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1. The tendency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning is called

a. b. c. d.

encoding failure. repression. retroactive interference. proactive interference.

ANSWER: D 2. Things that are heard are held as a brief __________ in the sensory register.

a. b. c. d.

echo. icon. image. engram.

ANSWER: A 3. Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high school with from a larger group of strangers. To do so she has used

a. b. c. d.

recall. recognition. eidetic imagery. reminiscence.

ANSWER: B 4. Memories outside of conscious awareness are called

a. b. c. d.

proactive memories. reactive memories. explicit memories. implicit memories.

ANSWER: D . The image that persists for about one!half second after being seen is a"n#

a. b. c. d.

sensation. echo. icon. illusion.

ANSWER: $. %ue!dependent "or conte&t dependent# theories of memory suggest that you would do best on your chemistry test if you could be tested

a. b. c. d.

in the room !here you studied. in a chemistry la"oratory. !ith a large group of chemistry ma#ors. !ith students !ho share your interests.

ANSWER: A '. The part of the brain that functions as a (switching station( between the )TM and *TM is the

a. b. c. d.

hippocampus. cere"ral cortex. RS. engram s!itching center.

ANSWER: A +. The fact that a bodily state that e&ists during learning can be a strong cue for later memory is ,nown as

a. b. c. d.

eidetic imagery. redintegration. state$dependent learning. the tip$of$the$tongue phenomenon.

ANSWER: -. __________ concentrates on the meaning of information you want to remember.

a. b. c. d.

Dual memory Ela"orative rehearsal %ong$term memory &aintenance rehearsal

ANSWER: B 1.. %riticism of reco/ered memories has centered on the fact that

a. it is reasona"le to suspect hidden a"use !hen a person is depressed' has lo! self$
esteem' or sexual pro"lems.

b. most victims of sexual a"use rarely remem"er having "een molested. c. a patient guided "y an incompetent therapist might confuse dreams !ith memories. d. personally important or traumatic memories cannot "e created through suggestion.

11. Transforming incoming information into a usable form is the stage of memory called

a. b. c. d.

retrieval. encoding. storage. organi(ation.

ANSWER: B 12. 0elen has a si&!month (gap( in her memories of grade school. 0er (gap( corresponds to the period immediately after her father1s death. 0elen1s memory loss is most li,ely accounted for by

a. b. c. d.

cue$dependent forgetting. repression. retroactive inhi"ition. decay of memory traces.

ANSWER: B 13. Memories of historical facts are to __________ memory, as memories of your brea,fast this morning are to __________ memory.

a. b. c. d.

episodic) procedural procedural) semantic semantic) episodic long$term) short$term

ANSWER: 14. The storage capacity of long!term memory is best described as

a. b. c. d.

a single item. a"out seven items. a"out seven volumes. limitless.

ANSWER: D 1 . The definition of memory is that it is an acti/e system that recei/es, organi2es, and

a. b. c. d.

stores information. decays information. filters all incoming information. discards old information.

ANSWER: A 1$. 3sychologists ha/e concluded that long!term memories fall into the following two categories4

a. b. c. d.

fact memory and mnemonic memory. procedural memory and fact memory. semantic memory and fact memory. semantic memory and redintegration memory.

ANSWER: B 1'. 5ecay theories of memory loss seem to be most appropriate for

a. b. c. d.

memory "ased on visual images. long$term memory. short$term memory and sensory memory. muscular memory.

ANSWER: 1+. 6ssay 7uestions tend to be more difficult than multiple choice because with an essay 7uestion,

a. b. c. d.

there are more cues to stimulate memory. recall is re*uired rather than recognition. there is more proactive inhi"ition. there is more interference possi"le.

ANSWER: B 1-. The first step in placing information into memory storage is

a. b. c. d.

mnemonic memory. short$term memory. sensory memory. rehearsal.

ANSWER: 2.. 8n intelligence test for adults fre7uently has a general ,nowledge section which tests for

a. b. c. d.

episodic memory. echoic memory. procedural memory. semantic memory.

ANSWER: D 21. The process of holding information in memory is referred to as

a. retrieval. b. encoding. c. storage.

d. organi(ation.
ANSWER: 22. 9ecoding, chun,ing, and rehearsal are especially important for the impro/ement of

a. b. c. d.

short$term memory efficiency. eidetic imagery. sensory memory. long$term memory traces.

ANSWER: A 23. The impro/ement of memory to truly e&ceptional le/els in/ol/es

a. b. c. d.

learning techni*ues for organi(ing or +chun,ing+ information. replacing memory "ased on meaning !ith memory that utili(es images. improvements in short$term memory. improvements in the neural su"strates of memory through drugs and nutrition.

ANSWER: A 24. :or,ing memory is associated with which of the following;

a. b. c. d.

sensory memory short$term memory long$term memory integrated memory

ANSWER: B 2 . __________ determines what information mo/es from sensory memory to short!term memory.

a. b. c. d.

Encoding failure Selective attention Repression Eidetic encoding

ANSWER: B 2$. )tudents often assume that because they can answer all the study 7uestions once, they ha/e sufficiently prepared for a test. This mista,en attitude o/erloo,s the importance of __________ for impro/ing memory.

a. b. c. d.

overlearning spaced practice recitation organi(ation


2'. __________ refers to the fading of memory traces from short!term memory.

a. b. c. d.

Encoding failure Decay Disuse Decoding failure

ANSWER: B 2+. The major problem with using hypnosis in police wor, is

a. vicarious inhi"ition. b. that there is little evidence that information gathered "y hypnosis has ever helped solve a
police case.

c. the occurrence of false memories. d. a person-s a"ility to "e hypnoti(ed.

ANSWER: 2-. 6idetic imagery is found more often in

a. b. c. d.

children than in adults. adults than in children. men than in !omen. !omen than in men.

ANSWER: A 3.. 8 mail cler, has to rearrange mailbo&es in a student dormitory and for a few days has difficulty sorting the mail. This illustrates

a. b. c. d.

retroactive interference. proactive interference. relearning. memory decay.

ANSWER: B 31. __________ primarily ,eeps memories acti/e in short!term memory.

a. b. c. d.

Dual memory Ela"orative rehearsal %ong$term memory &aintenance rehearsal

ANSWER: D 32. :hich of the following determines what information mo/es from sensory memory to short!term memory;

a. b. c. d.

consolidation an engram !or,ing memory selective attention

ANSWER: D 33. :hen students who go to graduate school ha/e to brush up on a foreign language they learned before, they find it easier the second time around. This illustrates

a. b. c. d.

rehearsal. recall. redintegration. relearning.

ANSWER: D 34. <rgani2ing information into larger units as a way of impro/ing the efficiency of short! term memory is called

a. b. c. d.

chun,ing. categori(ation. ver"al la"eling. sym"oli(ation.

ANSWER: A 3 . :hich of the following is true of short!term memory;

a. b. c. d.

.t has an unlimited storage capacity. .t deals !ith information for longer periods of time' usually for at least /0 minutes. .t is seriously affected "y any interruption or interference. 1nce information is placed in S2&' it is permanently stored.

ANSWER: 3$. =nformation is remembered without e&plicit cues or stimuli, often /erbatim in

a. b. c. d.

recall. recognition. relearning. redintegration.

ANSWER: A 3'. )tate dependent learning is a term which refers to the fact that

a. "odily states can "e a strong cue for later memory. b. learning and memory can "e increased !ith the use of drugs. c. happy people have "etter memories.

d. adults lose any eidetic memory as they gro! older.

ANSWER: A 3+. 9emembering the first and last items of a list better than items in the middle is due to

a. b. c. d.

the tip$of$the$tongue phenomenon. redintegration. the serial position effect. the pseudo$memory effect.

ANSWER: 3-. :hich of the following can help to create false memories;

a. b. c. d.

hypnosis age regression suggestion all of the a"ove

ANSWER: D 4.. %onsolidation refers to the

a. time ta,en for short$term memory to "e complete. b. a"ility to see relationships "et!een o"#ects or events. c. process !here"y memory storage is speeded "y the use of electroconvulsive shoc,

d. forming of a long$term memory.

ANSWER: D 41. 3rocedural memory would be affected by damage to the

a. b. c. d.

cere"rum. cere"ellum. motor cortex. lim"ic system.

ANSWER: B 42. :hich of the following would be an e&ample of short!term memory;

a. b. c. d.

remem"ering the letters of the alpha"et loo,ing up a phone num"er and remem"ering it !hile you dial remem"ering your name remem"ering ho! to ride a "icycle

ANSWER: B 43. 8ccording to the interference theory of forgetting,

a. memory capacity is limited so that !hen ne! information is "rought in' older memories
must "e removed.

b. ne! learning can inhi"it the retrieval of stored memory' and vice$versa. c. forgetting is directly related to the complexity and meaningfulness of the incoming

d. cues present at the time of learning interfere !ith memory retrieval.

ANSWER: B 44. :hich of the following is true of rehearsal of information;

a. b. c. d.

Rehearsal is an aid to maintaining information in sensory memory. After 34 seconds !ithout rehearsal' information is gone from S2&. Rehearsal interferes !ith chun,ing and recoding of information in S2&. Rehearsal aids the transfer of information from S2& to %2&.

ANSWER: D 4 . The (magic number( __________ represents the a/erage number of (bits( of information that short!term memory can usually handle.

a. b. c. d.

three six seven nine

ANSWER: 4$. __________ memory is that part of long!term memory containing factual information.

a. b. c. d.

Episodic Semantic Declarative 5rocedural

ANSWER: 4'. 6/olutionary e&planations for the efficiency of memory argue

a. b. c. d.

it is important to retrieve all past memories. total recall !ould paraly(e us mentally. past episodic memories are highly accurate and detailed. environmental experiences are recalled !ith the highest degree of accuracy.

ANSWER: B 4+. The ,ind of memory that lasts for only a second or two is

a. long$term memory.


b. short$term memory. c. eidetic memory. d. sensory memory.

ANSWER: D 4-. :hen new learning disrupts the ability to recall past, stored information, __________ has been said to occur.

a. b. c. d.

proactive interference disinhi"ition retrograde amnesia retroactive interference

ANSWER: D .. __________ is ,nown for memori2ing nonsense syllables and plotting a cur/e of forgetting.

a. b. c. d.

%uria &nemonic E""inghaus %oftus

ANSWER: 1. :hich term refers to the obser/ation that we alter memories by filling in gaps or by adding new information;

a. b. c. d.

redintegration constructive processing logical inference information processing

ANSWER: B 2. :hen a person fills in gaps in memory with logic the process is called

a. b. c. d.

remem"ering. constructive processing. reconstruction. imagination.

ANSWER: B 3. (>lashbulb( memories, which are /i/id, lasting images of e/ents associated with personal tragedy, may be produced in part by

a. increased secretion of the hormone A 26. b. decreased serotonin levels


c. disinhi"ition. d. positive transfer.

ANSWER: A 4. 8s new memories are formed, older memories are often __________.

a. b. c. d.

updated unchanged decayed deconstructed

ANSWER: A . The correct order for the three stages of memory is

a. b. c. d.

short$term memory' long$term memory' retrieval. !or,ing memory' sensory memory' long$term memory. sensory memory' short$term memory' long$term memory. short$term memory' sensory memory' long$term memory.

ANSWER: $. *et1s say you ha/e a friend, 0arriet, who is ha/ing trouble memori2ing information for an anatomy class. The simplest and most helpful thing you could do would be to e&plain __________ to her.

a. b. c. d.

mnemonics the tip$of$the$tongue phenomenon consolidation repression.

ANSWER: A '. 8n area of the brain of particular importance for memory storage is the

a. b. c. d.

hippocampus. parietal lo"e. thalamus. medulla.

ANSWER: A +. The memory system used for relati/ely permanent storage of meaningful information is called __________ memory.

a. b. c. d.

sensory short$term long$term tactile


ANSWER: -. <ften, memories appear to be a/ailable but not accessible, as in

a. b. c. d.

the tip$of$the$tongue phenomenon. sensory memory failure. engram decay. interference.

ANSWER: A $.. The fact that many people don1t ,now which way *incoln is facing on the penny is probably due to

a. b. c. d.

displacement. cue$dependent forgetting. interference. encoding failure.

ANSWER: D $1. ?oan repeats a list of /ocabulary words for the )panish test to mo/e them from her short!term to long!term memory. This repetition is called

a. b. c. d.

redundancy. chun,ing. encoding. rehearsal.

ANSWER: D $2. @sing a /ariety of __________ can open a pathway to memory.

a. b. c. d.

cues recall hints recognition

ANSWER: A $3. 8n e&pert typist who cannot describe the e&act location of letters on a typewriter ,eyboard is demonstrating the importance of

a. b. c. d.

implicit memories. redintegrative memories. explicit memories. recognition memories.



$4. The 6bbinghaus cur/e of forgetting shows that forgetting is most rapid

a. b. c. d.

immediately after learning. one hour after learning. after one !ee,. a fe! months after learning.


$ . The inability to recall e/ents preceding an accident in/ol/ing injuries to the head is called

a. b. c. d.

retrograde amnesia. prograde amnesia. motivated forgetting. cognitive "loc,age.

ANSWER: A $$. 3seudo!memories are

a. b. c. d.

those memories recalled after amnesia. false memories resulting from constructive processing. delusions associated !ith mental illness. short$term memories.

ANSWER: B $'. :hich of the following would be considered an episodic memory;

a. b. c. d.

3 7 8 9 :; the sixteenth president the accident you sa! three !ee,s ago num"er of Ds o!ned

ANSWER: $+. 9ehearsal wor,s best when

a. the information to "e remem"ered is repeated over and over. b. it is used to lin, ne! information !ith existing memories and ,no!ledge. c. memories are updated or reorgani(ed on the "asis of logic' reasoning' or the addition of
ne! information.

d. part of a memory is used to reconstruct an entire complex memory.

ANSWER: B $-. 8 memory that a person is aware of ha/ing, or a memory that is consciously retrie/ed, is called


a. b. c. d.

explicit memory. implicit memory. priming. eidetic imagery.

ANSWER: A '.. 8cti/ating implicit memories by pro/iding partial information that is lin,ed with them is called

a. b. c. d.

priming. repression. redintegration. forgetting.

ANSWER: A '1. 8s shown by the cur/e of forgetting, memory loss occurs

a. b. c. d.

as learning is still going on. very rapidly at first and then levels off to a slo! decline. not until three to four hours after the learning trial is over. slo!ly at first "ut is essentially complete !ithin one hour.

ANSWER: B '2. :hich of the following would be considered a semantic memory;

a. b. c. d.

your first car the sixteenth president your third #o" the accident you sa! three !ee,s ago

ANSWER: B '3. The word used to describe how information gets into the memory system is

a. b. c. d.

retrieval. displacement. encoding. recall.

ANSWER: '4. =n order for a memory to be useful, it must be

a. filed. b. episodic. c. decoded as an image.


d. retrieved.
ANSWER: D ' . Aour recollections about your last birthday are stored in your __________ memory.

a. b. c. d.

episodic semantic retroactive short$term

ANSWER: A '$. =f you witnessed a crime and were as,ed to pic, out the criminal from a lineup, you would be doing what ,ind of memory tas,;

a. b. c. d.

eidetic imagery relearning recall recognition

ANSWER: D ''. =nformation in long!term memory can be retained up to

a. b. c. d.

/0 seconds. < hour. many years. : seconds.

ANSWER: '+. __________ memory is that part of long!term memory made up of conditioned responses and learned s,ills.

a. b. c. d.

Episodic Semantic =act S,ill

ANSWER: D '-. %onsciously forcing painful or an&iety!producing thoughts from memory is called

a. b. c. d.

proactive inhi"ition. repression. suppression. continued avoidance.



+.. 6idetic memori2ers1 long!term memory has pro/en to be

a. b. c. d.

far "etter than average. slightly "etter than average. average. no "etter than average.

ANSWER: D +1. 8 brain!injured patient who can still e&ecute a perfect golf swing or a high di/e but is unable to recall or relearn e/en the broad outlines of 8merican history is superior in

a. b. c. d.

procedural memory. semantic memory. episodic memory. fact memory.

ANSWER: A +2. =nterference theories of forgetting suggest that retention will be best when study is followed by

a. b. c. d.

sleep. light reading or !atching 2>. studying similar su"#ect matter. studying different su"#ect matter.

ANSWER: A +3. 8 multiple choice 7uestion "li,e this one# ma,es greatest use of which type of memory;

a. b. c. d.

recall recognition relearning redintegration