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LECTURE 8 CREATIVE SCIENCE FOR YOUNG CHILDREN

FOUR THEMES IN SCIENCE


1. Exploring physical sciences 2. Exploring life sciences 3. Exploring material sciences 4. Exploring earth and space science.

Themes/topics on: Physical Sciences


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Blocks Colors Magnets Gears Motion Heat: hot & cold 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Time Energy Force Electricity Lights & shadows

Themes/topics on Life Sciences


1. 2. 3. 4. Living & non-living things Plants big and small Seeds and germination Animals: Food that animal eats Places that animals live Birds and butterflies Insects and bugs

5. Dinosaurs (once upon a time, they were living animals)

6. Man (human beings) external and internal body parts

Themes/topics on Material Sciences


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Water, bubbles Air, Gas, Smoke Food, Cooking Carbon/charcoal Metals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chemicals in the soil Chemicals in the air Mixtures Plastics and rubber Oil and fuel

Themes/topics on Earth & Space Science


1. Earth, Sun, Moon 2. Planets, Stars, and Galaxies 3. Rockets and Space Ships

Things to ponder.
1. 2. 3. 4. Do all things have weight? Why some things can float and others sink? What happen if there is no sunlight? What happen if the world runs out of water?

Example of Simple lesson plan (for preschool)


A. Objectives: Children will learn: (i) Science Concepts
1. Things that have certain characteristics are called living things 2. All living things live in their environment.

(ii) Science Process Skills and Dispositions


1. Observing living things, classifying living things, describing what living things are and where they live, recording or drawing pictures of living things. 2. We need to help care and preserve the habitat for animals and plants 3. We must always be aware of changes in our environment.

(iii) Key Vocabulary


1. Habitat 2. Food Source 3. Environnent 4. Life Cycle 6. Preservation

B. Procedure and Activities (i) What the teacher do (ii) What the children do

E.g.: Simple lesson plan (preschool)


A. Objectives: Children will learn: (i) Science Concepts (ii) Science Process Skills and Dispositions (iii) Key Vocabulary

B. Procedure and Activities


What the teacher do
1. Explain to the children that you will be reading a story book about animals in the jungle - the story of a helpful bear. 2. Ask the children to pay particularly close attention to the vocabulary used, create a list of appropriate vocabulary word on the white board 4. Read the story book to the children 5. Discuss about the story with children 6. Draw a picture of the habitat in which bear and other animals live. 7. Talk about the whole jungle where the plants and animal that live together.

What the children do


1. Children listen carefully to the story being read 2. Children pronounce the vocabulary after their teacher 3. Children ask questions 4. Children draw pictures about the story 5. Children tell the story about their drawing 6. Children discuss with teacher importance of keeping our jungle intact for the animals and plants to live happily ever after.

Resources needed
Story book Some pictures of birds, animals, plants, fungi, streams and undergrowth. (picture of nature).

C. Exploration D. Assessment

Many ways to write science lesson plan


Science Lesson on the topic: Air Concept/Objective : The children will be able to explain how air has weight and occupies space, although we cannot see it. Children will also understand that still air has more pushing power than does moving air.
Teaching Materials: a clear plastic bottle, a funnel, modeling clay, two pencils one with flat edges, two identical balloons, string, a long stick, sticky tape, two cans, a bowl of water, a small glass, and a paper tissue

Materials for children : two sheets of paper, a pencil and response pages

Strategies :
During the first part of the lesson the teacher will be asking questions and performing experiments while the children sit in one big group on the carpet. The children will be encouraged to listen and observe as the experiments are being done. For the second part of the lesson the children will return to their desks to do an experiment on their own and then seat work. Each group will called to the rug at different times during the period to read a story about air. The groups not reading will remain in their desks doing seat work until it is their groups turn.

Procedure :
What the teacher do 1. Begin with a discussion about air. 2. Ask questions to the class to get them thinking about the topic and to see what they know and dont know about air. 3. Some sample questions are: What can you tell me about air? Does it smell, taste, or weigh anything? How do people use air every day? How can you tell that there is air around us even though we cant see it? What the children do In the same way, you have to describe how the children (and teacher together) will do three experiments to prove that air has weight and occupies space. Resources needed

Experiment 1 : Weighing Air


Procedure for the teacher to do: First ask the class some questions and then have them make predictions. Some questions the teacher may want to ask are:
Do you think air weigh anything? Why or why not? What do you think will happen when we blow up one of the balloons? Will the stick still balance?

Observe and ask children more questions, and give them encouragements.

Procedures for the children to do


1. Using the long stick, mark the middle of it. 2. Rest the pencil between the two cans and place the middle of the stick across the pencil so the stick is balanced. 3. Use a small piece of sticky tape to fix a balloon onto each end of the stick. Check that the stick remains level-this means that the balloons weigh the same. 4. Un-stick one of the balloons and blow as much air into it as you can. 5. Fix it back onto the end of the stick and replace the stick on its center spot. Does the stick still balance? (You could also use a pan balance for this experiment). 6. How could you tell that air has weight? Why did the stick not balance after the balloon was blown up? What would happen if you blew up the other balloon?

TRY ON YOUR OWN. THIS IS HOW YOU PREPARE SCIENCE LESSON/ACTIVITY FOR YOUR ASSIGNMENT 2. WHEN YOU PRESENT IT TO THE CLASS, DESCRIBE WHAT THE TEACHER WILL DO AND WHAT THE CHILDREN WILL DO, THE QUESTIONS YOU WILL ASK AND THE SETUP OF THE ACTIVITY OR EXPERIMENT.

ENCOURAGING CREATIVITY IN SCIENCE LESSON FOR YOUNG CHILDREN


How to provide the experiences that children need to develop scientific creativity?
Creativity is not limited to artistic and musical expressionit is also essential for science, math, and even social and emotional intelligence. Creative people are more flexible and better problem solvers, which makes them more able to adapt to change Children need a lot of time for unstructured, childdirected, imaginative play. The focus of creative activities should be on process: i.e. generating new ideas.

How to foster creativity?


Allow children the freedom and autonomy to explore their ideas and do what they want. Don't be so bossy. Encourage children to read story books about animals/plants, sing songs and act, draw and paint, etc. Give children the opportunity to express their thought. Emphasize process rather than product. Let them imagine and create fantasy. That is crucial to arts and science and every aspect of life.

ART AND SCIENCE AESTHETIC AND SCIENCE


Aesthetic means being sensitive to beauty in nature and art. Such sensitivity is fostered by experiencing it in a variety of forms. For young child, nature is an especially appropriate avenue for a sense of aesthetic.

SCIENCE AND ART MATERIALS/ACTIVITIES


When children work with art materials, they are also making scientific observations. When children experiment with art materials, this may lead to them to discover about cause and effect. Through art activities, children learn many science concepts is in the art materials and science process skills.

For example, linking science and art about animals


1. Children can draw and paint animals. 2. Engaging them in discussion about animals. 3. Reading stories about animals. 4. Showing pictures 5. Singing songs about animals. 6. Children can use to make zoo cages or farm environments

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Children need to learn about their environment because their lives depend on that environment. Activities that help children understand their environment can also help them become more creative thinker. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT Consist of man-made (home, school, neighborhood) and natural (natural things and natural happening) environment. Nature influences people; people influence nature. Children must be taught how to manipulate and influence both.

Children can study elements of an environment both living and non-living, and the interrelation of these elements.
Young children need opportunities to observe the process rather than just a finished product (eg. Seed germination, rabbit, birds, river flowing, cloud moving or people milking cows/goat) Children should develop an understanding of types of resources and changes in environment. These early experiences about the environment will provide the children an eventual understanding and appreciation for their part in protecting the environment.

ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN SCHOOL


In the early childhood years, the teacher can use everyday experience to point out to children the importance of caring for the environment.
GETTING STARTED Getting young children outdoors to touch and experience nature is the starting point for learning about ecology and the environment. Small reading groups, project work, other academic work, along with music, dance, art activities can be effectively carried out in the outdoors.

TEACHERS ROLE The teachers most important role is sharing enthusiasm, curiosity, and wonder When ideas, feelings are shared with children, it encourages exploration and child-adult conversation. In middle and upper elementary grades, as children become more familiar with their world, the teacher can guide them to observe changes

NATURE STUDY (OUTDOOR ACTIVITY)

OUTDOOR SCIENCE

BEGINNING ACTIVITIES Children can learn about different things about nature by being outdoors. Young children also need to realize that nature is all around then and that wildlife can be found anywhere. Ideas on how to begin with simple experiences include:
1. 2. 3. 4. Watch a butterfly or ants carrying food Touching and feeling the different texture of tree trunks. Watching birds and squirrels Walking barefoot in the grass and sand before wading in a shallow stream, etc.

OUTDOOR SCIENCE GARDENING For children to be creative gardeners , they should be given some choices. Older children can measure and record the growth of their seeds, they can compare and contrast the differences in growth. They plant herbal plants around their school Make a garden using flower and/or vegetable seeds Older children can measure the growth, then put them on a chart

OUTDOOR SCIENCE Bird Feeders

MAKING BIRD FEEDER


Children can try to design bird feeders and build them in some way, or they can design the feeder and their parents can help them build the structures. Children can experiment with the kind of bird seeds, food to attract various birds. Then watch birds feed on the seeds or fruits, identify birds using books, use binoculars to view birds through windows, learning the names of the birds they see at the feeder.

OUTDOOR SCIENCE

CLOUD AND SKY WATCHING


Children can lie on the ground and look for different shapes of the cloud. Teacher can support their learning by answering their questions and asking them to make up a story about clouds.

THE SOUND OF NATURE


Walking in the woods or along a busy street can be made exciting by listening to the sounds.

WHAT HAPPENS TO RAIN WATER. ANIMAL HIDING PLACES

Cloud and Sky Watching


On nice days, take the children outside to lay on their backs to view the clouds Ask questions. How does the clouds look like? Does it looked like spilled milk? ??? What is the colour of the sky

Sounds of Nature
Walk in the woods, on the sidewalk, to hear the sounds of nature. Use a tape recorder for record the sound of crushed dry leaves, sound of flowing water, or sound of bees visiting a flower. Again, ask questions as you do this activity

Rain and rainstorm


After a rainstorm, take the children outside to observe how the rain water flows on:
Pavement/grass/flower bed in the garden Road and pathway Find out what is erosion How do rain water find its way out?

Outdoor Animal Hiding Places


Under bushes, trees Thick grasses, large rocks Great time to ask questions about animals Get the children to think like an animal, and they could answer questions as if they were that animal If you were a rabbit, why would you hide under the bush?

OUTDOOR SCIENCE
PLANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT Activities you can do with children:
1. Make seed catalogs. 2. Plant seeds in pots. Seeds of various kinds can be broken or cut open and studies to observe the small plant inside. Observe the roots, stems, and leaves forms, make a plastic bag greenhouse. 3. Observe the different types of plants, big and small, their colours, shapes and leaves arrangements. Observe the flowers, flower buds, leaves, shoots, etc. Draw the leaves, flowers.

Plants in the Environment


Explore the outdoors to experience plants firsthand Find the tallest tree, roughest bark, needles, pinecones, etc. Experience vegetables, eat the results! Compare plants (leaves, seeds, size, etc.) Plant some plants in a garden plot or in plastic baggies

OUTDOOR SCIENCE

WATER PLAY EXPERIENCES Objects that lead the child to science experiences might include the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sponges, corks, and light pieces of wood. Funnels strainers, colander, plastic tubing, and siphons. Spray containers, sprinklers, squeeze bottle, water gun. Paintbrushes, paint rollers and washcloth Spoon, dipper, plastic syringe Always have an adult with the children in any water play. Never use breakable materials. Develop water play rules with the children

Safety tips

Water Play Experiences


Teacher may use a large wading pool for experiments outside Following items can be used for water play experiences:
Sponges, corks, light pieces of wood Funnels, strainers, plastic tubing Spray containers, squeeze bottles Plastic containers, paintbrushes Spoons, dippers

Safety Tips for Water Play


Limit the number of children Use only unbreakable items for water play Develop water rules with the children
Water stays in the tub vs. NO Splashing Keep water in the containers Have towels available for spills Children wipe up or mop up spills immediately