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# Department of Physics II Semester Question Bank With Answer ( 2 Marks ) (Unit II SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS) PART A

1. What do you meant by semiconductor? A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity inbetween good conductors and insulators. They have narrow forbidden energy gap. Semiconductors are of two types. (i) Intrinsic semiconductor (Pure) (ii) Extrinsic semiconductor (Doped) 2. Define band gap, valence band and cc nduction band? Band gap: It is the energy difference between the minimum eneregy of conduction band and the maximum energy of valence band. Valence band: It is the region of energy levels where the valence electrons occupy their positions. Conduction band: It is the region of energy levels where the conduction electrons or free electrons occupy their positions. What are holes? Holes are the vacant sites in the valence band of the solid. They will behave like positive charge carriers having the mass of electron in the presence of applied electric field. State the properties of a semiconductor.
G In semiconductors, both the electron and holes are charge carriers. G The conductivity increases due to temperature and impurities. G behave as insulators. G They possess crystalline structure.

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At 0K, they

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What are elemental semiconductors? Give two examples. Pure semiconductor elements from fourth column are called intrinsic semiconductors. When this is doped with pentavalent or trivalent impurity elements, we get n-type or p-type extrinsic semiconductors. These intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors are known as elemental semiconductors. Ex.- Germanium and silicon.

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What are compound semiconductors? Give two examples. Semiconductors formed by the combination of fifth and third column or sixth and second column elements are called compound semiconductors. Ex.- GaAs and InP for III - V compounds. MgO and CdS for II - VI compounds. Distinguish between indirect and direct band gap semiconductors?
Direct band gap semiconductor (or Compound semiconductor) Indirect band gap semiconductor (or Elemental semiconductor)

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SI.No. 1. 2.

They are made of compound elements like GaAs, InP etc. The minimum energy of conduction band and maximum energy of valence band have the same value of wave vector.

They are made of a single element like Ge, Si, etc. The minimum energy of conduction band and maximum energy of valence band have different values of wave vector.

The electron from the conduction The electrons from the conduction band recombine with the holes in the band recombine with the holes in the valence band directly. valence band indirectly through traps. 4.
Photons are emitted during recombination. Life time (Recombination time) of charge carriers is very less. Current amDlification is less

## Heat is evolved recombination. Life time is more.

during

Current amplification is more. I They are used to fabricate LED and They are used to fabricate rectifier diodes and transistors. LASER diodes.

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What is covalent bond? The covalent bond is the strong classical electron pair bond. It acts between neutral atoms. The covalent bond is formed with two electrons, one from each atom being shared by both the atoms.
Silicon, Germanium, Diamond have covalent bond.

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What happens when the temperature increases in the case of semiconductor and conductor?
In the case of semiconductor, conductivity increases with increase in temperature. In the case of conductors, conductivity decreases with increase in temperature. What is meant by intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor? Give examples.

Extremely pure semiconductors without any impurities are known as intrinsic semiconductors. Ex.- Germanium and silicon. A semiconductor, which contains impurity atoms due to doping, is known as extrinsic semiconductors or impure semiconductors. Ex.- Phosphorous, arsenic or antimony added to either germanium or silicon gives n-type semiconductors while aluminium, gallium or indium added results in p-type semiconductors. When does an intrinsic semiconductor behave like an insulator? Why? At absolute zero, the valence band of an intrinsic semiconductor is completely filled and the conduction band that is separated by a distance Ed (the band gap) from the valence band is empty. For this reason at absolute zero, an intrinsic semiconductor behaves as an insulator.

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With increase of temperature the conductivity of semiconductor increases while that of metals decreases. Give reasons?
With increase of temperature, more and more charge carriers are created and hence the conductivity of semiconductors increases. In

the case of metals, with increase of temperature the concentration of charge carriers remains the same.
13. Differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor. (June 2009)

## Intrinsic semiconductors Pure semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductors Impure semiconductors. When doped with pentavalent impurities it is n-type. When doped with trivalent impurities it is p-type.
Electrons are majority carriers in n-type. Holes are majority carriers in p-type. Charge carriers are generated due to ionization of dopant. Fermi energy is just below conduction band in n-type. Fermi energy is just above valence band in p-type.

## Both electrons and holes are charge carriers

Charge carriers are generated due to breaking ofcovalent bonds. Fermi energy is exactly at the middle of forbidden energy gap.

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Why do we prefer Si for transistors and GaAs for laser diodes? Si is preferred for transistors because it is more electrically stable with respect to temperature and voltage. Also electrical conductivity is high. GaAs is preferred for laser diodes because it has high efficiency and operates at low power.

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What are N-type and P-type semiconductors? Give example. N-type : It is the one having electrons as the majority charge carriers and holes as the minority charge carriers. Ex.- Si or Ge doped with P, As and Sb.

P-type: It is the one having holes as the majority charge carriers and electrons as the minority charge carriers.

Ex.- Si or Ge doped with Al, Ga and In. 16. What are donors and acceptors? The donors are the doped pentavalent impurity atoms like P, As and Sb in silicon or germanium donating an electron from its atom to Si or Ge crystal. The acceptors are the doped trivalent impurity atoms like Al, Ga and In in silicon or germanium accepting an electron from each Si or Ge atom.

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SI.No. 1.

Distinguish between N-type and P-type semiconductors? (Nov. 2009) P-type semiconductors I It is obtained by doping intrinsic It is obtained by doping intrinsic semiconductor with pentavalent semiconductor with trivalent impurity. impurity.
Electrons are majority carrier and Holes are majority carriers and holes are minority carriers. electrons are minority carriers.

N-type semiconductors

2.

3. 4.

Donor level lies just below the Acceptor level lies just above the conduction band. valence bond.
When temperature is increased, When temperature is increased, they easily donate electron to the they easily accept electron from conduction band. the valence band.

18. Compared with Germanium, Silicon is widely used to manufacture the elemental device. Why? (June 2013)
Silicon is an indirect band gap semiconductor for which the life time of charge carrier and current amplification is more. Also the

electrical conductivity due to doping increases in silicon when compared with Germanium. Hence, silicon is widely used to manufacture elemental devices. 19. Sketch the Fermi energy level of an intrinsic semiconductor? (June 2011)

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## Draw the variation of Fermi level with temperature in p-type semiconductor?

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How the Fermi energies vary with doping density? N-type: When the temperature is increased, some of the electrons are shifted from donar energy level to the conduction band and hence the Fermi energy level is shifted down. P-type: When the temperature is increased, some ofthe electrons in the valence band go to acceptor energy levels and hence the Fermi level is shifted in upward direction.

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## Define Hall Effect and Hall voltage.

(Nov.2009)

When a piece of material (metal or semi-conductor) carrying current is placed in a transverse magnetic field, an electric field (voltage) is produced inside the material in a direction normal to both the current and the magnetic field. This phenomenon is called Hall Effect and the generated voltage is known as Hall voltage.

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+

## Mention the applications of Hall Effect. R R G

Calculation of carrier concentration

(June 2010)

## Determination of type of semiconductor Determination of mobility Measurement of magnetic flux density

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How will you distinguish N-type and P-type semiconductors using Hall Effect? (June 2012) For N-type, the Hall coefficient is negative and for P-type, the Hall coefficient is positive. Thus from the direction of Hall voltage developed, the semiconductors can be distinguished.

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## Write the expression for Hall cc-efficient? For N-type

(June 2009)

For P-type
Where n Concentration of electrons

p - Concentration of holes

PART - B
Derive an expression for density of holes and electrons in valence band and conduction band in the case of P- type and N-type semiconductors. (16) 2.
(i) (i) What is Hall effect? (3)

Obtain an expression for the Hall coefficient for a P-type semiconductor. (7)

(iii) Describe an experimental setup for the measurement of Hall voltage. (6) 3. (i) Obtain an expression for intrinsic carrier concentration in an intrinsic semiconductor. (12)

(ii) How will you determine the energy gap of an intrinsic semiconductor? (4)

4.

(i)

## Obtain an expression for Hall coefficient.

(4)

(ii) How will you measure Hall coefficient experimentally? (iii) Describe any two applications of Hall Effect.

(8) (4)

## Obtain an expression for intrinsic carrier concentration in an intrinsic semiconductor. (16)

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Discuss with necessary theory the variation of Fermi level with temperature in N-type and P-type semiconductor. (16)
What are intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors? With necessary theory discuss the location of the Fermi level. (16)

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Distinguish between direct and indirect band gap in semiconductor. Describe a method of determining the band gap of a semiconductor. How does the electrical conductivity vary with temperature for an intrinsic semiconductor? (16) 9.
Derive an expression for carrier concentration in P-type semiconductor. Discuss the variation of the Fermi level with temperature in N-type and P-type semiconductors. (16)

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

The resistivity of intrinsic semiconductor germanium at 300K is 0.47 ohm-in. If the electron and ho le mobilities are 0.3 8 and 0. 18 m'v s ' respectively, calculate the intrinsic carrier density at 300K. 2.3746210 19 m]
Calculate the conductivity of germanium at 300K.

[Ans:

## Given nj =23 x 10"/in'. rd - 0.364 m'v s and ph

0. 19 m'v s

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[Ans: 2.038 who/in] ho/in. The For an intrinsic GaAs, the room temperature electrical conductivity is 106 electron and hole mobilities are 0. 85 and 0.04 m'v s ' respectively. Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature. [Ans: 7.02210"/m] If the mobilities of electrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductor at 300K are 0.3 6 and 0. 14 m'v s . Calculate the number of charge carriers. Given the conductivity is 2.2mho/in. [Ans:2.7510' 9 mJ
When a potential difference of 2V is applied across the faces of a small germanium plate of area lcm' and of thickness 0.3 mm, find the current flowing through the plate. Given the concentration of free charge carriers in Ge is 2 x 10'9/ ' and the electron and hole mobilities are 0.36 and 0. 17 m'v s ' respectively. [Ans: 1.1.A]

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6.

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Find the Hall voltage in a Si doped with 10" phosphorus atoms/in'. The Si sample is 100pm wide with a current flow oflmA for a magnetic field of 10 Tesla. [Ans: 6.25 XJ 0 9 ] A N-type semiconductor has Hall coefficient 4. 1610 4 C '. The conductivity is 108 ohm 'in'. Calculate its charge carrier density no and electron mobility at room temperature. [Ans: 1.77x J 0m-, 0.038 in' v's'] A n-type semiconductor specimen has Hall C o effic ient RH .66 10 4 3/C. The conductivity of the specimen is found to be 112 who/in. Calculate the charge carrier density and electron mobility at room temperature. [Ans: 2.01J X J 0"m-, 0.0348 in' v's']