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Table of Contents
Context
HIstorIcal
Advantages E 0Isadvantages
JCPP
AnaIogy
WC0|A and Festaurant
Spread Spectrum hoduIatIon
A Code as a Shell agaInst NoIse
Spectrum spreadIng
TransmIssIon ChaIn
Code E SpreadIng factor
SpreadIng factor E 0ata Fate
SpreadIng factor E Error at receptIon
ExercIse: Drthogonal Code
WC0|A, Power 0ensIty E ProcessIng CaIn
Code 0IvIsIon huItIpIe Access
Dnecell reuse
|ultIple access
SpreadIng: ChannelIzatIon and ScramblIng
ChannelIzatIon Codes (SpreadIng Codes)
ScramblIng codes
Soft Handover
ntroductIon
ScenarIos: Softer Handover
ScenarIos: Soft Handover
ScenarIos: Soft Handover Inter FNC
ScenarIos: SFNC FelocatIon
Soft Handover E Code |anagement
Cost E 8enefIt
Pake PeceIver
Fake FeceIver prIncIple
Fake FeceIver and |ultIServIce
Fake FeceIver and soft handover
Fake FeceIver and Path 0IversIty
Power ControI
Why :
0Ifferent kInds of Power Control
Dpen Loop Power Control
Closed Loop Power Control: PrIncIple
Closed Loop Power Control: Power 0ensIty
UL Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover
0L Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover
CapacIty, Coverage uaIIty
LInks between Coverage, CapacIty and QualIty
mprovement Ways
TypIcal 7alues
Page
1 Context 7
1.1 HIstorIcal 8
1.2 Advantages E 0Isadvantages 9
1.J JCPP 10
2 AnaIogy 11
2.1 WC0|A and Festaurant 12
3 Spread Spectrum hoduIatIon 15
J.1 A Code as a Shell agaInst NoIse 16
J.2 Spectrum spreadIng 17
J.J TransmIssIon ChaIn 18
J.4 Code E SpreadIng factor 19
J.5 SpreadIng factor E 0ata Fate 20
J.6 SpreadIng factor E Error at receptIon 21
J.7 ExercIse: Drthogonal Code 2J
J.7 WC0|A, Power 0ensIty E ProcessIng CaIn 24
4 Code 0IvIsIon huItIpIe Access 26
4.1 Dnecell reuse 27
4.2 |ultIple access 28
4.J SpreadIng: ChannelIzatIon and ScramblIng J0
4.4 ChannelIzatIon Codes (SpreadIng Codes) J1
4.5 ScramblIng codes J2
5 Soft Handover 33
5.1 ntroductIon J4
5.2 ScenarIos: Softer Handover J5
5.J ScenarIos: Soft Handover J6
5.4 ScenarIos: Soft Handover Inter FNC J7
5.5 ScenarIos: SFNC FelocatIon J8
5.6 Soft Handover E Code |anagement J9
5.7 Cost E 8enefIt 40
6 Pake PeceIver 42
6.1 Fake FeceIver prIncIple 4J
6.2 Fake FeceIver and |ultIServIce 45
6.J Fake FeceIver and soft handover 46
6.4 Fake FeceIver and Path 0IversIty 47
7 Power ControI 4
7.1 Why : 50
7.2 0Ifferent kInds of Power Control 51
7.J Dpen Loop Power Control 52
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: PrIncIple 5J
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Power 0ensIty 54
7.5 UL Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover 55
7.5 0L Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover 56
8 CapacIty, Coverage uaIIty 57
8.1 LInks between Coverage, CapacIty and QualIty 58
8.2 mprovement Ways 59
8.J TypIcal 7alues 60
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Table of Contents [cont.]
Swtch to notes vew!
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1 Context
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1 Context
1.1 HIstorIcal
EarIy 70's
C0|A developed for mIlItary fIeld for Its great qualItIes of prIvacy (low
probabIlIty InterceptIon, Interference rejectIon)
16
C0|A commercIal launch In the US
ThIs system called S95 or cdmaDne was developed by Qualcomm and has
reached 50 mIllIon subscrIbers worldwIde
2000
|T2000 has selected three C0|A radIo Interfaces:
WC0|A (UTFA F00)
T0C0|A (UTFA T00)
C0|A 2000
In the foIIowIng materIaI we wIII onIy refer to WC0hA (UTPA F00)
See http://www.cdy.ory for S95
n C0|A fIeld, we have experIence of S95
S95 vocabulary:
forward channel=downlInk
reverse channel=uplInk
handoff=handover
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1 Context
1.2 Advantages E 0Isadvantages
C0|A Is very attractIve:
- 8etter spectrum effIcIency than 2C systems
- SuItable for all type of servIces (cIrcuIt, packet) and for multIservIces
- Enhanced prIvacy
- EvolutIonary (lInked wIth progress In sIgnal processIng fIeld)
8UT:
- Complex system: not easy to confIgure and to manage
- Unstable In case of congestIon
Spectrum effIcIency : transmIssIon capacIty per spectrum unIt (bandwIdth), I.e kbIt/|Hz.
ThIs must not be confused wIth the traffIc capacIty.
The spectrum effIcIency In U|TS Is hIgher than In CS| (25x200kHz carrIers In CS| offerIng JJ5 kbps**
whIle a 5 |Hz U|TS carrIer offers 400 kbps).
f we factor In densIfIcatIon (frequency reuse pattern), the U|TS traffIc capacIty Is dramatIcally
Increased. AccordIng to C0|A 0evelopment Croup:
"CapacIty Increases by a factor of between 8 to 10 compared to an A|PS
analog system and between 4 to 5 tImes compared to a CS| system"
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1 Context
1.J JCPP
The JCPP Is the organIzatIon In charge of the standardIzatIon of the
U|TS.
t Is made of standardIzatIon organIzatIon (ETS In Europe, T1 In USA,
AF8 In Japan or CTWS In ChIna .), member of manufacturers and
operators.
The U|TS frequency allocatIons are :
T00 F00 |SS T00
1900 1980 2010 2025 1920
|SS F00
2110 2170 2200
F00: Frequency 0IvIsIon 0uplex
T00: TIme 0IvIsIon 0uplex
|SS: |obIle SatellIte System
UplInk 0ownlInk
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2 Analogy
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- CeII
Pestaurant room
2 Analogy
2.1 WC0|A and Festaurant
WC0hA Pestaurant Poom
- UE
PeopIe at tabIe
- Code
Language
Enjoy your
meaI !
Code 1
Code 2
Cuten
appetIte !
on
appetIt !
om
apetIte !
Ues, lke eole, send
and receve on the
same tme and the
same jrequency. They
are seareted by:
For a table, the conversatIons of the neIghbours
are noIse, for a UE It Is the same prIncIple:
neIghbour conversatIons are Interference
The equIvalence are:
Festaurant room Cell
Table UE
Language Code
Here the Important poInt Is all the UEs send and receIve on the same tIme and on the same frequency.
The WC0|A Is really dIfferent because wIth the CS|, the UEs are separated by the tIme (TS of T0|A)
and the frequency. Here the UEs are separated wIth codes applIed on the sIgnals.
Another Important poInt Is for someone the conversatIon on a neIghbour table Is consIdered lIke noIse. t
Is the same prIncIple wIth the WC0|A, for a user the other UEs generates some noIses.
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2 Analogy
2.1 WC0|A and Festaurant [cont.]
WC0hA Pestaurant Poom
-Node
Steward
0ownlInk
Who have
order thIs cake
!
!!!!
:::
Impacts:
-Power ControI In 0L
-ControI AdmIssIon
Very Important !
Interference IeveI In 0L
probIem:
-If some UE use too much
power
-If there are too many
users In the ceII
Enjoy your
meaI !
CDhD
ESTAS !
n downlInk,
n the restaurant, the steward want to ask to every table who have order a cake. f some people
speak to loud, the table at the back of the room can't hear the questIon. t Is the same case, If
there are too many users In the room.
n the cell, It Is the same prIncIple. f there are too many Ues on the cell or If some Ues use too
much power, the Interference level for a UE far from the Node 8 Is too hIgh to allow the UE
decodIng the message.
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2 Analogy
2.1 WC0|A and Festaurant [cont.]
WC0hA Pestaurant Poom
It Is for me
!
Who have
order thIs cake
!
UIEPD LA
TAPTA!!
Es Ist
meIne
UplInk
C'est Ia
pomme !
!!!!
At the Node IeveI:
- If a UE, cIose to the N,
speak too Ioud
-If there are too many
users
ProbIem of Interference
IeveI too hIgh.
The N can't decode any
users anymore.
Impacts:
- Power ControI In UL
-AdmIssIon ControI
Very Important
n UplInk,
n the restaurant, a steward can understand all the conversatIon If he knows all the languages.
8ut If on a table, close to hIm, some one speak to loud the steward can't understand people on
the other tables. t Is the same problem If there are too many people It Is too noIsy to able to
understand a conversatIon far from hIm.
WIth the WC0|A, there Is the same problem. That means If the cell Is too load,
the Interference level at the Node 8 Is too hIgh to be able to decode the weakest sIgnal.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.1 A Code as a Shell agaInst NoIse
The letter 'A' represents the sIgnal to transmIt over the radIo Interface.
At the transmItter the heIght (Ie the power) of 'A' Is spread, whIle a color
(I.e a code) Is added to 'A' to IdentIfy the message .
At the receIver 'A' can be retrIeved wIth knowledge of the code, even If
the power of the receIved sIgnal Is beIow the power of noIse due to the
radIo channel.
PeceIver TransmItter
SpreadIng
NoIse
0espreadIng
PadIo ChanneI
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.2 Spectrum spreadIng
At the transmItter the sIgnal Is muItIpIIed by a code whIch spreads the
sIgnal over a wIde bandwIdth whIle decreasIng the power (per unIt of
spectrum).
At the receIver It Is possIble to retrIeve the wanted sIgnal by multIplyIng
the receIved sIgnal by the same code: you get a peak of correlatIon,
whIle the noIse level due to the radIo channel remaIns the same, because
thIs Is not correlated wIth the code.
8ut the Interference level Is too hIgh, It Is not possIble to decode any
message.

P
Sprouding
kodio chonnel
Dosprouding
lnlerlerence Level

P
What Is the Interference level :
The Interference level Is the power receIved on the U|TS bandwIdth used. These Interferences are made
of:
the background noIse,
the messages of the other users,
the traffIc on the neIghbourIng cells.
8ecause all the users on a cells use the same bandwIdth on the same tIme, and the users on the other
cells too, the decodIng and so the error ratIo depend on the Interference level.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.J TransmIssIon ChaIn
AIr nterface
The narrowband data sIgnal Is multIplIed bIt per bIt by a code sequence:
It Is known as "chIppIng".
The chIp rate (fIxed) of thIs code sequence Is much hIgher than the bIt
rate of the data sIgnal: It produces a wIdeband sIgnal, also called spread
sIgnaI.
At the receIver the same code sequence In phase should be used to
retrIeve the orIgInal data sIgnal.
|odulator 0emodulator
Code Sequence
0ata 0ata
Code sequence
N8SIgnal W8SIgnal N8SIgnal W8SIgnal
Code synchronIzatIon between the transmItter and the receIver Is crucIal for despreadIng the wIdeband
sIgnal successfully.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.4 Code E SpreadIng factor
The code Is applIed on each bIt of the user data.
The SpreadIng Factor, called SF, Is the Iength of thIs code.
Example: 0ctc to trcnsmt: 1 0 , SF=8.
1
-1
1
-1
Spread data
Code
Coded data
T
r
a
n
s
m
I
s
s
I
o
n
F
e
c
e
p
t
I
o
n
FeceIved data,
wIthout error
1
-1
A chIp
ChIp rate fIxed at J.84 |chIp/s
Code applIed
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
What Is the spreadIng factor:
t Is the number of chIps per bIt (=chIp rate/bIt rate).
The chIp rate Is lInked wIth the C0|A carrIer bandwIdth and has a constant value of J,84 |cps.
t Is quIte easy to match the bIt rate of the sIgnal wIth the C0|A chIp rate just by choosIng the
adequate spreadIng factor.
The hIgher the spreadIng factor, the more redundancy you add In the sIgnal and the lower the
probabIlIty of bIt error Is by transmIttIng the sIgnal.
t Is also traduced by the processIng gaIn (see below).
Code synchronIzatIon:
t Is dIffIcult to acquIre and to maIntaIn the synchronIzatIon of the locally generated code sIgnal
and the receIved sIgnal.
ndeed synchronIzatIon has to be kept wIthIn a fractIon of the chIp tIme.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.5 SpreadIng factor E 0ata Fate
The chIp rate Is fIxed, J.84 |chIp/s.
f the SF Is dIvIded by 2, the data rate Is multIplIed by 2 !
Example: 0ctc to trcnsmt: 1 0 , SF=4.
Spread data
Code
Coded data
T
r
a
n
s
m
I
s
s
I
o
n
F
e
c
e
p
t
I
o
n
FeceIved data,
wIthout error
Code applIed
FeceIved
data
Small SF = HIgh data rate
HIgh SF = Small data rate
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
The SpreadIng Factor avaIlable are 4, 8, 16, J2, 64, 128, 256 In uplInk, plus 512 In downlIng
For sIgnalIng at very low bIt rate.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.6 SpreadIng factor E Error at receptIon
When an error occurs at the receptIon, the determInatIon of the bIt value Is less trIvIal.
Example: 0ctc to trcnsmt: 1 0 , SF=8.
1
-1
1
-1
SIgnal sent on
the aIr
SIgnal receIved
wIth error
Code
S
F
=
8
Z
o
o
m

o
n

t
h
e

d
e
c
o
d
e
d

s
I
g
n
a
l
0ecoded data
1
-1
0
The
determInatIon of
the bIt value Is
based on the area
of the receIved
sIgnal.
Here Is 6 area
unIts over 8
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.6 SpreadIng factor E Error at receptIon [cont.]
1
-1
1
-1
SIgnal sent on
the aIr
SIgnal receIved
wIth error
Code
S
F
=
4
Z
o
o
m

o
n

t
h
e
d
e
c
o
d
e
d

s
I
g
n
a
l
0ecoded data
1
-1
0
The
determInatIon of
the bIt value Is
based on the area
of the receIved
sIgnal.
Here Is 2 area
unIts over 4
WIth a small SF, the sIgnal Is more sensItIve to errors.
So to have the same error ratIo you use more power
f you need a hIgh data rate
(vIdeo downloadIng), you
wIll use a smaII SF. You wIll
have more errors on your
message. So If you want to
keep the same error ratIo,
you wIll use more power to
transmIt your message
To keep In mInd
Another way to understand thIs relatIon Is wIth the redundancy.
f the SF Is small, 4 for example, the useful bIt, 0 or 1, Is sent just 4 tIme. The data rate Is hIgh.
f the SF Is hIgher, 64 for example, the useful bIt Is sent 64 tIme. The data rate Is smaller.
So If an error occurs, It Is more sIgnIfIcant If the SF Is 4 than If the SF Is 64.
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.7 ExercIse: Drthogonal Code
Here, there Is a receIved sIgnal and two orthogonal codes
CouId you appIy these codes on the receIved sIgnaI and determInate whIch
code has been used to spread the sIgnaI! What couId you concIude about the
orthogonaIIty!
FeceIved sIgnal
Code 1
0ecoded sIgnal
1
C
o
d
e

1
C
o
d
e

2
Code 2
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
FeceIved sIgnal
0ecoded sIgnal
2
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J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon
J.7 WC0|A, Power 0ensIty E ProcessIng CaIn
-PSSI: FeceIved SIgnal Strength ndIcator
Totcl receved wdebcnd power over 5
MHz ncludny thermcl nose
-ISCP (No): nterference SIgnal Code
Power
lnter]erence on the receved syncl
-PSCP (Ec): FeceIved SIgnal Code Power
0nbcsed mecsurement on the receved
syncl on one chcnnelzcton code
- Eb : energy per useful bIt
- PC : ProcessIng CaIn = EbEc (In d8)
Power 6cn c]ter desprecdny. P6= 10 loy (SF) f
P
PSSI or Io
ISCP or No
SF
PC
Eb
PSCP or Ec
At Node receptIon IeveI
Wss
Ws
FSS: ThIs Is the total receIved wIdeband (UTFA carrIer FSS) power over 5|hz
IncludIng thermal noIse. t Is estImatIng the uplInk Interference at the Node 8, and by dIfference wIth
the thermal noIse, the rIse due to traffIc and external Interference.
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0ependIng on the servIce, more or less
errors are allowed. UTFAN computes
the error ratIo and then set the SF
requIred for the servIce.
What are the modIfIcatIons on the
dIagram If:
-The number of users Increases :
-The SF decreases :
SIP: SIgnal nterference FatIo
ISCP
RSCP SF
SIR

J Spread Spectrum |odulatIon


J.7 WC0|A, Power 0ensIty E ProcessIng CaIn [cont.]
f
P
FSS or o
SCP or No
SIP
PC
Eb
FSCP or Ec
At Node receptIon IeveI
Wss
Ws
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4.1 Dnecell reuse
The area Is dIvIded Into cells, but the entIre
bandwIdth Is reused In each cell (frequency
reuse of one)
ntercell Interference
Cell orthogonalIty Is achIeved by codes
The entIre bandwIdth Is used by each user at the
same tIme
ntracell Interference
User orthogonalIty Is achIeved by codes
The raInbows cells mean that the whole bandwIdth (5 |Hz) Is reused In each cell.
n CS| there Is also Intracell Interference when there are 2 (or more) TFXs In the same cell. 8ut It Is a
small problem (as each TFX runs on a dIfferent frequency)
n C0|A Intracell Interference Is an Important problem.
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4 Code 0IvIsIon |ultIple Access
4.2 |ultIple access
All the users transmIt on the same 5 |Hz carrIer at the same tIme and
Interfere wIth each other.
At the receIver the users can be separated by means of (quasI
)orthogonal codes.
TransmItter 2
SpreadIng 1
SpreadIng1
SpreadIng 2
FeceIver
FadIo Channel
TransmItter 1
The receIver aIms at receIvIng TransmItter 1 only.
QuasIorthogonal: It Is not necessary to have prImary colors at the receIver to separate the user. Fed and
orange for example can also be dIstInguIshed.
DrthogonalIty between the codes Is ImpossIble to maIntaIn after transfer over the radIo Interface (multI
path on 0L, UEs not synchronIzed on UL )
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4 Code 0IvIsIon |ultIple Access
4.2 |ultIple access [cont.]
f a user transmIts wIth a very hIgh power, It wIll be ImpossIble for the
receIver to decode the wanted sIgnal (despIte use of quasIorthogonal
codes)
C0hA Is unstabIe by nature and requIres accurate power controI.
TransmItter 2
FeceIver
FadIo Channel
TransmItter 1
The receIver aIms at receIvIng TransmItter 1 only.
SpreadIng 1
SpreadIng1
SpreadIng 2
C0|A Is Instable by nature:
one user may jam a whole cell by transmIttIng wIth too hIgh power
need for accurate and fast power control
too many users In one cell would have the same effect
need for congestIon control
A C0|A resource has 2 dImensIons: the codes and the power. DbvIously the power Is the lImItIng factor ;
the better we can control the power usage, the more capacIty (users) we can allocate.
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4.J SpreadIng: ChannelIzatIon and ScramblIng

ch
c

ch
c

ch
c
scrambling
c
The channeIIzatIon code (or spreadIng code) Is sIgnalspecIfIc: the code
length Is chosen accordIng to the bIt rate of the sIgnal.
The scrambIIng code Is equIpmentspecIfIc.
aIr
Interface
Modulctor
SpreadIng consIsts of two steps:
The channelIzatIon code (also called spreadIng code) transforms every data symbol Into a number
of chIps, thus IncreasIng the bandwIdth of the sIgnal. The narrowband sIgnal Is spread Into a
wIdeband sIgnal wIth a chIp rate of J.84 |chIps/s.
The system must choose the adequate spreadIng factor to match the bIt rate of the
narrowband sIgnal.
The spreadIng factor Is dIrectly lInked wIth the length of the channelIzatIon code.
The scramblIng code does not affect the sIgnal bandwIdth: It Is only a chIpbychIp operatIon.
The scramblIng code Is cellspecIfIc on the downlInk and termInalspecIfIc on the uplInk.
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4.4 ChannelIzatIon Codes (SpreadIng Codes)
The channelIzatIon codes are DVSF (Drthogonal 7arIable SpreadIng Factor)
codes:
- theIr length Is equal to the spreadIng factor of the sIgnal: they can
match varIable bIt rates on a frame-by-frame basIs.
- orthogonalIty enables to separate physIcal channels:
UL: separatIon of physIcal channels from the same termInal
0L: separatIon of physIcal channels to dIfferent users wIthIn one cell
SF = 1
C
ch,1,0
= (1)
C
ch,2,0
= (1,1)
C
ch,2,1
= (1,1)
C
ch,4,0
=(1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,1
= (1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,2
= (1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,J
= (1,1,1,1)
SF = 4 SF = 2 SF = 8
The code tree Is shared by several
users (usually one code tree per
cell)
What Is a channelIzatIon code:
D7SF (Drthogonal 7arIable SpreadIng Factor)
Length: 4256 chIps accordIng to the spreadIng factor
(In downlInk also 512 chIps Is possIble to match very low bIt rate)
Number of codes:
The channelIzatIon codes can be defIned In a code tree, whIch Is shared by several users.
f one code Is used by a physIcal channel, the codes of underlyIng branches may not be used.
The number of codes Is consequently varIable: the mInImum Is 4 codes of length 4, the maxImum
Is 256 codes of length 256.
The channelIzatIon code (and consequently the spreadIng factor) may change on a frameby
frame basIs
How Is Code AllocatIon managed:
The codes wIthIn each cell are managed by the FNC.
No need to coordInate code tree resource between dIfferent base statIons or termInals.
Usually one code tree per cell. f two code trees are used, It Is necessary to use the secondary
scramblIng code.
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4.5 ScramblIng codes
The scramblIng codes provIde separatIon between equIpment:
- UL: separatIon of termInaIs
No need for code plannIng (mIllIons of codes!)
There are 2
24
long and 2
24
short scramblIng codes In uplInk
- 0L: separatIon of ceIIs
Need for code plannIng between cells (but trIvIal task)
There are only long scramblIng codes In downlInk
(512 to lImIt the code IdentIfIcatIon durIng cell search procedure)
The long scramblIng codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length.
Dnly one 0L scramblIng code should be used wIthIn a cell.
Another scramblIng code may be Introduced In one cell If necessary
(example : shortage of channelIzatIon code), but orthogonalIty between
users wIll be degraded.
n fact, there are two types of scramblIng codes:
Long codes:
Cold codes constructed from a posItIon wIse modulo 2 sum of J8400 chIp segments of two bInary
sequences (generated by means of 2 generators polynomIals of degree 25)
used wIth Fake FeceIver : the PFACH Is constructed from the long scramblIng sequences. There
are 8192 PFACH preamble scramblIng codes In total, dIvIded Into 512 groups of 16 each.
Short codes:
Length : 256 chIps
used wIth advanced multIuser detector
lIkely to be used later
Fefer to TechnIcal SpecIfIcatIon JCPP TS 25.21J
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5 Soft Handover
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5 Soft Handover
5.1 ntroductIon
PrIncIpIe: As the UEs are separated by codes, they send and receIve data at the
same tIme and on the same frequency and one frequency Is used In a set of adjacent
cells, the soft handover Is possIble.
A UE Is In case of Soft Handover when It Is lInked to several cells at the same tIme.
So , In downlInk, the UE receIves several tIme the same data and combIne them to
Increase the qualIty. n UplInk, a Node 8 can receIve the same message from several
cells and combInes them to Increase the qualIty.
Soft Handover doesn't exIst In CS|, It Is not possIble because there are
dIfferent frequencIes In a set of adjacent cells.
Interest: As the qualIty of the sIgnal Is Increased after
the receptIon, It Is possIble to use less power. That
allows to save the Interference level. f thIs
Interference level Is too hIgh, It Is not possIble to
decode the data and the call Is drop.
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5 Soft Handover
5.2 ScenarIos: Softer Handover
Iu
Core Network
Iubs
Iubs
lur
Iu
ServIng PNC
ServIng FNC (SFNC1): on UL It collects InformatIon from the 0rIft FNC and from Its own Node8 and
performs selectIon of the sIgnal on a best frame qualIty basIs. Dn 0L It duplIcates
uInformatIon to 0rIft FNC and to Its own Node8 and recombInatIon of the sIgnal Is performed
by the UE. There may be only one ServIng FNC per UE.
0rIft FNC (0FNC2): It performs the routIng of InformatIon from/to the ServIng FNC.
There may be up to 4 0rIft FNC(s) per UE.
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5 Soft Handover
5.J ScenarIos: Soft Handover
Iu
Core Network
Iubs
Iubs
Iur
Iu
ServIng PNC
ServIng FNC (SFNC1): on UL It collects InformatIon from the 0rIft FNC and from Its own Node8 and
performs selectIon of the sIgnal on a best frame qualIty basIs.
Dn 0L It duplIcates uInformatIon to 0rIft FNC and to Its own Node8 and recombInatIon
of the sIgnal Is performed by the UE. There may be only one ServIng FNC per UE.
0rIft FNC (0FNC2): It performs the routIng of InformatIon from/to the ServIng FNC.
There may be up to 4 0rIft FNC(s) per UE.
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5 Soft Handover
5.4 ScenarIos: Soft Handover Inter FNC
Iu
Core Network
Iubs
Iubs
Iu
ServIng PNC 0rIft PNC
Iur
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5 Soft Handover
5.5 ScenarIos: SFNC FelocatIon
Iu
Core Network
Iubs
Iubs
Iu
5erving kNC Drill kNC ServIng PNC
lur
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In 0ownIInk,
- ScramblIng Code
Dne 0L SC per Cell
- ChannelIzatIon Code
Dne 0L CC per radIo lInk to avoId havIng the
same code sequence on 2 radIo lInks
In UpIInk,
- ScramblIng Code
Dne UL SC per UE
- ChannelIzatIon Code
Dne UL CC per servIce (per physIcal
channel).
The UE sends one sIgnal whIch can be
receIved by several cells.
The UE receIves several sIgnals
ConcIusIon:
5 Soft Handover
5.6 Soft Handover E Code |anagement
Iu
Core Network
Iubs
ServIng PNC
CeII A CeII
0L SC ceIIA
0L CC1 user 1
0L SC ceII
0L CC2 user 1
UL SC eq
UL CC user
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Why do we need soft HD:
magIne that a UE penetrates from one cell deeply Into an adjacent cell:
It may cause nearfar effect
hard HD Is not a good solutIon, due to the hysteresIs mechanIsm
8etter spatIal repartItIon of the power, so lower Interference level
AddItIonal resources due to soft HD:
AddItIonal rake receIver In Node8
AddItIonal Fake FIngers In UE
AddItIonal transmIssIon lInks between Node8s and FNCs
Soft HD provIdes 0IversIty (aIso caIIed hacro-0IversIty), but requIres
more network resource.
5 Soft Handover
5.7 Cost E 8enefIt
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Soft Handover executIon:
Soft Handover Is executed by means of the followIng procedures
FadIo LInk AddItIon (F00 softadd);
FadIo LInk Femoval (F00 softdrop);
CombIned FadIo LInk AddItIon and Femoval.
The cell to be added to the actIve set needs to have InformatIon forwarded
by the FNC:
ConnectIon parameters (codIng scheme, layer 2 InformatIon, .)
UE 0 and uplInk scramblIng code,
TImIng InformatIon from UE
The UE needs to get the followIng InformatIon
ChannelIzatIon E scramblIng codes to be used
FelatIve tImIng InformatIon (TImIng offset based on CPCH synchro)
5 Soft Handover
5.7 Cost E 8enefIt [cont.]
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6 Fake FeceIver
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.1 Fake FeceIver prIncIple
n a C0|A system there Is a sIngle carrIer whIch contaIns all user sIgnals.
0ecodIng of all these sIgnals by one receIver Is only a questIon of sIgnal
processIng capacIty.
A Fake receIver Is capable to decode severaI sIgnaIs sImuItaneousIy In
the so called "fIngers" and to combIne them In order to Improve the
qualIty of the sIgnal or to get several servIces at the same tIme.
A Fake receIver Is Implemented In mobIle phones and In base statIons.
A Fake receIver can provIde:
muItI-servIce (vIa handlIng of multIple physIcal channels that are
carryIng the servIces)
soft handover
path dIversIty
"A sIngle carrIer": In fact each operator may use several carrIers of 5|Hz each (2 In Cermany, J In
France)
The rake receIver can only be used wIth sIgnals on the same carrIer.
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.1 Fake FeceIver prIncIple [cont.]
The components of the multIcode sIgnal are demodulated In parallel each
In one "fInger" of the Fake FeceIver.
The outputs of the fIngers:
- can provIde Independent data sIgnals
- can be combIned to provIde a better data sIgnal(s)
0elay 1
Code Sequence 1
Code Sequence 2 or J
Code Sequence 2
0elay 2
0elay J
0ata 2
1st
Fnyer
2nd
Fnyer
Jrd
Fnyer
0ata 1
huItI-code
sIgnaI
0elay Adjustment
Fake fIngers are allocated to the peaks at whIch sIgnIfIcant energy arrIves. Update rate: tens of ms
Each fInger tracks the fastchangIng phase and amplItude values due to fast fadIng and removes them
Fake FeceIver resIdes In both UE and Node8.
The numbers of fIngers for a Fake FeceIver Is ImplementatIon dependant.
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.2 Fake FeceIver and |ultIServIce
As a fIrst approach, we can say:
Dne servIce, one code! (*)
|ultImedIa receIver TransmItter
SpreadIng 1 0espreadIng 1
FadIo Channel
SpreadIng 2
0espreadIng 2
WhIch codes make It possIble to WhIch codes make It possIble to
separate the two sIgnals at the separate the two sIgnals at the
receIver: receIver:
* We wIll see later that It Is also possIble to multIplex several servIces on the same code!
ndeed on a dedIcated physIcal channel (whIch Is IdentIfIed by Its spreadIng code) a user can multIplex
several servIces as long as the total bIt rate of the servIces does not exceed the bIt rate of the physIcal
channel.
See subchapter 4 UTFAN/ PhysIcal Layer (Transport Channel |ultIplexIng)
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.J Fake FeceIver and soft handover
Soft handover Is possIble, because the two mobIle statIons use the same
frequency band. The mobIle phone need only one transmIssIon chaIn to
decode both sImultaneously.
8ase StatIon 2
SpreadIng 1
0espreadIng 1E2
SpreadIng 2
|obIle phone
FadIo Channel
8ase statIon 1
WhIch codes make It possIble to WhIch codes make It possIble to
separate the two sIgnals at the separate the two sIgnals at the
receIver: receIver:
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.4 Fake FeceIver and Path 0IversIty
Natural obstacles (buIldIngs, hIlls.) cause reflectIons, dIffractIons and
scatterIng and consequently multIpath propagatIon.
The delay dIspersIon depends on the envIronment and Is typIcally:
- 1 s (J00 m) In urban areas
- 20 s (6000 m) In hIlly areas
The delay dIspersIon should be compared wIth the chIp duratIon 0,26 s (78 m)
of the C0|A system.
f the delay dIspersIon Is greater than the chIp duratIon, the multIpath
components of the sIgnal can be separated by a Fake FeceIver.
In thIs case, C0hA can take advantage of muItIpath propagatIon.
What Is multIpath propagatIon:
The sIgnal travels from transmItter to receIver over dIfferent paths, due to reflectIons,
dIffractIons or scatterIng. Consequently the same sIgnal arrIves at the receIver wIth a lIttle
delay.
The chIp rate can be consIdered as the resolutIon of the C0|A system. t Is lInked wIth the 5 |Hz
carrIer.
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6 Fake FeceIver
6.4 Fake FeceIver and Path 0IversIty [cont.]
0IspersIon ChIp duratIon
The Fake FeceIver can provIde path dIversIty to Improve the qualIty of the sIgnal.
FeceIver TransmItter
SpreadIng
0Irect path
Feflected path
FeceIver TransmItter
SpreadIng 0espreadIng
0Irect path
Feflected path
0IspersIon ChIp duratIon
The Fake FeceIver cannot provIde path dIversIty.
WhIch codes make It WhIch codes make It
possIble to separate the two possIble to separate the two
sIgnals at the receIver: sIgnals at the receIver:
0espreadIng
|ultIpath propagatIon usually reduces the qualIty of the sIgnal.
8ut In most cases a Fake FeceIver can take advantage of multIpath to Improve the qualIty of the sIgnal.
ndeed the dIspersIon Is often greater than the chIp duratIon.
Note: wIth S95 (cdmaDne), the carrIer bandwIdth Is about 1 |Hz and the chIp duratIon Is consequently
longer: 1 s (J00 m). |ultIpath components can not be separated In urban areas wIth S95.
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7 Power Control
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SIP
7 Power Control
7.1 Why :
Iub
ServIng PNC
haIn ProbIem : f the Interference level Is to hIgh, It Is not possIble to decode the sIgnal.
f
P
SCP or No
PC
Eb
FSCP or Ec
At Node receptIon IeveI
SIP
In UTPAlF00, the power controI Is a key functIonaIIty : the users usIng
sImultaneously the same frequency band Interfere each other.
The transmIt power must be dynamIcaIIy adapted In order to
Enable to reach the qualIty of servIce
Compensate fadIng occurrences
AvoId InterferIng other users (and thus decreasIng the system capacIty)
Two mcn power control clyorthms can be dIstInguIshed:
Dpenloop power control (UL only)
Closed loop power control (UL/0L)
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PhysIcaI channeIs:
- Not assocIated wIth transport channels
(PhysIcal sIgnalIng)
- AssocIated wIth transport channels
- 0edIcated channels
- Common channels
7 Power Control
7.2 0Ifferent kInds of Power Control
Channel power fIxed and set by the
operator
Channel power fIxed and set by the
operator
Dpen Loop Power Control
Closed E Dpen Loop power control
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7 Power Control
7.J Dpen Loop Power Control
The Dpen Loop Power Control Is used to set the InItIal transmIt power when:
- The UE requests a FFC ConnectIon,
- The UE sends the fIrst dedIcated radIo frame,
- The Node 8 sends the fIrst dedIcated radIo frame.
8ased on CPCH measurements
8ased on UE measurement reports
CPCH
- nItIal Access
-FIrst dedIcated FadIo Frame
|easurement reports
-FIrst dedIcated FadIo Frame
How Is Power Control performed :
Dpen loop power control:
It consIsts for the mobIle statIon of makIng a rough estImate of path loss by means of a
0L beacon sIgnal and addIng the Interference level of the Node8 and a constant value.
t's far too Inaccurate and only used to provIde a coarse InItIal power settIng of the mobIle
statIon at the begInnIng of a connectIon
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Iub
PNC
Duter Closed Loop
nner Closed Loop
- SF EstImatIon
- ComparIson
between SIP
est
and
SIP
target
-CeneratIon of a TCP
command: Increase
or decrease
Dn each TIme slot !
(1500 Hz)
...
"Power down"
"Power up"
"Power down"
"Power ..."
***
***
SIP target
Error
measurements
The Node- controls the power of the UE (and vIce versa) by performIng a SF estImatIon (Inner Ioop) and
by generatIng TPC command for each tIme slot of the radIo frame.
The PNC controls parameters of the SF estImatIon (outer loop) and set the InItIal SIP target, defIned by
the operator and modIfy It accordIng to the error measurement reports.
Closed Loop Power Control
7 Power Control
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: PrIncIple
***
***
***
***
nner Loop (Fast Loop Power Control)
In UL, the servIng cells should estImate sIgnaltoInterference ratIo SIP
est
of the receved uplnk 0PCH. The servIng cells should then generate TPC commcnds
and transmIt the commands once per slot accordIng to the followIng rule: If SF
est
SF
target
then the TPC command to transmIt Is 0 , whIle If SF
est
SF
target
then the TPC
command to transmIt Is 1.
Upon receptIon of one or more TPC commands In a slot, the UE shall derIve a sIngle
TPC command, TPC_cmd, for each slot, combInIng multIple TPC commands If more
than one Is receIved In a slot. TPC_cmd values = +1(power up), 1 (power down), 0
The step sIze 0
TPC
Is under the control of the UTFAN (value = 1 d8 or 2 d8)
UE shall adjust the transmIt power of the uplInk 0PCCH wIth a step of 0
0PCCH
(In d8)
whIch Is gIven by 0
0PCCH
= 0
TPC
TPC_cmd.
The command rate of 1500Hz Is faster than any sIgnIfIcant change of path loss.
Duter Loop
The FNC checks the quaIIty of the sIgnal usIng for example a CFCbased approach
(CyclIc Fedundancy Check) and uses thIs result to adjust SF target for the Inner loop.
The bIg Issue Is to meet constantly the requIred qualIty: no worse and also no better,
because It would be a waste of capacIty.
The requIred qualIty may change wIth the multIpath profIle (related to the envIronment)
and wIth the UE speed.
The outer loop management Is handled by the CFNC because a soft HD may be performed.
Frequency of the outer loop: 10100 Hz typIcally
Note: In CS| only slow power control Is employed (about 2 Hz)
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Iub
AssumIng a user usIng a servIce.
t Is InItIal SF target Is Jd8.
The error ratIo requIred Is 0.01 .
Several error ratIo reports are between 0.002
and 0.007
How do the SIP target evoIve !
What Is the Impact on the user or on the
system If the estImated SIP Is too hIgh ! Too
smaII !
7 Power Control
7.4 Closed Loop Power Control: Power 0ensIty
PNC
...
"Power up"
"Power ..."
SIP target
Error
measurements
SCP or No
f
P
SIP
est
Eb
FSCP or Ec
At Node receptIon IeveI
SIP
Target
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What Is the behavIor of the UE In UL In case of
soft handover :
- The UE takes In to account all the command
accordIng to the JCPP
P(t)=P(t1) + F(TPC1(t) + TPC2(t))
The functIon F(TPC(t)) Is Implemented by the UE
manufacturer.
F(TPC(t))=mIn(TPC1(t), ., TPCI(t))
WIth I= number of Involved Node 8
7 Power Control
7.5 UL Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover
Iub
Power up !!!
TPC=1
Power down !!!
TPC=1
:::
1
2
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Iub
What Is the behavIour of the Node 8 Involed
In the call In 0L In case of soft handover :
- The UE sends the same command for all
the Node 8 Involved.
Node 8s must transmIt data wIth the same
power for a user
- 0ue to receptIon errors theIr power can
shIft themselves
A mechanIsm, the 0L Power aIancIng,
allows to readjust the transmIssIon power of
the Node 8.
The SFNC selects the best radIo lInk, and
readjust, step by step, the transmIssIon
power.
P(t) = P(t1) + Ptpc(t) + Pbal(t)
Power up !!!
TPC=1
Power
up
Power
up
7 Power Control
7.5 0L Closed Loop PC, In case of Soft Handover
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8 CapacIty, Coverage E QualIty
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8 Coverage, CapacIty E QualIty
8.1 LInks between Coverage, CapacIty and QualIty
Example: ncrease the quaIIty In UL
How to do
- 0ecrease the error ratIo at the Node 8 level
- So Increase the SF at the Node 8 level
- So the UEs use more power
lmpccts !
- ncrease the UL nterference level
- So decrease of the cell sIze
- And decrease the capacIty of the cell.
kNC
Node B
lub
l
P
5lk
5lk
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8 Coverage, CapacIty E QualIty
8.2 mprovement Ways
-AhP speech Codec
It enables to swItch to a lower bIt rate If the mobIle Is movIng out of the
cell coverage area: It Is a tradeoff between qualIty and coverage.
-huItIpath dIversIty
It consIsts of combInIng the dIfferent paths of a sIgnal (due to reflectIons,
dIffractIons or scatterIng) by usIng a Fake FeceIver.
|ultIpath dIversIty Is very effIcIent wIth WC0|A.
-Soft(er) handover
the transmIssIon from the mobIle Is receIved by two or more base statIons.
-PeceIve antenna dIversIty
the base statIon collects the sIgnal on two uncorrelated branches. t can be
obtaIned by space or polarIzatIon dIversIty.
-ase statIons aIgorIthms
e.g. accuracy of SF estImatIon In power control process
The A|F (AdaptIve |ultIrate) speech codec:
offers 8 A|F modes between 4,75 kbps and 12,2 kbps
Is capable of swItchIng Its bIt rate every 20 ms upon command of the FNC
Is located In the UE and In the transcoder (whIch Is located In the CN)
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8 Coverage, CapacIty E QualIty
8.J TypIcal 7alues
uaIIty: The qualIty Is measured wIth the 8lock Error FatIo (8LEF). Here some example accordIng
dIfferent servIces.
Coverage:
- 0ense Urban Cell: about J00 meters
- SubUrban Cell: about 1 km
- Fural Cell: J km
CapacIty:
The maIn lImItatIon Is the Interference level due to the WC0|A technology.
8ut the system Is also lImIted by capacIty processIng of the Node 8 and the FNC, by the codes, and by
the transmIssIon capacIty.
0.1 0.01 0.01
0CCH
0.01
PSJ84
0.01
PS128
0.01
PS64
0.01 0.001
CS64
0.001
A|F
Target
8LEF
The capacIty depends also on:
the radIo envIronment (rural, suburban, Indoor)
the termInal speeds
the dIstrIbutIon of the termInals
the load of the cell: tradeoff capacIty/coverage (breathIng cells)
0ue to all these parameters, It Is harder than In CS| to gIve a typIcal value of the capacIty of a cell.
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EvaluatIon
Thank you for answerIng
the objectIves sheet
DbjectIve: To be able to defIne a FadIo
Fesource In JC
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End of |odule