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www.elsevier.com/locate/nel

Anon-linear nite-element analysis of buckle propagation in subsea

corroded pipelines

Jianghong Xue

Department of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China

Received 22 October 2005; received in revised form 22 March 2006; accepted 28 May 2006

Available online 24 July 2006

Abstract

A non-linear nite-element analysis for the steady-state buckle propagation phenomenon in subsea corroded pipelines subjected to external

hydrostatic pressure is presented. The corroded pipeline is modeled as an innitely long, cylindrical shell with a non-uniform thickness region.

Using Maxwells theory of two coexisting phases and principle of virtual work, the buckle propagation pressures for the corroded pipeline

are calculated from pressurevolume change relations obtained from ABAQUS. The corresponding collapse modes of the corroded pipeline

are generated from ABAQUS post-analysis. Symmetric and anti-symmetric collapse modes are found to occur, depending on the depth and

angular extent of the corrosion. In addition, snap-through and global collapses are also identied. A parametric study shows how the buckle

propagation pressures decrease when either the ratio of corrosion depth to the normal thickness or the angular extent of the corrosion increases.

The nite-element model is validated using Timoshenkos classical solutions.

2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Corroded pipeline; Buckle propagation; Finite-element analysis; Symmetric and anti-symmetric collapse modes

1. Introduction

The elastic stability theory and its application can be di-

vided into categories of pre- and post-buckling [1]. Kyriakedes

et al. [2,3] have indicated that a perfect ring subjected to ex-

ternal pressure would fail at a buckling load or a bifurcation

pressure. Before the buckling load, the ring deforms follow-

ing a pre-buckling path. Along this stable pre-buckling path,

the ring experiences only contraction in radial direction, which

leads to a very small change in volume. Beyond the bifurcation

pressure, the ring deforms following a post-buckling path. For

elasticplastic material, the post-buckling behavior is highly

unstable. Fig. 1 schematically illustrates the pre- and post-

buckling behavior of a perfect ring with elasticplastic material

properties. When the external pressure acting on a ring increases

to a critical value, buckling occurs. With a very slight incre-

ment of the pressure, ovalization proceeds until yielding occurs

at the regions where the curvature changes most. Soon after the

E-mail address: txuej@jnu.edu.cn.

0168-874X/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.nel.2006.05.003

yielding, the load-carrying capability falls precipitously. When

the deformation is mostly conned to the plastic hinges, the

sharp decrease of the pressure begins to slow down. Finally,

contact happens at the two opposite quarter points, resulting in

substantial stiffening, and the pressure increases rapidly with a

very small area change of the ring.

Pre- and post-buckling behavior of a circular ring is often

related to the understanding of the buckle propagation problem

in the uniform pipeline subjected to external pressure. A local

collapse is triggered off at the weakened place of the pipeline

due to dropping particles, such as tools, rocks, etc. Once initi-

ated, it will propagate along the pipeline if the external pressure

is eater than the propagation pressure. Palmer and Martin [4]

were one of the pioneers to theoretically study the problem

of buckle propagation. Assuming rigid-perfect plastic material

behavior and ignoring the axial bending and stretching, they

proposed a four plastic hinge model to describe the collapse

mechanism of the pipeline during buckle propagation. Several

authors conducted subsequent investigation on this phe-

nomenon with more complicated model. Chater and Hutchin-

son [5] presented a numerical approach using the deformation

1212 J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219

Elastic deformation

Elastic buckling

Elastic-plastic deformation

P

External

pressure

Change in area A

Plastic collapse

Touching

Buckle propagation

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of pre- and post-buckling behavior of a ring with elasticplastic material properties.

theory of plasticity to take into account the inuence of the

strain hardening. Kyriakedes et al. [2,3,611] conducted im-

mense theoretical and experimental studies on aspects of buckle

propagation, plastic collapse and buckle arrestors for different

pipeline systems of uniform thickness. Weizbicki [12,13] de-

veloped a moving hinge model, which takes into account the

effect of membrane stretch during propagation.

The ring model approach is extended to address the stabil-

ity problem of corroded pipelines. Bai et al. [1417] proposed

analytical solutions of elasticplastic buckling and plastic col-

lapse of corroded pipes under external pressure. In their anal-

ysis, the corrosion defect was considered to occur only in the

inner surface of the pipeline. Hoo Fatt et al. [18,19] later de-

rived analytical solutions of buckle propagation pressure for

corroded pipelines by assuming that the corrosion is symmet-

ric about the neutral surface of the pipeline. In these studies,

only symmetric failure mode was analyzed. Most recently, Xue

and Hoo Fatt [20] indicated that a corroded pipeline subjected

to external pressure would undergo either symmetric or anti-

symmetric buckling depending on the corrosion degree. Ana-

lytical solutions of buckle propagation pressure for corroded

pipelines were derived from rigid-plastic analysis using the col-

lapse mechanism of a non-uniform ring [21]. It was shown in

the analysis that post-buckling behavior of a non-uniform ring

is much more complicated than that of a uniform ring. Oval-

ization does not occur in a non-uniform ring. Due to the differ-

ence in the circumferential bending stiffening in the corroded

and uncorroded regions, the plastic hinges do not develop at

the quarter places as in the uniform ring. When the corrosion

is very severe and localized, contact never happen, while the

non-uniform thickness ring still becomes stiffening, resulting

in the rapid increasing of the pressure for a very small area

change.

In this paper, nite-element approach is used to analyze the

problem of buckle propagation in subsea corroded pipelines. In

particular, a pipeline made of steel grade X-77, with a radius

of 228.6 mm and non-corroded thickness of 18.29 mm, is an-

alyzed in ABAQUS program [22]. Using Maxwells theory of

two coexisting phases, the buckle propagation pressures for the

corroded pipeline are calculated from the load vs. area change

of a non-uniform ring generated from ABAQUS post-analysis.

Limit cases when no corrosion exists or corrosion is extremely

severe are studied. The nite-element model is validated by

comparing the buckling pressures obtained from ABAQUS for

limit cases with Timoshenkos predictions for global buckling

of a ring or snap-through buckling of an arch. Solutions ob-

tained herein are used to verify the analytical solutions pre-

sented in Ref. [21].

2. Finite-element approach

A propagating buckle will cause the formation of a transition

zone, which connects the un-buckled region with the buckled.

Fig. 2 shows a transition zone in a buckle propagation uniform

pipeline. The transition front attains a xed shape and sim-

ply translates along the pipeline during the steady-state buckle

propagation. Ignoring the longitudinal bending and membrane

stretching, the collapse in the transition zone of the corroded

pipeline is approximated by the collapse of a non-uniform ring

undergoing plain strain deformation. ABAQUS nite-element

program is used to simulate the deformation of the non-uniform

ring. The pre- and post-buckling behaviors of the corroded

pipeline are obtained from a ring model by replacing Youngs

modulus E with E/(1

2

) in an ABAQUS Standard program.

The collapse modes of the non-uniform ring are generated from

ABAQUS post-analysis.

2.1. Geometry

The corroded pipeline is modeled as a non-uniform, innitely

long cylindrical shell of radius R and cross-section shown in

Fig. 3(a). The non-uniform shell is divided into two regions of

J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219 1213

thickness h given as follows:

h =

_

t d for Region 1 ( < <),

t for Region 2 ( < <2 ),

(1)

where t is the original thickness of the pipeline, d is the cor-

rosion depth and is the angular extension of the corrosion.

The non-uniform ring used in ABAQUS analysis should have

the same cross-section as the non-uniform shell does. Besides,

the deformation of the non-uniform ring is considered as a

one-dimensional problem. Two assumptions are made in or-

der to fulll the simulation: (1) the corroded region is the

same throughout the entire length of the shell; (2) the thickness

is symmetric about the circumferential neutral surface of the

shell in both Regions 1 and 2 as shown in Fig. 3(a). Solutions

T

r

a

n

s

i

t

i

o

n

R

e

g

i

o

n

U

n

b

u

c

k

l

e

d

R

e

g

i

o

n

B

u

c

k

l

e

d

R

e

g

i

o

n

U

T

Fig. 2. Buckle propagation in a uniform pipeline.

(a) (b)

R

Region 2

Region 1

t

d/2

d/2

p

3

1

2

Fig. 3. Finite-element analysis for a non-uniform ring subjected to external pressure: (a) a non-uniform ring under external pressure and (b) nite-element model.

obtained from such assumptions will also yield conservative

estimates of failure load.

2.2. Imperfection

An initial imperfection, which is often chosen as the fun-

damental buckling mode, is introduced in order to induce the

post-buckling analysis and to obtain the pre- and post-buckling

behavior of the non-uniform ring. It has been pointed out [20]

that the buckling of a non-uniform ring involves symmetric and

anti-symmetric modes; therefore the initial imperfection also

corresponds to symmetric and anti-symmetric modes, which

are given as follows:

Symmetric mode of imperfection:

S

() =

_

0

cos k

1cr

for ,

0

cos k

1cr

cos k

2cr

()

cos k

2cr

() for 2,

(2)

where

S

is the symmetric mode of imperfection,

0

the am-

plitude of initial imperfection, k

1cr

and k

2cr

are eigen-values

for symmetric buckling and are given in Table 1 for several

values of d/t the ratio of corrosion depth to the normal

thicknessand [23].

Anti-symmetric mode of imperfection:

A

() =

_

0

sin l

1cr

for ,

0

sin l

1cr

sin l

2cr

()

sin l

2cr

() for 2,

(3)

where

A

is the anti-symmetric mode of imperfection, l

1cr

and

l

2cr

are eigen-values for anti-symmetric buckling and are also

given in Table 1.

The mode of initial imperfection for the non-uniform ring

is accomplished by superimposing the symmetric mode on the

1214 J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219

Table 1

Values of k

1cr

, k

2cr

, l

1cr

, and l

2cr

for several d/t and

(

)

d

t

Symmetric mode Anti-symmetric mode (

)

d

t

Symmetric mode Anti-symmetric mode

k

1cr

k

2cr

l

1cr

l

2cr

k

1cr

k

2cr

l

1cr

l

2cr

30 0.1 2.1944 1.9446 2.2281 1.9723 90 0.7 2.7838 1.0873 2.9631 1.1

30 0.3 2.7954 1.8268 2.8391 1.8498 90 0.9 2.9883 1.004 2.9991 1.004

30 0.5 4.0322 1.7051 3.5641 1.5693 120 0.1 2.0629 1.8367 2.0901 1.8589

30 0.7 5.7854 1.3699 4.8491 1.268 120 0.3 2.225 1.5346 2.2371 1.5406

30 0.9 6.1622 1.0183 8.5071 1.0351 120 0.5 2.4556 1.2762 2.3201 1.2441

45 0.1 2.1926 1.9431 2.1801 1.9328 120 0.7 2.6611 1.079 2.3551 1.0596

45 0.3 2.7779 1.8176 2.5971 1.7235 120 0.9 2.7275 1.0032 2.3641 1.0023

45 0.5 3.6297 1.588 3.2041 1.4691 135 0.1 2.0615 1.8355 2.0521 1.8278

45 0.7 4.123 1.1967 4.7561 1.2585 135 0.3 2.2166 1.5304 2.1241 1.4848

45 0.9 4.2832 1.0086 5.7611 1.016 135 0.5 2.3798 1.2581 2.1621 1.208

60 0.1 2.1842 1.9362 2.1421 1.9016 135 0.7 2.4772 1.0671 2.1781 1.0493

60 0.3 2.6504 1.7511 2.5031 1.6751 135 0.9 2.5045 1.0026 2.1831 1.0019

60 0.5 3.0645 1.4314 3.1721 1.4604 150 0.1 2.0552 1.8304 2.0201 1.8016

60 0.7 3.3113 1.1265 4.1411 1.1983 150 0.3 2.167 1.5059 2.0461 1.4467

60 0.9 3.4379 1.0054 4.3681 1.009 150 0.5 2.2518 1.2283 2.0591 1.1853

90 0.1 2.1107 1.8758 2.1261 1.8885 150 0.7 2.2943 1.056 2.0651 1.0431

90 0.3 2.3118 1.578 2.4651 1.6557 150 0.9 2.3059 1.0022 2.0671 1.0016

90 0.5 2.5143 1.2904 2.8081 1.3641

anti-symmetric one as follows:

i

() =

_

0

(cos k

1cr

+sin l

1cr

)

for ,

0

_

cos k

1cr

cos k

2cr

( )

cos k

2cr

( )

+

sin l

1cr

sin l

2cr

( )

sin l

2cr

( )

_

for 2 .

(4)

The non-uniform ring with initial imperfection will not buckle.

Essentially, the response of the non-uniform ring is character-

ized by a limit load type of instability. The amplitude of the

initial imperfection

0

in ABAQUS analysis is chosen as only

0.01 of its nominal thickness t such that the limit load on the

loadarea change curve, which is very sensitive to

0

, is just

slight below its buckling pressure. Therefore, one can apply

the loadarea change curve to approximate the pre- and post-

buckling behavior of the non-uniform ring and the buckle prop-

agation pressure obtained from this curve is hardly affected.

2.3. Mesh and boundary conditions

The non-uniform ring is discretized into a mesh with two-

node, isoparametric, linear, Timoshenko beam elements (B21).

The mesh has 72 elements as shown in Fig. 3(b), consisting of

two element sets: one corresponds to Region 1, the corroded

part; the other corresponds to Region 2, the un-corroded. The

element numbers of Regions 1 and 2 are not given in Fig. 3(b)

since they vary with the change of the angular extension .

A multi-point constrain is used to tie node 1 with node 73 since

solutions at the two nodes must be the same.

Three boundary conditions have been used at node 37, the

mid-point of neutral surface in Region 2, as shown in Fig. 3(b):

Degree 1 is zero, which connes the movement in axis 1; De-

gree 2 is zero, which connes the movement in axis 2; Degree

6 is zero, which restricts the ring from rotating around axis 3.

The reasons for using the above three boundary conditions are

twofold: (1) these are the minimum constraints to prevent the

structure from moving as a rigid body and (2) constraining only

one point allows the structure to choose any buckling mode,

symmetric or anti-symmetric. Any other boundary conditions

will over-constrain the structure and will result in higher pres-

sures.

2.4. Material properties

The pipeline is considered to be made of steel grade X-77.

The stressstrain relationship of such material can be described

as linear elastic power law hardening and is given by Tvergaard

[24] as follows:

=

_

E,

yp

,

yp

_

nE

yp

+1 n

_

1/n

, >

yp

,

(5)

where n = 10.0 is the strain exponent,

yp

= 0.002 the yield

strain, =0.3 the Poissons ratio and E=207 Gpa the Youngs

modulus. The ratio of the yield strength to theYoungs modulus

is

yp

/E =0.002.

Under the action of external pressure, the non-uniform ring

undergoes elasticplastic collapse. Failure mode such as frac-

ture does not occur in the simulated post-buckling process.

Therefore, the ring can deform indenitely. The range of the

strain should be reasonable chosen in ABAQUS code so that

the actual stressstrain curve is accurately approximated by a

multi-linear curve to cover the whole strain range of interest.

J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219 1215

Kyriakedes et al. [7] have shown that the maximum strain in a

uniform ring undergoing plane strain deformation is about 0.2

for d/t = 20. Xue [23] also gave an alike prediction. For the

non-uniform ring, the maximum strain is chosen as 0.4 even

though the ring might not deform that further. More than 40

points are used to interpolate the actual curve.

2.5. Loading and analyzing procedure

The load carrying capacity of the non-uniform ring, after

the critical point, decreases with the increasing amplitude of

the radial deection due to the highly unstable post-buckling

behavior of elasticplastic material. RIKS procedure is used to

analyze the unstable collapse of the non-uniform ring. In each

step of analysis, the external pressure is incremented using a

load proportional factor and NLGEOM parameter is included to

account for the geometric non-linearity. FORTRAN programs

are developed to obtain load vs. area change curve from the

data le generated in ABAQUS analysis.

3. Post-buckling behavior

As an example, a non-uniform ring with a radius R =

228.6 mm and nominal thickness t = 18.29 mm is ana-

lyzed. Post-buckling processes are simulated for cases when

d/t = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 and = 30

, 45

, 60

, 90

,

120

, 135

and 150

ABAQUS post-analysis. They are shown in Figs. 47 for

= 45

, 60

, 90

, and 135

modes [20] are also plotted in Figs. 47 to demonstrate how the

non-uniform ring deforms from the buckling mode to the nal

collapse mode. From Figs. 47, the following post-buckling

behaviors are observed for the non-uniform ring.

Fig. 4. (a) Buckling and (b) collapse modes for =45

.

(i) Symmetric and anti-symmetric collapse: Due to the non-

uniformity, symmetric and anti-symmetric collapse modes ex-

ist for a non-uniform ring. The collapse mode of the non-

uniform ring depends on the corrosion degree, i.e. the values

of d/t and , even through the mode of initial imperfection is

introduced by combining the symmetric buckling mode with

the anti-symmetric one. In general, when d/t 0, the non-

uniform ring degenerates into a uniform ring and undergoes

symmetric collapse; when d/t 1, the corroded section of

the non-uniform ring becomes a circular arch with built-in ends

and experiences anti-symmetric collapse.

(ii) Global and snap-through collapse: Global and snap-

through collapse modes can occur in the post-buckling pro-

cess of the non-uniform ring. When d/t 0.1 or 135

, only

global collapse happens. The pressure decreases until one point

on the non-uniform ring almost touches another point on the

opposite side of the ring. When 90

through happens. The pressure drops to the lowest value be-

fore the contact happens. Furthermore, the contact happens at

a pressure level, which might be even higher than elastic buck-

ling pressure. Fig. 8 shows pre- and post-buckling behaviors

of the non-uniform ring undergoing global and snap-through

collapses.

4. Buckle propagation pressure

During steady-state buckle propagation, the shape of the

transition zone does not change. The change in volume of a uni-

form pipeline when a buckle propagates a unit length forward

is V

T

V

U

, where V

T

and V

U

denote volume changes

far behind and ahead of the transition zone, as shown in Fig. 2.

The volume changes V

T

and V

U

at point T and U can be

approximated, respectively, by the area changes A

T

and A

U

of a ring segment with unit thickness. Chater and Hutchinson

[5] have pointed out that when the ring material is such that

1216 J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219

Fig. 5. (a) Buckling and (b) collapse modes for =60

.

Fig. 6. (a) Buckling and (b) collapse modes for =90

.

Fig. 7. (a) Buckling and (b) collapse modes for =135

.

J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219 1217

P

Change in area, A

Elastic buckling

Plastic collapse

Touching

Propagation

P

Change in area, A

Elastic buckling

Plastic collapse

Snap-through line

Snap-through

touching

(a) (b)

Fig. 8. Pre- and post-buckling behaviors of a non-uniform ring undergoing: (a) global collapse and (b) snap-through collapse.

External

pressure

P

R

2

P

p

U

AU

P

cr

P

m

Change in area, A

T

AT

R

1

Fig. 9. Maxwells condition of two coexisting phases.

the work done during deformation is independent of the loading

path, the work done can be calculated strictly from the initial

and nal congurations of the ring. Therefore, the external work

to propagate a buckle by a unit length is p(A

T

A

U

). The

internal work is the stress work absorbed by the ring segment

of unit length when it deforms from state U to state T, which is

_

A

T

A

U

p(A) dA. The propagation pressure is the pressure that

can sustain two solutions for the equilibrium pressure behind

and ahead of the transition front and is [5]

p

p

(A

T

A

U

) =

_

A

T

A

U

p(A) dA. (6)

On the pre- and post-buckling behavior of a uniform ring,

Eq. (6) is the condition of Maxwells two coexisting phases

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P

p

d/t

= 30

= 150

= 135

= 120

= 90

= 60

= 45

Fig. 10. Variation of buckle propagation pressure p

p

with respect to d/t for

several .

which requires R

1

=R

2

, as shown in Fig. 9. Therefore, it re-

lates the problem of buckle propagation in a uniform pipeline

to that of the elastic buckling and post-buckling of a uniform

ring element in plane strain.

Numerical solutions of buckle propagation pressure for the

corroded pipeline are calculated from Eq. (6) using the pre- and

post-buckling behaviors of the non-uniform ring obtained from

ABAQUS analysis. Cases are examined for d/t =0.1, 0.3, 0.5,

0.7 and 0.9, and =30

, 45

, 60

, 90

, 120

, 135

and 150

.

Fig. 10 shows variation of the buckle propagation pressure p

p

with respect to d/t for several . One can see from Fig. 10

that the buckle propagation pressures decrease with increasing

values of d/t and .

1218 J. Xue / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 12111219

Table 2

Comparison of buckling pressures p

cr

between ABAQUS results and Timo-

shenkos solutions

45

60

90

120

150

180

(uni. shell)

k 5.782 4.375 3 2.364 2.066 2

p

cr

(MPa)

Timoshenkos solution 0.315 0.176 0.0777 0.0445 0.0317 0.0291

ABAQUS results 0.321 0.178 0.078 0.0447 0.0319 0.0289

5. Comparison with Timoshenkos classical solutions

It can be seen from Fig. 3(a) that when the value of d/t

approaches one but not equal one, the corroded section of the

non-uniform ring behaves like a circular arch with built-in ends

since the stiffness in the un-corroded region is much larger than

that in the corroded; on the other hand, when the angular ex-

tension approaches 180

into a uniform shell. Timoshenko [25] gave the classical solu-

tion of buckling pressure for a circular arch with built-in ends

subjected to external pressure. Rewrite it as following:

p

cr

=

E

12(1

2

)

_

t d

R

_

3

(k

2

1), (7)

where t d is the residual thickness of Region 1, k is the buck-

ling parameter of the arch and is given in Table 2 for several

value of [25]. Eq. (7) is the exact solution of buckling pres-

sure p

cr

for Region 1 in Fig. 3(a) when d/t 1 and d/t = 1.

In reality, we regard the non-uniform shell as a circular arch

with built-in ends when d/t = 0.9. The approximation can be

but even better when 0.9 <d/t <1. Note that when =180

,

k=2. The arch becomes a uniform cylindrical shell, and Eq. (7)

regresses to the solution for a uniform cylindrical shell. Sub-

stituting E =207 GPa, =0.3, R =228.6 mm, t =18.29 mm

and d/t =0.9 into Eq. (7) yields the buckling pressures p

cr

for

the arch and for the uniform cylindrical shell, depending on the

value of . Solutions are listed in Table 2.

In ABAQUS program, the amplitude of initial imperfection

0

is set to be zero and the buckling procedure is selected so as

to conduct the buckling analysis. All the other parameters re-

main the same as those in the model for elasticplastic collapse

analysis of the non-uniform ring. Cases when d/t = 0.9 and

=45

, 60

, 90

, 120

, 150

and 180

sults are shown in Table 2 to compare with Timoshenkos solu-

tions. It can be seen that the discrepancies between ABAQUSs

results and Timoshenkos solutions are negligible.

6. Conclusion

Finite-element approach was applied to obtain the buckle

propagation pressures and modes for subsea corroded pipelines.

The corroded pipeline was modeled as a non-uniform shell with

a region of uniformly reduced thickness symmetric about its

neutral surface. Using Maxwells two coexisting phases, nu-

merical solutions of buckle propagation pressure were calcu-

lated from pressurevolume relations obtained fromABAQUS.

It was found that (1) the propagation pressures decrease with

the increasing values of d/t and ; (2) the corroded pipeline un-

dergoes global collapse when d/t 0.1 or 135

and snap-

through collapse when 90

d/t 0.9, the corroded pipeline turns into a circular arch with

built-in ends and experiences anti-symmetric collapse; on the

other hand, when d/t 0 or 180

approaches that of a uniform pipeline with a symmetric col-

lapse mode. Limiting cases of the nite-element model was

validated against Timoshenkos classical solutions.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to express deep appreciation for Pro-

fessor M.S. Hoo Fatts guidance in completing the reported

work. The work presented herein was conducted with the nan-

cial support of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of

The University of Akron, Guangdong NSF, Grant No. 5300452,

the Scientic Research Foundation for Returned Overseas Chi-

nese Scholars, State Education Ministry of China, and a Faculty

Research Foundation of Jinan University (Guangzhou, China).

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