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Buried 3-D Dielectric Objects of Large Size

Tie Jun Cui, Member, IEEE, and Weng Cho Chew, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract— A fast algorithm for electromagnetic scattering by in EM scattering and radiation in a homogeneous space as well

buried three dimensional (3-D) dielectric objects of large size as in microstrip antennas [18]–[34].

is presented by using the conjugate gradient (CG) method and In comparison to the objects in a homogeneous space,

fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this algorithm, the Galerkin

method is utilized to discretize the electric field integral equations, the main difference arising in the buried object problem is

where rooftop functions are chosen as both basis and testing that the integral equations contain a reflected field term from

functions. Different from the 3-D objects in homogeneous space, the ground, which is expressed by the Sommerfeld integrals

the resulting matrix equation for the buried objects contains both (besides the primary field term in homogeneous space). In this

cyclic convolution and correlation terms, either of which can paper, the Galerkin method is utilized to discretize the electric-

be solved rapidly by the CG-FFT method. The near-scattered

field on the observation plane in the upper space has been field integral equations (EFIE), in which rooftop functions are

expressed by two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Fourier transforms used as both basis and testing functions. After discretization,

(DFT’s), which also can be rapidly computed. Because of the the primary field term yields a cyclic convolution similar

use of FFT’s to handle the Toeplitz matrix, the Sommerfeld to that in a homogeneous space [24], while the reflected

integrals’ evaluation which is time consuming yet essential for field term yields a cyclic correlation. Both of these can be

the buried object problem, has been reduced to a minimum. The

memory required in this algorithm is of order N (the number of evaluated by FFT. Meanwhile, the near-scattered field on an

N N observation plane in the upper space, determined by the other

N

unknowns), and the computational complexity is of order iter

N N

log , in which iter is the iteration number, and iter N is type of Sommerfeld integrals, also can be expressed by two-

usually true for a large problem. dimensional (2-D) DFT forms.

Index Terms— Buried objects, CG-FFT, fast algorithm, Som- Due to the use of FFT to handle the cyclic convolutions

merfeld integrals. and correlation, the Sommerfeld integrals’ evaluation has been

reduced to a minimum. In the meantime, the memory required

in this algorithm is only of order , and the computational

I. INTRODUCTION

complexity is of order . Therefore, it is possible

conducting objects buried in a half space or layered media

is very important in modeling geophysical prospection, remote

to solve large buried object problems on a small computer

by using this algorithm. Several results are presented, some

of which have been compared to those from the method of

sensing, and wave propagation. Hence, it has been investigated moments (MoM). The good agreement shows the validity of

intensively in the past few decades using various methods this algorithm.

[1]–[17]. However, most of these methods are only efficient

for small objects. When the buried objects become large,

the number of Sommerfeld integrals to be evaluated and the II. EFIE AND SCATTERED ELECTRIC FIELD

memory requirement for the resulting matrix increase rapidly, Consider a 3-D dielectric object of arbitrary shape that is

and the matrix inversion becomes very CPU intensive, making buried in the lower region of a half space and is characterized

it impossible to solve using a small computer. by relative permittivities and , as shown in Fig. 1. Both

In this paper, a fast algorithm for EM scattering by buried and can be complex to represent the lossy case, but usually

three-dimensional (3-D) large dielectric objects of arbitrary the upper region is free space . The arbitrarily shaped

shape is presented using the CG-FFT method. The CG-FFT dielectric object with complex permittivity is assumed

method is one of the most efficient techniques to analyze large- to be inscribed in a cuboid that is parallel

scale problems, and it has been used widely and investigated to the interface of the half space. The bottom of the cuboid

is separated from the interface by . In this paper, the time

dependence of is assumed and suppressed.

Manuscript received August 7, 1998; revised February 16, 1999. This

work was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DEFG07- Under the Cartesian coordinate system shown in Fig. 1, the

97ER 14835, by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under MURI dyadic Green’s functions in Region and Region can be

Grant F49620-96-1-0025, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant formulated as follows when the source is located in the lower

N00014-95-1-0872, and by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF

ECS93-02145. region [15], [16]:

The authors are with the Center for Computational Electromagnetics,

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois,

Urbana, IL 61801-2991 USA (e-mail: tcui@sunchew.ece.uiuc.edu). (1)

Publisher Item Identifier S 0196-2892(99)06282-8.

2598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

by buried dielectric objects can be formulated from the dyadic

Green’s functions

(7)

(8)

inside the dielectric object.

Substituting (1)–(3) for (7) and (8) and using Green’s

theorem, we have

(2)

(3)

transmitted fields, respectively, and

(4)

(10)

(5) electric field inside the dielectric object by

and

fields inside the dielectric object , one easily

obtains the electric field integral equations of the induced

current density inside the buried dielectric object

(6)

are Sommerfeld integrals. Here, , and ,

, , and are reflection and transmission coeffi-

cients of TE wave and TM wave from Region to Region ,

respectively. The mixed reflection coefficient is defined

as

(11)

in which ; ;

; ; ; ;

; ; ; ;

. (12)

CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2599

TABLE I

TOTAL NUMBER OF SOMMERFELD INTEGRALS IN VARIOUS METHODS

where

(13)

(14)

(15)

Fig. 3. Comparison of copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of a

and homogeneous cuboid, using CG-FFT and plain MoM.

and

else

III. DISCRETIZATION OF THE EFIE are triangle and pulse functions. Using the basis functions, the

In this section, we use the MoM to discretize the above electric currents can be expressed as

integral equations. As shown in Fig. 2, we divide the bounded

box into cuboidal

cells of volume , where

(16)

Notice that the discrete functions should be zero

and is the division number in the -direction. Here and

when the basis function is located outside the actual dielectric

after, we let To simplify the expressions in

object. From (16), one easily obtains the derivatives of

this paper, we define the following numbers:

and

.

From (11) and (12), both the volumetric currents and (17)

their derivatives are included in the EFIE’s. To ensure which consists of two adjacent 3-D pulses with opposite

the existence of the derivatives, the basis function of must amplitude, representing two opposite electric charges. Here,

be continuous in the -direction. A simple but efficient basis the 3-D pulse function is defined as

function is a triangle in -direction and pulses in two other

directions. For example, the basis function for is written as

is the same as that of and is equal to .

in which In this paper, the Galerkin method is used. Because three

basis functions are applied for different components of the

electric current, the testing functions also should be different

else (18)

2600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

and act on the three components of the EFIE. Similarly, the where and are related to the Green’s func-

derivatives of the testing functions are also two adjacent 3-D tions

pulses

(19)

(25)

can obtain the discrete forms of (11) and (12) by applying

their interactions with the corresponding testing functions

(26)

(20) in which . Clearly, the inner products in

in which and are operator expressions of the second (20) are all 3-D summations of the product of Green’s func-

to fifth terms in (11) and (12), and tions and discrete electric currents, which are time consuming.

(21) IV. CYCLIC CONVOLUTION AND CORRELATION

From the theory of Fourier transform and discrete Fourier

transform (DFT) [35], the cyclic convolution of discrete sig-

nals and is defined as

(27)

(22)

which can be fast calculated using FFT

(28)

in which and are the DFT of and .

Similarly, from the continuous correlation, we can define a

cyclic correlation of discrete signals and

(23) (29)

(30)

(24) Note that in (27)–(30), both the discrete signals and their DFT

in which when , respectively, and have a cyclic property

In the inner products (22) and (23), , rapidly all the terms in the discrete EFIE’s by FFT because the

when and , summations in primary field parts resemble a 3-D cyclic con-

. Here, the superscript indicates the summation of volution, and the summations in reflected-field parts resemble a

primary field part and reflected field part cyclic convolution in – plane and correlation in direction.

However, the computational domain of these discrete signals

must be extended to from

since

for

CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2601

which does not satisfy the cyclic properties. Hence, we define Here, , , and are given by

new discrete Green’s functions and current distributions in the

extended domain

(31) has been expressed by the DFT and inverse DFT. Combined

with the CG method, this equation can be solved quickly.

V. CG METHOD

The CG algorithm is an efficient method for solving linear

else system equations [18], [19]. In this algorithm, an adjoint

(32) operation defined by

in which

, and is required. Hence, we must evaluate the adjoint operations

in (20) to use the CG algorithm. After many derivations, one

else, obtains the adjoint operator of (33), which is expressed as

else,

else.

With the new definitions, the terms in (20) can be computed

(34)

rapidly and exactly by using FFT. Substituting all the terms

into (20), we obtain

where

(33)

where

which is usually set to zero, the CG algorithm for (33) is

described as follows:

(35)

and , respectively, and (36)

(37)

2602 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

in which ; ; in which

; . For

(47)

where when , respectively.

(39) Similar to (31), here we extend the computational domain

of the transmitted Green’s functions. Then (45) and (46)

can be written as 2-D cyclic convolutions. According to the

convolution theorem, we have

(40)

(41)

(48)

Here, and have a similar meaning to that of .

The error of this algorithm can be controlled by

(49)

tolerance

in which the norm is defined as . From (48) and (49), we see clearly that all the electric fields

in the computational domain can

be computed rapidly by using the 2-D FFT. This scheme is

VI. FAST COMPUTATION OF NEAR SCATTERED FIELD

valid for both near field and far field.

From (10), the components of the scattered electric field in

the upper space can be written as VII. EFFICIENT EVALUATION OF SOMMERFELD INTEGRALS

From the above analysis, the integrals ,

, and should be

evaluated in the CG-FFT algorithm and near field computation.

(43) However, it is very time consuming to evaluate these integrals

exactly. Considering the fact that the moment of rooftop

(44) function is the same as that of the pulse function, we can

in which and obtain

(50)

Usually, we compute the scattered electric field on a plane else

of constant in Region . Let the computational domain be

(52)

(45) in which

(46) Considering the reflection and transmission coefficients of half

CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2603

(a) (b)

Fig. 4. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the inhomogeneous cuboid by CG-FFT and plain MoM. (b) Copolar scattered electric

fields on the observation plane.

(a) (b)

Fig. 5. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the inhomogeneous cuboid by CG-FFT and plain MoM. (b) Current distribution on the

whole bottom slice.

further

(58)

(53)

(54) (59)

in which is the scalar Green’s function in homogeneous

(55)

space shown in (4), ,

and

(60)

(56)

(61)

(57)

(62)

2604 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axis of the dielectric cube. (b) Current distribution on the horizontal center slice.

(a) (b)

Fig. 7. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axes of the weak dielectric cube. (b) Current distribution on the horizontal center slice.

and then obtain by linear interpolation.

(63) This can improve the efficiency greatly.

For example, we consider a dielectric

where cube. If and sample points

per wavelength are used, the total numbers of Sommerfeld

integrals to be computed in various methods are listed in

Table I.

The simplified Sommerfeld integrals (60)–(63) can be evalu-

ated efficiently because the integrands have simple forms and

benign behavior. VIII. NUMERICAL RESULTS

On the other hand, the number of the Sommerfeld integrals In the following numerical results, the upper region is

to be computed in this algorithm also can be reduced. As assumed to be free space and the lower region is

we know, one has to calculate the Sommerfeld integrals assumed to be dry sand where . A plane wave with

times to fill in the dense matrix polarization and normalized electric field normally is incident

in the plain MoM. In the CG-FFT algorithm, however, only from the free space. The scattered fields are measured on the

times are required. plane of in the free space. For reason of space, only

Furthermore, from the definition of these integrals, they are the amplitudes of current distributions and scattered fields are

only the functions of and . Thus, we evaluate just the shown in this paper.

CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2605

(a) (b)

Fig. 8. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axes of the dielectric sphere. (b) Current distibution on the horizontal center slice.

(a) (b)

Fig. 9. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the large-sized dielectric cuboid. (b) Copolar scattered electric fields on the observation plane.

To test the validity of the fast algorithm, we consider a small integrals. This leads to different integral equations [16]. Fig. 4

dielectric cuboid gives the comparison of copolar electric currents on the bottom

buried at , which has been divided slice and the scattered electric fields on the observation plane

into cells. Fig. 3 shows the comparison by using the CG-FFT and the MoM. Clearly, the two results

of copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the cuboid, fit very well, showing the validity of the fast algorithm.

using the CG-FFT and plain MoM. In the plain MoM results, When the buried dielectric cuboid is inhomogeneous (

Galerkin’s method has been used, which leads to the same when and when ), the

discrete integral equation as (20). This is solved by matrix copolar electric currents on the bottom slice computed by CG-

inversion. From Fig. 3, we can see that the results from CG- FFT and MoM are shown in Fig. 5(a). Again, the good agree-

FFT and plain MoM are nearly the same. This is because the ment of the two results shows the robustness of the algorithm.

cyclic convolution, correlation, and FFT are exact. Fig. 5(b) shows the current distribution on the whole slice.

The above example only shows the correctness of the FFT It is interesting to compare the CPU time used in the

and CG procedures, since the two methods solve the same CG-FFT and MoM. Despite the difference in evaluating the

matrix equation. To test the fast algorithm further, we consider Sommerfeld integrals, it takes 72.47 s to solve the matrix

the other MoM results, in which pulse and delta functions equation in MoM, while the CPU time is only 0.059 s/iteration

have been chosen as the basis and testing functions, and for the CG-FFT. After 15 iterations, the error reaches

the differential operations have been put to the Sommerfeld 0.000 97.

2606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

(a)

(b)

Fig. 10. (a) Current distribution on the bottom slice. (b) Scattered-field distribution on the observation plane.

In the next example, we consider a buried dielectric cube convergence is much faster. For both and

with grids, the error becomes 0.000 005 after three

and . When the cube is partitioned by using iterations.

and grids, part of the numerical results If the dielectric cube in Fig. 6 is replaced by a dielectric

from the CG-FFT are shown in Fig. 6, in which Fig. 6(a) sphere with diameter , the same partitioning

depicts the copolar electric currents on the three central axes is needed. Corresponding to above examples, the numerical

of the cube, and Fig. 6(b) displays the current distributions on results for the sphere are shown in Fig. 8.

the horizontal central slice. In this example, the CPU time is Again, for the grids, the CPU time is 1.12

1.12 s for grids. After 47 iterations, the error s/iteration. But after 35 iterations, the error reaches 0.000 90.

is 0.000 95. For grids, the CPU time is 11.63 For the grids, the CPU time is 11.63 s/iteration.

s/iteration. After 49 iterations, the error is 0.000 92. After 35 iterations, the error becomes 0.000 83.

To investigate the relation of the convergence rate to the Finally, we consider a large dielectric cuboid

dielectric properties, we consider the same cube with low , buried at

dielectric contrast . The numerical results . When the cuboid is partitioned by grids,

from the CG-FFT are illustated in Fig. 7, in which the CPU the CG-FFT results are illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 9

time is the same as that in Fig. 6 per iteration, while the shows the copolar electric currents on the bottom slice and

CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2607

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