great Gatsby (1926). Brenon often worked with the same technical and artistic team and thus he made a large number of his lms, including The Spanish Dancer, with the same chief cameraman, James Wong Howe. At the time of speaking lms, he made his last lms in England.

This restoration aims to bring together as much as possible of the original version. EYE FILM (Netherlands) was able to bring together four sources: a tinted 35mm nitrate print from the EYE Institute with Dutch intertitles, a black and white 35mm nitrate print from the Royal Belgian Film Archive with Russian intertitles, a 16mm print from Lobster Films (Paris) with French intertitles, and a 16mm print from Photoplay Productions (London) with English intertitles. Each one of these prints was incomplete. Even the most complete one (EYE print) only contained 64% of the original lm, when compared to the original script. The original dialogue continuity was found in the library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences,

which allowed for establishing the order of shots and insert titles with certainty. After scanning elements of the lm, the original tinted colour print was reintroduced into the restored print thanks to indications written in the dialogue continuity. With an aim at preservation, EYE Institute established a second print in black and white the negative of which is more durable than the colour one. The nal version was completed in 2011, and contains 95% of the original script, without missing a single scene. Often presented as a comic period drama with lavish costumes, The Spanish Dancer is one of Pola Negris rst lms in the framework of her contract with Paramount. This German actress of Polish origin, Pola

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ChRONiCles Of the GReY HOUse


ZUr CHronIk von GrIesHUUs Piano accompaniment by Stephen Horne.

ARthUR VON GeRlACh | 1923-25 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 10:30

In the 17th century, at Grieshuus [Grey House] Castle, the local lord makes his eldest son his sole heir. The son falls in love with the daughter of a serf, but his father opposes their union.

DIReCTOR Arthur von Gerlach SCRIpT Thea von Harbou PRODUCeR Erich Pommer (UFA) PhOTOgRAphy Carl Drews, Erich Nitzschmann, Fritz Arno Wagner ACTORS Gertrud Arnold, Christian Bummerstedt, Jahn Christen, Lil Dagover Germany, 1923-25, black and white, 35 mm, 109 (22 frames per second)

ARThUR vON GeRLACh (1876-1925) He began as a stage director and, during the First World War, staged plays by Shakespeare and Strindberg. For the cinema, he made only two lms: Vanina (1922) and Chronicles of the Grey House. His name remains associated with the former, inspired by Stendhals novel Vanina Vanini, in particular thanks to its prestigious cast (Asta Nieslen, Paul Wegener). In Chronicles of the Grey House we again nd the dual Expressionist and Romantic inspiration already perceptible in Vanina.

The lm was restored in 2005 by the Friedrich-WilhelmMurnau-Stiftung (Wiesbaden), in collaboration with the Federal Film Archives of Koblenz and Berlin. The LImmagine Ritrovata laboratory (Bologna) took charge of the technical realization of this photochemical restoration. The work was carried out by primarily combining threes restoration supports: the original nitrate negative bearing production cuts made before the lms release preserved at the German Federal Archives in Berlin; the safety material of the American version of the lm, also preserved in the Federal Archives; and the original piano score by Gottfried Huppertz, preserved at the Deutsche Kinemathek in Berlin. Amongst the various types of insert titles contained on the original negative, the restorers were able to identify those that were the oldest. Even though Chronicles of the Grey House was, in its time, one of the great UFA (Universum Film AG) productions, the lm is little known today. Screenwriter Thea von Harbou was in charge of adapting a story by Theodor Storm. His popularity and status as a writer fond of legendary tales made the project one of the priorities of the studio, anxious to make lms conveying a

Christian Bummerstedt in Chronicles of the Grey House (1923-25)

certain image of Germany. Chronicles of the Grey House was, in fact, part of the strategy of Erich Pommer, who was at the head of the studio at the time, which consisted of producing lms combining historical and mythical themes in an epic style. The production of Chronicles of the Grey House therefore lasted two years and beneted from a sizeable budget. The lm was shot in the UFA studios (Neubabelsberg) and on location (the moors of Northern Germany), of which Fritz Arno Wagner, director of photography (Nosferatu, F.W.Murnau, 1922), knew how to capture the gloomy atmosphere. The romantic, desolate

sets of the castle were designed by architects Robert Herlth (Der mde Tod/The Three Lights, Fritz Lang, 1921; Faust, F. W. Murnau, 1926) and Walter Rhrig (idem). The director, Arthur von Gerlach, made a profoundly Germanic lm based on a typically Nordic tale, going so far as to nd again, according to Lotte Eisner, the fresh air and nostalgic poetry of a Swedish lm (Lcran dmoniaque, 1952).

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The GOOse WOmAN

ClAReNCe BROWN | 1925 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nD, 16:30

Mary Holmes, a former diva, has lost her voice and her reputation giving birth to an illegitimate child. She now lives in a hovel where she raises geese and is gradually sinking into destitution and alcoholism. But when her neighbour is found murdered, Mary elaborates a plan to attract the attention of the local press. Piano accompaniment by Stephen Horne.

DIReCTOR Clarence Brown SCRIpT Melville Brown PRODUCTION Universal Pictures PhOTOgRAphY Milton Moore ACTORS Louise Dresser, Jack Pickford, Constance Bennett United States, 1925, tinted print, 35 mm, 83 (22 frames per second) CLAReNCe BROwN (1890-1987) Clarence Brown was an automobile mechanic who developed a passion for the cinema of Maurice Tourneur. In 1915, he became Tourneurs assistant. After the First World War, Tourneur helped him nd a story for his rst lm: The Great Redeemer. Beginning in 1926, Brown became one of the favourite directors at Metro-GoldwynMayer. Considered an excellent director of actors, it was he who created the image of Greta Garbo and Clark Gable. Brown made lms to entertain and refused to impose political opinions. However, as of the mid-1920s, he also turned to stories relating the harsh reality of rural America: Ah! Wilderness (1935), Intruder in the Dust (1949).

The lm was restored in 2011 from 16mm diacetate prints in the laboratories of the Stanford Theatre Foundation. These prints came from two sources: on the one hand from the UCLA Film & Television Archive (University of California at Los Angeles) and, on the other, from the British lmmaker and lm historian Kevin Brownlow. Following the restoration work, a 35mm print was made, then tinted. The print is silent, apart from a brief fragment of optical sound in the opening sequence. The restoration was carried out by Robert Gitt (Head of conservations at the UCLA Film & Television Archive).

Thanks to the success of his previous lm, Smouldering Fires (1925), shot for Universal, Clarence Brown was offered $3,000 a week by the same studio to make The Goose Woman. The lm took its inspiration from an actual criminal case that occurred in 1922 in the United States, marked by the false statement of a witness seeking to draw the attention of the media. The lm was very well received by the critics and public of the time, to the degree that Brown would again direct Louise Dresser in her next lm (The Eagle, with Rudolph Valentino). In 1933, RKO made a remake

of The Goose Woman, entitled The Past of Mary Holmes. Clarence Brown took an interest in every aspect of the shooting. Like Josef von Sternberg and Maurice Tourneur, whom he claimed to be his model, he paid particular attention to the acting as much as to the narrative construction, to the comic elements that lighten the melodramatic plot as to the lighting of the shot. Brown favoured pictorialism, inherited from silent lms (Tourneur, Herbert Brenon, Rex Ingram): the choice of lighting favours the contrasts between darkness in the foregrounds and luminosity in exteriors, an attempt at reproducing the light effects observed in painting and Symbolist illustration. The whole gives a somewhat dreamlike aspect to the photography, without, for all that, reducing realism. Many of Browns silent lms, nancial successes in their time, have fallen into oblivion. Similarly, he is associated more with his MGM period, which began in 1926, and with the lms he made with Greta Garbo: Flesh and the Devil, Anna Christie, Anna Karenina, etc.). It was only in the 1960s that his silent period was rediscovered in London, New York, and at La Cinmathque franaise.

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PARis iN 5 DAYs
PArIs en 5 joUrs

NiCOlAs RimsKY, PieRRe COlOmBieR | 1925 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nD, 14:30

The Roaring Twenties. An American accountant, Harry Mascaret, comes into an inheritance and decides to treat himself to a trip to Paris with his ance, Dolly, an escapade that becomes burlesque... Piano accompaniment by John Sweeney. Screening introduced by Cline Ruivo (Cinmathque franaise).

DIReCTORS Nicolas Rimsky, Pierre Colombier SCRIPT Michel Linsky, Nicolas Rimsky PRODUCTION Studio Albatros PhOTOgRAphY Nicolas Roudakoff, Paul Guichard, Gaston Chelles ACTORS Nicolas Rimsky, Dolly Davis, Madeleine Guitty France, 1925, 35 mm, tinted print, 77 (18 frames per second)

art directors (Ivan Lochakov). Moving into the Montreuil studio, these new collaborators founded the Ermoliev-Cinma production company, which became the Socit des Films Albatros in 1922. The studio welcomed French avant-garde lmmakers who were encountering difculties in producing their lms: Jean Epstein, Jean Renoir and Jacques Feyder. The Albatros studio thereby became a place for experimentation, between the avant-garde movement and the oriental-tinged imaginative universe. The great popular successes of Albatros at the time were comedies, of which Nicolas Rimsky became a specialist (Paris en 5 jours, Jim la Houlette, roi des voleurs, etc.). In 1926, producer Alexander Kamenka took over the running of Albatros. Beginning in 1936, he deposited lms and archives (scripts, posters, correspondence, production stills) at La Cinmathque franaise, so that was how La Cinmathque acquired the two negatives of Paris en 5 jours. In 1958, Henri Langlois obtained the totality of the Albatros collection for 3 million francs. La Cinmathque is henceforth the owner of the negatives, prints and rights.

NICOLAS RImSky (1886-1942) & PIeRRe COLOmBIeR (1896-1958) Nicolas Rimsky was part of the group of Russian artists who moved to France in 1917 and founded the Albatros studio. Actor of a thousand faces, he played in dramas as well as comedies. Supported by the new director of the Studio, Alexander Kamenka, he turned to writing then directing. His rst lm, Le Ngre blanc/The White Negro, was released in 1925. The Albatros studio encouraged the coming together of and collaboration between Russian and French artists. So it was that Rimsky met Pierre Colombier, a director of satirical comedies for Gaumont at the time. Thanks to his dynamic direction, Colombier stood out as a specialist in cinema vaudeville.

Made in 1925 in two versions - one for the French market and an international version, as was done with numerous productions of the time -, the lm was re-edited in 1930 for a sound version with synchronization of discs. The negative of the French version (negative A) thus had to be re-edited in keeping with the new sound dimension; but the discs have still not been found. In 2012, La Cinmathque franaise restored the silent version, essentially from two elements in its collections: a nitrate print and negative B (international version). The tinting and toning processes (alone or combined), found at the beginning of each shot on the edges, were indeed preserved on the nitrate print and

were reproduced on the new duplicate using the Desmet process. The nitrate print also provided the majority of the insert titles. In 1904, Charles Path opened a studio in Montreuil, outside of Paris, with an aim to competing with Georges Mliss Star Film Company; in addition, he opened a production company in Russia. In 1917, the Bolshevik revolution forced a certain number of artists to emigrate to France, including the head of the Path company in Russia, Joseph Ermoliev. He was accompanied by actors (Ivan Mozzhukhin), directors (Alexander Volkov), producers (Alexander Kamenka), poster designers (Boris Bilinsky) and

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19

BlACKmAil

AlfReD HitChCOCK | 1929 CLOSINg NIghT - SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nD, 21:00

In London, Alice is engaged to Frank Webber, a Scotland Yard detective who seems more interested in his profession. One evening, she agrees to follow an artist home. He tries to rape her, she struggles, grabs a knife and kills him. The investigation is entrusted to Frank who has no trouble confounding Alice but also suspects a strange man. Live musical accompaniment by Chlo. Screening introduced by Bryony Dixon (British Film Institute).

DIRECTOR Alfred Hitchcock SCRIPT Alfred Hitchcock, Ben W. Levy, daprs une pice de Charles Bennett PRODUCER John Maxwell (British International Pictures Producer) PhOTOgRAphY Jack Cox ACTORS Anny Ondra, John Longden, Donald Calthrop, Sara Allgood Great Britain, 1929, black and white, 35 mm, 82 (24 frames per second) ALfReD HITChCOCk (1899-1980) Director of silent and talking pictures, nicknamed the master of suspense, author of spectacular and secretly theoretical thrillers, Hitchcock was an artist who made more than fty features and always with the awareness of the means and powers as yet unexplored of a new art. After his English period (The Thirty-nine Steps, 1935, The Lady Vanishes, 1938), he went to the United States where his lms served as a showcase for the greatest actors of his time: Rebecca (1940), Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest (1959), Psycho (1960), The Birds (1963).

Chlo will do a live on Blackmail at the closing of the Festival. Dj and composer, Chlo Thvenin is a major gure on the French electro scene. In the 1990s, she witnessed the explosion of electronic music; today, she appears in clubs and at festivals the world over and collaborates with choreographers and lmmakers. She has released two albums, The Waiting Room (2007) and One In Other (2010) on Kill the dj Records, as well as numerous maxis and remixes on foreign labels.

Blackmail was restored in 2012 by the BFI National Archive in association with StudioCanal. Principal funding provided by The Hollywood Foreign Press Association and The Film Foundation. Additional funding provided by Deluxe 142, Pia Getty, Col & Karen Needham and the Dr Mortimer & Theresa Sackler Foundation. This restoration was part of the Rescue the Hitchcock 9 plan, a project begun in 2010 to restore the nine silent lms that Hitchcock made between 1925 and 1929. The original negative of the silent version was found in the BFI Archives, but the Deluxe 142 laboratory quickly became aware of the advanced deterioration of the nitrate lm, certain sequences being lost or unusable. The negative was scanned in 4K and the lm restored by immersion (wetgate), i.e., immersed in a uid

allowing for reducing or eliminating the ravages of time. To correct the remaining aws, the restorers resorted to the graphic palette used manually and to semi-automatic framecleaning software. Unlike most silent lm negatives having ash titles (indications for the laboratory concerning the cartons to

introduce on the negative), Blackmails already presented insert titles. Thus the laboratory did not need to reconstruct them, and the original insert titles were kept. The restoration was carried out by Bryony Dixon and Kieron Webb (BFI).

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In 1928, Charles Bennetts crime drama Blackmail had great success in London. Producer John Maxwell immediately bought the rights, deeming the play ideal for Alfred Hitchcock. As of the month of November, the production was settled, and Hitchcock worked on the text and wrote a script, blacker than the original plot, in a few days. The lmmaker also added action scenes and replaced the third act. The young Michael Powell, at the time stills photographer on the shooting of Blackmail, apparently suggested to Hitchcock that he omit this ending (which, in the original play, revealed an absence of murders) and recommended ending rather with a strong scene, namely the chase through the reading room of the British Museum In April 1929, the lm was almost nished, and Hitchcock was about to begin the editing when Maxwell asked him to also make a sound version of the lm. Blackmail would thus be shot in two versions, becoming Alfred Hitchcocks rst sound lm and the rst British talkie . The silent version was then shown in the cinemas that, at the time, were not yet equipped for projecting sound lms. The silent version offered Hitchcock greater freedom of experimentation, for example by shifting the camera in the

The silent pictures were the purest form of cinema; the only thing they lacked was the sound of people talking and the noises. But this slight imperfection did not warrant the major changes that sound brought in. In other words, since all that was missing was simply natural sound, there was no need to go to the other extreme and completely abandon the technique of the pure motion picture, the way they did when sound came in. (Alfred Hitchcock to Franois Truffaut, Le Cinma selon Hitchcock,1966)
course of a dialogue scene, when the mike in the sound version imposed more proximity to the actors. Inversely, the knife sequence, which remained famous in the sound version, had to nd an Expressionistic force by itself, in the silent version: a curtain, the shadow of bodies on the wall, a hand groping for and nally grabbing a knife The lm was a real success upon release, in both its sound version and the silent. Only the actress Anny Ondra (Alice) was a drawback for the lm, her Czech accent obliging her to be dubbed by the English actress Joan Barry, and this would mark the end of her British career. Blackmail has also remained famous for the rst real appearance of Hitchcock (scene of the two lovers in the Underground).

Anny Ondra in Blackmail (1929)

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21

The LiViNG CORPse


Der LeBenDe LeIcHnAM / Ivoj trUP

FeDOR OZeP | 1929 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 10:30

Fedyas wife becomes enamoured of one of their common friends. Not wanting to hinder their love, Fedya tries to obtain a divorce, but the Orthodox Church forbids it. In despair at having failed as a husband, he thinks of suicide until he encounters the gypsy Masha who dissuades him, suggesting that he stage his death instead. Film preceded by a lecture by Martin Koerber (Deutsche Kinemathek) and Oliver Hanley (Vienna Filmmuseum). Musical accompaniment by Werner Schmidt-Boelckes original score.

DIRECTOR Fedor Ozep SCRIPT Boris Gousman, Anatoli Mariengof PRODUCTION Mezhrabpomlm PhOTOgRApHY Anatoli Golovnia, Piel Jutzi ACTORS Vsevolod Poudovkine, Gustav Diessl, Viola Garden Russia/Germany, 1929, black and white, 35 mm, 121 (22 frames/second) FeDOR Ozep (1895-1949) Ozep began in cinema as a scriptwriter for the director Pratazanov with whom he adapted Pushkins The Queen of Spades, (1916) and wrote the scripts for Aelita (1924) and Kollezhskiy registrator/The Station Master (1925). Switching to directing alongside Boris Barnet for Miss Mend (1926), Ozep moved to Germany where he made Der lebende Leichnam/The Living Corpse (1928) and Der Moerderer/The Murderer Dimitri Karamazov (1931). Fleeing Nazism, he found refuge in France (La dame de pique in 1937, Gibraltar in 1938). After the war, Ozep left for Canada where he made two last lms.

The original negative has disappeared, and no complete print of the rst cut has survived. In 1988, the Deutsche Kinemathek made a rst attempt at reconstructing the version of the lm presented at its Berlin premiere. Starting from a duplicated positive of a Danish print, a duplicate was established and re-edited to correspond to the German version as far as possible. The new restoration, initiated in 2011 by the Austrian Filmmuseum, in partnership with The Deutsche Kinemathek, managed to improve this reconstruction starting from three new elements: a nitrate print of excellent quality, preserved in Austria; a release print with French and German insert titles from Switzerland; and an incomplete, damaged print in an Italian version. A restoration undertaken by Martin Koerber at the Deutsche Kinemathek in 1988, then by Oliver Hanley at the Vienna Filmmuseum in 2011. Werner Schmidt-Boelckes original music was reconstructed during the 1988 restoration. Co-produced by the Soviet Mezhrabpomlm and its German sister company Prometheus, The Living Corpse combines Tolstois original play with elements of Soviet montage and German expressionism to create a powerful, socially critical tour de force. Although the action takes place in Moscow, the lm was shot in

Vsevolod Poudovkine in The Living Corpse (1929)

Berlin from within the Johannisthal studios where the atmosphere of Pre-Revolutionary Russia was ably recreated. Hoping to create a lm with a wide appeal, the producers assembled a truly international cast (Italian actress Maria Jacobini, and Austrian actor Gustave Diessl). The great Soviet director Vsevolod Poudovkine stars in his only leading role. Actordirector Boris Barnet, who had earlier worked with Ozep on the Miss Mend serial (1926), also makes a brief cameo as a drunken sailor. The lm premiered on 14th February 1929 at the prestigious Capitol Theatre in Berlin, where it was accompanied by a musical illustration put together for the occasion by Werner Schmidt-Boelcke. Prophetically dubbed the lm everyone must see by its Austrian distributor, The Living Corpse was a worldwide success, even if its anti-religious overtones occasionally brought

it into conict with censors. For its initial French release, the lm was re-edited by Germaine Dulac. The widespread conversion to sound and the appearance of Fred Niblos Redemption (1930), Hollywoods take on the same Tolstoi play, delayed the release of Ozeps version in America. When it nally appeared there in January 1931, it was a pale shadow of the lm seen in Berlin - running a mere 77 minutes and featuring synchronised music and sound effects. However, this didnt stop Variety from dubbing The Living Corpse, one of the really few achievements of the Russian industry: a picture so gripping that, despite its lack of dialog, it will hold any audience. (14th January 1931). These words still hold true when we watch Ozeps The Living Corpse today. OLIveR HANLey Researcher at Austrian Filmmuseum

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ThRee sPONsOReD films

HANs RiChteR | 1931-1939 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nD, 10:30

The avant-garde lmmaker Hans Richter often worked in Switzerland in the 1930s, and the Swiss Film Archive has preserved numerous unique prints of his sponsored lms. The rediscovery of this important heritage over the past ten years has allowed for the restoration of the elements, thanks to nancial support from the Memoriav association.

Being a matter of unique nitrate material, the restoration consisted above all of duplicating new polyester elements and prints calibrated from the period materials. The Swiss Film Archive chose to preserve the defects due to lmmakers way of working, as he often edited his positive prints himself: the irregular splices, for example, are quite characteristic of Hans Richters art, as he was used to continually modifying the prints that he projected, without necessarily worrying about the negative. The last restoration, completed in 2012 and carried out by the ANIM (Portuguese Cinematheque), is that of the Richter Workshop version of Die neue Wohnung/The New Apartment (1932).

HANS RIChTeR (1888-1976) In 1916, German-born Richter arrived in Zurich where he adhered to the Dada movement. At the time, he took up painting, primarily abstract and based on the breaking down of movement. Upon returning to Berlin, he resorted for the rst time to cinema as a means of expression, with Film Studie (1926) in which he tried to reproduce cinematographic motion. In the 1930s, he again spent time in Switzerland making sponsored lms. Subsequently, he made collective lms: Rves vendre/ Dreams That Money Can Buy (1947) in collaboration with Fernand Lger, Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst, then 8x8 (1956) on which he collaborated with Jean Cocteau in particular.

WIR LeBeN IN eINeR NeUeN ZeIT


We Live in a New World
(Switzerland), 1938, black and white, 35 mm, 27

DIe BRSe ALS BAROmeTeR DeR WITSChAfTSLAge


The Stock Exchange
(Switzerland), 1939, black and white, 35 mm, 21

DIe NeUe WOhNUNg


Atelier Richter version (Switzerland), 1931, black and white, 35 mm, 27, silent (18 frames per second)

Advertising lm for Ovomaltine, produced by the Wander Company. Part of the lm was made with the Dufaycolor process, i.e., the law of the three colours is manifest by juxtaposition (and not by superposition). Thus it is through optical blending that our eyes see the nal colour. During restoration, this sequence necessitated a special chemical treatment and a digital duplicating positive (restoration via computing).

Film commissioned by the Zurich Stock Exchange for the Zurich National Exposition in 1939. A lm on the growth of the exchanges in the course of the history of economic development and the stock exchanges regulating role. Restored from elements of different generations.

A lm made on the occasion of the rst Basel architectural and interior design exhibition (WOBA), which aimed at showing the innovative aspects of modern architecture. In 1932, Richter would make another version, of equivalent length but in a different edit.

Die neue Wohnung (1931)

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23

LiVes, PORtRAits
Screening introduced by Nicola Mazzanti (Royal Belgian Film Archive).

THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 11:00


GABRIeL POmeRAND (1926-1972) In 1945, in a canteen for Jewish refugees in Paris, Gabriel Pomerand met Isidore Isou. Together, they founded lettrism. In 1948, Pomerand published Le Cri et son Archange, and then Le Testament dun acquitt in 1951. Also painter, he drew and developed a painting of letters and signs. In 1950, he published the important hypergraphic novel, Saint Ghetto of the Loans (Saint-Ghetto-des-Prts). In 1951, without any real breakingoff, Pomerand progressively moved away from the avantgarde path. ALBeRTO SpADOLINI (1907-1972) An Italian artist, Alberto Spadolini emigrated to France in the early 1930s. Although he had no classical training, he became a dancer. Josphine Baker discovered him and made him her partner. He became one of the stars of the Paris music-hall. Spadolini was also a painter, singer, writer and actor, and shot a few short features, including the documentary Nous, les gitans. HeNRI STORCk (1907-1999) et JORIS IveNS (1898-1989) Henri Storck was one of the pioneers of Belgian cinema and documentaries. Committed, he made Les Maisons de la misre/ Houses of Misery (1937), which denounces workers slums, and Le patron est mort/The Boss is Dead (1938) about the funeral of mile Vandervelde, leader of the Belgian Labour Party. As for Joris Ivens, this globetrotter crisscrossed the world, setting up his camera to lm the individual in his era and in relation to his social environment. In 1933, the two men made Misre au Borinage, the founding lm of Belgian cinema and a documentary reference. The lm became a classic of cinema of the real.

LA PeAU DU mILIeU
DIReCTOR Gabriel Pomerand PRODUCTION Alga Cinma PhOTOgRAphY Louis Page DOCUmeNTARy ADvISOR Robert Giraud France, 1957, black and white, 35 mm, 13

NOUS, LeS gITANS


DIReCTOR Alberto Spadolini PRODUCTION S.C.M. (Socit des Courts-Mtrages) PhOTOgRAphY Guy Ferrier, Paul Rodier France, 1950, black and white, 35 mm, 25

MISRe AU BORINAge
DIReCTOR Joris Ivens, Henri Storck PRODUCTION EPI (Bruxelles), Club de lcran PhOTOgRAphY Joris Ivens, Henri Storck, Franois Rents Belgium, 1933, black and white, 35 mm, 28

Gabriel Pomerand lmed tattooed Parisians. A chronicler of the capital, Robert Giraud assisted him and introduced him into this milieu. La Peau du milieu was restored by Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. In 1950, Robert Doisneau published a photography book entitled Les Tatouages du Milieu, with texts by poet Robert Giraud and police inspector Jacques Delarue. These were photographs of tattooed individuals encountered in Paris in the late 1940s. A few years later, the avantgarde Lettrist poet Gabriel Pomerand took inspiration from that book to make this documentary.

Alberto Spadolini, lmmaker and choreographer, pays tribute to Gypsy culture, lming traditional songs and dances. New print from La Cinmathque franaise.

In 1932, a strike paralyzed the coal mines in Wallonia. In face of police repression and the indifference of the country, the indignant young people of a militant lm-club bear witness to this struggle with their cameras. The lm was restored in 2012 by the Royal Belgian Film Archive (Cinematek), in collaboration with the EYE Film Institute Netherlands. The restoration was carried out based on the original negative and other elements of the period duplicate.

Misre au Borinage by Joris Ivens and Henri Storck (1933)

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FiVe shORt feAtURes BY DiNO Risi

1946-1949

WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 11:00

A group of short features made right after the war by the young Dino Risi was found in the archives of the Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, a preservation site originally created six hundred years ago for supervising the construction of the Milan Cathedral. Dino Risi displays spontaneity in his way of capturing gestures and faces or of sketching a landscape. Before becoming the master of comedy, Risi was one of the great Italian documentary makers of the post-war era. These lms, identied by lm historian and curator Sergio Toffetti. They were restored by the National Film Archive (Turin).
DINO RISI (1916-2008) Following an experience as an assistant director for the shooting of Piccolo mondo antico/Old-Fashioned World (Alberto Lattuada, 1941), Risi became a psychiatrist. After the Second World War, he made short features and committed himself denitively to a directing career. In 1957, Poveri ma belli/Poor, but Handsome conrmed his talent. In 1960, Il mattatore/ Love and Larceny was his rst collaboration with Vittorio Gassman, who would become his favourite actor, and the success of Il sorpasso/The Easy Life (1962) gave an international direction to his career. He stood out as one of the masters of Italian comedy (I mostri/The Monsters 1963, La Moglie del prete/The Priests Wife, 1970) and directed more than fty lms.

VeRSO LA VITA
DIReCTOR Dino Risi PRODUCER Comitato Milanese per lInfanzia (Comit milanais pour lEnfance) PhOTOgRAphY Massimo Dallamano Italy, 1946, black and white, 35 mm, 12

1848
DIReCTOR Dino Risi PRODUCER Gigi Martello PhOTOgRAphY Massimo Dallamano INTeRpRTe Lucia Bos Italy, 1949, black and white, 35 mm, 11

LA fABBRICA DeL DUOmO


DIReCTOR Dino Risi PRODUCER Gigi Martello PhOTOgRAphY Massimo Dallamano Italy, 1949, black and white, 35 mm, 10

Orphan in a Milan devastated by the war, Emilio is taken in by a centre. The company of other children gradually helps him regain a bit of lost innocence. Risi made the lm to raise funds necessary for the creation of a village where young orphans would nd a place to live.

The lm opens with the dress rehearsal of a ballet at La Scala, attended only by Austrian soldiers. Milan is deserted. At the cry of Burn the city!, the insurrection breaks out. Risi made 1848 in collaboration with director Alberto Lattuada, scriptwriter Mario Bonfantini and the founder of the Piccolo Teatro di Milano, Giorgio Strehler. The lm was commissioned by the Milanese Committee for the Centennial of the Five Days of March 1848 symbolizing the victory of the Milanese people over the occupying Austrians.

TIgULLIO MINORe
DIReCTOR Dino Risi PRODUCER Gigi Martello Italy, 1947, black and white, 35 mm, 10

The technical ofce for the renovation of the cathedral of Milan displays the treasures of the site and the projects for the churchs faades to the camera. To tell the story of the cathedral of Milan, eternal symbol of the city, Dino Risi starts with its material: marble. The lmmaker progressively becomes one of the protagonists of the worksite, alongside workers, stonecutters, sculptors and ornamentalists.

LA PROvINCIA DeI SeTTe LAghI


DIReCTOR Dino Risi PRODUCER Gigi Martello PhOTOgRAphY Plinio Novelli Italy, 1948, black and white, 35 mm, 10

In the Tigullio region, after the war, a village priest escorts a casket. Women in mourning follow the cortge, while sinister faces at the windows accompany the deceased in his last journey.

Owing to its succession of patrician villas surrounded by parks and gardens, the province of Varese is nicknamed the Versailles of Milan. The documentary underscores the idyllic beauty of its landscapes and the splendour of its art.

Lucia Bos in 1848 (1949)

La Fabbrica del Duomo (1949)

1848 (1949)

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25

VOlCANO
VULcAno

WilliAm DieteRle (1950) FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 11:00

Maddalena, a former prostitute, is expulsed from Naples by the police and placed under house arrest on Vulcano, her native island. When her sister Maria falls in love with a procurer, Maddalena does everything in her power to put an end to this affair. Screening introduced by Gian Luca Farinelli (Cineteca di Bologna).

DIRECTOR William Dieterle SCRIPT Piero Tellini, Victor Stoloff PRODUCTION Francesco Alliata (Panaria Film), Artistes Associs PhOTOgRAphY Arturo Gallea ACTORS Anna Magnani, Rossano Brazzi, Geraldine Brooks Italy, 1949, black and white, 35 mm, 106 WILLIAm DIeTeRLe (1893-1972) Prolic director of a heteroclite catalogue, he began as a stage and lm actor in Germany. Changing to directing, he made daring or sensational lms, such as Geschlecht in Fesseln/Sex in Chains (1928), on prison life and sexual frustrations . His success was such that Warner Bros. called on him to make German versions of American lms. In the United States, and for different studios, he lmed constantly: biopics, comedies and melodramas, an adaptation of Victor Hugo (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, 1939), and adventure lms. Upon returning to Germany in 1959, he divided his time between cinema and theatrical activities.

Vulcano was restored in 2004 by the Cineteca di Bologna, at the LImmagine Ritrovata laboratory, with the support of the region of Sicily. The original image and sound negatives were put at the Cinetecas disposal by the lms producer, Francesco Alliata. In 2012, on the occasion of the presentation of the new restoration of Stromboli (Roberto Rossellini, 1950) by the Cineteca di Bologna, the latter produced a new print of the restored version of Vulcano. The history of the two lms, Stromboli and Vulcano, is intimately linked. After the war, Rossellini shot a number of lms with actress Anna Magnani (Roma, citt aperta/Open City, 1945, Amore, 1948) and had an impassioned, tumultuous love affair with her. He later became Ingrid Bergmans lover and made Stromboli (1950) with her, a lm that, in a way, aunted their love. Furious, and decided to avenge herself, La Magnani immediately set up a competing project. William Dieterle agreed to make this lm that would be shot at almost the same moment. Magnani chose another Aeolian island, quite close to Stromboli: Vulcano Meanwhile, Bergman, the biggest star of the American box-ofce at the time and a married woman pregnant with Rossellinis child, provoked an angry reaction from Hollywood for her adulterous love affair and

The lm will be preceded by the projection of:

BIANChe EOLIe
Pietro Moncada, Renzo Avanzo, Quintino Di Napoli, 12 (1948)

WhITe AeOLIAN ISLANDS

ISOLe DI CeNeRe
ASh ISLANDS
Pietro Moncada, Renzo Avanzo, Quintino Di Napoli 10 (1948)

Anna Magnani in Volcano

Preserved by the Cineteca di Bologna, these short features were produced by Panaria Film, a production company founded by Francesco Alliata in 1947. Alliata, his cousin Quintino Di Napoli, and their friends Pietro Moncada, Renzo Avanzo and Fosco Maraini, made a series of underwater documentaries in 35 mm, in the Aeolian Islands, totally unknown at the time. Pioneers in underwater shooting, these lms were the raison dtre of Stromboli and of Vulcano, the latter being produced by the same Panaria Film.

had to leave Los Angeles. The Italian press, on the other hand, was divided between the proMagnani in the South the Italy offended by America and partisans of Rossellini in the North the Italy proud of having abducted the Hollywood star. The shootings unfolded in a psychodramatic atmosphere: Magnani allegedly sent spies to the island of Stromboli, and legend has it that every evening she went to the point of Vulcano, facing Stromboli, to insult her rival. The two shoots ended at the same time, in early August 1949. Vulcano was released in Rome on 2 February 1950, but the event was short-circuited by the announcement of the birth of Robertino, son of Roberto and Ingrid. Released 13 days later in the United States, Stromboli was pulled to pieces by the critics.

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JOsePh LOseY | 1951 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 17:30 In this Americanization of Fritz Langs 1931 German thriller, both the police and the criminal underworld stalk a mysterious killer who preys on small children.

DIRECTOR Joseph Losey SCRIPT Leo Katcher, Norman R. Raine, Waldo Salt, after a script by Thea von Harbou and Fritz Lang PRODUCER Seymour Nebenzal PhOTOgRAphY Ernest Laszlo ACTORS David Wayne, Howard Da Silva, Luther Adler United States, 1951, black and white, 35 mm, 88

JOSeph LOSey (1909-1984) In the 1930s, he was in turn a free-lance journalist, a literary critic, a stage manager, a commercials director, and he made documentaries drawn from lm archives. He made his rst feature lm in 1948, The Boy with Green Hair, an antiracist fable. After a remake of Fritz Langs M, Losey, suspected of having pro-communist sympathies, went into exile in Great Britain. He directs The Damned (1961), Eva (1962), and after scripts by Harold Pinter, The Servant (1963), Accident (1967) and The Go-Between (1970). In France, Losey made Monsieur Klein (1975), Roads to the South (1978), Don Giovanni (1979), and The trout (1982).

Ten separate 35mm reels of the original negative were preserved in the Columbia Pictures (Sony Entertainment) collection at the Library of Congress. Reel 1 (720 feet) consists of a mixture of Eastman Kodak safety lm stock throughout the opening credit sequence, followed by several hundred feet of Kodak nitrate lm stock, then another long section of DuPont nitrate lm stock and, at the end of the reel, a short section of Kodak safety lm. Though in generally good condition, fact that the M negative consists of Kodak and DuPont nitrate lm stocks presented a special problem in timing. A side-byside comparison of the Kodak and DuPont nitrate negative sections shows an obvious difference in the color tone and density, even though both are B&W. The lm Librarys lm preservationists were able to examine and compare an original release print acquired by the Library in 1951. Though distributed by a semi-major Hollywood studio, Columbia Pictures, Joseph Loseys M was an independent production that stands today as a kind of Rorschach test of our understanding of the political and artistic turmoil in postWWII America. In 1947 the House Un-American Activities Committee renewed its efforts to investigate the extent of Communist party

activities in the U.S. The committees investigators paid special attention to those working in the lm industry. Losey was active in the Communist party for a time in the 1930s but later, became disillusioned and ended his membership in the 1940s. Nevertheless in March 1951, Loseys name was added to the list of persons to be subpoenaed to testify. After M had been completed, Losey departed for Europe and England where he went on to have a distinguished career directing lms while blacklisted in the U.S. Producer Seymour Nebenzal was an important lmmaker who left Berlin in 1933 and settled in Hollywood in 1939, where he began to independently produce American remakes of lms he had successfully produced during the 1920s and early 30s. Nebenzal had produced Fritz Langs original version of M in 1931. In 1950 he hired Losey to direct a remake, using a translation of the original script. Unhappy that Nebenzal was planning a new production, Lang suspected that Losey would be constrained by his use of the original script to making only a scene for scene remake. That was not to be the case. Losey admired Langs version of M as a classic lm but he nevertheless thought that its delineation of the child murderer played by Peter Lorre was outmoded and lacking an exploration of

David Wayne in M (1951)

the characters psychological motivation. Loseys intention from the start was to make a different lm. M inspired favorable reviews from mainstream American critics upon its release. However it was banned for a time in a small number of U.S. states and censored in England, with 6 minutes of footage excised, and generally elsewhere in Europe. Today M is recognized as one of the greatest of the independent lms produced in the U.S. in the early 1950s. PATRICk LOUghNey Executive Director of the Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation (Library of Congress)

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27

LAWReNCe Of ARABiA
Screening introduced by Omar Sharif.

DAViD LeAN | 1962 THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 20:30

The extraordinary, epic destiny of the British ofcer T. E. Lawrence. An enigmatic man, in love with the desert, united Arab tribes and led the revolt against the Turkish occupant during the First World War.

DIReCTOR David Lean SCRIpT Robert Bolt PRODUCeRS Robert A. Harris, Sam Spiegel PhOTOgRAphy Fred A. Young ACTORS Peter OToole, Anthony Quinn, Omar Sharif, Alec Guinness United Kingdom, 1962, colour (Technicolor), digital projection (DCP), 222

Omar Sharif and Peter OToole in Lawrence of Arabia

DAvID LeAN (1908-1991) In the 1930s, Lean is reputed to be the nest lm editor in British cinema. He made two adaptations of Charles Dickens, Great Expectations (1946) and Oliver Twist (1948), which attest to his rigour in the treatment of dramatic structure and mastery of sets, photography and editing. The lmmaker subsequently turned towards international productions: The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), a worldwide success, Lawrence of Arabia and Doctor Zhivago (1965). After Ryans Daughter (1970), Lean retired. He returned to directing in 1984 with A Passage to India, an epic adapted from E. M. Forster.

The lm was restored in 2012 by Grover Crisp of Sony Pictures Entertainment, based on the restoration carried out by Jim Painten and Robert Harris in 1988. Over the years, the lm had undergone numerous cuts, the studio considering it too long. The rst restoration in 1988 showed the lm according to the editing wished for by the director, a version including 21 minutes more than on its release in 1962. The original negative was scanned with an 8K resolution. A meticulous process then allowed for correcting aws, some of them dating from the lms epoch and others accumulated over the years. Thanks to the latest technologies of digital imagery, the calibration of colours and remastering were carried out in 4K resolution. T. E. Lawrence fascinated David Lean who saw in his fatherless childhood, his ambiguous sexuality and his passion

for the desert the bases of a great adventure story. A rst version of Michael Wilsons script was nished in 1960, but Lean found it unsatisfactory, and Wilson was ousted from the project. Whilst Lean scouted for locations in Jordan, producer Sam Spiegel spotted a young playwright, Robert Bolt, and hired him. To make the story captivating, Bolt condensed Lawrences autobiography, Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922), and created a legend. The shooting, begun in Jordan in natural settings and in 65mm, was difcult, the heat restrictive, sandstorms frequent, and actor Peter OToole sometimes incapacitated. A rst shooting extended over one hundred days, and Sam Spiegel wanted to nish the lm in Spain to rein in the budget. Shooting resumed in Seville in December 1961 but without providing the lm with all the desired desert landscapes. Shooting nally ended in Morocco in June 1962, except

for the death of Lawrence, lmed in England. To speed up the editing, Spiegel organized a screening for the queen of England, thus leaving Lean only four months to complete his lm. On its release, Lawrence of Arabia was a huge success and won seven Oscars. Borne by this triumph, David Lean wanted to do it again and wrote to Robert Bolt: Lawrence represented the greatest, most fascinating adventure of my career and even of my life. I had never worked with anyone of your calibre []. Forgive me, Robert, if I tell you that we have to do it again [] We could make a masterful op. But I think we could again make sparks y, especially after what we have just pulled off (Letter of 30 June 1963). That year the two men began working on the script of Doctor Zhivago.

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Le JOli MAi

ChRis MARKeR, PieRRe LhOmme | 1963 DIMAncHe 2 DceMBre, 18H30

Part I: Prayer on the Eiffel Tower. Part II: The return of Fantmas Le Joli Mai was shot in Paris, in May 1962, just after the vian Accords [the treaty putting an end to the Algerian War]. Chris Marker questions men and women on political and social problems, and on their daily life. Screening introduced by ric Garandeau (president of the Centre national du cinma et de limage anime) and Pierre Lhomme.

ChRIS MARkeR (1921-2012) In 1953 he directed Les Statues meurent aussi/Statues Also Die (co-dir. Alain Resnais), and later on, amongst others: Dimanche Pkin/Sunday in Peking (1956), Lettre de Sibrie/Letter from Siberia (1958), Description dun combat/Description of a Struggle (1960), Cuba si! (1961) and, of course, La Jete/The Pier (1963), a science-ction short whose narration and form overturn conventions. And also: Si javais quatre dromadaires/If I Had Four Dromedaries (1966), Le fond de lair est rouge/Grin Without a Cat (1977), Sans soleil/Without Sun (1983), Level ve (1996), and Chats perchs/ The Case of the Grinning Cat (2004). His lms, subjective political documentaries, constitute as many masked selfportraits as looks at the world and its revolutions. PIeRRe LhOmme (born in 1930) Initially assistant-cameraman for Ghislain Cloquet and Henri Alekan, amongst others, he did the photography for Le Combat dans lle/Fire and Ice (Alain Cavalier, 1961) and was involved in experiences and lms as different as Pour le mistral (Joris Ivens, 1965), La Vie de chteau/Chateau Life (Jean-Paul Rappeneau, 1965), LArme des ombres/Army of Shadows (Jean-Pierre Melville, 1969), Quatre Nuits dun rveur/ Four Nights of a Dreamer (Robert Bresson, 1970), La Maman et la Putain/The Mother and the Whore (Jean Eustache, 1972), Quartet (James Ivory, 1980) He won two Csars for best photography, one for Camille Claudel (Bruno Nuyten, 1987), the other for Cyrano de Bergerac (Jean-Paul Rappeneau, 1989).

DIReCTORS Chris Marker, Pierre Lhomme SCRIpT Chris Marker, Catherine Varlin PRODUCTION Sofracima PhOTOgRAphy Pierre Lhomme Off-SCReeN vOICe Chris Marker, Yves Montand (narrator) France, 1963, black and white, digital projection (DCP), approx. 145

A rst photochemical restoration of the lm was carried out in 2009 by Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. The projection print, duplicated from the internegative restored by the AFF was 17 minutes shorter than the initial version. These cuts were intended by Chris Marker and executed by Pierre Lhomme, the lms co-director and director of photography. In 2012, the Centre National du cinma et de limage anime (CNC) started the process of restoration and digitization of heritage lms. The restoration

of Le Joli Mai was thus achieved with the support of the CNC, under the direction of Pierre Lhomme. Carried out at Mikros Image, this restoration work provided for establishing a digital print and a return on lm to guarantee the durability of the nished work. New cuts were made, the two directors having not, at the outset, considered the initial version as denitive.

Paris is an object of fairytales as worn down at the heel and fabulous as Cinderellas slipper. Anyone can boast of having held it, but no one can claim to have put it on. It is better to wait patiently for Paris and observe it without hoping to surprise it. What we have sought to bring out are, alongside those who are bounced about by chance and solitude at will, men and women integrated as much as possible in their social milieu and aware of what they would like to do with their life. Chris Marker

We met free men. We gave them the most important place in this film. They were not without contradictions or even without errors but they were pushing ahead with their errors. And the truth is perhaps not the goal: it is perhaps the route.(Excerpt from the commentary of Le Joli Mai).

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29

The FiRemeNs BAll


HorI, M PAnenko

MilO FORmAN | 1967 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 11:00

In a small provincial town, the re station is preparing a great ball. The whole town is invited but, in the course of this evening, nothing will go as planned.

The lm was restored by the National Film Archives in Prague, in collaboration with SCRIpT the Karlovy Vary International Milo Forman, Festival. Work was supervised Jaroslav Papouek, Ivan Passer by the lms director of photography, Miroslav Ondiek. PRODUCeRS Most of the image data were Rudolf Hjek, Carlo Ponti taken from the original negative, except in the cases PhOTOgRAphy where it was too damaged, Miroslav Ondiek which necessitated resorting ACTORS to the intermediate positive. Jan Vostril, Josef ebnek, All the elements were scanVratislav ermk ned in 4K, with a 10-bit colour depth. Starting from the digiCzechoslovakia-Italy, 1967, colour, digital projection (DCP), 79 tal duplicating positive resulting from it, the restorers used a simulation tool to go back to the initial procedure that MILO FORmAN had served for establishing (born in 1932) the colours on the release Beginning with his rst short features, Forman lmed youth prints. The 1967 Orwocolor in motion facing an ossied print served as reference. world of adults. This is the The digitization of the sound case in ern Petr/Black Peter was prepared from an optical (1963), his rst feature, and The soundtrack stemming from a Firemens Ball. 2009 print and the original After exile, he began an tapes. Although exploitation American career: Taking off of the latter would have been (1971), the story of a teenager preferable, only a fth of them running away from home, then, in 1975, One Flew Over was usable, so it was mostly the Cuckoos Nest, a hymn the optical soundtrack that to freedom crowned by ve was used. The nal mixing Oscars. Next came Hair (1979), allowed for masking the difor else Amadeus in which ferent sound sources.
DIReCTOR Milo Forman Forman again showed his taste for rebellious gures. With The People vs. Larry Flynt (1996), he continued to proclaim loud and clear the freedom of expression. In 2005, with Jean-Claude Carrire, he wrote Los Fantasmas de Goya/Goyas Ghosts about the Spanish Inquisition.

sketches certain human behaviours in a given political setting. The lms anti-conformist tone caused a scandal in Czechoslovakia. Rather than banning it, the Communist authorities organized a showing, putting agitators in the theatre. They shouted about the insult to the working classes with the aim of leading to a withdrawal from distribution on demand of the people. But the censors projection that took place, on purpose, in the village that had inspired Formans script provoked the opposite of the hoped-for effect: adherence rather than rejection. Our cultural apparatchiks had trapped themselves by overlooking, in their calculations,

the magic of cinema. Seeing themselves on the screen, the people of Vrchlab stopped being only remen; they became actors. Film had immortalized their image forever, they were larger than life, and no one could do anything about it (Milo Forman, Turnaround: A Memoir, 1994). Forman would go into exile in the United States shortly after the Prague Spring.

Instead of a conventional plot and a classic leading role, Milo Forman gave the lead role to a village hall lled with anonymous actors (most of them non-professionals). Behind its comic appearance, The Firemens Ball skilfully

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The MARRieD COUPle Of the YeAR TWO JeAN-PAUl RAPPeNeAU | 1970


Les MArIs De LAn DeUx

SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 20:30

1793. Nicolas Philibert returns from the New World, fully decided to divorce. Caught up in the maelstrom of the French Revolution, he nds his wife again - in the monarchist camp. Screening introduced by Marlne Jobert, Jean-Paul Belmondo et Jean-Paul Rappeneau.

DIReCTOR Jean-Paul Rappeneau SCRIpT Claude Sautet, Jean-Paul Rappeneau PRODUCTION Gaumont, Rizzoli Film (Roma), Studioul Cinematograc Bucuresti PhOTOgRAphy Claude Renoir ACTORS Jean-Paul Belmondo, Marlne Jobert, Laura Antonelli, Sami Frey France-Italy-Rumania, 1970, colour, digital projection (DCP), 98

JeAN-PAUL RAppeNeAU (Born 1932) Initially an assistant-director (to Raymond Bernard, Georges Lacombe, Jean Drville), his rst lm (La Vie de chteau, 1965), a spirited comedy, attested to a new tone in French cinema. A meticulous director, he surrounded himself with scriptwriters of merit (Daniel Boulanger, Claude Sautet, Jean-Loup Dabadie, Jean-Claude Carrire) and established actors (Philippe Noiret, Catherine Deneuve, Jean-Paul Belmondo, Yves Montand, Isabelle Adjani, Grard Depardieu). Amongst his successes: Le Sauvage/Call Me Savage/Lovers Like Us (1975), Tout feu, tout amme/All Fired Up (1982), and Cyrano de Bergerac (1990).

Jean-Paul Belmondo in The Married Couple of the Year Two

The lm was digitally restored in 2012 by Gaumont in collaboration with the clair group and under the direction of Jean-Paul Rappeneau. The restoration, in 2K, essentially concerned the luminosity and colorimetry of the image. The sound was also restored, the director having decided to integrate the music in stereo and the dialogues in mono in order to achieve greater range. After the public and critical success of La Vie de chteau/Chteau Life (1965), the lmmaker was given free rein for his second lm. He began

working on a script with the French Revolution as a framework in 1966, and it was upon discovering a period painting depicting couples waiting to be divorced that the plot came to him. The producer, Alain Poir, decided on shooting in Rumania for budgetary reasons, which also suited JeanPaul Rappeneau whose ambition was to make a sort of French-style western with a large number of extras and wide open spaces. But the shooting ran into a few storms: Alexandre Trauner,

the famous art director, turned in preparatory drawings but withdrew upon arriving on location. He would be replaced by Willy Holt, chief set designer or art director for lms by John Frankenheimer and Fred Zinnemann. Begun in August 1970 and slowed down by all manner of disagreements, the shooting ended nine weeks behind schedule. The lmmaker nonetheless managed to edit the lm quickly, incorporate Michel Legrands music, and have the lm ready for release on time, in April 1971.

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We CANt GO HOme AGAiN

NiChOlAs RAY | 1973 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 19:30

I cant teach you how to make a lm. Filmmaking is an experience. In 1972, Nicholas Ray taught cinema at Harpur College in Binghamton, New York, and incited his young students to make a lm to learn how to make one. The lm was inspired by their personal stories and resorted to various experimentations: split screen, overlays, manipulations of images Screening introduced by Bernard Eisenschitz (lm historian).

SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Nicholas Ray PRODUCTION Harpur College TeChNICAL CRew Students from Harpur College, Binghamton (N.Y.) ACTORS Nicholas Ray, Tom Farrell, Leslie Wynne Levinson, Richie Bock, Jill Ganon... United States, 1973, colour, digital projection (DCP), 90

The only way to learn cinema is to make a film. Nicholas Ray

NIChOLAS RAy (1911-1979) The tone of his work was set beginning with his rst feature, They Live by Night (1949), relating a young couple on the run in the America of the Depression. Many of his lms would subsequently be eventful, reedited or nished without him, as his character adapted poorly to the Hollywoodian requirements. He nonetheless made some memorable lms, including Johnny Guitar (1954), and Rebel Without a Cause (1955) with James Dean. In the 1960s when, rejected by the production system, Ray no longer managed to carry a single one of his projects to a successful conclusion. He acted (Wim Wenders The American Friend, 1977), shot while teaching (We Cant Go Home Again) and staged his nal days beneath the gaze of someone else (Lightning over Water, Wenders, 1979).

Nicholas Ray in We Cant Go Home Again

We Cant Go Home Again was Rays nal obsession, and his death, in 1979, left the lm unnished. His widow, Susan Ray, then devoted herself to completing it. The lm was restored in 2011 by the Nicholas Ray Foundation, the EYE Film Institute Netherlands (which restored the image digitally) and the Academy Film Archive

of Los Angeles (which reconstructed the soundtrack from the original recordings and Nicholas Rays audio commentary). La Cinmathque franaise participated in this restoration. We Cant Go Home Again is a collective work and Nicholas Rays last lm, the work of a lmmaker convinced that

cinema was barely beginning, that all we did was glimpse it, and that it would surprise us (Serge Daney, Nick Ray et la maison des images, Cahiers du cinma, April 1980). In 1971, some ten years after having left Hollywood, the director of Johnny Guitar and Rebel Without a Cause accepted a teaching position

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at Harpur College in New York State. In the framework of an intense collaboration with his students, he committed himself and involved them in an ambitious personal and experimental project. Ray got to know his students one by one, and then decided to assemble them within the same community. Under his direction, he brought together 45 who trained themselves by exercising all the trades in turn (actor, recording engineer, electrician, cameraman, prop man, etc.). The lm came out of the relations that developed between the participants in the project. The community of students was inuenced and lled with enthusiasm by Ray who, in return, as he said, taught in order to learn. This undertaking involved everyones full commitment, from which a total lm had to result. During the shooting of Lightning Over Water in 1979, co-directed with Wim Wenders and devoted to his nal days, Ray said: I dreamed of being able to tell all of Charles Dickens in one lm,

all Dostoevsky in one lm. I thought it was possible for a lm to contain all aspects of human personality We Cant Go Home Again was made using a broad palette of equipment and formats including Super 8, 16 mm, 35 mm and even a video synthetizer allowing for manipulating the image. As for the sound, its mediocre quality is due to recording live without any concern for synchronism. The sequences had barely been shot when Ray showed them to his students using several projectors, either simultaneously or at calculated intervals. But at the beginning of following school year, the universitys lm department reproached Ray for monopolizing the equipment. Relations deteriorated, the crew was reduced, and the principle of rotation of positions and duties no longer applied. In a social climate marked by the re-election of Nixon, protest and drugs, the 1972-73 school year was morose, and it looked less and less certain that the lm would

ever be nished. In 1973, Ray nonetheless presented a rst cut of the lm at the Cannes Festival, hoping to nd some nancial support there, but in vain. Between 1973 and 1974, he shot new scenes in Amsterdam and London, and edited and re-edited the lm. A new cut dating from 1976 opens with a long commentary by Ray who put the lm back at the heart of the teaching process, in the very movement of creation in the process of happening.

Tom Farrell and Nicholas Ray in We Cant Go Home Again

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33

The TWO MemORies


Les DeUx MMoIres

JORGe SemPRN | 1974 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 21:45

Novelist and scriptwriter, Spaniard in exile, former member of the politburo of the Spanish Communist Party, Jorge Semprn reviews the Spanish civil war through a series of interviews comparing the memory of both camps. Screening introduced by Jos Maria Prado (Filmoteca Espaola) and Camille Blot-Wellens (restorer).

SCRIpT AND DIReCTOR Jorge Semprn PRODUCTION Fildebroc, Uranus Productions France, Aldebaran Films PhOTOgRAphy Jacques Loiseleux EDITING Colette Leloup, Chris Marker TeSTImONIeS Santiago Carrillo, Simn Snchez Montero, Federica Montseny, Jos Peirats, Maria Casars, Yves Montand Spain-France, 1974, colour, 35 mm, Original version in French, 141 JORge SempRN (1923-2011) Semprn spent his childhood in France, his parents having ed the Spanish civil war. Deported during the War to the Buchenwald concentration camp, he drew a rst novel from that tragedy, The Long Voyage, in 1963. Elected member of the Spanish Communist Party, he was excluded in 1964 for political divergences. In 1965, he wrote his rst script, La guerre est nie/ The War is Over, directed by Alain Resnais, and then CostaGavras proposed to him the adaptation of a novel about the assassination of a Greek deputy by the military power; Z was released in 1968. The director and scriptwriter did it again with LAveu/The Confession (1969), again starring Yves Montand, a lm attacking Stalinism. Their third collaboration, Section spciale/Special Section (1975), is an indictment of the Vichy government. Between 1988 and 1991, Jorge Semprn became Minister of Culture in the Spanish government of Felipe Gonzalez.

Federica Montseny in The Two Memories

In February 1974, Jorge Semprns documentary on the Spanish civil war, The Two Memories, was released in two Paris cinemas. A month later, the lm disappeared from French screens and will never again be distributed in Spain. In 2010, the Filmoteca Espaola and La Cinmathque franaise in partnership with the Filmoteca de Catalunya, decided to make the lm visible once again. Semprn stated that he had recorded, in semi-secret, nearly forty hours of interviews in Super 16mm. After an initial six-hour cut, the documentary

was reduced to a two-hour version for commercial release. We preserved the 35mm image internegative and the sound negative of this latter version. In 2012, these elements allowed for duplicating new prints of the only lm the writer made. Shot during the summer of 1972, Semprn did not manage to get the lm released until two years later, in France. In Spain, the lm was censored and would be screened only twice at the Filmoteca Espaola, after the fall of Franco. The lm consists of more than two hours of testimony from

politicians like the Communist leader Santiago Carrillo, or committed artists such as Maria Casars and Yves Montand. But Semprn also questions the pro-Franco camp (hence the two memories), like the Falangist leader Dionisio Ridruejo.

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ChARles LAUGhtON DiReCts THE NIGHt OF tHE HUntER

ROBERT Gitt | 1955-2001 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 14:00

The Night of the Hunter, or the story of two children pursued day and night by a mad preacher-murderer. Outtakes from Charles Laughtons 1955 lm. Editing and restoration work carried out by Robert Gitt, between 1981 and 2001. Screening introduced by Manuel Chiche (Wild Side).

DIReCTOR Robert Gitt United States, 1955-2001, black and white, digital projection (DCP), 161

ChARLeS LAUghTON (1899-1962) This English actor, trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, began acting in London then on Broadway. He went to Hollywood in the late 1920s, quickly drawing attention, and worked there constantly up until his death. A few titles in his long lmography: The Sign of the Cross (Cecil B. DeMille, 1932), If I Had a Million (Ernst Lubitsch, 1932), Mutiny on the Bounty (Frank Lloyd, 1935), This Land Is Mine (Jean Renoir, 1943), Witness for the Prosecution (Billy Wider, 1957), Advise and Consent (Otto Preminger, 1962) He directed one lm and one lm only: The Night of the Hunter.

In 1974, Charles Laughtons widow, Elsa Lanchester, decided to turn over the elements of the lm to the American Film Institute in Washington. Curators Robert Gitt and Anthony Slide thereby retrieved several cartons of photographs, sketches, memos and letters relating to The Night of the Hunter. Lanchester also donated nearly 25,000 metres of rushes and outtakes. In 1981, these elements were sent to the UCLA Film & Television Archive where Robert Gitt began editing and restoration work that would last twenty years. Unlike a number of lmmakers, Charles Laughton whose only lm this was as a director did not like putting an end to a shot. He had therefore given instructions not to cut before he himself said Cut! or before the lm in the magazine had completely run out (approximately ten additional minutes). It is because he let the camera roll between shots that it is now possible to hear his voice, out of frame, guiding and encouraging his actors (Robert Mitchum, Shelley Winters, Lillian Gish, Billy Chapin, Sally Jane Bruce et al.). These outtakes give unprecedented access to the shooting process and the techniques mobilized by Laughton such as the possibility of understanding

The Night of the Hunter by Charles Laughton (1955)

the roles of the director of photography (Stanley Cortez) or the lm editor (Robert Golden). We see Laughton as lmmaker and also as actor, when heard reciting the dialogues of all the characters, and, of course, as director of the actors. Legend has it that he was innitely demanding, irascible and incapable of communicating with his actors but this is refuted by the editing of the cuts. We hear him reading the dialogues with his actors in order to reassure them after they had messed up a shot, or working with Robert Mitchum to make the preacher such an intense and terrifying character. He showed great patience with the child actors, Billy Chapin and Sally Jane Bruce, and

sought to motivate his actors by giving them advice or critiques during or just after the shot so as not to lose energy and thereby be able to resume without losing time. These stolen images make up an intimate portrait of a lmmaker at work and provide another view of a lm that continues to haunt those who know it as well as those who discover it.

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35

All thAt JAZZ


BOB FOsse | 1979 FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 22:15

Renowned choreographer Joe Gideon is preparing his next show on Broadway. The pace of rehearsals, the frenzy of creation and a complicated family life inspire the climax of the show: the staging of his own death. Screening introduced by Leslie Caron.

DIReCTOR Bob Fosse SCRIpT Bob Fosse, Robert Alan Aurthur PRODUCeR Robert Alan Aurthur PhOTOgRAphy Giuseppe Rotunno ACTORS Roy Scheider, Jessica Lange, Leland Palmer United States, 1979, colour, digital projection (DCP), 125

BOB FOSSe (1927-1987) Son of a vaudeville performer, he treaded the boards as of childhood and made his Broadway debut in 1947. With his rst choreography (The Pajama Game, 1954), he distinguished himself with a resolutely modern style . His career as a lmmaker began in 1969 with Sweet Charity, a musical remake of Fellinis Nights of Cabiria (1957). Three years later, Cabaret told the story of Sally Bowles (Liza Minnelli), an American cabaret singer in the Berlin of 1931. The lm was an international success and received eight Oscars (including Best Director). In the 1970s, he had one Broadway success after another, including Chicago in 1975 and, for the cinema, directed All That Jazz and Lenny (1974).

The lm was restored in 2011 by Twentieth Century Fox, in collaboration with the Film Foundation (Martin Scorsese), in the Sony Colorworks laboratories. The restoration was carried out from the original negative in 4K resolution. In 1974, whilst working on the staging of the musical comedy Chicago and editing his lm Lenny, Bob Fosse was the victim of a heart attack. He was going to make this traumatizing experience the subject of his next lm, to the point of asking unsuccessfully his producers to play the main role himself.

All that Jazz is also meant to be a lm that symbolically buries the musical comedy at the same time as ideally giving it new life. Unlike the classics of the genre from the 1950s in which the characters danced everywhere, Fosse decided to limit the musical scenes to the cabaret and theatre areas, during rehearsals and performances. There, he creates modern, sensual choreographies: minimalism, nger snapping, bowler hats, whistling, hip-swaying, etc. In 1980, the lm won four Oscars and the Golden Palm at the Cannes Festival.

Death is what fascinates me most. In the lm, it is symbolized by a superb young woman with whom the hero is in love. Id like to extend the boundaries of musical comedy beyond the traditional limits of the genre, almost to metaphysics. Making people laugh and cry, of course, but also disturbing and upsetting them. Even if its indecent, the staging of All That Jazz is intentionally much ashier, much more theatrical than in my other lms. It plays on bad taste because death is in bad taste; it uses artice to break everyones morbid obsessions by covering it with derision. Bob Fosse May 1980.

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Tess

ROmAN POlANsKi | 1979 OpeNINg NIghT | TUesDAY, NoveMBer 27tH, 20H

In 19th-century England, a farmer, discovering that he is the last descendant of aristocrats, sends his daughter Tess to claim this kinship in the rich dUrberville family. The young Alec, charmed by the beauty of his cousin, sets about seducing her. Screening introduced by Roman Polanski.

DIRECTOR Roman Polanski SCRIPT Roman Polanski, Grard Brach, John Brownjohn, daprs un roman de Thomas Hardy, Tess DUrberville PRODUCER Claude Berri PhOTOgRAphY Ghislain Cloquet, Geoffrey Unsworth ACTORS Nastassja Kinski, John Collin, Leigh Lawson, Tony Church France/Great Britain, 1979, colour, digital projection (DCP), 171 ROmAN POLANSkI (born in 1933) In 1962 in Poland, he made his rst feature: Knife in the Water (1962), set on a boat, which earned him an Oscar nomination for best foreign lm. This was the rst sign of a career that would be increasingly international: France (a sketch in Les Plus Belles Escroqueries du monde/ The Worlds Most Beautiful Swindlers, 1963), England (Repulsion, 1964; Cul-de-sac, 1965), United States (Dance of the Vampires, 1967; Rosemarys Baby, 1968; Chinatown, 1974), and France again for The Tenant (1976), Tess, Frantic (1988), and Bitter Moon (1991). The Pianist (2001), the story of a musician trapped in the Warsaw ghetto, won the Palme dor at the Cannes Festival. In 2004, Polanski made Oliver Twist, then The Ghost Writer (2010) and Carnage (2011).

I always wanted to shoot a great love story. The theme of fatality also drew me to the novel [Tess of the dUrbervilles, 1891]. Roman Polanski, 1979

Nastassja Kinski in Tess (1979)

The image restoration was carried out by Path from a negative digitized in 4K. The original reel had been damaged and replaced by an internegative (third generation element stemming from the negative). In order to unify the sequences, the clair laboratory started from a master (second generation). Similarly, it was necessary to recalibrate the sequence in the dairy. The laboratory used

Roman Polanskis personal print, duplicated at the time of the lms release and perfectly preserved. Whilst respecting the original calibration, isolated corrections in contrast and colour were made. The restoration of the sound had to respect the mixing in Dolby Stereo, but the original sound being heterogeneous, not all the reels having been mixed in the same studio, the work consisted of a

homogenization of the sound whilst respecting the renement of the mixing. Re-release in theatres by Path on December 5, 2012. In 1978, Roman Polanski, coming from the Polish New Wave, and a Hollywood director (Rosemarys Baby, Chinatown), was living in France. He met Claude Berri who, enthusiastic about the Tess project, committed himself to producing

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37

it and kept his word despite the scope of the project and necessary budget. At the time, it was the most expensive lm ever made in France and a risky undertaking, both a large-scale production and a lm dauteur. The period sets, costumes, furnishings and accessories mobilized a team of experts. For the locations and after long scouting, Polanski called on landscape architects who modelled the space based on the reality of Dorset, the region where the story unfolds, even though the shooting in fact took place on the Norman and Breton coasts. The production and director brought together, amongst others, Pierre Guffroy (art director of The Tenant), Geoffrey Unsworth (chief cameraman for 2001, A Space Odyssey, who died of a heart attack during the shooting and was replaced by Ghislain Cloquet), and later Philippe Sarde (The Tenant, Tchins Les Surs Bront/The Bront Sisters) for the music. Filming began in August 1978, lasted more than eight months, and ended in the Joinville and pinay studios. It was precisely because it took so long to shoot Tess that the crew and cast became more than individuals brought together temporarily to make a lm. We gradually acquired a veritable community existence and rhythm peculiar to us, with births, deaths, idylls

Roman Polanski and Nastassja Kinski on the shooting of Tess (1979)

and divorces, moments of high comedy or pure tragedy. We were like a carnival crisscrossing Normandy beginning in mid-August, Brittany in autumn and winter, and in the spring, rediscovering places that we had got to know several months earlier. (Polanski, Roman, Robert Laffont, 1984). Nastassja Kinski was 15 when Polanski met her and 17 at the beginning of the shooting. For the lmmaker, she was the

incarnation of the character: same age, same appearance and same romantic aura. Four months before the lming, the actress took diction lessons in order to master the Dorset accent and also learn peasant postures and work in the elds. After an epic editing (There were so many rushes that it took me four hours of screening per day, day after day, for more than a month, to get through them. [] For this

race against time, I was using, simultaneously and continually, ve cutting rooms.) and with a nal running time of nearly three hours, Tess was released in France in October 1979 where it gradually met with box-ofce success and, a year later, got very good reviews in the United States. Dedicated to Sharon Tate, the directors deceased wife, the lm won three Csars, as well as three Oscars (out of six nominations).

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RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

DOCUmeNteUR

AGNs VARDA | 1982 FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 22H00

milie, a Frenchwoman in Los Angeles, is separated from the man she loves. She nds a place to live, moves in with her son, and arranges the furniture that she nds in the street. Troubled by memories of her past love, she devotes herself to her son. Screening introduced by Agns Varda

SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Agns Varda PRODUCTION Cin Tamaris PhOTOgRAphy Nurith Aviv ACTORS Sabine Mamou, Mathieu Demy, Lisa Blok, Tina Odom France, 1982, colour, 35mm, 63

AgNS VARDA (born in 1928) Initially a photographer, Agns Varda made her rst feature, La Pointe courte/The Short Point, in 1954 followed by innovative lms like Cleo from 5 to 7 (1961), Le Bonheur/Happiness (1964), and LUne chante, lautre pas/ One Sings, the Other Doesnt (1976). In 1985, Sans toit ni loi/Vagabond, a documented ction, won the Golden Lion at the Venice Festival. Following the death of her husband, Jacques Demy, in 1990, she made three lms in homage to him: a ction, Jacquot de Nantes (1990), and two documentaries, Les Demoiselles ont eu 25 ans/The Young Girls Turn 25 (1992) and LUnivers de Jacques Demy/The World of Jacques Demy (1995). With a small digital camera, she shot Les Glaneurs et la Glaneuse/The Gleaners and I (1999), a poetic documentary, as well as Les Plages dAgns/ The Beaches of Agns (2006), a self-portrait which recounts her life and her artistic career.

Sabine Mamou and Mathieu Demy in Documenteur (1982)

The lm was restored in 2011 by Cin-Tamaris, the Groupama Gan Foundation for the Cinema, and the Technicolor Foundation for Cinema Heritage. This restoration was triggered by the shooting of Mathieu Demys rst feature, Americano. He hoped to insert excerpts from Documenteur in which he had acted as a child. The 16mm negative of Documenteur, in double-band, was sent to the Immagine Ritrovata Laboratory in Bologna, which scanned the original elements by immersion. The rest of the work was carried out by the clair laboratories in France where the lms director of photography, Nurith

Aviv, supervised the calibration of colours. Georges Delerues music was remastered at L.E. Diapason. Shot in Venice (California) in 1980-81, Documenteur was made with a very small crew. The project came into being at the time of editing Mur Murs (1980) and is constructed as its reverse. Also lmed in Los Angeles, Mur Murs is devoted to the citys painted walls [murs] of which frescoes of all kinds reect the characteristics of each neighbourhood and its inhabitants. At the editing console, the lmmaker evokes the idea of milie, a character who will be played by her editor,

Sabine Mamou. As for the child, Varda entrusted the role to her own son, Mathieu Demy, aged eight at the time. Documenteur is a lm about solitude and isolation. The story is classic, that of a couple that separates, but the lm shows the emptiness, the absence of the loved one. In lming the silent relationship between mother and child, combined with shots of anonymous faces, Varda made a lm about exile. Documenteur was released in January 1982 in a few Paris cinemas on a double bill with Mur Murs.

RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

39

WORLD pRemIeRe

FAlstAff
CAMPAnADAs A MeDIAnocHe

ORsON Welles | 1965 MIDNIGHT SHOWING | SATURDAY, DECEMBER 1ST, 23:00

John Falstaff is the friend of the Prince of Wales, son of Henry IV. They lead a dissipated life, eating, drinking and stealing until the prince becomes Henry V. Upon acceding to the throne, he sends his companion into exile. A gure of excess, appetite, and indiscipline, Falstaff is doubtless the nal self-portrait of Orson Welles and one of his most personal projects. WORLD pRemIeRe of the restored international version of Falstaff. Screening introduced by Luciano Berriata, restorer of the lm.
DIRECTOR Orson Welles SCRIPT Raphael Holinshed, Orson Welles PRODUCER Angel Escolano, Emiliano Piedra, Harry Saltzman phOTOgRAphY Edmond Richard ACTORS Orson Welles, Jeanne Moreau, Marina Vlady, Margaret Rutherford Spain, 1965, black and white, digital projection (DCP), 117 ORSON WeLLeS (1915-1985) Welles was 25 when he made Citizen Kane (1940), and the profession did not forgive his having attacked the American press baron William Randolph Hearst. However, the lm inaugurated a new kind of cinema based on the cameras subjectivity, a new narration, the progression of sequencelength shots, and the primacy of the editing. Apart from The Lady from Shanghai (1946), thanks to its star, Rita Hayworth, the studios closed their doors to Welles, who periodically resumed his acting career to nance his lms, including Macbeth (1947) and Othello (1952). After Touch of Evil (1957) and The Trial (1962), in 1964 he returned to Shakespeare from whom he borrowed the character of Falstaff.

Orson Welles and Jeanne Moreau in Falstaff (1965)

Before beginning the restoration, the Filmoteca Espaola had to carry out historical work. Therefore in 2009, it called on restorer Luciano Berriata to gather the various existent elements of Falstaff and assess which ones were exploitable. Restoring the photography reproduced the grading and all the shades of grey wanted by Welles and his chief cameraman Edmond Richard. The nature and aws of the original soundtrack were preserved: the sound from the

original work is not always synchronous. Owing to the lack of nancial means, Welles had to resort to dubbing. The restoration was carried out by Luciano Berriata for the Filmoteca Espaola. Orson Welles had nurtured his Falstaff project for twenty years. He had already adapted Falstaff for the stage, and the play, entitled Chimes at Midnight, was given in Dublin, with Welles already playing the role of Sir John. He would have liked to

make the lm in the United States, but Hollywood dreaded his non-conformism. Faced with the refusal of American companies, Welles tried to set up a European production and, once again, met with the refusal of several producers. It was nally a young Spanish producer, Emiliano Piedra, who would show condence in him. Shooting began in October 1964 between vila, in the hilly region of Castilla y Len, and Toledo, in Castile-La-Mancha.

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RestorAtIons AnD IncUnABULA

THE FILMS

INSpIRATIONS :
TRIBUTe TO The FILm FOUNDATION A SeLeCTION By MARTIN SCORSeSe
The Shanghai Gesture, Josef von Sternberg (1941) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Leave Her to Heaven, John M. Stahl (1945) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 My Darling Clementine, John Ford (1946) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The Chase, Arthur Ripley (1946) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 They Made Me a Fugitive, Alberto Cavalcanti (1947) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The River, Jean Renoir (1951) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 On the Waterfront, Elia Kazan (1954) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Avant-garde Masters: A Decade of Preservation (1950-1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

MArtIn Scorsese
I am honored to have been asked to contribute to this wonderful festival of restorations, named for one of the greatest documentaries of one of our greatest lmmakers, at the spiritual home of cinema. I hope that the two programs of restored pictures from The Film Foundation that Ive selected pictures that have inspired me, and several of the greatest works in the American avant-garde canon give you as much pleasure and sustenance as they have given me across the years. Since its inception in 1990, The Film Foundation has restored almost 600 pictures of all types from all over the world. Many of those lms have been extremely important to me on a personal level theyve inspired me and opened my mind to new possibilities, and I return to them often. I realize now that all of these pictures were made during my childhood and early adolescence nothing intentional, thats just the way it happened. So, these are great lms that marked me at a young age, and that opened my eyes to cinema and to the world.

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41

The ShANGhAi GestURe

JOsef VON SteRNBeRG | 1941 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 14:00

Shanghai, an international enclave, a city populated by individuals of all nationalities, an ill-famed transit point. Within the walls of a gaming club run by Mother Gin Sling, unsavoury characters run into each other and plot in a poisonous atmosphere.

DIReCTOR Josef von Sternberg SCRIpT Josef von Sternberg, Geza Herczeg, Jules Furthman, Kurt Vollmller PRODUCeR Arnold Pressburger PhOTOgRAphy Paul Ivano ACTORS Gene Tierney, Walter Huston, Victor Mature, Ona Munson United States, 1941, black and white, 35 mm, 99
Gene Tierney in The Shanghai Gesture (1941)

JOSef vON STeRNBeRg (1894-1969) Born in Vienna, he grew up in New York and became the assistant to several directors. The stage actor George K. Arthur suggested that he make a lm that would constitute his beginnings on the screen. Sternberg submitted to him the script of what would become The Salvation Hunters (1925). With Der blaue Engel/The Blue Angel (1929), which he made for UFA in Germany, his career took a new turn. The work expresses the fervour of his meeting Marlene Dietrich (he would direct her in seven lms). Their collaboration ended in 1935 with The Devil is a Woman. In 1953, he would make The Saga of Anatahan, his last lm.

The lm was preserved by the George Eastman House (Rochester, New York) in 1992, with funding provided by the National Endowment for the Arts and The Film Foundation. The Shanghai Gesture was preserved from a vintage nitrate release print by the George Eastman House. This rare print was used to create separate picture and track negatives, and ultimately this 35mm print. Still weak as the result of a long illness, it was for the producer Arnold Pressburger that von Sternberg nonetheless agreed to direct Shanghai Gesture, which gave Gene Tierney one of her rst roles.

The lm is adapted from a play by John Colton, but numerous revisions and corrections were necessary for the script to get past the censors. Indeed, the original play went even further in blackness, setting the story in a brothel and making Poppy (Gene Tierney) not only a compulsive gambler but also a drug-addicted alcoholic nymphomaniac, and nicknaming the madam Mother God Damn From brothel to casino, Sternberg kept this atmosphere of decomposition; Poppys dresses became more and more provocative, her poses increasingly enticing. The farther she went in her descent into hell, he attentively lmed an abandon to lust

Once I had got over this ordeal [the shooting of Sergeant Madden (1939), which Sternberg was forced to make owing to his contract with MGM], but without, however, having recovered my strength, I undertook Shanghai Gesture to help a friend [producer Arnold Pressburger] ensure his position in a country where he was a foreigner. It doesnt show, but I shot most of this lm lying on a cot Josef von Sternberg Fun in a Chinese Laundry, 1965 Despite this handicap, the director is at the origin of the careers of Gene Tierney and Victor Mature.

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LeAVe HeR tO HeAVeN

JOhN M. StAhl | 1945 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nD, 17:00

A man returns home after spending several years in prison. He recalls the dramatic circumstances that led to his becoming a criminal: his marriage with Ellen; their moving into a cabin on the edge of a lake; his wifes obsessive jealousy and her desire to possess him exclusively.

DIReCTOR John M. Stahl SCRIpT Jo Swerling, after a novel by Ben Ames Williams PRODUCeRS Darryl F. Zanuck & William A. Bacher PhOTOgRAphy Leon Shamroy ACTORS Gene Tierney, Cornel Wilde, Jeanne Crain, Vincent Price United States, 1945, colour (three-strip Technicolor), 35 mm, 110 JOhN M. STAhL (1886-1950) Stahls catalogue, while not well-known, nonetheless boasts 42 lms. A stage actor born in New York, Stahl discovered the cinema by chance, taking the place of a director who had fallen ill during lming. In the 1920s, he moved to Hollywood and joined the nascent MGM. Although some described him as extravagant, others complimented his ability to make successful lms on a reasonable budget. He is known for his melodramas, several of his lms being the object of famous remakes by Douglas Sirk for Universal Studios, including: Imitation of Life (1934 and 1959) and Magnicent Obsession (1935 and 1954).

Since the original Technicolor negatives no longer existed, the lm was restored from the most original surviving element- a 35mm color reversal internegative (CRI) made from the original negative. Due to issues inherent in the CRI, the lm was digitally restored. Working with Twentieth Century Fox and the Academy Film Archive, Reliance Mediaworks scanned the 35mm CRI Elements at 2K resolution and digitally re-registered the 3 color records of the CRI. The team then applied image processing to improve steadiness and reduce icker, color breathing and lm grain build up. Several elements were created at the outcome of the work: a new negative, a digital archive and a new HD master for the DVD and Blu-Ray market, as well as a 35mm print. Leave Her to Heaven is a lm noir in colour, the rst of the genre to be shot in three-strip Technicolor, a procedure heretofore used especially for melodramas (Gone With the Wind, for example). The chief cameraman, Leon Shamroy, saw his work rewarded with an Oscar. The amboyant colours and sequences in natural settings (locations in Arizona and California) enhance the dazzling photography, further heightened at the heart of this dream landscape by the

Cornel Wilde and Gene Tierney in Leave Her to Heaven (1945)

presence of a lake as shimmering as it is disturbingly deep; a lake that symbolizes the duality of the heroine and her irremediable darkness. Yesterday like today, the success of Leave Her to Heaven relies just as much on Gene

Tierney, with her angelic face and heart of darkness. Her beauty and compelling performance leaves a strong impression on audiences.

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43

MY DARliNG ClemeNtiNe

JOhN FORD | 1946 SUnDAY, DeceMBer 2nd, 14:00

In 1881, the four Earp brothers are taking their herd west, but the livestock is stolen and the youngest brother killed. To avenge this murder, Wyatt Earp becomes sheriff of Tombstone. Along the way, he runs into Doc Holliday, the owner of the towns saloon, and falls in love with Docs ance, the young Clementine Carter. Screening preceded by a workshop for children over 8 years old.

DIReCTOR John Ford SCRIpT Samuel G. Engel, Winston Miller, after a story by Sam Hellman PRODUCeRS Darryl F. Zanuck, Samuel G. Engel PhOTOgRAphy Joe MacDonald ACTORS Henry Fonda, Linda Darnell, Victor Mature United States, 1946, black and white, 35 mm, 103

JOhN FORD (1894-1973) One of the masters of American cinema, he began in 1913 as assistant to his brother, Francis, director of westerns at Universal Studios, and made his last lm, Seven Women, in 1966. Up until 1922, he directed numerous westerns starring Harry Carey, followed by comedies, war lms and melodramas. With The Informer (1935), his rst lm about Ireland, the land of his ancestors, he won his rst Oscar. Shortly thereafter, Stagecoach (1939) and The Grapes of Wrath (1939), based on the John Steinbeck novel, established him as one of Hollywoods greatest directors. In his later years, Ford came back to his Irish origins with The Quiet Man (1952), The Sun Shines Bright (1953), The Rising of the Moon (1957), and The Last Hurrah (1958). And up until the end of his career, he continued making remarkable westerns, including The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) and Cheyenne Autumn (1964).

Linda Darnell and Henry Fonda (left) in My Darling Clementine (1946)

The lm was preserved by the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) and the UCLA Film & Television Archive in cooperation with Twentieth Century Fox with funding provided by AMC Networks and The Film Foundation. It was preserved from a 1946 nitrate studio print and from a nitrate ne grain master positive. Seven years after Stagecoach, Ford returned to Monument Valley to shoot a story inspired

by the legendary 1881 gunght at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona. Initially, the lm lasted more than two hours. Zanuck took the initiative of shortening it, making the cuts himself, as he had done for The Grapes of Wrath (1940) and How Green Was My Valley (1941), and refusing to involve the director in this new cut. He thereby changed the last sequence where Wyatt Earp shakes hands with Clementine instead of kissing

her. A preview audience having laughed at this break with social conventions, Zanuck then had him reshoot the scene, replacing the handshake with a more traditional kiss. After My Darling Clementine, Ford would produce his own lms for a while through Argosy Pictures. Ford had founded this production company, originally named Argosy Corporation, with Merian C. Cooper in 1939.

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The ChAse

ARthUR RiPleY | 1946 THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 17:00

Chuck Scott, a veteran of the Second World War, falls in love with Lorna, a gangsters wife. They decide to run off together, provoking the criminals sadistic wrath. Screening introduced by Margaret Bodde (Executive Director of The Film Foundation).

The lm was restored by the UCLA Film & Television Archive, with funding proSCRIpT vided by The Film Foundation Philip Yordan and the Franco-American Cultural Fund, a unique partPRODUCeRS nership between the Directors Eugene Frenke, Seymour Nebenzal Guild of America (DGA); the Motion Picture Association of PhOTOgRAphY America (MPAA); the Socit Frank F. Planer des Auteurs, Compositeurs et ACTORS Editeurs de Musique (SACEM); Robert Cummings, and the Writers Guild of Michle Morgan, Steve Cochran, America, West (WGAW). Peter Lorre For ten years or so, the UCLA Film & Television Archive had United States, 1946, black and sought elements of the lm, at white, 35 mm, 86 last nding an original 35 mm nitrate negative, a 35mm nitrate internegative (third-generation ARThUR D. RIpLey element copied from the inter(1897-1961) Arthur D. Ripley was an positive) owned by a French apprentice at studios such as collector, and sound negatives Vitagraph and Metro at an early from MGM. A combination of age. these various elements permitIn the 1920s, he wrote comic ted a complete restoration of sketches for Mack Sennett who the lm. introduced him to Frank Capra. UCLA carried out a photoTogether, the two men wrote chemical restoration in 2011; a series of scripts, brought to only a fragment of the lm was the screen by Harry Edwards for the famous mime Harry restored using digital tools, and Langdon. in very limited fashion. Aside from The Chase, he made In the end, an interpositive (elefew features and ended his ment copied from the negative career working in television. and including the calibration), a duplicate negative, a sound negative, a magnetic track, a rst trial composite print (the rst photochemical print whose calibration of the image is considered denitive) and a release print for screenings were created.
DIReCTOR Arthur Ripley

The Chase is the adaptation of a novel by Cornell Woolrich (aka William Irish) whose work has often been adapted for the screen (Hitchcocks Rear Window, Truffauts La marie tait en noir/The Bride Wore Black and La Sirne du Mississipi/Mississippi Mermaid based on his Waltz into Darkness). The originality of the lm owes much to the treatment of the dreams of Chuck Scott, a traumatized WWII veteran.

The Expressionistic photography of Frank F. Planer, aka Franz Planer (the chief cameraman for Max Ophlss Letter from an Unknown Woman, amongst others), makes dreams the heart of the lms dramatic development, a vision that seems to contaminate all reality, close or distant. Here, having a go at an international career, Michle Morgan found one of her rare key roles in Hollywood, portraying a heroine guided by fate.

Robert Cummings and Michle Morgan in The Chase (1946)

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45

TheY MADe Me A FUGitiVe

AlBeRtO CAVAlCANti | 1947 FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 17:00

After the war, Clem Morgan becomes a small-time crook. When he refuses to get involved in heroin trafcking, a gang leader has him accused of a policemans murder. He ees and prepares a plan to avenge this betrayal. Screening introduced by Margaret Bodde (Executive Director of The Film Foundation).

DIReCTOR Alberto Cavalcanti SCRIpT Noel Langley, after a novel by Jackson Budd PRODUCeRS N. A. Bronsten, James Carter, Noel Langley PhOTOgRAphy Otto Heller ACTORS Sally Gray, Trevor Howard, Grifth Jones United Kingdom, 1947, black and white, 35 mm, 99 ALBeRTO CAvALCANTI (1897-1982) Born in Brazil and an architecture student at the School of Fine Arts in Geneva, Cavalcanti moved to Paris in the early 1920s and frequented the avant-garde circles. He thus worked as art director alongside Marcel LHerbier (LInhumaine/ The Inhuman Woman, 1923) and Louis Delluc (LInondation/ The Flood, 1926). Known for his experimental lm Rien que les heures/Nothing but Time (1926) and from then on considered one of the important artists of the French avant-garde, he also made more narrative lms, literary adaptations of Maupassant and Thophile Gautier. Beginning in 1933, he lived and worked in London where he played a decisive role in the evolution of the English documentary. He returned to Brazil in 1949 before leading the life of a voluntary exile, going from Austria (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti/Herr Puntila and his Servant Matti, 1956) to the German Democratic Republic, Romania and Italy.

The lm was restored by the BFI National Archive with funding provided by The Film Foundation. No original negative could be located and a ne grain positive, printed from the camera negative on 1947 Kodak stock, was the best source for both picture and sound restoration. The nitrate ne grain was in fair physical condition, with no tears, but it had suffered shrinkage. A full digital intermediate restoration was carried out and the nitrate ne grain positive was scanned at 2K resolution. Through digital repair and clean-up, the amount of damage printed into the ne grain was drastically reduced. The soundtrack on the nitrate ne grain positive was the source for the sound restoration and was digitized to reduce levels of modulated noise, noticeable on some dialogue. In 2012, the restored version of the lm was released in Blu-ray. Based on a thriller by Jackson Budd, A Convict Has Escaped, the script was the work of Noel Langley, famous for having cowritten The Wizard of Oz (Victor Fleming, 1939). The action of the lm is set in post-war England, a period when trafcking of all kinds was developing. The atmosphere of They Made Me a Fugitive, sordid yet faithful to the reality of the
Trevor Howard in They Made Me a Fugitive

time, shocked the British censors with its scheming, settlements of scores and summary executions, betrayals Otto Hellers photography recreates a dark, agonizing atmosphere. They Made Me a Fugitive was released in the United States in 1948 with the title I Became a

Criminal, in a version shortened by 21 minutes. Nevertheless, the press of the time gave it a very favorable reception.

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The RiVeR

JeAN ReNOiR | 1951 FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 14:00

In Bengal, near Calcutta, three British girls, a little boy and their families live in a grand residence on the banks of the sacred river. One autumn day, a young captain wounded at the front arrives. The three girls all fall in love with the stranger. Screening introduced by Margaret Bodde (Executive Director of The Film Foundation).

DIReCTOR Jean Renoir SCRIpT Jean Renoir, Rumer Godden, after a novel by Rumer Godden PRODUCeRS Kenneth McEldowney, Jean Renoir PhOTOgRAphy Claude Renoir ACTORS Nora Swinburne, Esmond Knight, Arthur Shields United States, 1951, colour (three-strip Technicolor), 35 mm, 99

The River: one of the two most beautiful color films ever made! My father took me to see it when I was 8 or 9. Its a film that impregnated itself in me, and has never left me since. Martin Scorsese
The lm was restored in 2005 by the Academy Film Archive in association with the BFI National Archive and Janus Films. Restoration funding provided by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association and The Film Foundation. After its release, The River fell out of circulation. The original negative in three-strip Technicolor was deposited at the BFI in the early 1970s. However, the lm remained inaccessible owing to lack of both funds and commercial interest. Before the restoration, every public showing or video release of the lm came from a print in the personal collection of Martin Scorsese. The restoration relied on original nitrate elements in Technicolor. A new 35 mm optical track negative and a 35 mm magnetic print were produced, and the soundtrack was restored digitally. A 35 mm ne grain master and a 35mm internegative were made using the original three-strip nitrate negative and the restored 35 mm optical track negative. These were used for release prints.

JeAN ReNOIR (1894-1979) Fascinated by cinemas possibilities of expression, he made a rst impressionistic lm in 1924, La Fille de leau/ The Girl of the Water. Inuenced by von Stroheim and German Expressionism, he directed Nana in 1926. With La Chienne (1931), a realistic period began. Madame Bovary (1933) and Toni (1934) marked a deepening of tone and style. Une Partie de campagne/A Day in the Country (1936-46) long remained unnished and invisible. But other titles ensured him an unequalled reputation: La Grande Illusion (1937), La Bte humaine/ The Human Beast (1938), La Rgle du jeu/The Rules of the Game (1939). At the beginning of World War II, he left for the United States and made important lms without nding equilibrium in a system that restricted him. In India, he shot The River, which shows him as a more peaceful, contemplative lmmaker. Up until the end of his career, Renoir remained an experimenter and a storyteller.

For Jean Renoirs rst colour lm, he was helped in this challenge by Claude Renoir, his nephew and chief cameraman for the lm, and by the art director Eugne Louri (who would go so far as to repaint the grass in one set). Renoir also recorded in live sound on magnetic track, an innovation for the time. This was his rst lm after his American period, and he initially proposed adapting Rumer Goddens novel to Hollywood producers before nally nding an unexpected producer: an

English orist The lmmaker and novelist worked together on the adaptation of The River on location in India. When released, the lm had great public success and won the International Award at the Venice Film Festival. A few years later, in 1955, Roberto Rossellini was in Paris and listened to his friend Renoir relate his shooting in Bengal, thereby sowing curiosity about this country. To the degree that he himself would make a lm in India shortly thereafter: India, matri bhumi/India Motherland (1959).

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47

ON the WAteRfRONt

EliA KAZAN | 1954 THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 14:00

Terry, a young longshoreman, is manipulated by his brother, a corrupt lawyer for the longshoremens union. He witnesses the murder of an employee without intervening. When the victims sister asks him for help, Terry is faced with a dilemma. Screening introduced by Margaret Bodde (Executive Director of The Film Foundation).

DIReCTOR Elia Kazan SCRIpT Budd Schulberg, Malcolm Johnson PRODUCeR Sam Spiegel PhOTOgRAphy Boris Kaufman ACTORS: Marlon Brando, Karl Malden, Lee J. Cobb, Rod Steiger, Eva Marie Saint United States, 1954, black and white, 35 mm, 108

On the Waterfront had a crucial impact on my work. The natural settings [] are barren, gray, wintry, but the film has this incredible sense of urban tragedy. Martin Scorsese
The lm was restored by New Yorks Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) with support from The Film Foundation and Sony Pictures Entertainment. A rst, photochemical restoration, by Sony Pictures and MoMA, had been undertaken in 1992. In 2004, Sony Pictures digitized the lm at 4K resolution. By adapting software initially designed for special effects, certain shots could be restored while making sure that the digital intervention remained invisible. Elia Kazan met Budd Schulberg who was working on a script devoted to the universe of longshoremen, inspired by a series of articles in The New York Sun, Crime on the Waterfront, by Malcolm Johnson. They joined forces and presented their idea to producer Darryl Zanuck (Twentieth Century Fox). Zanuck demanded that corruption not be the central theme of the lm, preferring a more afrmative narrative and individual trajectory. Zanuck would subsequently disengage himself from the project. After a number of rewrites, Kazan and Schulberg turned to the independent producer Sam Spiegel, who managed to nd the necessary nancing, thanks to Marlon Brandos agreeing to play the lead role.

ELIA KAzAN (1909-2003) In 1932, Kazan joined the Group Theatre, founded the previous year by Lee Strasberg and Harold Clurman. He would become a prominent Broadway director and, in 1945, made his rst feature lm, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Other titles include: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), his rst lm with Marlon Brando, East of Eden (1955) with James Dean, A Face in the Crowd (1957), Wild River (1960), Splendor in the Grass (1961), and America, America (1963), which is both a large fresco about immigration and an intimate lm.

Eva Marie Saint and Marlon Brando in On the Waterfront (1954)

Trained at the Actors Studio, Marlon Brando gives one of his most memorable performances, which contributed considerably to dening a certain conception of screen acting. The Best Actor Oscar Brando received was one of the pictures eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Writing and Best Film Editing. The lms photography earned an Oscar for Boris Kaufman. Twenty years earlier, this same director of photography had shot Jean Vigos LAtalante on another waterfront, that of the Seine. And in fact, Kazan followed Kaufmans advice for shooting on location, on the banks of the Hudson, with an aim to making a true lm, up to the icy air that the longshoremen

breathed (shooting took place during the winter of 1953-54). Martin Scorsese was strongly inuenced by the lm, which he discovered at the age of 12, impressed as much by the true-to-life exteriors as by the force of the dialogue and the acting. He would refer to them in his lm on the boxer Jake LaMotta, Raging Bull (1980), which takes up, in the nal sequence, a famous passage of dialogue from On the Waterfront and thereby establishes a relation of inuence, a kinship between one lm and the other, as well as between Brando and Robert De Niro. Just recently, Scorsese made a lm about Kazan, A Letter to Elia (co-directed with Kent Jones, 2010).

48

TrIBUte to tHe FILM FoUnDAtIon : InsPIrAtIons

AVANt-GARDe MAsteRs
A DecADe oF PreservAtIon

THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 21:30

The Avant-Garde Masters Grants were created in 2003 by the National Film Preservation Foundation and The Film Foundation to preserve American avant-garde cinema. Funded by The Film Foundation, the program has helped save more than 90 lms in its rst decade, making many works available to audiences for the rst time since their creation. The Toute la mmoire du monde Festival presentation celebrates the programs 10th anniversary with classics by Kenneth Anger, Abigail Child, Bruce Conner, Larry Gottheim, George Kuchar, Lillian Schwartz, and Andy Warhol. Screening introduced by Jeff Lambert (National Film Preservation Foundation).

BLUeS
DIReCTOR Larry Gottheim United States, 1969, colour, 16 mm, 8, silent (18 images per second) Preserved by the New York Public Library

SyLvIAS PROmISe
DIReCTOR George Kuchar United States, 1962, black and white, 16mm at 18 frames per second, sound on CD played simultaneously, 9 Preserved by Anthology Film Archives

PRefACeS
DIReCTOR Abigail Child United States, 1981, colour, 16 mm, 10 Preserved by the Harvard Film Archive.

MUTATIONS
DIReCTOR Lillian Schwartz United States, 1972, colour, 16 mm, 8

Blues falls within the rst period of Gottheims catalogue, which features continuous or semi-continuous shooting, and the rejection of conventional editing. Linked to structural cinema, Larry Gottheim is known for having created the lm department at Harpur College (Binghamton, New York) where Nicholas Ray made his last lm, We Cant Go Home Again (1976).

A crude, unfaithful man agrees to marry his companion if she loses weight. Seven years later, he is still cheating on her, and she continues to get fatter. Having grown up in the Bronx where he made lms in 8 mm, George Kuchar (1942-2011), sometimes co-directing with his twin brother Mike, combined melodrama and horror, amateur special effects and scathing humour.

The rst part of Abigail Childs series Is This What You Were Born For?, Prefaces combines sequences shot in Manhattan with found footage frames. Through found footage and sound experimentation (soundtracks intentionally unsynchronized), Abigail Child evokes questions of sexual and social identity.

Preserved by Ohio State University Jean-Claude Rissets music and Lillian Schwartzs images use effects and auditory illusions extensively, making Mutations a reection on the possibilities offered by new computer techniques. Made by Lillian Schwartz when she was working at Bell Laboratories, Mutations features rotoscopy, a technique that turns a lmed scene into an animated cartoon.

The VeLveT UNDeRgROUND IN BOSTON


DIReCTOR Andy Warhol United States, 1967, colour, 16 mm, 33 Preserved by the Andy Warhol Museum.

RABBITS MOON
DIReCTOR Kenneth Anger United States, 1950-70, colour, 35 mm, 14 Preserved by the UCLA Film & Television Archive

COSmIC RAy
DIReCTOR Bruce Conner United States, 1961, black and white, 16 mm, 4 Preserved by Anthology Film Archives.

Filmed at night through a blue lter in a clearing, Rabbits Moon is the story of the clown Pierrot who jumps as high as he can, trying to grab the Moon. Kenneth Anger (born in 1927) practices an underground cinema, working at the crossroads of surrealism, occultism and an overtly homosexual eroticism. Fireworks (1947), Scorpio Rising (1964) and Lucifer Rising (1972) are all emblematic lms.

The Ray Charles song Whatd I Say accompanies a shifting collage of female nudes, animated lms and images of atomic explosions. A great name in underground cinema, Bruce Conner (19332008) practiced a cinema of found footage: Report (1967), Marilyn Times Five (1973), Crossroads (1976).

Concert lmed during a tour by the Velvet Underground at the height of its glory. Inventor of Pop Art, Andy Warhol (1928-1987) made a series of experimental lms in the 1960s. Some of them consist of the duplication of the same motif, like his paintings, but the artist tried his hand at all types of cinematographic experimentation (editing, zoom, split-screen).
Cosmic Ray by Bruce Conner (1961)

The Velvet Underground in Boston by Andy Warhol (1967)

TrIBUte to tHe FILM FoUnDAtIon : InsPIrAtIons

49

THE FILMS

The BegINNINgS Of SOUND. YOU AINT heARD NOThINg yeT!


The Phono-Cinma-Thtre (1900) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Singing and talking cinema. France-Germany, 1905-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Singing and talking cinema. United States, 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Lonesome, Paul Fejos (1928) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 The Waters of the Nile / LEau du Nil, Marcel Vandal (1928) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Six Cinegraphic Impressions by Germaine Dulac (1930) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Benshi performance: Jirokichi the Rat, Daisuke It (1932) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 The House of the Dead / Myortvyi dom, Vassily Fyodorov (1932) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

50

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet!

BY WAY Of INTRODUCTION

TOwARDS SOUND
The programme takes its name from Al Jolsons famous line in The Jazz Singer (1927), the rst talkie, essentially sung with sound effects but which nonetheless includes a few dialogues. Considerable historical research has led to relativizing the notion of silent cinema. Quite early on, lms were accompanied by music, commented on by lecturers or barkers and gladly featured sound effects. Moreover, many lms were made in music. The eight showings proposed here constitute a free itinerary in this ill-known history of shifting contours. The programme puts the accent on the period prior to the industrys standardization of sound. Particular attention was paid to the period of transition from silent pictures to talkies, these few years that followed the success of The Jazz Singer. Was it better to go towards a sound cinema, of which creative musicality would be the mark, or a talking cinema with its dialogues, sound effects and music? The question gave rise to much debate at the time1. Cinema followed three main paths in its quest for sound: oral practices, the procedures of synchronous sound on discs or cylinders, and the earliest sound on lm or optical sound. Commentary and narration took on a highly singular dimension as of the silent era, in Japan. The initial function of the benshis was to explain the projection setup. They quickly imposed themselves as narrators of the lms content, perpetuating the tradition of the singers and narrators of kabuki theatre. Following in their footsteps, benshi Raiko Sakamoto will play a part in Toute la mmoire du monde with Jirokichi the Rat, a social lm by Daisuke It (1925). Numerous processes on cylinders or discs will also be presented: the Phono-Cinma-Thtre, for example, one of the nest cinematographic attractions of the 1900 Exposition Universelle, and the Vitaphone shorts, launched in 1926 by the Warner brothers, that called on the great artistes of New Yorks Metropolitan Opera and Broadway; these short features were very popular between 1926 and 1929. They recall the phonoscnes of the Belle poque produced by Gaumont, that let us see the stars of the Paris caf-concert Mayol, Dranem and Polin and hear their songs or irreverent monologues. The optical sound tests presented were made in the mid-1920s by inventor Theodore Case. He soon sold his patents to Fox,
1 Edouard Arnoldy, Pour une histoire culturelle du cinma : au-devant de scnes lmes, de lms chantants et parlants et de comdies musicales : d. du Cfal, 2004.

Phonoscnes Gaumont

which thereby imposed Movietone against Vitaphone. The sound version of Lonesome, a Universal lm to which a soundtrack was hastily added using Fox equipment (unbeknownst to the latter), is being shown in its tinted, hand-painted version. Also shown will be the rst French talkie, Marcel Vandals The Waters of the Nile (a Gaumont production), and one of the very rst Soviet sound lms, Vassily Fyodorovs The House of the Dead, inspired by the life of Dostoyevsky. Finally, we shall see attempts of the French avant-garde (Jean Epstein, Germaine Dulac) at taking up again, thanks to sound, with the musicality theorized about and sought in silent cinema. These lmmakers hoped and prayed for a sound cinema with its music and effects, and rejected academic talking cinema. PAULINe De RAymOND Programmer of Toute la mmoire du monde

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet!

51

FrIDAY, NoveMBer 30tH, 19:45

THe reconstrUcteD rePertoIre oF tHe PHono-CInMA-THtre


Piano accompaniment by John Sweeney, accordion by Romano Todesco, drums and percussions by Frank Bockius. Screening introduced Manuela Padoan (Gaumont Path Archives) and Laurent Mannoni (Cinmathque franaise).

Gaumont Path Archives and La Cinmathque franaise have joined forces to restore and reconstruct the repertoire of the Phono-Cinma-Thtre (1900). The long history of sound lm begins with the appearance of the Edison Kinetoscope (1894), but this history made a prodigious leap forward in Paris during the Exposition Universelle of 1900, where the speaking cinematograph in colour was present in several forms. Amongst the spectacles presented during the Exposition, the Phono-Cinma-Thtre was one of the most successful from the artistic standpoint. On 27 December 1899, engineer-industrialist Paul Decauville obtained the concession of a area within the Exposition Universelle, located in the Rue de Paris, quite close to the Invalides bridge. The PhonoCinma-Thtre limited company was created by Decauville on 2 March 1900, with a capital of 100,000 francs; the actress Marguerite Vrignault, who initiated the project, was named artistic director. The auditorium of the Phono-CinmaThtre, backed up against the Thtroscope, was designed by the architect Dulong, modelled on the Fresh Pavilion, built in 1751 by Gabriel in the gardens of Versailles. The lming was done by

Clo de Mrode in Gavotte (1900)

Clment-Maurice (real name: Clment Maurice Gratioulet), using a 35mm camera by Ambroise-Franois Parnaland with central perforation or two lateral perforations. The shots were done in playback, as would be the Gaumont phonoscnes later on. The phonograph used was Henri Liorets Idal, which used large-size cylinders (height: 22 cm, diameter: 13 cm) with a playing time of four minutes; a bit later, in September 1900,

the Idal would be replaced by the Path Cleste. The Phono-Cinma-Thtre was a veritable attraction combining several different genres: sound lms synchronized with a phonograph (songs, monologues, excerpts from stage plays), as well as dances and pantomimes that were simply accompanied by a pianist or an orchestra. There was also a sound-effects engineer and probably a barker.

The programme presented the most prestigious artists of the time, coming from the ComdieFranaise or the popular boulevard theatres, the music hall and circus. For the rst time, Michel Carrs LEnfant prodigue, a little gem of pantomime accompanied by Andr Wormsers score and much appreciated at the time, was adapted for the screen. Another success was lmed: Henri Meilhacs Ma Cousine, premiered at the

52

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet!

Thtre des Varits on 27October 1890 and starring the great actress Rjane. By the way, the lm is comprehensible only if you know the story of the scene being performed the rehearsal of a pantomime entitled Le Piston dHortense, included in the three-act play. The rst show of the PhonoCinma-Thtre at the Exposition took place on 28 April 1900. The operators were Georges and Lopold Maurice, Clment-Maurices sons; the synchronism was done manually by the projectionists, who slowed down or accelerated according to the playback of the phonograph cylinder. Despite the celebrity of the actors, singers, dancers, clowns and mimes who participated in the undertaking, despite the praise in the press, despite the superb poster by Franois Flameng, and despite the galas, the public did not ock to the Phono-Cinma-Thtre, and at the end of the Exposition, the balance sheet was just barely protable. The Phono-CinmaThtre company was dissolved on 26 November 1901, but that did not prevent the show from continuing in Paris then Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, England, Germany, Austria, and Italy. This attraction then sank into oblivion, but in the early 1930s, a set of original negatives was

found. In 1933, producer Bernard Nathan nanced a documentary made by Roger Goupillires, Le cinma parlant en 1900, in which we can see several titles of the PhonoCinma-Thtre again, with the original sound of the cylinders. The Phono-Cinma-Thtre lms were again discovered by chance in 1961: 24 negatives (sometimes with several shots for a single title) and a positive copy, corresponding to 18 different titles, all of which were then deposited at La Cinmathque franaise in December 1961. In 2010, La Cinmathque franaise decided to restore this collection. Some negatives have suffered, but many are still of ne quality. At the end of one of the shots, a lovely lady is seen crossing the stage: it is the artistic director, Marguerite Vrignault, in person. In 2011, a collector of cinema cameras, Mr Olivier Auboin-Vermorel, gave La Cinmathque franaise a group of lms from the early days, amongst which were several from the PhonoCinma-Thtre, which had been invisible up until present, for example, Ma Cousine with Rjane and LEnfant prodigue but, unfortunately, only two out of the three tableaux. These lms, in good condition, were also digitized. Having decided to reconstruct,

as much as possible, the quasitotality of the Phono-CinmaThtre repertoire with its original sound, La Cinmathque franaise asked expert Henri Chamoux to turn over the recordings made on cylinders still existing. Seventeen PhonoCinma-Thtre cylinders corresponding to eight titles were located. Most of the cylinders are at the Radio-France Museum in Paris, which has joined the project. Henri Chamoux perfected the Archophone, an apparatus capable of reading and recording cylinders in poor shape, even broken. Synchronization is thus once again possible, especially with digital techniques. But some lms still remain silent since the original cylinders have not been found. Excellent news came from Manuela Padoan of the Gaumont Path Archives, which has preserved a large collection of original nitrate PhonoCinma-Thtre prints, very nicely hand-tinted. The two combined collections of Gaumont Path Archives and La Cinmathque franaise allow for reconstructing the neartotality of the Phono-CinmaThtre repertoire, with colour in addition! Henceforth, colours and sounds correspond, to quote Baudelaire Final miracle: Gaumont Path Archives had in its collection the missing rst tableau of

LEnfant prodigue; the lm is now once again complete with its three parts. The last brainwave: in 2012, the directress of the dance school of the Paris Opera, Claude Bessy, made a positive print of Le Cid (La Habanera) available to La Cinmathque franaise. Thus, it is now possible to savour, almost as in 1900, one of the nest cinematographic attractions of the Exposition Universelle. One must listen very closely since the sound is not terribly good as originally moreover! , but one will take pleasure in seeing again, sometimes in colour, the greatest artists of the period: Sarah Bernhardt, Jeanne Hatto, Jean Coquelin, Victor Maurel, Rosita Mauri, Flicia Mallet, Zambelli, Mily Meyer, Little Tich, Clo de Mrode, Jules Moy, the tenor Cossira, Christine Kerf, Footit et Chocolat, Polin, et al. in other words, the elite of dance, theatre, pantomime and music hall of La Belle Epoque. LAUReNT MANNONI Scientic Director of Cultural Heritage (Cinmathque franaise)
The exhaustive list of the repertoire of the Phono-Cinma-Thtre is available on the Website: cinematheque.fr

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet! 53

SiNGiNG AND tAlKiNG CINEMA


FrAnce-GerMAnY, 1905-14

WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 14:30

In 1902, Gaumont, with its chronophone, presented several lms synchronized by a phonograph. It perfected this machine that was marketed in 1906 and which allowed for synchronizing the phonograph and projector thanks to an electric motor and control panel. Between 1906 and 1915, Gaumont produced more than 700 short sound features called phonoscnes. The sound of the phonoscnes was recorded rst, after which the artist performed the song in playback before the camera, and the sounds are amplied by a compressed-air phonograph (chronomgaphone). With the Filmparlant, conceived at the end of 1907, sound and image were recorded synchronously using a microphone and an electric recording phonograph, which marked a very important advance. The pieces or monologues of the phonoscnes most often came from operettas or the caf-concert. This attraction cinema had its hour of glory at the Gaumont-Palace in Paris and thanks to some fairground stallholders, but its exploitation remained limited owing to the complexity of the synchronism and sound amplication system. During the same period, Germany also experienced a vogue for Tonbilder (or sound pictures). Screening introduced by Martin Koerber (Deutsche Kinemathek), Laurent Mannoni (Cinmathque franaise) and Manuela Padoan (Gaumon Path Archives).

The Phonoscnes presented have been restored by Gaumont Path Archives and Lobster Films.

Le vRAI JIU-jITSU

ALICe GUy TOURNe UN phONOSCNe

sung by Dranem 1912, 3 On each refrain, Dranem turns round, thereby revealing his mandarins plait.

Le COq DReSS

1906, 230 Recording of the shooting of a phonoscne by Alice Guy, pioneer female lmmaker.

FUmeUR DOpIUm

Filmparlant directed by Alice Guy, c. 1910, 2 A cock lands and sings on a pedestal decorated with the G daisy of the Gaumont company.

The Tonbilder presented have been restored digitally from prints preserved at the Deutsche Kinemathek.

Am ELTeRNgRAB

Ce qUe CeST qUUN DRApeAU

sung by Adolphe Brard 1912, 3 Brard, an adulated singer, is stretched out on a sofa in an opium den.

LeS CRIS De PARIS,

sung by Gaston Dona, 1909, 230 Here, the caf-concert singer Gaston Dona achieves his greatest popular success.

LA CROIX DU ChemIN

Filmparlant, 1910, 3 Studio shooting of pedlars typical of Paris (glazers, sharpeners...).

[At his parents grave] sung by Karl Ottemar 1907, 317 A man sings to describe his favourite spot: the bench next to his parents grave.

LIeBeS MNNCheN fOLge mIR

sung by Jean Not 1913, 3 A baritone at the Opera, Not recorded some dozen popular and patriotic songs.

AveC BIDASSe, FILmpARLANT

Le fROTTeUR De LA COLONeLLe

ChemINeAU, ChemINe,
sung by Georges Elval 1914, 230 The phonoscne unfolds in two locations, each corresponding to a refrain.

sung by Polin, 1905, 2 Polin is identiable by his coarse comedy style, his jacket that is too short and his little kepi.

sung by Bach, 1914, 3 Bach made Filmparlants between 1911 and 1914 and went to cinema when it became talking.

[My little husband, follow me] sung by Mizzi Jezel and Karl Schpfer, 1910, 4 A happy couple sings a duet about love, life and children.

SChUTzmANNLIeD

LA MARSeILLAISe

LA pOLkA DeS TROTTINS

ANNA, qUeST-Ce qUe TATTeNDS

sung by Flix Mayol 1905, 230 Flix Mayol comes on stage, sings, leaves the stage and returns, as at the caf-concert.

sung by Murphy and Fragson 1913, 3 A family prepares for going on a picnic in the country.

sung by Jean Not 1908, 4 This Filmparlant by Georges Mendel puts opera singer Jean Not on stage.

[The policemans song] sung by Henry Bender, 1908, 313 Accompanied by a ballet of policemen, Henry Bender sings in front of a theatre set.

LA DONNA mOBILe

MILITRISChe DISzIpLIN / LUSTIgeS AUf Dem KASeRNeNhOf


[Military discipline/ Jolly at the barracks] voice of Gustav Schnwald 1910, 3 A displeased ofcer assembles his soldiers in the barracks courtyard.

sung by Enrico Caruso, 1908, 230 Caruso, the greatest opera singer of the period, performs an aria from Verdis Rigoletto.

54

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet!

SiNGiNG AND tAlKiNG CiNemA


UnIteD StAtes, 1920s THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 14:30 The Vitaphone technology was a method of sound on disc synchronized with a lm. The Vitaphone was perfected during an era of great advances in electronic amplication. The idea of synchronized sound by which image and voice emanate from the same human form enchanted lm audiences and producers. Vitaphone shorts consisted either of lmed scenes from opera, or from Broadway shows and the great musical classics. Quickly, vaudlms, in which vaudeville actors perform their number, developed. In August 1926, Warner presented the rst full-length programme of Vitaphone shorts before the screening of the feature lm Don Juan starring John Barrymore, one year before the premiere of The Jazz Singer. Vitaphone lms became extremely popular, to the point that Warner Bros. produced more than 1,000 Vitaphone shorts between 1926 and 1931. Screening introduced by Paolo Cherchi Usai (Film historian). The screening will be preceded by projections of:

The Vitaphone lms were restored by Warner Bros. in collaboration with the UCLA Film & Television Archive (in charge of their preservation since 1976), the Audiovisual Conservation department of the Library of Congress, and the Vitaphone Project. Created in 1991, this collective of amateurs, collectors and archivists locates elements of silent lms and corresponding Vitaphone discs to make new 35mm prints. The restoration was carried out by Robert Gitt (UCLA). Gladys Brockwell in

AUBURN PRISON TALk


Theodore Case
United States, 1920s, black and white, 35 mm, 2

The reformist prison administrator Thomas Mott Osborne speaks about prison reforms.
Shooting of a Vitaphone lm.

T. W. CASe CLOSe-Up
Eddie White in Theodore Case

Born & Lawrence in

The COUNTRy GeNTLemeN


United States, 1928, black and white, 35 mm, 7

I ThANk YOU
United States, 1928, black and white, 35 mm, 9

United States, 1924, black and white, 35 mm, 3

HOLLywOOD BOUND
United States, 1928, black and white, 35 mm, 9

A famous duo, Born & Lawrence appeared in four Vitaphone lms in 1928, before parting company two years later. They charmed with their strange elocution and comic talent.

This lm is a fantastic example of the vaudeville numbers that have disappeared. Eddie Whites charm stems from his way of combining quirky songs and jokes of the period. Jimmy Conlin and Myrtle Glass in

Theodore Case explains the sound system he perfected.

GUS VISSeR AND HIS SINgINg DUCk


Theodore Case
United States, 1925, black and white, 35 mm, 2

Gladys Brockwell appeared in some hundred silent lms. Hollywood Bound is one her rst sound lms, in which she plays a vamp. Carlena Diamond in

HARRy FOX AND hIS SIX AmeRICAN BeAUTIeS


United States, 1929, black and white, 35 mm, 12

Vaudeville performer Gus Visser strikes up a song, accompanied by a duck. The George Eastman House (Rochester, New York) has preserved these lms. In the 1920s, Theodore Case invented the sound process, which is at the origin of the Movietone. This device recorded sound on lm, thereby ensuring the synchronization of sound and image. For that, using a variable optical density, Case recorded the sound on the same lm as the image. These three short features are sound tests.

ShARpS AND FLATS


United States, 1928, black and white, 35 mm, 9

HARpIST SUpReme
United States, 1929, black and white, 35 mm, 6

Carlena Diamond showcases her manifold talents as a vaudeville performer, playing the harp and dancing at the same time.

Harry Fox was the presumed (and self-proclaimed) inventor of the foxtrot. He had a long career on Broadway before appearing in several Vitaphone lms. Frank Whitman in

The duo gives the impression of improvising as they go along, whereas their act is very carefully written. Conlin would become a lm actor, in particular in the lms of Preston Sturges.

ThAT SURpRISINg FIDDLeR


United States, 1929, black and white, 35 mm, 7

Frank Whitman was a vaudeville performer par excellence: violinist, actor and dancer. Each look, wink and raising of the eyebrows is perfectly timed.

THe BeGInnInGs oF soUnD. YoU AInt HeArD notHInG Yet! 55

LONesOme
Screening introduced by Paolo Cherchi Usai (George Eastman House).

PAUl FejOs | 1928 THUrsDAY, NoveMBer 29tH, 17:30

Mary and Jim meet and enjoy the thrills of the Coney Island amusement park, only to lose each other in the crowd after spending a great day together.

DIRECTOR Paul Fejos SCRIPT Edward T. Lowe Jr. PRODUCERS Carl Laemmle Jr. PhOTOgRAphY Gilbert Warrenton ACTORS Barbara Kent, Glenn Tryon, Gustav Partos United States, 1928, tinted print, 35 mm, 67

Until recently, this fully restored version was not shown. The master material at George Eastman House (Rochester, New York) was a Frenchrelease nitrate print entitled Solitude. The earliest preservation of this title ignored the tinting, hand-coloring and soundtrack for the most part. Until now, the lm was shown with live accompaniment except for the dialogue scenes. Thanks to subsequent preservations, restored colors and translated intertitles were put together in a print as close to the original release as possible. Lonesome is a lm caught in the midst of historical change, abandoned for decades, only to be re-discovered and introduced to new generations of appreciative cineastes. Critics spoke of part-talking lms in derogatory terms, rightly pointing out that they brought out the worst features of both silent and early sound lms the obsolescence of the former and the crudeness of the latter. Audiences and exhibitors largely ignored this type of lm in their rush to consume the new technology, regardless of the content or quality of what was being left behind. As a result, nearly 80% of these part-talking lms are lost forever to history. Shooting Lonesome in 1928, only his second American lm, Hungarian migr Paul Fejos utilized complex composite images and rapid editing and

Barbara Kent and Glenn Tryon in Lonesome (1928)

PAUL FejOS (1897-1963) Trained as a chemist, soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Empire during the Great War, Fejos was a scriptwriter in the 1920s. After the failure of his rst lm, Egri csillagok/Stars of Eger (1923), he settled in Vienna where he worked with Max Reinhardt, and then in Berlin where he collaborated with Fritz Lang. Moving to New York, he self-produced his second lm, The Last Moment (1927). Its success drew the attention of Universal Pictures, which offered him a contract and, as a result, he made Lonesome. In 1932, he returned to Europe where he made lms in France, Austria and Denmark. After 1936, he shot documentaries in Asia, then gave up cinema entirely to devote himself to archaeological and anthropological research.

montage techniques. Work was completed on the lm and the nished product was previewed in June of 1928 to very favorable reviews. The following month, however, Warner Bros. Pictures released The Lights of New York, the rst all-talking lm, starting a panic that spread across the Hollywood studios. Fearful of being left in the shadow of the sound revolution, Universal Studios asked Fejos to shoot three talking sequences that would be integrated into the completed lm. Not having any sound stages or equipment of their own, Universal borrowed a Movietone News truck from Fox, ostensibly for tests of this new technology. Over the span of a few weeks in August, Universal shot the sound sequences for Lonesome. The dialogue scenes were, true to form, awkward in inexperienced hands. Unexpectedly, this awkwardness t in perfectly with the uncomfortable innocent conversations of rst meetings between boy and girl. In order to make the entire picture sound-on-lm compatible, the silent sequences were lled out

with a music and effects track that relies heavily on Irving Berlins Always. This second completed version opened in New York City on September 30 of 1928 as Universals rst sound lm. The lm was met with generally favorable reviews, drawing comparisons to both Murnaus Sunrise and Vidors The Crowd. The Los Angeles Times noted, Critics everywhere have hailed this picture as a step forward in screen technique.

JAReD CASe
Head of Collection Information and Access (Motion Picture Department, George Eastman House)

The main feature will be preceded by a screening of:

JOSephINe MCLeAN DANCe CLASSIC


USA, 1929, color (Two-Color Technicolor), 35mm, 10

The Josephine McLean Dance Troop puts on a performance especially for the camera.

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The WAteRs Of the Nile


LEAU DU NIL

MARCel VANDAl | 1928 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 14:30

To avoid ruin, Arthur asks his sister Anne-Marie to wed one of his creditors. A few months later, she is leading a life of luxury and boredom in Cairo. There, by coincidence, she runs into the man she loved, Pierre, a penniless artist. Screening introduced by Batrice de Pastre (Archives franaises du lm) and Cline Ruivo (Cinmathque franaise).

SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Marcel Vandal, after a novel by Pierre Frondaie PRODUCTION Le Film dArt, Vandal and Delac PhOTOgRAphy Armand Thirard, Ren Guychard, Michel Bernheim, Jean Soulat ACTORS Jean Murat, Lee Parry, Maxudian, Ren Lefvre France, 1928, 35 mm, tinted print, 66

The lm was restored by Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. In 1926, Lon Gaumont, who was behind in regards to contemporary research relative to the recording of optical sound on lm, decided to connect with Electrical Fono Films of Copenhagen, which was exploiting the patents of the Danes Axel Carl Georg Petersen and Arnold Poulsen. These involved recording sounds and images simultaneously and synchronically on two lms, with the sound recording being done using a microphone and a mirror set vibrating by an electric coil. A commercial agreement was reached whereby the Danish company would sell its licences and contribute to the forming of concessionary companies, including the Socit Franaise des Filmparlants (Gaumont) for France. The Gaumont-Petersen-Poulsen (GPP) double-35mm lm (sounds and images) system was used for Marcel Vandals LEau du Nil (1928), the rst French sound picture produced by Lon Gaumont following the success of The Jazz Singer in the United States. Shot as a silent picture, LEau du Nil was released in October 1928, accompanied by a recording of music, sounds and songs. It met with only limited success, and the GPP system would quickly be abandoned in favour of the American process using a single track for image and sound.

The lm will be preceded by projections of:

MORvRAN
(LA MeR DeS CORBeAUX /The SeA Of CROwS)
SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Jean Epstein PRODUCTION C.U.C. (Compagnie Universelle Cinmatographique) PhOTOgRAphy Alfred Guichard, Albert Brs, Marcel Rebire France, 1931, 35 mm, black and white, 25 (24 frames per second)

ANDR SAUvAgeS SOUND TeSTS fOR Pivoine dmnage


DIReCTOR Andr Sauvage France, 1929, 35 mm, black and white, 1

Facing the camera, quite close to the microphone, Andr Sauvage reads a text on the new regulations concerning pedestrian crossings in Paris.

PIvOINe DmNAge
SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Andr Sauvage PRODUCeR Jean Tedesco PhOTOgRAphy Jean de Miville ACTORS Michel Simon, Line Noro, Ren Lefvre France, 1929, 35 mm, black and white, 16 (24 frames per second)

On the le de Sein, in Brittany, men brave the sea. Morvran was restored in 2011 by La Cinmathque franaise at the Immagine Ritrovata laboratory (Bologna, Italy), based on a nitrate print loaned by the British Film Institute (BFI). A dupe negative, a (restored) sound negative and a print were elaborated. Pivoine dmnage and Morvran were made using the Synchronista process. This system was developed by the SECIM company, founded by Jean Tedesco, who set up a recording studio at the Thtre du Vieux Colombier in Paris, of which he was the owner. Based on scientic synchronism of the image and sound recorded on discs, the process aimed at the synchronous dubbing of silent lms and making sound versions of foreign lms by replacing the original dialogues with adapted music using an automatic system. Despite three attempts, the recorded sound of Pivoine dmnage was never audible, and the lm remained silent.

The Waters of the Nile by Marcel Vandal (1928)

Pivoine is a tramp who lives on the Paris quays near Notre-Dame. No longer tolerating the insults of passers-by or the stonethrowing, he decides to move. The lm was restored by Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. This lm was Andr Sauvages sole professional attempt in the area of ction. The lm remained unnished, owing, in particular, to breakdowns in the sound system used. The subtitles were made using the script written by Andr Sauvage.

Pivoine dmnage by Andr Sauvage (1929)

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CiN-GRAmO-PhiliA

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 2ND, 11:00

six Cinegraphic Impressions BY GerMAIne DULAc


Screening in partnership with the Bibliothque nationale de France (BnF). Screening introduced by Alain Carou (BnF) and Luc Verrier (BnF). Like the cinema, in the 1920s the disc found its rst passionate connoisseurs. They proclaimed the advent of, if not a new art, in any case a musical experience that was not the pale reproduction of a live performance but which had its own intrinsic value. Made in 1930, Germaine Dulacs Impressions cingraphiques constitute a superb homage to 78 rpms. that was). And it draws a parallel between cinegenic and phonogenic, these two new aesthetics that have in common being born from a mechanical reproduction process that solicits one of the senses exclusively (the visual for cine, the audio for phono). Disque 957 interested Columbia, the most reputed record producer of the time, which sensed a way of advertising itself. As for Dulac, she wanted to infuse a bit of this experience in a production that would be much more general public. She therefore proposed composing lms that would visually echo Columbia discs that had already been released or were about to be. But no more question of pure cinema: these shorts would feature little stories or play on immediately identiable sentimental motifs. Nor was there question of classical music either, regardless of this being the record producers rst proposal. Rather, Dulac imagined a programme of six lms built round popular music in the broadest sense: songs (Celles qui sen font, Ceux qui ne sen font pas), a waltz with accordion accompaniment and java (Autrefois aujourdhui), military marches (Jour de fte)... or even the sentimental opera of the people, Gustave Charpentiers Louise (Un peu de rve sur le faubourg).

In 1929, gramophilia was already making a breakthrough in the lm Disque 957. In this attempt at pure cinema, the opening frames represent a disc of Chopins Preludes spinning on a gramophone and leading to a series of visual impressions (the lms subtitles). Yet Disque 957 was intended to be shown without any sound accompaniment whatsoever. This paradox is open to several possible interpretations. On Dulacs behalf there is doubtless poetic work on music that is shown but absent. Also, there is incontestably a very explicit allusion to the musicality claimed by pure cinema, a composition of images governed by the sole laws of visual harmony. But the disc motif says more: it justies the triggering of a reverie, by this void of the visual sense resulting from the physical absence of the musician (today, we have trouble realizing how new an experience

Portrait of Germaine Dulac (1937)

However close such a repertoire might seem to that of a 100% speaking and singing cinema that, at the same moment, was winning over the screens of France, and removed from what rened record collectors listened to in their drawing room or at gramophone concerts organized by the record companies, the fact remains that the Impressions cingraphiques stood out in the clearest way from the aesthetic

of said speaking and singing cinema. Choosing the disc over optical sound meant renouncing the perfect synchronism of sound and image in favour of the quality of sound. What was lost in exchange mattered little: Dulac had more interesting ways of staging music than showing a singer singing. In Celles qui sen font, she lms the imaginary doubles of the Frhels and Damias, opening the way for an audiovisual

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language of the song dissociated from the singers body. In Autrefois aujourdhui, one only dances. In Un peu de rve sur le faubourg, nally, the characters are in the situation of listeners, and Dulac marvellously illustrates this experience, still novel, of being able to listen to music tting ones emotions at any time. Dulac experiments with the tremendous range of musical emotions henceforth available and within reach by building her programme on plays of contrast. The lms respond to that two by two: Celles qui sen font (women branded by fate) and Ceux qui ne sen font pas (cheerful man and children); Un peu de rve sur le faubourg (listening to a disc together inspires love) and Un petit nid (the disc makes the old couple feel nostalgic for the good old days). From there, too, the option of systematically pairing two discs in order to create a break in tone within each lm: cynicism versus innocence; past versus present, slum versus bucolic landscape In truth, the project would not be held completely, for the adventure turned out badly. Dulac was rst caught in a stranglehold between Columbia, which took its time in releasing the discs she needed, and a producer demanding that she respect deadlines. She had to make do with discs already

available from other producers, then renounce Un petit nid and replace it with Danses espagnoles, foreign to the spirit of the programme. To nish, the exhibitors stayed away from Impressions cingraphiques. Granted, it must be admitted that the lmmaker did not make things easier. The renter distributed a sheet of instructions to the projectionists, asking them to respect extremely precise running speeds (to the half-image per second) in order to achieve the soundimage synchronization; and those running speeds differed from lm to lm and sometimes between two parts of the same lm! And nonetheless nothing was provided for detecting and, a fortiori, correcting, a discrepancy in the course of projection. Thus we dont know whether the Impressions cingraphiques were ever presented in the conditions desired by the lmmaker let us even say that we doubt it strongly. Therefore the screening at La Cinmathque franaise does not pretend to be an identical reconstruction. The discs and projection speeds will be respected, but on stage we will not have a record-player but one of the nest models of home acoustic gramophone, made by Columbia and contemporary with the lms. We will thus be able to enjoy the musicality typical of

this type of machine. In particular, we shall endeavour, like the gramophiles, to play on registers of interpretation of the discs. Between the realistic, precise interpretation, with metal needles, and the Impressionistic interpretation with bamboo needles, which enveloped the music in a slight haze, one may think it is the latter that Dulac preferred that, in sum, the Impressions cingraphiques called for Impressionism in sound.

ALAIN CAROU Head of the Images department (Bibliothque Nationale de France)


1) Translators note: Frhel and Damia were popular singers like Edith Piaf.

GeRmAINe DULAC (1882-1942) In 1915, her rst lm, Les Surs ennemies, was noticed for its intimist sensibility. She met Louis Delluc who suggested that she shoot La fte espagnole/Spanish Fiesta (1919) after the script he had written. Germaine Dulac henceforth had the reputation of an avant-garde director, seeking a pure cinema (use of soft focuses, multiple exposures and aesthetic processes). La mort du soleil/The Death of the Sun (1921) and La souriante madame Beudet/The Smiling Madame Beudet (1923) afrmed these impressionistic conceptions, at the origin of experimental cinema. She made a few short features, including Disque 957 (1929) and Arabesques (id.). In 1933, Germaine Dulac abandoned directing to devote herself to newsreels.

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TO RELATE IMAGES

THe Art oF tHe BensHIs


Screening in partnership with the Maison de la Culture du Japon in Paris. The rst benshis had two essential functions in Japanese cinema from its origins (1896, presentation of the rst Edison Kinetoscopes) to the 1930s (advent of talkies): mediators in a foreign technology, they were also storytellers descended from a long artistic tradition. For the silent lm, a human voice was deemed necessary to embody the lm and humanize its content. The benshi imposed himself at the time as an indispensable actor in the arrangement of the projection and reception of the lm. Already in the 1880s, magic lantern shows included an oral narration so the benshi prolonged a tradition, that of the subject narrator in the visual arts. Going back even further, the melodious voice of a benshi narrator lies within the tradition of kabuki theatre in which singers and narrators, placed on the side of the stage, comment on the story, and that of the gidayu, singers who set haikus to music. At the rst showing of the Lumire cinmatographe in Osaka in 1897, it was a gidayu singer, Ueda Hoteiken, who related the images. Up until the early 20th century, theatre narrators intervened before the screening to explain the technical functioning of the cinematographic apparatus. Then a new generation of exhibitors imposed itself and programmed more complex lms that necessitated in-depth commentaries, making the benshis both lecturers, describing the set-up, and commentators on the very plot of the lm. A school of narrators was created in 1909, and it was these narrators who were a greater attraction for spectators than the lm to be projected. They were integrated into the nascent star system. Their names appeared at the head of the bill, and their salaries were equivalent to those of the most famous actors. Condent of this popularity, they organized themselves into unions and prevented the production of lms whose narration might dispense with their services. The benshis speech gave a sense to what the spectators saw. His role was to dismiss ambiguity and create a consensus, at the risk of altering the effective narrative with his explanations. Indeed, the success of a benshi relied on his ability to tell different stories from one projection to the next of the same lm and to make boring or disconcerting lms exciting and coherent. Exactitude and logic were merely secondary, so that the same lm could be interpreted quite differently according to the benshi who accompanied it. Spectators who did not understand the insert titles of foreign lms relied on the benshis word, whereas those capable of reading them were often amused in remarking his errors. Thus the immediate reading of the texts on the screen was not a necessary modality for the experience of the Japanese spectator, the insert titles serving rather to give rhythm to the speech of the benshi who caught his breath during those moments without images. Even in the case of texts in Japanese, or in lms with stories that were more familiar to the Nipponese public, the benshi remained indispensable. In sum, silent cinema in Japan was an experience relying on listening, and the benshi was in charge of transmitting emotions and giving sense to the lm. The essential dynamic at work was the relation between the benshi and his public, a relation based on tradition, condence and indulgence. The benshi was both narrator and spectator, a character with a voice and without body, both present in the lm and off screen. The spectator let himself be inuenced by this omniscient orator who sees and knows all, judging everything. The trend in western cinema was the inverse at the same moment, being rather that of a narration sufcient unto itself. With a musical accompaniment, the combination of images and insert titles sought to create an autonomous cinema experience. The arrival of talkies undermined the status of benshis, so strong and organized that the transition of Japanese cinema to speaking would be delayed. However, in the 1930s, the producers turned denitively to talkies, and the benshis gradually disappeared.

PAULINe De RAymOND and ALeXANDRA ReveyRAND-De MeNThON (Cinmathque franaise)

The lms will be voiced by Raiko Sakamoto, the youngest Japanese benshi. He has been exercising since the early 2000s, and he writes his own narrations. His favourite genre is the chanbara (sword) lm. He is appearing for the rst time in Europe. He will be accompanied by Shunsuke Okushi on the piano.

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JiROKiChi the RAt


OAtsUrAe JIrokIcHI KosHI

DAisUKe It | 1931 WeDnesDAY, NoveMBer 28tH, 20:30

Jirokichi is a thief who gives to the poor. On a boat enabling him to ee the local police, he meets Osen, a woman accompanied by a dishonest brother. Benshi narration by Raiko Sakamoto, with piano accompaniment by Shunsuke Okushi. Raiko Sakamoto will be translated into French. These prints are subtitled in English.

SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Daisuke It PRODUCTION Nikkatsu Corporation PhOTOgRAphy Hiromitsu Karasawa ACTORS Denjir kchi, Naoe Fushimi, Nobuko Fushimi Japan, 1931, black and white, 35mm, 79 (18 frames per second)

The lm will be preceded by the projection of:

SLAShINg SwORDS
(ZANjIN ZANBAkeN)
SCRIpT AND DIReCTION Daisuke It PRODUCTION Shochiku Kinema PhOTOgRAphy Hiromitsu Karasawa ACTORS Ryunosuke Tsukigata, Misao Seki, Kanji Ishii Japan, 1929, black and white, 35mm, 26 (18 frames per second)
Denjir kchi (left) in Jirokichi the Rat (1931)

DAISUke IT (1898-1981) It was at the Nikkatsu Studio that Daisuke It discovered the young actor Denjir kchi whom he directed in Chokon/ Unforgettable Grudge (1926). In 1927, Chuji tabi nikki/A Diary of Chujis Travels established him as a specialist of jidai geki lms. A pioneer of keiko eiga (trendy) lms, which appeared in the late 1920s under the effect of the progressive ideas of Europe, his heroes were rebellious samurais or popular thieves.

Jirokichi the Rat has remained almost totally intact, thanks in particular to the action of benshi Shunsui Matsuda, famous for having endeavoured to keep benshi cinema alive. This is one of the rare surviving lms starring actor Denjir kchi. Between the late 1920s and 30s, Denjir kchi, consecrated in the lms that Daisuke It made at the end of the silent era, was considered the greatest actor of jidai geki (historical Japanese) lms. In Jirokichi the Rat, he portrays the popular hero Nezumi Koz, a sort of Japanese Robin Hood, of whom he gives a subtle portrayal.

Daisuke Its lms are characterised by the very mobile camera use. For the shooting of Jirokichi the Rat, the director of photography, Hiromitsu Karasawa, went so far as to attach the camera to his body and plunge into the crowd for the combat scenes.

Exploited, repressed peasants attend meetings that awaken their political awareness. They revolt against their evil lord. Up until recently, this legendary lm was considered lost. In 2002, nearly 20% of the lm was found on a 9.5mm support (format for home projection of a lm in abridged version). This fragment was then restored digitally and blown up to 35 mm by the National Film Center of Tokyo. Highly representative of Daisuke Its work, the lm was confronted with censorship of the period. The editing was modied so that the peasants distress no longer appeared to be the result of a class struggle. Similarly, several scenes of revolt were cut.

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The HOUse Of the DeAD


MYortvYI DoM Screening introduced by Natacha Laurent (Cinmathque de Toulouse).

VAsilY FYODOROV | 1932 SAtUrDAY, DeceMBer 1st, 17:30

In 1880, the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky is giving a speech in which he incites the people to humility. Victim of a malaise, he collapses and remembers episodes of his political youth.

DIReCTOR Vasily Fyodorov SCRIpT Viktor Shklovsky and Vasily Fyodorov PRODUCTION Mezhrabpomlm PhOTOgRAphy Vasily Pronin ACTORS Nikolai Khmelev, Nikolai Podgorny, Nikolai Radin USSR, 1932, black and white, 35 mm, 69

VASILy FyODOROv (1891-1971) In 1921, Fyodorov entered GVYRM, the Russian theatre school founded by Vsevolod Meyerhold. The school trained the rst generation of Soviet stage directors as well as lmmakers like Eisenstein, Jutkevic, and Ekk. Fyodorovs encounter with cinema coincided with the particular atmosphere linked to the advent of sound and the decline of certain masters of silent pictures. With stage actors, he shot The House of the Dead (1932), one of the rst Soviet talking lms. He then shot a comedy that went unnoticed: Konec polustanka/The End of the Little Station (1935). Fyodorov left Moscow and devoted himself to stage directing in the provinces. He would make no other lms.

The lm was preserved by the Cinmathque de Toulouse in collaboration with Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. The print is a duplicate made in 2007 on a safety base by Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC, following a proposal of the Cinmathque de Toulouse. A Russian nitrate print with French subtitles was used for the printing. This copy was the unique element in France, and corresponds to the new release of the 1930s, intended for non-commercial circuits. This element entered the collections of the Cinmathque in the 1970s. The visual and sound problems of the nitrate copy were reproduced in the new print. In the early 1930s, many Soviet lmmakers asked themselves questions of an artistic nature on the sound that was imposing itself. The House of the Dead is an example of this: it is a lm of experimentation, which endeavours to preserve the stagecraft and lighting of the silent, to capture speech, to set music to voiceless images, to lm dialogues Fyodorov innovated. The production lasted two years (we know of ve versions of the script) and remained marked by the conict between Fyodorov and Viktor Shklovsky, the lms scriptwriter and also a writer and pioneer of the Russian Formalist trend.

Sketch by Ergorov for The House of the Dead (Labor camp)1

Shklovsky wrote a rst script based on Dostoyevskys The House of the Dead in 1930. Entitled The Prison of the Peoples, it was made up of episodes illustrating the life of those convicts sentenced to hard labour. Fyodorov rejected this version, preferring to concentrate on the writers life. The other essential contradiction concerned the execution scene. Shklovsky said that he had taken inspiration from a scene in Dostoyevskys Idiot that consisted of a long description of the elements surrounding the execution scene in order to prolong the wait. To express that idea, the scene had to be shot in the cold of winter but was nally begun in the spring and nished in summer, on a beach. Shklovsky asserted that the script was tortured in the name of the ght against Formalism. [] Time was spent destroying this script. Do you know the story of the judgement of Solomon? The mother

gives up her child. [] The lm carried out the script, but it did not carry it out to the very end. As for Fyodorov, he reproached Shklovsky for his inexact description of Dostoyevskys political commitment and his idealized view of the writers life: all the defects of the lms political line stem, rst of all, from [Mezhrabpomlms] management, and secondly from the organic qualities of this script. To transpose the material that the crew had received from the studio, it would have been necessary to write a completely new one. (Kino, 30 May 19321).

1 Quotations in Bernard Eisenschitz (ed.), Gels et dgels Une autre histoire du cinma sovitique, 1926-1968, Centre Pompidou-Mazzotta, 2002.

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ENCOUNTERS, WORKSHOPS AND CIN-CONCERTS


LECTURES
FeDOR OzepS The Living Corpse (1929) A CASe STUDy by Martin Koerber and Oliver Hanley The lecture will trace the history of The Living Corpse and the two successive restorations undertaken in 1988 by the Deutsche Kinemathek (Berlin) and in 2011 by the Filmmuseum of Vienna. Film projected after the lecture. Wednesday 28 November, 10.30am JOURNey IN The hISTORy Of (SINgINg AND TALkINg) CINemA Lecture by Edouard Arnoldy Edouard Arnoldy (lm historian specializing in the beginnings of sound) will organize this free itinerary round two moments of singing and talking cinema: the Gaumont phonoscnes and Vitaphone shorts from the 1910s through the early 30s. Wednesday 28 November, 5.30pm ReSTORATION Of SOUND fILmS Lecture by the Conservatoire des Techniques How to restore the sound of lms that are sometimes quite old? How to clean the soundtrack of a lm without altering it? Contributors: Henri Chamoux, Jean-Lionel Etcheverry (Digimage), Maurice Gianati, Martin Koerber (Deutsche Kinemathek), ric Lange (Lobster Films), Laurent Mannoni (Cinmathque franaise), Lon Rousseau (LE Diapason), Cline Ruivo (Cinmathque franaise), Jean-Pierre Verscheure (Cinvolution). Friday 30 November, 2.30pm A SUNDAy wITh COwBOyS Workshop and screening for children over 8 The screening of My Darling Clementine (John Ford) will be preceded and followed by workshops (11am-12:45pm, and 4pm-5pm) that will answer questions, such as: How do we recognize a western? By its cowboys and Indians in the American Far West, by its saloons and gunghts How have the old lms come down to us? WhAT eThICS fOR ReSTORINg fILmS IN 2012? Roundtable in partnership with the FIAF (International Federation of Film Archives) Whilst the spread of digital technologies deeply transforms the nature of lms restoration, the debate regarding the ethical standards, which are inherent in this work, should be brought up to date. Contributors: Paolo Cherchi Usa (George Eastman House), Thomas Christensen (Danish Film Institute), Batrice de Pastre (Archives franaises du lm), Bryony Dixon (British Film Institute), Gian Luca Farinelli (Cineteca di Bologna), Laurent Mannoni (Cinmathque franaise), moderated by Christophe Dupin (FIAF).

ROUNDTABLES
Thursday 29 November, 10.30am WhAT fINANCINg fOR The ReSTORATIONS?: ROUNDTABLe How do the public authorities, private foundations, holders of catalogues, and archives work together in France and the United States? Inventory of the situation. Contributors: Margaret Bodde (Film Foundation), Laurent Cormier (CNC), Marc Lacan (Path), Jeff Lambert (National Film Preservation Foundation), Jrme Soulet (Gaumont), Rosalie Varda (Cin-Tamaris). Roundtable moderated by Serge Toubiana (Cinmathque franaise). Followed by ReSTORATION AND New TeChNOLOgIeS: ROUNDTABLe Digital technologies allow for better stabilizing images, cleaning them better, and intervening more effectively on deteriorated colours. Laboratory technicians and project managers take stock of these advances. Contributors: Thierry Delanoy (Digimage), Frantz Delbecque (clair), Pierre Lhomme, Xavier Loutreuil (Path), Nicola Mazzanti (Cinmathque Royale de Belgique), Cline Ruivo (Cinmathque franaise), Batrice Valbin-Constant (StudioCanal). Roundtable moderated by Michel RomandMonnier (Cinmathque franaise).

CIN-CONCERTS
Benshi SpeCTACLe By RAIkO SAkAmOTO In Japan, the theatrical art of the benshis was an essential component of silent cinema. They were the respected narrators of the lms content. Raiko Sakamoto, one of the rare heirs of this tradition, will voice two sword lms of a social nature by Daisuke It. Wednesday 28 November, 8.30pm LHirondelle et la Msange/ The Swallow and the Titmouse By The VOCe QUARTeT The Voce Quartet will draw on the chamber music repertoire to accompany LHirondelle et la Msange, a lavish realistic lm directed by Andr Antoine in 1920. Saturday 1 December, 5.30pm BlacKmail BY ChLO (Dj - pRODUCeR) A major gure on the French electro scene, Chlo, composer and disc jockey, will mix live on the silent version of Alfred Hitchcocks Blackmail (1929). Closing evening: Sunday 2 December, 9pm

WORKSHOPS
ReSTORINg A fILm Workshop for adults and students. Run by La Cinmathque franaise and Les Archives franaises du lm du CNC. This workshop proposes discovery and awareness of the techniques for safeguarding and restoring lms. Thursday 29 and Friday 30 November, 9.30am-12.30am For secondary school students in lm studies, (Lyce Paul Valery) and students from the universities Paris 8 Saint-Denis and Paris-Est Marne-la-Valle. Saturday 1 December, 10.30am-12.30pm Workshop open to the individual adult public (teacher, student, all public)

LECTURE AND ROUNDTABLE


Friday 30 November, 10.30am LINDgReN MANIfeSTO, pART 8 PReLUDe TO The fOUNDINg Of A mUSeUm Of The DIgITAL ImAge A lecture by Paolo Cherchi Usai In 2010, Paolo Cherchi Usai (head curator at the George Eastman House) paid tribute to the founder of the British Film Institute, Ernest Lindgren. Here he intends to develop one of his proposals: can digital become the object of a Museum? Followed by

ENCOUNTERS, WORKSHOPS AND CIN-CONCERTS

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