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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO.

5, SEPTEMBER 1999 2597

Fast Algorithm for Electromagnetic Scattering by


Buried 3-D Dielectric Objects of Large Size
Tie Jun Cui, Member, IEEE, and Weng Cho Chew, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract— A fast algorithm for electromagnetic scattering by in EM scattering and radiation in a homogeneous space as well
buried three dimensional (3-D) dielectric objects of large size as in microstrip antennas [18]–[34].
is presented by using the conjugate gradient (CG) method and In comparison to the objects in a homogeneous space,
fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this algorithm, the Galerkin
method is utilized to discretize the electric field integral equations, the main difference arising in the buried object problem is
where rooftop functions are chosen as both basis and testing that the integral equations contain a reflected field term from
functions. Different from the 3-D objects in homogeneous space, the ground, which is expressed by the Sommerfeld integrals
the resulting matrix equation for the buried objects contains both (besides the primary field term in homogeneous space). In this
cyclic convolution and correlation terms, either of which can paper, the Galerkin method is utilized to discretize the electric-
be solved rapidly by the CG-FFT method. The near-scattered
field on the observation plane in the upper space has been field integral equations (EFIE), in which rooftop functions are
expressed by two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Fourier transforms used as both basis and testing functions. After discretization,
(DFT’s), which also can be rapidly computed. Because of the the primary field term yields a cyclic convolution similar
use of FFT’s to handle the Toeplitz matrix, the Sommerfeld to that in a homogeneous space [24], while the reflected
integrals’ evaluation which is time consuming yet essential for field term yields a cyclic correlation. Both of these can be
the buried object problem, has been reduced to a minimum. The
memory required in this algorithm is of order N (the number of evaluated by FFT. Meanwhile, the near-scattered field on an
N N observation plane in the upper space, determined by the other
N
unknowns), and the computational complexity is of order iter
N N
log , in which iter is the iteration number, and iter N is type of Sommerfeld integrals, also can be expressed by two-
usually true for a large problem. dimensional (2-D) DFT forms.
Index Terms— Buried objects, CG-FFT, fast algorithm, Som- Due to the use of FFT to handle the cyclic convolutions
merfeld integrals. and correlation, the Sommerfeld integrals’ evaluation has been
reduced to a minimum. In the meantime, the memory required
in this algorithm is only of order , and the computational
I. INTRODUCTION
complexity is of order . Therefore, it is possible

E LECTROMAGNETIC (EM) scattering by dielectric and


conducting objects buried in a half space or layered media
is very important in modeling geophysical prospection, remote
to solve large buried object problems on a small computer
by using this algorithm. Several results are presented, some
of which have been compared to those from the method of
sensing, and wave propagation. Hence, it has been investigated moments (MoM). The good agreement shows the validity of
intensively in the past few decades using various methods this algorithm.
[1]–[17]. However, most of these methods are only efficient
for small objects. When the buried objects become large,
the number of Sommerfeld integrals to be evaluated and the II. EFIE AND SCATTERED ELECTRIC FIELD
memory requirement for the resulting matrix increase rapidly, Consider a 3-D dielectric object of arbitrary shape that is
and the matrix inversion becomes very CPU intensive, making buried in the lower region of a half space and is characterized
it impossible to solve using a small computer. by relative permittivities and , as shown in Fig. 1. Both
In this paper, a fast algorithm for EM scattering by buried and can be complex to represent the lossy case, but usually
three-dimensional (3-D) large dielectric objects of arbitrary the upper region is free space . The arbitrarily shaped
shape is presented using the CG-FFT method. The CG-FFT dielectric object with complex permittivity is assumed
method is one of the most efficient techniques to analyze large- to be inscribed in a cuboid that is parallel
scale problems, and it has been used widely and investigated to the interface of the half space. The bottom of the cuboid
is separated from the interface by . In this paper, the time
dependence of is assumed and suppressed.
Manuscript received August 7, 1998; revised February 16, 1999. This
work was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DEFG07- Under the Cartesian coordinate system shown in Fig. 1, the
97ER 14835, by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under MURI dyadic Green’s functions in Region and Region can be
Grant F49620-96-1-0025, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant formulated as follows when the source is located in the lower
N00014-95-1-0872, and by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF
ECS93-02145. region [15], [16]:
The authors are with the Center for Computational Electromagnetics,
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois,
Urbana, IL 61801-2991 USA (e-mail: tcui@sunchew.ece.uiuc.edu). (1)
Publisher Item Identifier S 0196-2892(99)06282-8.

0196–2892/99$10.00  1999 IEEE


2598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

Hence, the scattered electric fields in lower and upper spaces


by buried dielectric objects can be formulated from the dyadic
Green’s functions

(7)

(8)

where is the induced electric current density


inside the dielectric object.
Substituting (1)–(3) for (7) and (8) and using Green’s
theorem, we have

Fig. 1. Three-dimensional dielectric object buried in a half space.

(2)

(3)

in which , , and represent the primary, reflected, and (9)


transmitted fields, respectively, and

(4)

is the scalar Green’s function in a homogeneous space

(10)

in which the induced electric current is related to the total


(5) electric field inside the dielectric object by
and

Considering the relationship of incident, scattered, and total


fields inside the dielectric object , one easily
obtains the electric field integral equations of the induced
current density inside the buried dielectric object
(6)
are Sommerfeld integrals. Here, , and ,
, , and are reflection and transmission coeffi-
cients of TE wave and TM wave from Region to Region ,
respectively. The mixed reflection coefficient is defined
as

(11)

in which ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
. (12)
CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2599

TABLE I
TOTAL NUMBER OF SOMMERFELD INTEGRALS IN VARIOUS METHODS

Fig. 2. Dielectric object is inscribed in a cuboid and the partition.

where

(13)
(14)

(15)
Fig. 3. Comparison of copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of a
and homogeneous cuboid, using CG-FFT and plain MoM.

and

else
III. DISCRETIZATION OF THE EFIE are triangle and pulse functions. Using the basis functions, the
In this section, we use the MoM to discretize the above electric currents can be expressed as
integral equations. As shown in Fig. 2, we divide the bounded
box into cuboidal
cells of volume , where
(16)
Notice that the discrete functions should be zero
and is the division number in the -direction. Here and
when the basis function is located outside the actual dielectric
after, we let To simplify the expressions in
object. From (16), one easily obtains the derivatives of
this paper, we define the following numbers:

and
.
From (11) and (12), both the volumetric currents and (17)
their derivatives are included in the EFIE’s. To ensure which consists of two adjacent 3-D pulses with opposite
the existence of the derivatives, the basis function of must amplitude, representing two opposite electric charges. Here,
be continuous in the -direction. A simple but efficient basis the 3-D pulse function is defined as
function is a triangle in -direction and pulses in two other
directions. For example, the basis function for is written as

It can be shown that the moments of the basis functions


is the same as that of and is equal to .
in which In this paper, the Galerkin method is used. Because three
basis functions are applied for different components of the
electric current, the testing functions also should be different
else (18)
2600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

and act on the three components of the EFIE. Similarly, the where and are related to the Green’s func-
derivatives of the testing functions are also two adjacent 3-D tions
pulses

(19)

Using the definition of inner product of functions and


(25)

(in which hereafter represents the complex conjugate), we


can obtain the discrete forms of (11) and (12) by applying
their interactions with the corresponding testing functions

(26)
(20) in which . Clearly, the inner products in
in which and are operator expressions of the second (20) are all 3-D summations of the product of Green’s func-
to fifth terms in (11) and (12), and tions and discrete electric currents, which are time consuming.
(21) IV. CYCLIC CONVOLUTION AND CORRELATION
From the theory of Fourier transform and discrete Fourier
transform (DFT) [35], the cyclic convolution of discrete sig-
nals and is defined as

(27)
(22)
which can be fast calculated using FFT
(28)
in which and are the DFT of and .
Similarly, from the continuous correlation, we can define a
cyclic correlation of discrete signals and

(23) (29)

which can be easily shown to satisfy


(30)
(24) Note that in (27)–(30), both the discrete signals and their DFT
in which when , respectively, and have a cyclic property

Using the above definition and property, we can calculate


In the inner products (22) and (23), , rapidly all the terms in the discrete EFIE’s by FFT because the
when and , summations in primary field parts resemble a 3-D cyclic con-
. Here, the superscript indicates the summation of volution, and the summations in reflected-field parts resemble a
primary field part and reflected field part cyclic convolution in – plane and correlation in direction.
However, the computational domain of these discrete signals
must be extended to from
since

for
CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2601

which does not satisfy the cyclic properties. Hence, we define Here, , , and are given by
new discrete Green’s functions and current distributions in the
extended domain

From (33), we notice that the discrete integral equation (20)


(31) has been expressed by the DFT and inverse DFT. Combined
with the CG method, this equation can be solved quickly.

V. CG METHOD
The CG algorithm is an efficient method for solving linear
else system equations [18], [19]. In this algorithm, an adjoint
(32) operation defined by

in which
, and is required. Hence, we must evaluate the adjoint operations
in (20) to use the CG algorithm. After many derivations, one
else, obtains the adjoint operator of (33), which is expressed as

else,

else.
With the new definitions, the terms in (20) can be computed
(34)
rapidly and exactly by using FFT. Substituting all the terms
into (20), we obtain
where

(33)

where

For a given initial guess of the current distribution ,


which is usually set to zero, the CG algorithm for (33) is
described as follows:

(35)

in which and are the DFT’s of


and , respectively, and (36)

(37)
2602 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

in which ; ; in which
; . For

(47)
where when , respectively.
(39) Similar to (31), here we extend the computational domain
of the transmitted Green’s functions. Then (45) and (46)
can be written as 2-D cyclic convolutions. According to the
convolution theorem, we have

(40)

(41)
(48)
Here, and have a similar meaning to that of .
The error of this algorithm can be controlled by

(49)
tolerance

(42) where is the 2-D DFT of .


in which the norm is defined as . From (48) and (49), we see clearly that all the electric fields
in the computational domain can
be computed rapidly by using the 2-D FFT. This scheme is
VI. FAST COMPUTATION OF NEAR SCATTERED FIELD
valid for both near field and far field.
From (10), the components of the scattered electric field in
the upper space can be written as VII. EFFICIENT EVALUATION OF SOMMERFELD INTEGRALS
From the above analysis, the integrals ,
, and should be
evaluated in the CG-FFT algorithm and near field computation.
(43) However, it is very time consuming to evaluate these integrals
exactly. Considering the fact that the moment of rooftop
(44) function is the same as that of the pulse function, we can
in which and obtain

(50)
Usually, we compute the scattered electric field on a plane else
of constant in Region . Let the computational domain be

Then, by substituting (16) into (43) and (44), we obtain (51)

(52)

(45) in which

Now we evaluate the Sommerfeld integrals in (51) and (52).


(46) Considering the reflection and transmission coefficients of half
CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2603

(a) (b)
Fig. 4. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the inhomogeneous cuboid by CG-FFT and plain MoM. (b) Copolar scattered electric
fields on the observation plane.

(a) (b)
Fig. 5. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the inhomogeneous cuboid by CG-FFT and plain MoM. (b) Current distribution on the
whole bottom slice.

space [16], [33], these Sommerfeld integrals can be simplified


further
(58)
(53)
(54) (59)
in which is the scalar Green’s function in homogeneous
(55)
space shown in (4), ,
and

(60)
(56)

(61)

(57)
(62)
2604 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

(a) (b)
Fig. 6. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axis of the dielectric cube. (b) Current distribution on the horizontal center slice.

(a) (b)
Fig. 7. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axes of the weak dielectric cube. (b) Current distribution on the horizontal center slice.

Sommerfeld integrals in a 2-D region


and then obtain by linear interpolation.
(63) This can improve the efficiency greatly.
For example, we consider a dielectric
where cube. If and sample points
per wavelength are used, the total numbers of Sommerfeld
integrals to be computed in various methods are listed in
Table I.
The simplified Sommerfeld integrals (60)–(63) can be evalu-
ated efficiently because the integrands have simple forms and
benign behavior. VIII. NUMERICAL RESULTS
On the other hand, the number of the Sommerfeld integrals In the following numerical results, the upper region is
to be computed in this algorithm also can be reduced. As assumed to be free space and the lower region is
we know, one has to calculate the Sommerfeld integrals assumed to be dry sand where . A plane wave with
times to fill in the dense matrix polarization and normalized electric field normally is incident
in the plain MoM. In the CG-FFT algorithm, however, only from the free space. The scattered fields are measured on the
times are required. plane of in the free space. For reason of space, only
Furthermore, from the definition of these integrals, they are the amplitudes of current distributions and scattered fields are
only the functions of and . Thus, we evaluate just the shown in this paper.
CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2605

(a) (b)
Fig. 8. (a) Copolar electric currents on the three central axes of the dielectric sphere. (b) Current distibution on the horizontal center slice.

(a) (b)
Fig. 9. (a) Copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the large-sized dielectric cuboid. (b) Copolar scattered electric fields on the observation plane.

To test the validity of the fast algorithm, we consider a small integrals. This leads to different integral equations [16]. Fig. 4
dielectric cuboid gives the comparison of copolar electric currents on the bottom
buried at , which has been divided slice and the scattered electric fields on the observation plane
into cells. Fig. 3 shows the comparison by using the CG-FFT and the MoM. Clearly, the two results
of copolar electric currents on the bottom slice of the cuboid, fit very well, showing the validity of the fast algorithm.
using the CG-FFT and plain MoM. In the plain MoM results, When the buried dielectric cuboid is inhomogeneous (
Galerkin’s method has been used, which leads to the same when and when ), the
discrete integral equation as (20). This is solved by matrix copolar electric currents on the bottom slice computed by CG-
inversion. From Fig. 3, we can see that the results from CG- FFT and MoM are shown in Fig. 5(a). Again, the good agree-
FFT and plain MoM are nearly the same. This is because the ment of the two results shows the robustness of the algorithm.
cyclic convolution, correlation, and FFT are exact. Fig. 5(b) shows the current distribution on the whole slice.
The above example only shows the correctness of the FFT It is interesting to compare the CPU time used in the
and CG procedures, since the two methods solve the same CG-FFT and MoM. Despite the difference in evaluating the
matrix equation. To test the fast algorithm further, we consider Sommerfeld integrals, it takes 72.47 s to solve the matrix
the other MoM results, in which pulse and delta functions equation in MoM, while the CPU time is only 0.059 s/iteration
have been chosen as the basis and testing functions, and for the CG-FFT. After 15 iterations, the error reaches
the differential operations have been put to the Sommerfeld 0.000 97.
2606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 37, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999

(a)

(b)
Fig. 10. (a) Current distribution on the bottom slice. (b) Scattered-field distribution on the observation plane.

In the next example, we consider a buried dielectric cube convergence is much faster. For both and
with grids, the error becomes 0.000 005 after three
and . When the cube is partitioned by using iterations.
and grids, part of the numerical results If the dielectric cube in Fig. 6 is replaced by a dielectric
from the CG-FFT are shown in Fig. 6, in which Fig. 6(a) sphere with diameter , the same partitioning
depicts the copolar electric currents on the three central axes is needed. Corresponding to above examples, the numerical
of the cube, and Fig. 6(b) displays the current distributions on results for the sphere are shown in Fig. 8.
the horizontal central slice. In this example, the CPU time is Again, for the grids, the CPU time is 1.12
1.12 s for grids. After 47 iterations, the error s/iteration. But after 35 iterations, the error reaches 0.000 90.
is 0.000 95. For grids, the CPU time is 11.63 For the grids, the CPU time is 11.63 s/iteration.
s/iteration. After 49 iterations, the error is 0.000 92. After 35 iterations, the error becomes 0.000 83.
To investigate the relation of the convergence rate to the Finally, we consider a large dielectric cuboid
dielectric properties, we consider the same cube with low , buried at
dielectric contrast . The numerical results . When the cuboid is partitioned by grids,
from the CG-FFT are illustated in Fig. 7, in which the CPU the CG-FFT results are illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 9
time is the same as that in Fig. 6 per iteration, while the shows the copolar electric currents on the bottom slice and
CUI AND CHEW: FAST ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 2607

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