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1.1.1

Chapter 1. Symbolic Logic

• Logical Form and Equivalence

• Conditional Statements

• Valid and Invalid Arguments

• Digital Logic Circuits (Boolean Polynomials)

1.1.2

Logic of Compound Statements

• A statement (or proposition) is a sentence that is true (T) or false (F), but not both or neither.

• Examples:

Today is Monday. x is even and x > 7. If x 2 = 4, then x = 2 or x = -2.

1.1.3

Counterexamples

• If a sentence cannot be judged to be T or F or is not even a sentence, it cannot be a statement.

• Examples:

Open the door! (imperative) Did you open the door? (interrogative) If x 2 = 4. (fragment)

1.1.4

Compound Statements

• Denote statements using the symbols p, q, r,

• Denote the operations Ÿ, ⁄, ~, Æ (to be defined shortly), where:

p Ÿ q - conjunction of p and q (p and q);

p q - disjunction of p and q (p or q);

~ p - negation of p (not p);

p Æ q - implication of p and q (p implies q);

1.1.5

Compound Statements (cont’d.)

• A Compound statement (or statement form) is a statement which includes at least one operation and one other “atomic” statement.

• For example, “x = 7 and y = 2” is a compound statement based on the “atomic” statements p = “x = 7” and q = “y = 2”.

• In this instance, we can symbolize the compound statement as r = p Ÿ q.

1.1.6

Compound Statements (cont’d.)

• The Truth Table of a compound statement is the collection of all the output truth values corresponding to all possible combinations of input truth values of the atomic statements.

• Since each atomic statement can take on 1 of 2 values, 2 inputs have 4 combinations, 3 inputs have 8, 4 inputs have 16, 5 inputs have 32, etc.

1.1.7

Logical Operations

 • Negation: p ~p T F F T

• Conjunction:

• Disjunction:

 p q (p Ÿ q) p q T T T T T (p ⁄ q) T T T F T F F T F F T F F T F F F F F

Example: (p q) Ÿ ~r

1.1.8

• Proceed from left to right:

 p q r (p ⁄ q) ~r (p ⁄ q) Ÿ ~r F T F T F T F F T T T T F T T F T T T F T T F T F F T T F T T T F F T F T T F F T F F F F F F T

1.1.9

Logical Equivalence

 • Two compound statements are logically equivalent if they have the same truth table. We denote this as p q. • p ~p ~(~p) T F T F T F hence p ~(~p). • ~(p Ÿ q) ~p Ÿ ~q ? No, since ~(T Ÿ F) T, but (~T Ÿ ~F) F.

1.1.10

• A statement whose truth table is all “T” is called

a tautology, denoted as p t.

• A statement whose truth table is all “F” is called

a contradiction, denoted as p c.

• Clearly, ~t c and ~c t.

• Are all logical statements either tautology or

1.1.11

Algebra of Symbolic Logic

• Commutative Laws:

 p Ÿ q q Ÿ p p ⁄ q q ⁄ p

• Associative Laws:

 (p Ÿ q) Ÿ r p Ÿ (q Ÿ r) (p ⁄ q) ⁄ r p ⁄ (q ⁄ r)

• Distributive Laws:

 p Ÿ (q ⁄ r) (p Ÿ q) ⁄ (p Ÿ r) p ⁄ (q Ÿ r) (p ⁄ q) Ÿ (p ⁄ r)

1.1.12

Algebra of Symbolic Logic

• Identity Laws:

p Ÿ t p p c p

• Negation Laws:

p Ÿ ~p c

p ~p t

• Double Negative Laws: ~(~p) p

• Negations of t and c:

~t c

~c t

1.1.13

Algebra of Symbolic Logic

p Ÿ p p

• Idempotent Laws:

• DeMorgan’s Laws:

~(p Ÿ q) ~p ~q ~(p q) ~p Ÿ ~q

• Universal Bound Laws: p Ÿ c c

• Absorption Laws:

p p p

p t t

 p Ÿ (p ⁄ q) p p ⁄ (p Ÿ q) p