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System Description RAN UMTS


A50016-E1706-V44-1-7618

System Description RAN UMTS

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given "as is" and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL Nokia Siemens Networks BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright Nokia Siemens Networks 2008. All rights reserved

Important Notice on Product Safety


Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply with the applicable safety standards.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangslufig bestimmte Teile der Gerte unter Spannung. Einige Teile knnen auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Krperverletzungen und Sachschden fhren. Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und wartet. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Gerte mssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfllen.

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Table of Contents
This document has 160 pages. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.7.1 2.2.7.2 2.2.7.3 2.2.7.4 2.2.7.5 2.2.7.6 2.2.8 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.1.1 2.5.1.2 2.5.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.2.2 2.5.3 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.1.1 3.1.1.2 3.1.1.3 Overview of System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation Overview of System Description. . . . Scope of the CN GSM/UMTScs Description . . . . . . . Definition of Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... ...... ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 22 24 26 28 30 32 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 41 42 42 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 47 47 49 52

System Architecture of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) . . . . . Network Elements of a 3G RAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardware Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRIC-CAT Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REP-TRX-LPA Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro FDD NodeB (NB-420) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro FDD NodeB (NB-880/881) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro FDD NodeB (NB-860) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Micro FDD NodeB (NB-341) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro FDD NodeB (NB-530) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Servers (RSs) and Remote Radio Head (RRH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro Radio Server (RS-880) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Micro Radio Server Unit (RSSU-380) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Micro Radio Server Carrier Unit (RSCU-380) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Micro Radio Server (RS-381). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro Remote Radio Head (RRH-m/RRH-mh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Micro/Pico Remote Radio Head (RRH-pi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Network Controller (RNC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifications in the NodeB and RNC Hardware for HSDPA/HSUPA . . Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifications in the RNC Hardware for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifications in the RNC Hardware for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FDD NodeB Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modification in the NodeB Software for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modification in the NodeB Software for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RNC Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modification in the RNC Software for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modification in the RNC Software for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions of the 3G RAN (RNS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interfaces in the 3G RAN Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Interface at NodeB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FDD Mode of Radio Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifications in FDD Mode of Radio Interface for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . .

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3.1.1.4 3.1.1.5 3.1.1.6 3.1.2 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.2.1 4.1.2.2 4.1.3 4.1.3.1 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.2.1 4.2.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.4.1 4.2.4.2 4.2.4.3 4.2.4.4 4.2.4.5 4.2.4.6 4.2.5 4.2.5.1 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 4.2.11.1 4.2.12 4.2.13 4.2.14 4.2.15 4.2.15.1 4.2.16 4.3

Modifications in FDD Mode of Radio Interface for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . 54 TDD Mode of the Radio Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Internal 3G RAN PLMN Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Service Handling Functions of the RNC and NodeB (FDD Mode) . . . . . 60 Network Functions of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) . . . . . . 77 Basic Functions and Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Radio Channel Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Transport Network Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Transport Network Layer Modifications for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Transport Network Layer Modifications for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Channel Coding/Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Enhancement of Channel Coding /Decoding for HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Enhancement of Channel Coding /Decoding for HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Bearer Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Short Message Service (SMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Location Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Radio Network Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Antenna Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Radio-Access Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Data Integrity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 User Data Confidentiality (Ciphering) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Separated or Combined Mobility Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 3G Handover/Relocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Inter-Frequency Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Hard Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Soft Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 SRNS Relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Inter-System Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 IMSI-Based Handover (for RAN Sharing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Resource Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Admission Control of Prioritized Bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Preemption for Prioritizing RABs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Overload Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Transmit Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Remote Electrical Antenna Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 3G RAN Radio Cell Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Single-Cell and Multicell Operation as a Radio Network Architecture Tool for Flexible Cell Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Hierarchical Radio Cell Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Versatile Multilayer Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 3G RAN Network Element Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 3G RAN/2G RAN Co-Location Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Fractional Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Handling of Special MSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Protocol Stacks for Transport and Signaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

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4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 4.3.2.3 4.3.2.4 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.8.1 5

Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Protocols on the Iu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 User Data Transport Protocol ATM-based in the Circuit-Switched Domain on Iu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 User Data Transport Protocol in the Packet-Switched Domain on the Iu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Control Signaling Protocols on the Iu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Transport Signaling Protocols on the Iu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Protocols on the Iub Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Protocols on the Iur Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Protocols on the Uu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Protocols for HSDPA Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Protocols for HSUPA Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Protocols of the EM or other TMN Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Structure of the TCP/IP or UDP/IP Communication Protocol . . . . . . . 150 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

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List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 PLMN subsystem architecture (with circuit-switched domain and packetswitched domain in the CN - for an MSC/VLR or an SGSN node) . . . . . 15 Structure of the 3G RAN (RNS) - without radio servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) - with DIRCCAT concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) - with REPTRX-LPA concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-420) - with DIRC-CAT concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-420) - with REP-TRXLPA concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-880/881) - with DIRCCAT concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-860) - with DRIC-CAT concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-860) - with DRIC-CAT concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-341) - with REP-TRXLPA concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Functional structure of the radio server RS-880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Functional structure of the RNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Reference configuration at the radio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Radio frequency carrier spectrum for the UMTS FDD mode . . . . . . . . . 50 The dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) structure as an example of a physical channel in the FDD mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Radio frequency carrier spectrum for the UMTS TDD mode . . . . . . . . . 56 The TDD frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Location services network architecture to support the location of MS . . 96 Principle of data integrity in the circuit-switched domain of 3G UMTS . 101 Separated/combined mobility management (MM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Coverage triggered inter-frequency handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 RNC-controlled hard handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Principle of soft handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Examples of single-cell operation and multicell operation . . . . . . . . . . 124 Hierarchical radio cell structure scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Macro-macro scenario with possible target radio cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 NodeB providing an integrated TDM/ATM Mux/Demux for fractional ATM 132 Overview of all 3G PLMN points (3G PLMN interfaces) of the described protocol stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 The three main transport and/or signaling systems within the 3G PLMN . . 135 Iu interface protocol stack for circuit-switched and packet-switched instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 The Iu interface protocol stack of ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) in the circuit-switched domain the Iu interface . . . . . . . . . 136 Protocol stack overview for user data packet transport in the packet-

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Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43

switched domain over all interfaces from to Iu to Gi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) in the packet-switched domain on the Iu interface. . . . . . 138 Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based control signaling protocol 139 Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based transport signaling protocol in the circuit-switched domain of Iu interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Iub interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling (control and transport) protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Iur interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling (control and transport) protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Uu interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling protocol . 146 User plane protocol stack of HSDPA for UTRAN Uu and Iub interfaces . . 147 User plane protocol stack of HSUPA for UTRAN Uu and Iub interfaces . . 148 Communication protocols for the O&M connections of the 3G PLMN with 3G RAN (RNS) nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Structure of the TCP/IP communication protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

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List of Tables
Table 1 Table 2 Use of the individual system description documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Classification of handover/relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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Change History

Change History
Issue 1 (04/2008) New software release. The main new features of current software release are: HSUPA support Traffic separtion on ATM VC and VP level VP traffic separation on Iur HSDPA over Iur HSDPA Iub congestion control Flexible common channel bandwidth setting per cell Service based handover Two simultaneous non-realtime services Following features are described in addition to the last issue of last software release: Load based handover Micro radio server carrier unit (RSCU-380) support Micro/pico remote radio head (RRH-pi) support

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10

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Overview of System Description

1 Overview of System Description


1.1 Documentation Overview of System Description
The entire system description series consists of the following individual documents: Network system concept CN GSM/UMTScs RAN GSM/GPRS RAN UMTS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS GSM-R

g This system description series is based on the Siemens-originated CNcs, 2G RAN,


3G RAN, and corresponding element managers (EM). A separate system description for a CN GSM/UMTSps is not part of this system description series anymore. A corresponding system description for the CN GSM/UMTSps system that is used can be added to this system description series. The individual document can be used either for the 2G network (PLMN) or for the 3G PLMN or for both the 2G and 3G PLMNs as shown in Table 1. Furthermore, the documents Network System Concept and CN GSM/UMTScs can be used for Core Network circuit-switched (CNcs) domain. The documents Network System Concept, CN GSM/UMTScs and EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS can be used both for 2G PLMN and 3G PLMN in a unified 2G/3G network. If it is used for a pure 2G PLMN or pure 3G PLMN, the relevant 2G PLMN or 3G PLMN part can be ignored. The document RAN GSM/GPRS is only used for 2G parts and the document RAN UMTS is used for 3G parts of a unified 2G/3G PLMN. The document GSM-R is only used for additional GSM railway parts of a 2G PLMN.
Network generation Network subsystem CNcs domain + + + + + + + + + CNps domain + 2G RAN + 3G RAN + EM in TMN +

Individual document

Network System Concept CN GSM/UMTScs RAN GSM/GPRS RAN UMTS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS GSM-R

2G + 3G 2G + 3G 2G 3G 2G + 3G 2G

Table 1

Use of the individual system description documents

To get an overview of a GSM Network (2G circuit-switched) we recommend that you read: Network System Concept CN GSM/UMTScs RAN GSM/GPRS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS.

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To get an overview of a GSM Railway Network (2G circuit-switched) we recommend that you read: Network System Concept CN GSM/UMTScs RAN GSM/GPRS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS GSM-R. To get an overview of a unified 2G/3G network (circuit-switched + packetswitched) we recommend that you read: Network system concept CN GSM/UMTScs Additional CN GSM/UMTSps system description (not part of this system description series - see the note above) RAN GSM/GPRS RAN UMTS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS. To get an overview of a pure 3G network (circuit-switched + packet-switched) we recommend that you read: Network system concept CN GSM/UMTScs Additional CN GSM/UMTSps system description (not part of this system description series - see the note above) RAN UMTS EM GSM/GPRS/UMTS.

1.2

Scope of the CN GSM/UMTScs Description


The CN GSM/UMTScs System Description is intended to give an introduction and overview of the second-generation (2G) circuit-switched (GSM) part of the global system of the mobile communication (GSM) and third-generation (3G) circuit-switched (CS) part of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network system based on 3GPP standards (Rel99 and later). The network system is modeled to the Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) framework which consists of the: Core Network (CN) Radio Access Network (RAN) Network Element Management (NEM). The Core Network nodes are designed to support a PLMN operator with a pure 2G GSM/GPRS PLMN operator, and both an evolution path GSM/GPRS/UMTS and a pure 3G UMTS PLMN operator. This is possible by providing unified switching nodes 2G/3G MSC for circuit-switched domain of the CN (CNcs) or 2G/3G SGSN for packet-switched domain of CN (CNps). A unified 2G/3G PLMN consists, in addition to the above mentioned system parts CNcs or CNps, of 2G or 3G RAN and Network Element Management (NEM). Based on the CN node configurations, this CN GSM/UMTScs document describes both the circuit-switched CN part of the Nokia Siemens Network (Siemens-originated)

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product lines. It includes PLMN system architecture (hardware, software), PLMN system functions, network functions. The purpose of this document is to support an network provider who provides: a pure circuit-switched 2G GSM network a 2G circuit-switched GSM railway network an evolution network circuit-switched 2G GSM and a 3G UMTS and a pure circuit-switched 3G UMTS network.

1.3

Definition of Terms
In this system description, the following terms are used as described below: MS is used for the 2G or 3G functional part of a subscribers mobile. It consists of the mobile equipment & (U)SIM. In UMTS, the mobile equipment is also called user equipment (UE). is used for the 2G or 3G circuit-switched domain of Core Network (CN). is used for the 2G or 3G packet-switched domain of Core Network (CN). is used for the 3G circuit-switched and packet-switched PLMN part. is used for the 2G or 3G Radio Access Network. is used for the Network Element Management which is part of the Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) model.

CNcs CNps UMTS PLMN RAN NEM

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2 System Architecture of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN)


In the Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) consists of the following parts: Circuit-switched domain (CNps) Packet-switched domain (CNps). 2G Radio Access Network (2G RAN) 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) Network Element Management (NEM) modeled to Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) for CNs and RANs The circuit-switched domain of CN (CNcs) consists of the following network elements: Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC) - on the MSC/VLR node Visitor Location Register (VLR) - on the MSC/VLR node GSM Media Gateway (GSM MGW) (2G only, optional) Home Location Register (HLR) Authentication Center (AC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Gateway MSC (GMSC) Stand-alone Signaling Transfer Point (SA STP) The packet-switched domain of CN (CNps) consists of (or involves) the following network elements: Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Home Location Register (HLR) Authentication Center (AC) The 2G Radio Access Network (2G RAN) or Base Station System (BSS) consists of (or involves) the following network elements: Base Station Controller (BSC)/Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) or Radio Network System (RNS) consists of (or involves) the following network elements: Radio Network Controller (RNC) NodeB Figure 1 shows the PLMN subsystem architecture (with circuit-switched domain and packet-switched domain in the CN - for an MSC/VLR or an SGSN node).

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Element managers (EMs) within Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) RC SC @Com

Core Network (CN) Circuit-switched domain TMSC GMSC E, Nb MSC/VLR RNC Iub NodeB 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) Iu.ps BTS Gs Iu,cs E, Nc

A NodeB Iub

SCP CAP interface D D F EIR Gf Gr HLR AC

Packet-switched domain to ABC Bp Bp GGSN Gi

Abis BSC Abis

Asub TRAU SGSN Gb

Gn Ge

BTS

2G Radio Access Network (2G RAN)

SCP

Figure 1

PLMN subsystem architecture (with circuit-switched domain and packetswitched domain in the CN - for an MSC/VLR or an SGSN node)

2.1

Network Elements of a 3G RAN


The 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN) or Radio Network System (RNS) consists of radio network controllers (RNCs), base transceiver stations (NodeBs) - including radio server (RS), and local maintenance terminals (LMTs), as shown in Figure 2. The structure with an intelligent centralized controller part and several low cost transceiver stations is fully appropriate to both smallest cell networks, as preferably used in urban areas, and large-cell rural networks. The advantage of smallest cell networks is the internal handover offered by the RNCs, the advantage of large-cell networks is the coverage of large areas by low-cost NodeBs.

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Base transceiver station (NodeB) NodeBs are distributed over the whole radio service area. In general, each RNC supports several NodeBs, but at least one NodeB. Each NodeB serves one ore more (up to 6) radio cells. Radio Network Controller (RNC) The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is the network element responsible for mobility management, call processing, radio resource management, link maintenance and handover control. One or more RNCs are linked to an MSC/VLR or SGSN. Physically, the RNCs can be grouped together at a central point on MSC/VLR sites or SGSN sites or remotely in a shelter or in a confined space. The RNC can then act as a concentrator for the links between the Iub and Iu interfaces. An RNC serves one or more NodeBs.

2.2

Hardware Architecture
The 3G RAN (RNS) consists of Base transceiver station (NodeB) with FDD mode - including radio server (RS) Radio network controllers (RNCs) and is shown in Figure 2. The NodeB (with FDD mode) variants are the following: Macro-FDD NodeBs (NB-440/441, NB-420, NB-880/881, NB-860) Micro-FDD NodeB (NB-341) Macro-FDD NodeB (NB-530)

g Most NodeB variants with FDD mode are hardware-prepared for the use of
HSDPA/HSUPA. See also sections 2.3.1 Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSDPA and 2.3.2 Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSUPA.

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Uu NodeB

(from/to RC, with TCP/IP)

Itf-B (from/to other RNC

Iur

Iub remote Uu NodeB (from/to RC, with TCP/IP) Itf-B (from/to MSC/VLR or SGSN) Iu RNC

Iub remote

Uu T NodeB LMT together with RNC (from/to RC, with TCP/IP) Itf-R

LMT

LMT

Figure 2

Structure of the 3G RAN (RNS) - without radio servers

2.2.1

Macro FDD NodeB (NB-440/441)


The FDD macro NodeB (NB-440/441) is specifically designed for the mass roll-out of the 3G RAN/RNS. This small-sized NodeB is based on the 2nd generation platform and incorporates the latest market demands derived from startup experience with UMTS networks. The devices feature a new shelf design that allows for maximum scalability. The NB-440/441 NodeB system is designed for a maximum of 12 carriers in 2 cabinets. The minimum configuration is one cabinet: NB-440 base rack for indoor installation NB-441 base shelter for outdoor installation. Unlike the indoor rack, the outdoor cabinet consists of a double shelter. It includes a service area to accommodate AC/DC modules, backup batteries and link equipment. The rack/shelter can easily be extended by one extension cabinet. The NB-441 offers a service shelter for installing further backup batteries and link equipment. A maximum of 6 sectors is supported: up to 3 sectors with the single cabinet and up to 3 sectors with the extension cabinet.

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All cell configurations from 1/0/0/0/0/0 ... 2/2/2/2/0/0 with or without TX diversity are possible. 2 antennas are supplied for each sector. The antennas can be completed by tower-mounted low noise amplifiers. The macro FDD NodeB consists of one cabinet each containing two shelves: Base rack/shelter: Air link shelf (A-SHF) Base shelf (B-SHF) The NB-440/441 can be upgraded to a new hardware concept (DRIC-CAT), which replaces the transceiver cards (TRX), power amplifier (LPA) and repeater card (REP). This concept enables newest available technologies in linear amplifier research such as digital predistortion. This provides noticeably higher efficiency resulting in lower power consumption of the whole NodeB.

g The FDD macro NodeB (NB-440/441) is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The modules digital radio interface card (DRIC) and combined amplifier and transceiver (CAT) are connected by a digital high-speed interface called the common public radio interface (CPRI). The CPRI interface is a unique radio-driven interconnect point in radio base stations, which offers the following benefits: Varying radio base station architectures for very flexible solutions, e.g., distributed architectures and remote tower-mounted radio concepts Additional deployment scenarios Efficient network deployment The technology leading common public radio interface (CPRI) is the base for new and versatile NodeB architectures. Now, sites can be flexibly planned with NodeB radio server and remote radio heads (RRH) or the standard Macro or Micro NodeB scenario. The NB-440/441 can either be equipped with DRIC and CAT modules (DRIC-CAT concept) or TRX, LPA, and REP modules (REP-TRX-LPA concept): DRIC-CAT concept: The combined amplifier and transceiver (CAT) module integrates all functions of the TRX card except the spreading functionality. The digital radio interface card (DRIC) comprises the spreading functionality of all TRX cards as well as the functionality of the repeater card (REP). The DRIC enables a CPRI compliant digital radio interface between the radio equipment controller (REC, that is, DRIC) and the radio equipment (RE, that is, CAT). REP-TRX-LPA concept: The REP performs the multiplexing, routing, and splitting function of the baseband signals. The TRX card provides all transmitter and receiver functions. The LPA amplifies the radio-frequency signals from the TRX.

g Mixed configurations (DRIC-CAT with REP-TRX-LPA in one NodeB) are not possible. A NodeB with a DRIC can be connected to remote radio heads (RRH) to reduce feeder and amplifier losses. RRH offers also the following benefits: Feeder loss in the downlink direction is diminished by the short distance between RRH antenna connector and RRH. The uplink quality is also improved superseding a TMA.

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OPEX reduction due to reduced power consumption and optimization in operation and maintenance Flexible number of sectors and antenna sites Easier site acquisition due to reduced requirements for NodeB locations (flexible fibre optic cable, longer distances between NodeB and antenna location possible, lower acoustic noise emission for radio server) In the DRIC-CAT concept, the modules on each shelf are configured as follows: The A-SHF contains: Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Combined amplifier and transceiver module (CAT) The B-SHF contains: Digital radio interface card (DRIC) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) In the REP-TRX-LPA concept, the modules on each shelf are configured as follows: A-SHF contains: Duplex amplifier multicoupler (DUAMCO) Linear power amplifier (LPA). B-SHF/E-SHF contains: Transceiver card (TRX) Repeater card (REP) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC)

2.2.1.1

DRIC-CAT Concept
Figure 4 shows the functional structure of the macro FDD NodeB with DIRC-CATconcept. An NB-440/441 with DRIC and CAT modules can also be connected to remote radio heads (RRH).

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R X

R X / T X

R X Antenna

R X / T X

RHH

TMA

Air link shelf (A-SHF)

NodeB (FDD)

CAT

DUAMCO

CPRI

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Base shelf (B-SHF)

Figure 3

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) - with DIRCCAT concept

Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA) The tower-mounted amplifier (TMA) is installed outside the NodeB cabinet close to the TX/RX antenna. These amplifiers are optional but highly recommended as they compensate for cable losses. Therefore, they ensure lower noise disturbance which results in improved link quality and link availability at radio cell borders. The TMA feeds the overall NodeB downlink signal to one TX/RX antenna and filters the overall uplink signal coming from the same TX/RX antenna. Owing to the full duplex architecture of the TMA, only one feeder cable is required for the TX and RX signal between the TMA and the DUAMCO inside NodeB. The signaling interface between the TMA and the DUAMCO is provided via the radio frequency (RF) interface feeder connector by means of a triplexer. Status information of the TMA is passed onto the O&M interface via this interface. In addition to the TMA, a dual TMA (DTMA) is provided for the NB-440/441. The DTMA includes two TMA units in a single housing and is very efficient in combination with a

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cross-polarized antenna. A DTMA including remote electrical tilt (DTMARET) control is available. Antennas with a remote down tilt functionality improve the radio and baseband capacity by adapting the cell size to different load scenarios. Duplex amplifier multicoupler (DUAMCO) The DUAMCO includes a duplexer, a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a multicoupler. The duplexer combines the transmitting and receiving paths to the common antenna connector. The duplex filter provides a substantial part of the required receiving and transmitting band filtering. The receiving path consists of an LNA followed by a power splitter providing four identical outputs for the TRX units. The power supply and the signaling of the TMA is provided by the DUAMCO via triplexers at the antenna outputs. The two available types are DUAMCORT, providing TX/RX diversity, and DUAMCOR, providing RX diversity only. Combined amplifier and transceiver module (CAT) The CAT20/40 module amplifies the downlink radio-frequency signals to a specified level for each sector. In the downlink direction (TX path), this module converts the digital signal coming from the DRIC via the CPRI to an analog signal, amplifies it to a specified level and transmits it to the DUAMCO. In the uplink direction, the CAT performs down conversion of radio-frequency signals received from the DUAMCO (analog part of the RX path). These signals are de-modulated, converted into digital signals, and transmitted to the DRIC via the CPRI. Operation and maintenance information such as alarms and product identification data (PID) is also supported by the CPRI. Using the DRIC-CAT concept, the supplied combined amplifier and transceiver (CAT) with 40 W (CAT40) or 20 W (CAT20) output power is designed for operation with one UMTS FDD carrier per antenna with a nominal output power of 40(20) W or two UMTS FDD carriers per antenna with 40(20) W as the nominal average sum output power, that is, each carrier is being radiated with 20(10) W per antenna (hardware-prepared) or three UMTS FDD carriers per sector with a radiated output power of 20 W per cell. This mixed configuration consists of 3 CAT20 and 3 CAT40 modules. Digital radio interface card (DRIC) The digital radio interface card (DRIC) provides multiplexing, routing and splitting functionality of the baseband signals as well as the spreading functionality in the downlink direction (TRX part). The modules DRIC and CAT are connected by a digital high-speed interface called the common public radio interface (CPRI). There are two types of DRIC: DRIC24_24OE and DRIC12_12. The DRIC24_24OE provides the following additional key benefits compared to the DRIC12_12: Hardware-preparation for 24 downlink and uplink paths Support of electrical and optical CPRI-compliant interfaces Support of remote radio heads (RRH) in any mixed configuration with CATs Higher spreading capacity of 3072 channel elements and higher a date rate of 1228.8 Mbit/s

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Channel coding card (CHC) The CHC card is a baseband signal processing card mounted on the B-SHF. It performs channel coding and decoding of transmitted and received data. The CHC also performs the despreading, chip synchronization, RAKE composition, error correction decoding, and demultiplexing of received data. The CHC card can simultaneously perform channel coding and decoding for both the traffic channels and the control channels (common channels) in one card. This feature is called combined mode. Core controller (CC) The CC handles signal transmission and data controlling of the base rack/shelter and manages the data exchange with the RNC and the CHC. Moreover, due to the implemented ATM switch, it can provide a relay functionality for other base stations. The CC also administers the operation and maintenance functionality of the NodeB 440/441. The CC (except CC2E8) supports circuit emulation service (CES) providing emulation of the Abis transport layer. CES is performed on ATM links (STM-1, IMA on n x E1). Remote radio head (RRH) The remote radio head (RRH) is an outdoor unit outside the NodeB which performs the RF functionality very similar to a CAT, a DUAMCO, and a DTMARET. Therefore CAT, DUAMCO and DTMARET can be used in parallel (RRH/CAT mixed mode), but are not required for the usage of RRHs. The RRH is placed close to two antennas with a distance of up to 10 km to the NodeB. It can be mounted to wall, pole, or roof top. A RRH provides two CPRI-compliant optical interfaces for connection to the DRIC, that is, an optical DRIC of type DRIC24_24OE is required to use RRHs.

2.2.1.2

REP-TRX-LPA Concept
Figure 4 shows the functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) with REP-TRX-LPA concept. Linear power amplifier (LPA) The LPA amplifies the transmitter radio frequency signals from the TRX to a specified level for each sector. A CAN bus interface supports operation and maintenance information such as alarms and product identification data (PID). Furthermore, calibration data is accessible via a CAN bus allowing compensation for the LPAs frequency response in the TRX module. The supplied multicarrier power amplifier (MCPA) is specified for operation with one UMTS FDD signal with a nominal output power of 20 W or two UMTS FDD signals with 20 W as the nominal average output power, that is, 10 W for each signal. Transceiver card (TRX) The transmitter (TX) part of the transceiver card (TRX) uses the quadrature modulator to convert the baseband spread signals processed by the repeater card (REP) into radio frequency signals. It also performs coherent detection of a radio frequency signal received from the DUAMCO. The TRX supplies high precision digital processing by high-speed sampling exceeding eight times the chip rate. Carrier leakage in the TX part is prevented by applying a frequency offset to the baseband I and Q signals to block

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direct currency (DC). As a result, the TX ON/OFF ratio and modulation accuracy can be improved. Carrier leakage in the RF part is minimized by the common local oscillation circuit for the transmitter and receiver.

R X

R X / T X

Antenna

TMA

Air link shelf (A-SHF) LPA and DUAMCO

NodeB (FDD)

TRX

R E P

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Base shelf (B-SHF)

Figure 4

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-440/441) - with REPTRX-LPA concept

Repeater card (REP) The repeater card (REP) is positioned between the CHC cards and the TRX cards to provide a repeater function for the baseband signals. Function blocks common with the DRIC-CAT concept: The following function blocks common with the DRIC-CAT concept are described in the previous section DRIC-CAT concept: Tower mounted amplifier (TMA) Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO)

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Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC)

2.2.2

Macro FDD NodeB (NB-420)


The indoor macro FDD NodeB NB-420 provides macro capacity in micro-sized housing (<245 l). The NB-420 and the NB-440/441 use the same baseband and RF modules, which simplifies distribution of spare parts and training of the maintenance staff if both NodeB variants are used in the same network.

g The macro FDD NodeB NB-420 is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The macro NodeB NB-420 provides compactness and flexible expandability with modular shelf configurations. The highly integrated cards/modules/components (especially CHC96 and the DRIC and CAT modules) noticeably reduce the system complexity. The configuration of the macro NodeB NB-420 consists of one rack. This rack contains only one shelf for both baseband and RF modules. The NB-420 can either be equipped with TRX, LPA, and REP modules (REP-TRX-LPA concept) or per upgrade with DRIC and CAT modules (DRIC-CAT concept).

g Mixed configurations (DRIC-CAT with REP-TRX-LPA in one NodeB) are not possible. A NodeB with a DRIC can be connected to remote radio heads (RRH) to reduce feeder and amplifier losses. In the DRIC-CAT concept, the modules on the shelf are configured as follows: Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Combined amplifier and transceiver module (CAT) Digital radio interface card (DRIC) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 5 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-420 with remote radio heads (RRH) in the DRIC-CAT concept. The modules are described in section 2.2.1.1, DRIC-CAT Concept.

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R X

R X / T X

R X Antenna

R X / T X

RHH

TMA

NodeB (FDD) CAT DUAMCO

CPRI

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Figure 5

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-420) - with DIRC-CAT concept

In the REP-TRX-LPA concept, the modules on the shelf are configured as follows Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Linear power amplifier (LPA) Transceiver card (TRX) Repeater card (REP) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 6 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-420 with REP-TRX-LPA concept. The modules are described in section 2.2.1.2, REP-TRX-LPA Concept.

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R X

R X / T X

Antenna

TMA

NodeB (FDD) LPA and DUAMCO

TRX

R E P

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Figure 6

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-420) - with REP-TRXLPA concept

2.2.3

Macro FDD NodeB (NB-880/881)


The macro FDD NodeB (NB-880/881) is specifically designed to satisfy the real-world demands of UTRAN operators. This NodeB provides 3rd generation functionality and incorporates economic-driven innovations for todays UMTS networks.

g The macro FDD NodeB NB-880/881 is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The macro NodeB NB-880 and its outdoor variant NB-881 provide compactness and flexible expandability with modular shelf configurations. This NodeB can therefore be configured to meet market requirements from low to high capacity with minimum impact on installation space. The NB-881 is a fully self-contained NodeB including any provision for quick and easy outdoor deployment. It is also fully backward-compatible with widespread NB-44x modules and designed to support the NB-44x feature set. The highly integrated cards/modules/components (especially CHC96 and the DRIC and CAT modules) noticeably reduce the system complexity. NB-881 shelter with reduced height (NB-881 HR): The NB-881 with reduced height is a variant of the NB-881 with a shelter less than 1.15 m tall. Shelter and base do not exceed 1.5 m in height. The NB-881 HR is equipped with the DRIC-CAT concept and features a two carriers/sector configuration. Configurations with RRH-m and RRH-pi (hardwareprepared) are possible, as is the use of HSDPA/HSUPA.

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The NodeB features the smart cell configuration (SCC), which provides a cost efficient coverage of areas with low traffic density. SCC enables a three sector configuration and its upgrade to a standard three sector configuration. The configuration of the Macro NodeB NB-880/881 consists of one cabinet: NB-880 base rack for indoor installation NB-881 base shelter for outdoor installation The outdoor cabinet consists of a double shelter. It includes a service area to accommodate AC/DC modules, backup batteries and link equipment. An additional service2 shelter is provided for outdoor installation of the NB-881 depending on site requirements. Each cabinet contains two shelves: Base rack/shelter: Air link shelf (A-SHF) Base shelf (B-SHF) The NB-880/881 is equipped with DRIC and CAT modules. The DRIC enables a CPRIcompliant digital radio interface between the radio equipment controller (REC, that is, DRIC) and the radio equipment (RE, that is, CAT). A NodeB with a DRIC can be connected to remote radio heads (RRH) to reduce feeder and amplifier losses. In the DRIC-CAT concept, the modules on each shelf are configured as follows: The A-SHF contains: Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Combined amplifier and transceiver module (CAT) The B-SHF contains: Digital radio interface card (DRIC) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 7 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-880/881 with remote radio heads (RRH) in the DRIC-CAT concept. The modules are described in section 2.2.1.1, DRIC-CAT Concept.

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R X

R X / T X

R X Antenna

R X / T X

RHH

TMA

Air link shelf (A-SHF)

NodeB (FDD)

CAT

DUAMCO

CPRI

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Base shelf (B-SHF)

Figure 7

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-880/881) - with DIRCCAT concept

2.2.4

Macro FDD NodeB (NB-860)


The indoor macro FDD NodeB NB-860 provides macro capacity in micro-sized housing (<245 l). The NB-860 and the NB-880/881 use the same baseband and RF modules, which simplifies distribution of spare parts and training of the maintenance staff if both NodeB variants are used in the same network. The Macro NodeB NB-860 provides compactness and flexible expandability with modular shelf configurations. The highly integrated cards/modules/components (especially CHC96 and the DRIC and CAT modules) noticeably reduce the system complexity.

g The macro FDD NodeB NB-860 is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The NB-880/881 uses a new hardware concept (DRIC-CAT), which enables newest available technologies in linear amplifier research such as digital predistortion. This

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provides a noticeably higher efficiency resulting in a lower power consumption of the whole NodeB. The configuration of the Macro NodeB NB-860 consists of one rack. This rack contains only one shelf for both baseband and RF modules. The NB-860 is equipped with DRIC and CAT modules (DRIC-CAT concept). The combined amplifier and transceiver (CAT) module integrates the transmitter and receiver functions. The digital radio interface card (DRIC) comprises the spreading functionality as well as the multiplexing, routing and splitting function of the baseband signals. A NodeB with a DRIC can be connected to remote radio heads (RRH) to reduce feeder and amplifier losses. In the DRIC-CAT concept, the modules on the shelf are configured as follows: Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Combined amplifier and transceiver module (CAT) Digital radio interface card (DRIC) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 8 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-860 (without remote radio heads (RRH)) in the DRIC-CAT concept. The modules are described in section 2.2.1.1, DRIC-CAT Concept.

R X Antenna

R X / T X

TMA

NodeB (FDD) CAT DUAMCO

CPRI

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Figure 8

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-860) - with DRIC-CAT concept

Figure 9 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-860 (with remote radio heads (RRH)) in the DRIC-CAT concept. The modules are described in section 2.2.1.1, DRIC-CAT Concept.

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R X

R X / T X

Antenna

RHH

NodeB (FDD)

CPRI

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Figure 9

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-860) - with DRIC-CAT concept

2.2.5

Micro FDD NodeB (NB-341)


The outdoor micro FDD NodeB NB-341 is a smart and easy-to handle 1-carrier solution with a light weight and small dimensions, with all modules integrated within one housing.It is designed for hierarchical cell structures, hot spot areas, e.g., office buildings and entrance halls (e.g., inside advertising pillars), black spot coverage (outdoor), underground locations, railways and highways. The NB-341 can be quickly and easily installed on indoor and outdoor sites (e.g., on walls and poles), requiring no footprint. Because of its low-noise convection cooling and low maintenance needs, it can operate in areas that require silence or where maintenance tasks are difficult to perform (e.g., in hidden places in old towns). A variable power supply enables operation at almost all sites. Due to the low output power (0.5 W), a government permission is not necessary in many countries.A booster for higher output power demands is optionally available to increase the cell size and/or the capacity. There is a sector and carrier configuration of: 1 sector/1 carrier.

g The Micro FDD NodeB NB-341 is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The configuration of the Micro NodeB NB-341 consists of one single unit containing one of each of the following modules: Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) TX amplifier (TX AMP) Transceiver card (TRX)

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Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 10 shows the block diagram of NodeB NB-341.

R X

R X / T X

Antenna

Booster

NodeB (FDD) TX AMP and DUAMCO OVP

Heater

TRX

CHC C C OVP

LMT

RNC

Figure 10

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB (NB-341) - with REP-TRXLPA concept

TX amplifier (TX AMP) The TX AMP consists of the TX amplifier module and a coupler module. The TX amplifier module amplifies the transmitter radio frequency signals received from the TRX to a specified level. The TX AMP can work in two modes depending on whether a booster is used in the configuration. The TX amplifier module is only activated when no booster is used. Operation and maintenance information such as alarms and product identification data (PID) is supported by a CAN bus interface to the CC. Booster The booster is an optional unit. It amplifies the downlink signals to a defined level. The amplified signals are transmitted to the mobile station (MS) via an antenna. Heater The heater unit is used for the cold start and is controlled by temperature monitoring. NB-341 does not switch on until a proper operating temperature is reached. At the same

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time the heater switches off, which means that NB-341 and the heater never run in parallel during normal operation. Even for an outside temperature of -33 C the thermal power loss is sufficient to keep electronic devices above 0 C. Function blocks common with the concept of other NodeB series: The following modules are described in section 2.2.1.2, REP-TRX-LPA Concept and section 2.2.1.1, DRIC-CAT Concept: Transceiver card (TRX) Duplexer amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC)

2.2.6

Macro FDD NodeB (NB-530)


The Macro FDD NodeB NB-530 is a well-established solution for the speedy introduction of UMTS. It benefits from the experience gained from numerous trial systems all over the world. The highlights of the macro FDD NodeB (NB-530) are 4 carriers (TRX) in 2 racks with 2 carriers (TRX) each, significantly reduced volume per carrier (TRX), and a futureoriented preparation for new features. The NB-530 rack is designed for indoor installation. Cell configurations are possible up to 3 sectors; all radio cell configurations from 1/0/0 ... 2/2/2 with or without TX diversity. 2 antennas are supplied for each sector. The antennas can be complemented by top tower amplifiers for low noise amplification. While the typical radio cell range for this macro-NodeB is 2 km, the maximum radio cell range is up to 20 km. For communication between the NodeB and the Radio Network Controller (RNC), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) interfaces connect these nodes where data is transmitted using ATM composite cells. The NodeB converts the data received over the ATM interface as appropriate, and relays the data to the baseband processing subsystem (that is, channel cards). The subsystem then spreads and sends the data to the radio transmitter receiver (TRX) cards for modulation to appropriate frequencies. After this, the TRX cards combine the modulated signals and send them to the multicarrier linear power amplifier (LPA). The macro FDD NodeB consists of the following three shelves (Figure 11): Basic modem unit (B-SHF) Expansion modem unit (T-SHF) Transmitter receiver amplifier unit (A-SHF). NodeB offers basic configuration consisting of two units of equipment; a transmitter receiver amplifier unit and a basic modem unit. The configuration can be expanded with an expansion modem unit. Top tower amplifier (TTA) The TTA is installed outside NodeB close to the TX/RX antenna. It is an optional but highly recommended unit to improve receiver sensitivity. The TTA amplifies the receive signal in order to compensate the feeder and distribution loss. Due to the duplex archi-

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tecture of the TTA only one feeder cable is required for the TX and RX signals between the TTA and the DUAMCO. Linear power amplifier (LPA) block The LPA amplifies the transmitter radio frequency signals from the TRX to a specified level for each sector. A CAN bus interface supports operation and maintenance information such as alarms and product identification data (PID). Furthermore, calibration data is accessible via a CAN bus. Two different amplifier types are supplied: The single carrier power amplifier (SCPA) is intended for operation with one UMTS FDD signal with a nominal output power of 20 W per carrier. The multi-carrier power amplifier (MCPA) is intended for operation with two UMTS FDD signals with 20 W as the nominal average output power, that is, 10 W per carrier for each signal. Duplex amplifier multi-coupler (DUAMCO) The DUAMCO includes a duplexer, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a multi-coupler. The duplexer combines the transmit and the receive paths to the common antenna connector. The duplex filter provides receive and transmit band filtering. The reception path consists of an LNA followed by a power splitter which provides four identical outputs for the TRX units. The transmission path consists of a duplexer and an antenna-monitoring unit for the TTAs. Power supply and the signalling of the TTA is provided by the DUAMCO via triplexers at the antenna outputs. Figure 11 shows the functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB. Transceiver (TRX) card The main functions of the TRX card are transmitter modulation and receiver demodulation. The TRX card implements high-precision digital processing by way of high-speed sampling as fast as eight times the chip rate. Carrier leakage in the TRX part is prevented by applying a frequency offset to the base-band I and Q signals to block DC. Thus, the TX ON/OFF ratio and modulation accuracy are improved. The RF part is miniaturized by the common local oscillator circuit for the transmitter and receiver. Repeater card (REP) The REP card is installed between the CHC and the TRX for spreading processing and to relay base-band signals. Channel coding card (CHC) The CHC card is a base-band signal processing block mounted on the B-SHF and TSHF. Its main function is channel coding and decoding. A CHC card is shared between all sectors. The card must be assigned to the control channel or to the traffic channel. The assignment of the firmware function can be flexibly changed to suit different transmission rates depending on the symbol rate. The proper functional assignment of the hardware and software provides a flexible configuration for future improvement.

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R X

R X / T X

R X

R X / T X

Antenna

TTA

TTA

NodeB (FDD) Transmitter receiver Amplifier unit (A-SHF)

LPA

AMP-SC

DUAMCO

LMT

CP

EIU ATM

RNC

HWY

TRX

TRX

REP

REP

CHC

ASI

ASI

CHC

Basic modem unit (B-SHF)

Expansion modem unit (T-SHF)

Figure 11

Functional structure of the macro-FDD NodeB

ATM switch interface card (ASI) The ASI card controls the ATM bus and the B-SHF UTOPIA bus. It relays BB clock signals and monitors fans in the B-SHF. Asynchronous transfer mode card (ATM) The ATM card sets the path of the traffic channels for every call and controls the ATM bus and the UTOPIA bus. It relays and multiplexes base-band (BB) clock signals.

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Highway interface card (HWY) The HWY card is the physical port of the Iub interface. It handles the inter-office control signal protocol on 2 MDTI lines and processes the ATM adaptation layer (AAL)-type 2 and AAL-type 5 signals. AMP supervisory and controller (AMP-SC) The AMP-SC supervises and controls up to 6 LPAs, 3 DUAMCOs and the AMP FAN. It communicates with the CP card via the EIU at the V11 interface. External interface unit card (EIU) The EIU card monitors the bus signal within the rack and performs the hardware SDM/GM memory dump. It stores maintenance supervisory control log files and traffic data files of NodeB. Central processing card (CP) The CP card performs the initial program load (IPL) function. It enables communication with the LMT. The CP card provides an application program memory area and a system operation data area.

2.2.7

Radio Servers (RSs) and Remote Radio Head (RRH)


The following radio servers are available: Macro radio server (RS-880) 19 Micro radio server unit (RSSU-380) Micro radio server unit (RSCU-380) Micro radio server (RS-381) The following remote radio head is available: Macro remote radio head (RRH-m) Micro/pico remote radio head (RRH-pi)

2.2.7.1

Macro Radio Server (RS-880)


The macro radio server (RS-880) provides the full functionality of the NodeB NB-880 in conjunction with remote radio heads (RRHs). The radio frequency (RF) functionality of the NodeB is incorporated in a remote radio head (RRH).

g The macro radio server (RS-880) is hardware-prepared for the use of


HSDPA/HSUPA. The RS/RRH configuration represents a versatile NodeB architecture for flexible site planning. RS and RRH interact via the technology leading common public radio interface (CPRI). A complete baseband shelf with DC-panel is mounted into a server rack reducing the acoustic noise emission and the necessary space for installation. RS/RRH configurations offer the following benefits: RS is centralized in a hotel and RRHs are distributed in the coverage area RS can be combined with macro, micro and pico remote radio heads Flexible number of sectors and antenna sites Multi-site configuration (with softer handover) Reduced signaling and transmission costs due to softer handover Baseband (resource) pooling to reduce CAPEX costs

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OPEX reduction due to reduced power consumption and optimization in operation and maintenance Easier site acquisition due to reduced requirements for NodeB locations (flexible fibre optic cable, longer distances between NodeB and antenna location possible, lower acoustic noise emission for radio server) The configuration of the RS-880 consists of one rack containing the baseband modules. The RF modules are located in the remote radio head unit. The RS-880 is equipped with one or two digital radio interface cards (DRIC). The DRIC enables a CPRI-compliant digital radio interface to the radio equipment integrated in the remote radio head (RRH). The digital transmission via a fiber cable reduces feeder and amplifier losses, and noise. The modules (see also section 2.2.1) of the shelf are configured as follows: Digital radio interface card (DRIC) Channel coding card (CHC) Core controller (CC) Figure 4 shows the functional structure of the radio server RS-880.

R X

R X / T X

Antenna

RHH

CPRI

RS (FDD)

D R I C

CHC C C

HUB

LMT

OVPT

RNC

Figure 12

Functional structure of the radio server RS-880

2.2.7.2

19 Micro Radio Server Unit (RSSU-380)


The radio server unit RSSU-380 is a 19 module that provides 3G UMTS services on 2G GSM equipped sites. It can be mounted in already existing racks/shelters with a minimal installation procedure. The RSSU-380 is based on the RS-880 technology, sharing the following modules: 1 CC3

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up to 2 CHC96 DRIC24_24oe Key features of the RSSU-380 with RRHs include: Max. configuration: up to 192 CES using 2 CHCs up to 1/1/1/1/0/0 configuration Operation with up to 4 RRH-m, 6 RRH-pi (hardware-prepared) respectively High power: up to 12.5 W per RRH Low weight (< 15 kg) RX diversity supported by RRH-m and RRH-pi (hardware-prepared) HSDPA/HSUPA is supported

2.2.7.3

Micro Radio Server Carrier Unit (RSCU-380)


The Radio Server Carrier Unit provides an effective solution for operators who want to upgrade their existing GSM equipment to UMTS without additional installation costs and a minimum installation procedure. The RSCU-380 is a compact radio server unit for small to medium traffic which can be mounted into an already existing GSM BTS (BS240, BS241, and BS240XL) occupying 2 CU slots. The RSCU-380 delivers the complete UMTS baseband functionality needed for a Node B. The radio part is connected via the CPRI-interface to the RSCU-380. The RSCU-380 is based on the RSSU-380 technology and comprises the following modules: Mechatronics cage for UMTS modules 1 CC3 up to 2 CHC96 DRIC24_24oe Optional: 1 COREXT-R and 1 GSM OVPT Key features of the RSCU-380 with RRHs include: Baseband capacity: up to 192 CEs using 2 CHCs Radio cell configuration: up to 1/1/1/1 or 2/0/0 (RRH) High power with RRHs: up to 12.5 W per RRH-m, up to 20 W per RRH-mh, up to 0.5 W per RRH-pi Macro Remote Radio Head (RRH-m) Pico Remote Radio Head (RRH-pi) Low weight (< 15 kg) RX diversity supported by RRHs (strongly recommended) HSDPA/HSUPA is supported

2.2.7.4

Micro Radio Server (RS-381)


The outdoor radio server RS-381 contains the baseband part of the NB-88x product line with the same following modules: core controller (CC), channel coding card (CHC), and digital radio interface card (DRIC). It operates with the macro remote radio heads (RRHm) and is hardware-prepared for micro and pico remote radio heads (RRM-pi).

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The RS-381 is a solution for the requirements of small to medium capacity and zero footprint locations. Therefore, it can be wall or pole mounted. The power supply of the NB381 can either be: An AC variant, feeding up to one RRH-m (optional battery box available) A DC variant, provided by a power redundant supply (PRS). The PRS performs an AC/CD conversion and enables a battery backup time of up to 1 h. Key features of the RS-381 with RRHs include the following: Radio configuration: up to 2/0/0 (RRH-m/RRH-mh) or 1/1/1/1/1/1 (RRH-pi) Baseband capacity: up to 192 CE using 2 CHCs High power with RRHs: up to 12.5 W per RRH-m, up to 20 W per RRH-mh, up to 0.5 W per RRH-pi Macro remote radio head (RRH-m/RRH-mh) Pico remote radio head (RRH-pi) RX diversity supported by RRHs (strongly recommended)

2.2.7.5

Macro Remote Radio Head (RRH-m/RRH-mh)


The RRH-m - as well as its higher power variant (RRH-mh) - is an outdoor unit outside the NodeB/radio server representing a highly-integrated, future-proof solution for RF functionality. Based on the technology leading common public radio interface (CPRI), the RRH is fully compatible with the classic NodeB architecture. It can be connected to NB-880/881 NB-860, RS-880, RSSU-380, and RS-381. The RRH-m comprises the complete RF functionality of a NodeB in one unit, equal to the three modules CAT, DUAMCO, and DMARET. The RRH is placed between the NodeB/radio server and two antennas. It provides two CPRI-compliant optical interfaces for connection to the DRIC. The RRH is controlled and monitored by the CC through the CPRI interface. The RRH-m/mh offers the following features: One RRH serves one sector RET functionality is supported External alarms are supported TX-diversity using 2 RRHs per sector (hardware-prepared) CPRI cascading (hardware-prepared) Up to 3 RF carriers for operation within a bandwidth of 15 MHz HSDPA/HSUPA is supported The RRH-m/mh can be installed outside the NodeB/radio server in the following ways: Pole mounting, below or behind antenna Wall mounting Roof top

2.2.7.6

Micro/Pico Remote Radio Head (RRH-pi)


The RRH-pi is an indoor unit outside the NodeB/radio server that approximates the functionality of the CAT with reduced power and one DUAMCO with external or integrated antennas. The RRH-pi provides two CPRI compliant optical DRIF interfaces for connections to the DRIC or other RRH-pi and is controlled via the DRIF interface by the CC. The RRH-pi offers the following features: Single sector, single carrier mode with 0.5 W per radio cell Indoor usage

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Wall or pole mounting possible Optional integrated antennas Support of remote RF update RX-diversity Compliant to medium range and local area base station

The RRH-pi enables configurations with up to 6 RRH-pi. Two optical connectors are supported by the RRH-pi: The multi-mode 850 nm optical transceivers (500 m separation) The single mode 1300 nm optical transceiver (10 km separation)

2.2.8

Radio Network Controller (RNC)


The RNC (RN-750) is the central component of the 3G RAN (RNS).

g The RN-750 supports HSDPA/HSUPA.


In the network scheme of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN), the Radio Network Controller (RNC) plays a role in providing mobility to MS which is in the connected mode and moves through the network. It is responsible for mobility management, call processing, radio resource management, link maintenance and handover control. Depending on the MS radio resource control (RRC) connected state, soft handover is being applied to avoid data transmission loss during handover. The RN-750 uses an evolved version of the field-proven NEAX61# asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches for its platform. The ATM switch platform allows flexible configuration in terms of processing power and the number and type of interfaces. Due to its modular and highly-scalable architecture, the RN-750 is suitable for a sophisticated, well-adapted migration solution from initial low-density to later highly-loaded networks. Dedicated feature packages are provided for the frequency division duplex (FDD) mode. The RNC (RN-750) is: Very flexible in terms of processing power and number and type of interfaces. Compact, due to a small footprint with a two-frame basic configuration. Modular, due to a distributed architecture based on a scalable ATM switching node and a standardized network management interface. Highly scalable, due to an enhanced capacity and connectivity. Designed to support FDD mode Highly reliable due to optional N+1 or 1+1 redundancy. Figure 13 shows the functional structure of the RNC.

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System Description RAN UMTS

RNC

to NodeB

Iub interface

NodeB interface unit

ATM switch unit

MSC/SGSN interface unit

Iu interface

to MSC/VLR or SGSN

to RNC

Iur interface

NodeB interface unit

Trunk unit

RNC controller

O&M interface unit

T interface (RS232C) Itf-R interface (TCP/IP)

LMT RC

Figure 13

Functional structure of the RNC

The RNC consists of: ATM switch unit RNC controller Trunk unit Interface units ATM switch unit The ATM switch unit performs the ATM cell switching function. RNC controller The RNC controller terminates the control protocol at layer 3 or higher, performs call control and trunk management/control; performs operation and maintenance (O&M)-related processing; controls routing of ATM cells between processors and the switch; provides internal control signal monitoring functions; provides processor recovery control and periodical alarm supervision. Trunk unit The trunk unit performs routing of cells between ATM software and trunk; terminates the MSC/SGSN signal; terminates the NodeB signal; terminates the neighbor RNC signal;

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provides diverted handover function and a mapping function between the transport channel and the logical channel. UMTS MSC/SGSN interface unit The UMTS MSC/SGSN interface unit consists of the line interface unit and AAL2 multiplexing unit; performs handling of RNC internal AAL2 partial-fill cells and AAL2 cells and terminates the JTG.957/707 compliant SDH line and performs alarm handling. NodeB interface unit The NodeB interface unit consists of a line interface unit and an AAL2 multiplexing unit; performs handling of AAL2 cells and terminates the STM-1 or E1 lines and performs alarm handling. RNC interface unit The RNC interface unit consists of a line interface unit and an AAL2 multiplexing unit; performs handling of AAL2 cells and terminates the STM-1 or E1 lines and performs alarm handling. O&M interface unit The O&M interface unit is equipped with LAN (TCP/IP) and RS232C communication ports and is connected to O&M facilities.

2.3

Modifications in the NodeB and RNC Hardware for HSDPA/HSUPA


High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is the breakthrough UMTS feature-set that satisfies highest capacity demands, thus providing the prerequisite for broadband services. HSDPA enables up to ten times higher downlink data transmission rates than normal UMTS. This is implemented by means of enhanced modulation and coding schemes in the downlink channel. HSDPA is specified in the 3GPP Release 5 (Rel-5) standard. High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), which is also known as Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH ), is the next big technological enhancement in the wireless communication area. HSUPA provides increased system capacity, better spectral efficiency, higher user throughput, and better user satisfaction with latency reduction in the uplink. With HSUPA, uplink peak rates up to 5.76 Mbit/s (rather than 384 kbit/s with Rel 99) can be transmitted from the mobile phone subscriber. Compared to Rel99, this new technology increases system capacity by up to 50% and is also expected to reduce latency by up to 30% as has been achieved in various tests. Since there is a tradeoff between system capacity and latency, both cannot be optimized simultaneously. HSUPA complements High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), thus enabling PLMN operators to provide a wide spectrum of multimedia services to a large number of end users at affordable prices. HSUPA is specified within the 3GPP Rel-6 standard.

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2.3.1

Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSDPA g The HSDPA feature is only provided for NodeB platform 2. Thus, in the current
software release, NB-420, NB-440, NB-441, NB-860, NB-880, NB-881/NB-881 HR, NB-341, RS-880, RSSU-380, RSCU-380, and RS-381 are capable of processing HSDPA traffic. The NB-440 and NB-441 are referred to as NB-44x. The NB-880, and NB-88/NB-881 HR are referred to as NB-88x. Until now, all UTRAN transport channels have been terminated in the RNC. The HSDSCH, however, is terminated by the MAC-hs layer in the NodeB. This leads to a higher processing load within the NodeB (flow control and scheduling mechanism RNC/NodeB, handling of uplink feedback information). Higher traffic buffering also requires increased memory. Increased internal traffic and higher symbol-level processing (due to a higher data rate) is the consequence. 16QAM is applied as a new additional modulation scheme that does not require any new modulator but which is generated by the installed hardware. Power amplifiers must support a higher linearity for 16QAM. The main HSDPA functions are concentrated on the NodeB channel card (CHC). Therefore, the new HSDPA support requires a software change of the CHC currently used or the installation of the new hs-CHC. For non-HSDPA usage, the previous CHC version can be reused. The current core controller (CC) can handle the higher Iub traffic, an increased number of AAL2 connections, and higher demands for call processing resources. There is no HSDPA-specific functionality located on the CC. CHC96 The existing CHC96 has already been hardware-prepared for HSDPA in product releases prior to the current software release. Its software, however, is updated in order to handle HSDPA traffic in an appropriate way. The CC OAM SW configures the CHC96 to operate in non-HSDPA mode or in HSDPA mode. In non-HSDPA mode, HSDPAspecific channels and functions are not supported. When operating in this mode, the CHC96s maximum performance is equal to 96 channel elements (CEs) and 144 adaptive multi-rate (AMR) equivalents (AMREQs). These characteristics are the same as in the product release prior to the current software release. When working in HSDPA mode, the CHC96 supports both normal channels (3GPP Rel -99) and HSDPA-specific channels and functions simultaneously. Compared to the non-HSDPA mode, no restrictions apply with regard to the maximum number of channel elements and AMR equivalents. The applicable baseband (BB) resources are communicated from the CHC to the CC using the BB resource management procedures defined in each mode of operation.

2.3.2

Modifications in the NodeB Hardware for HSUPA g In the current software version, the support of HSUPA includes RNC and NodeB
types except NB-530 and NB-341. HSUPA has major impact on NodeB because it provides more functionality for the uplink. The HSUPA scheduler, for example, is therefore situated in the NodeB rather than in the RNC. Furthermore, NodeBs are able to handle the new physical channels introduced for HSUPA. The main HSUPA functionalities are concentrated on the Node Bs channel coding card (CHC). The new functionalities of the Node B-controlled hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) and the NodeB-controlled scheduling, considered as

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enhancements for the uplink dedicated transport channel, require the introduction of new MAC functionalities (MAC-e).

2.3.3

Modifications in the RNC Hardware for HSDPA


The HSDPA feature enables downlink packet transmission rates of up to 14.4 Mbit/s on the radio interface, which may coexist with the current Rel99 services. The PRLC and DHT cards of the current RNC hardware do not have sufficient capacity to support the peak rate of HSDPA. Due to the higher data rates of HSDPA (or PS interactive/background) data traffic (compared to Rel99 data rates), new, enhanced RNC cards (HSDST, HSPRLC) and a new transport channel (HS-DSCH) have been introduced to enable the throughput of the higher peak data rates. The HSDST card supports the MAC-d entity and HS-DSCH frame protocol (FP), thus providing higher throughput than the current DHT card. The HS-DSCH FP performs flow control of the HSDPA data stream between the RNC and the NodeB taking into account the radio interface capability. The HSPRLC card provides PRLC functionality with a higher throughput. HSPRLC card The new high-speed packet radio link controller (HSPRLC) card has the same functionality as a PRLC except that it provides a higher throughput and supports the internal frame protocol for handling HSDPA traffic. This means that the HSPRLC can support both Rel-99 traffic and HSDPA traffic, whereas the PRLC cannot support HSDPA traffic. The HSPRLC has the following functions: U-plane protocol handling: At the Iu interface: IP, UDP, GTP-U At the Iub interface: PDCP, RLC, internal frame protocol, internal frame protocol (HSDPA) Traffic monitoring The information is used for charging, ciphering, and so on. QoS control Performs marking of the differentiated services code point (DSCP) to the type of service (TOS) field of the IP header of the data traffic in UL HSDST card The high-speed downlink shared channel trunk (HSDST) card is not backward-compatible. The HSDST card only deals with HSDPA traffic. Unlike the DHT card, diversity handover functionality is not provided as it is not specified in HSDPA. The HSDST card provides the following functions: U-plane protocol handling with regard to: MAC-d HS-DSCH frame protocol Internal frame protocol (HSDPA) Traffic monitoring: Monitoring the number of transmitting MAC-d PDUs Flow control between RNC and NodeB

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System Description RAN UMTS

2.4

Modifications in the RNC Hardware for HSUPA


By supporting HSUPA, the RNC processes the HSUPA data stream. This function is performed in the E-DCH frame protocol (E-DCH FP). The introduction of HSUPA brings significant changes to the management of uplink interference. New algorithms for admission control and congestion control are implemented in the RNC. Additional measurements related to HSUPA have been defined in RNC. The serving RNC terminates the MAC-es layer. The main functions of the MAC-es layer are: Routing MAC-es PDUs to correct reordering buffer Reordering of received MAC-es PDUs by transmission sequence number (TSN) and connection frame number (CFN) in-sequence delivery Macro-diversity selection for soft handover Disassembly of MAC-es PDUs within MAC-d PDUs and delivery to the MAC-d layer.

2.5
2.5.1

Software
FDD NodeB Software
The FDD NodeB software comprises three main blocks: Operating system Radio and terrestrial channel handling (call processing) Operation and maintenance functions. All the FDD NodeB software can be downloaded.

2.5.1.1

Modification in the NodeB Software for HSDPA


HSDPA requires a software update for the existing CHC96 card in order to handle HSDPA traffic appropriately.

2.5.1.2

Modification in the NodeB Software for HSUPA


Support of HSUPA requires changing the software (SW) of the CHC96. For non-HSUPA usage, the previous CHC96 software version can be reused. For the support of the EDCH, it is expected that core controller (CC) has to handle higher throughput/frame size per user in uplink direction. There is no HSUPA-specific functionality located on the CC. The CC, therefore, only requires a SW update.

2.5.2

RNC Software
The RNC software can be subdivided into 3 main blocks/layers: Basic operating system layer Extended operating system layer Application layer.

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System Architecture of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN)

2.5.2.1

Modification in the RNC Software for HSDPA


In addition to the new RNC hardware, modified firmware is necessary for HSDPA support: Modified WLSC firmware for controlling HSDST cards Modified CMUX/CMUXE firmware for controlling both HSPRLC cards and PRLC cards Modified WLSC firmware (FW) WLSC cards are mounted in the C-LSM (eRNC). The modified WLSC firmware for controlling HSDST cards can be downloaded from either LMT-RNC or RC using HMI commands. Modified CMUX/CMUXE firmware (FW) The CMUX/CMUXE cards are mounted in A-PRM, B-PRM, C-PRM modules. The modified CMUX/CMUXE firmware for controlling HSPLRLC and PRLC cards can be downloaded from either LMT-RNC or RC using HMI commands.

g HSPRLC and PRLC can not be collocated in the same PRM module, but can be
mounted in different PRM modules.

2.5.2.2

Modification in the RNC Software for HSUPA


In addition to the new RNC hardware (see 2.5.2.1 Modification in the RNC Software for HSDPA), modified software is necessary for HSUPA support. The support of HSUPA therefore requires a software change of the RNC.

2.5.3

Software Management
Software (SW) load A SW load represents the complete code (executable, static data, etc.) needed to run a network entity. An SW load contains: header file, VAM file, descriptive files and SW images. It is identified and referenced by the SW load header file. Databases and other dynamic configuration files are not part of the SW load. Meta software (SW) load A meta SW load is a bundle of SW loads for different variants of a network entity. It consists of the SW loads of the supported network entity types and of an index file which lists and describes the contents of the meta SW load in text format. The meta SW load is identified by the unique version of its index file. Software management on LMT SW management on local maintenance terminal (LMT) provides the function of importing SW loads from CD-ROM into RNC or NodeB. It allows local administration and maintenance of the network entities SW. Software patch A software patch is a correction code that can be loaded over the running SW without the need to restart the complete network entity.

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System Description RAN UMTS

Partitioning of data In the 3G RAN (RNS) system, the SW for the UTRAN network entities is remotely loadable. In order to achieve this, the RNS-SW is grouped into SW packages for the various boards within a network entity. These SW packages are then grouped again into a logical context for a complete network entity. All attributes relating to SW files (versions of SW load stored in the network entities, currently running version, etc.) have to be interrogated from the network entity where they are administered. The SW loads of the network entity OMC and LMT are machine-dependent (UNIX, Windows) SW packages that are not distributed within the RNS system. The master copy of the SW files for the UTRAN network entities is located in the network entity itself. On the OMC hard disk, the UTRAN network entity SW can be seen as the maintenance copy with no consistency checks for the copy in the network entity. The operator accesses the copies in the network entities for further information about the SW versions of the UTRAN system. SW loads can be imported into UTRAN directly via LMT. For maintenance reasons (to propagate SW loads to other UTRANs, etc.) this SW load also has to be imported into the OMC. It is not planned to import an SW load directly into the UTRAN network entity and propagate it upwards to the whole network. The software management within the RNS system comprises the following functions: Import/export of RNS-SW from/to external media Distribution and activation of RNS-SW Administration of SW in the network entities (SW loads, patches).

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

3 Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem


3.1 Functions of the 3G RAN (RNS)
The functionality of the 3G RAN (RNS) for a 3G PLMN is described in the following by the individual functions of the 3G RAN (RNS) network elements (RNC and NodeB).

3.1.1 3.1.1.1

Interfaces in the 3G RAN Subsystem Radio Interface at NodeB


Requirements The radio interface Uu supports the universal use of any compatible mobile station (MS) in any 3G (UMTS) compatible PLMN. The radio interface Uu can be operated in two modes: FDD (frequency division duplex) mode The FDD mode uses different frequency bands for uplink and downlink. This mode is intended for public macro cell and micro cell environments and most suitable for symmetrical data traffic (uplink and downlink: same amount of data) with data services up to 384 kbit/s applicable with high mobility and high coverage. TDD (time division duplex) mode The TDD mode plays a significant role in high density areas. The TDD mode is ideally suited for hosting advanced multimedia and data services, which are characterized by a high bit rate (up to 2 Mbit/s) and traffic asymmetry. TDD is a hybrid method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions are carried over the same radio frequency by using synchronized time intervals. In TDD, timeslots in a physical channel are divided into transmission and reception parts. Information on uplink and downlink are transmitted reciprocally. g The TDD mode is currently not supported by NodeB products. It will be supported by future NodeB products. Reference configuration Figure 14 shows the reference configuration according to the 3GPP specifications for the radio interface Uu. The reference configuration for a mobile station shows the reference points (R, S) of interfaces (MMI, Uu) and function groups (TE, TA, MT).
Mobile station (MS)

TE MMI R, S Uu TE TA MT R

TA S

MT Uu

3G RAN (UTRAN/ RNS)

Reference points Radio interface Terminal equipment Terminal adapter Mobile termination

Figure 14

Reference configuration at the radio interface

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System Description RAN UMTS

Interface functions The following functions are executed by the mobile termination (MT): Terminal capabilities Radio link termination Channel adaptation and user data rate adaptation Channel management Flow control of signaling and user data Mobility management Error protection. The following functions are executed by 3G RAN: Data link layer functions for signaling over the radio link Call setup functions between MS and 3G RAN Radio link termination User data rate adaptation Radio link management Speech transcoding Hard handover functions Error protection. Structure of the radio interface Multiple access The access scheme used, is direct-sequence code division multiple access (DSCDMA) with information spread over approximately a 5 MHz bandwidth. For this reason, it is also often denoted as wide-band CDMA (W-CDMA). The UTRA has two modes, FDD (frequency division duplex) and TDD (time division duplex), for operating with paired and unpaired bands. By operating in either FDD or TDD mode the available spectrum can be used efficiently according to the frequency allocation in different regions. FDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions use two separate radio frequencies. In the FDD, each uplink and downlink uses a different frequency band. A pair of frequency bands which have specified separation is assigned for the system. TDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions are carried over the same radio frequency by using synchronized time intervals. In the TDD, time slots in a physical channel are divided into transmission and reception parts. Information on uplink and downlink are transmitted reciprocally. g The TDD mode is currently not supported by NodeB products. It will be supported by future NodeB products. In UTRA TDD, there is a TDMA component in the multiple access in addition to DSCDMA. Therefore, multiple access has also often been denoted as TD-CDMA on account of its TDMA nature. A 10 ms radio frame is divided into 15 timeslots (2.560 chip/slot at the chip rate 3.84 Mcps). A physical channel is therefore defined as a code (or a number of codes) and, in addition, in the TDD mode the sequence of time slots completes the definition of a physical channel. The information rate of the channel varies with the symbol rate being derived from the 3.84 Mcps chip rate and the spreading factor. Spreading factors are from 256 to 4 with FDD uplink, from 512 to 4 with FDD downlink, and from 16 to 1 for TDD uplink

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

and downlink. Therefore, the respective modulation symbol rates vary from 960 k symbols/s to 15 k symbols/s (7.5 k symbols/s) for FDD uplink (downlink), and for TDD the momentary modulation symbol rates vary from 3.84 M symbols/s to 240 k symbols/s. Channel coding and interleaving The data stream is encoded/decoded to offer transport services over the radio transmission link. A channel coding scheme is a combination of error detection, error correcting, rate matching, interleaving and transport channels mapping onto/splitting from physical channels. Modulation and spreading The UTRA modulation scheme is a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). With the CDMA nature the spreading process is closely associated with modulation. Physical layer procedures There are a number of physical layer procedures involved with UTRA operation. Such procedures covered by the physical layer description are: The power control, with both inner loop and slow quality loop for FDD mode, and for TDD mode open loop in uplink and inner loop in downlink Cell search operation.

3.1.1.2

FDD Mode of Radio Interface


The UMTS radio interface protocol consists of a 3 layer structure: Layer 1: L1/physical layer Layer 2: L2/MAC (media access control), L2/RLC (radio link control) Layer 3: L3/RRC (radio resource control). Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (L1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. A transport channel is characterized by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. L2/MAC offers different logical channels to L2/RLC. The type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel. Radio frequency carriers and bands The radio frequency carriers belong to the physical layer. According to the UMTS standards, the Uu interface is the radio interface between the base transceiver station (NodeB) antenna and the MS. The FDD mode of the UMTS system provides the UMTS frequency band (1920-1980 MHz for uplink, 2110-2170 MHz for downlink).

g Besides the here described 1900/2100 MHz frequency band also FDD mode 850
MHz and inter-system handover to GSM 850/1900 MHz is supported.) In the UMTS FDD mode frequency band 12 discrete duplex carriers are available: 12 uplink carriers for transmission from the MS to the RNS and 12 downlink carriers for transmission from the RNS to the MS. The specifications of the UMTS FDD mode radio frequency bands are as follows (see Figure 15): Carrier frequencies of the RNS receivers (uplink): fup(n) = (1920 + 5 x n) MHz (with UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number, UARFCN 1 n 12)

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

System Description RAN UMTS

Carrier frequencies of the RNS transmitters (downlink): fdown (n) = fup (n) + 190 MHz Radio frequency carrier spacing: 5 MHz Duplex spacing: 190 MHz
Transmission frequency band of the BSS (downlink) MS receive channel numbers RNS transmit channel numbers

Transmission frequency band of the mobile station (MS) (uplink) MS transmit channel numbers RNS receive channel numbers Carrier frequency (RFCH) C1 ... C11 01 02 11 12

OR
01

Carrier frequency (RFCH) C1' ... C11' 02 11 12

1920

1925

MHz

1975

1980

2110

1115

MHz

2165

2170

Radio frequency carrier spacing 5 MHz Duplex spacing 190 MHz

Radio frequency carrier spacing 5 MHz

Figure 15

Radio frequency carrier spectrum for the UMTS FDD mode

Physical channels Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. In the FDD mode, the physical channel is characterized by the radio frequency carrier and the code at the reverse link of the relative phase (I/Q). Physical channels typically consist of a three-layer structure of superframes, radio frames and timeslots, although this is not true for all physical channels. Depending on the symbol rate of the physical channel, the configuration of radio frames or timeslots varies. A superframe has a duration of 720 ms and consists of 72 radio frames. A radio frame is a processing unit which consists of 15 timeslots. A timeslot is a unit which consists of the set of information symbols. The number of symbols per timeslot depends on the physical channel. One symbol consists of a number of chips. The number of chips per symbol is equivalent to the spreading factor of the physical channel. Figure 16 shows the dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) structure as an example of the physical channel architecture. On the physical layer there are the following physical channels: Dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) Dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH) Primary common control physical channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary common control physical channel (S-CCPCH) Physical random access channel (PRACH) Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) Physical shared channel control channel (PSCCCH) Acquisition indication channel (AICH) Synchronization channel (SCH) Physical common packet channel (PCPCH)

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

Common pilot channel (CPICH) Paging indicator channel (PICH) CPCH status indicator channel (CSICH)

Frame 1

Frame 2

Frame 3

Frame 4

Frames.

Frame 69

Frame 70

Frame 71

Frame 72

1 superframe = 72 radio frames (T_super = 720 ms)

1 radio frame = 15 timeslots ( T_f = 10 ms) Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 14 Slot 15

1 Timeslot= N_data bits (T_slot = 0.667 ms) Data DPDCH

Figure 16

The dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) structure as an example of a physical channel in the FDD mode

Transport channels Transport channels are the services offered by layer 1 to the higher layers. A transport channel is defined by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. Transport channels can be classified into two groups: Common transport channels, where there is a need for in-band identification of the MS when particular MSs are addressed. Dedicated transport channels, where the MS is identified by the physical channel, that is, frequency and code for FDD and code) There are six types of common transport channels: Random access channel (RACH) Common packet channel (CPCH) Forward access channel (FACH) Downlink shared channel (DSCH) Broadcast channel (BCH) Paging channel (PCH). There are two types of dedicated transport channels: Dedicated channel (DCH) Fast uplink signaling channel (FAUSCH).

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System Description RAN UMTS

Logical channels The L2/MAC layer provides data transfer services on logical channels. A set of logical channel types is defined for different kinds of data transfer services as offered by L2/MAC. Each logical channel type is defined by what type of information is transferred. Logical channels can be classified into two groups: Control channels (CCH), for the transfer of control plane information Traffic channels (TCH), for the transfer of user plane information. There are four types of control channels (CCH): Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Paging control channel (PCCH) Dedicated control channel (DCCH) Common control channel (CCCH). There are two types of traffic channels (TCH): Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH) Common traffic channel (CTCH).

3.1.1.3

Modifications in FDD Mode of Radio Interface for HSDPA


The UMTS radio interface protocol consists of a 3-layer structure: Layer 1: L1/physical layer Layer 2: L2/MAC (media access control), L2/RLC (radio link control) Layer 3: L3/RRC (radio resource control). Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (L1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. A transport channel is characterized by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. L2/MAC offers different logical channels to L2/RLC. The type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel. To support HSDPA, minimum changes are required in the UTRAN for compliancy to the Rel-5 version of protocols at the Uu interface. These changes affect on layer 1 (L1), layer 2 (L2), and layer 3 (L3). In addition to the existing channels, HSDPA introduces new physical and transport channels. Logical channels are not enhanced. Changes on the Uu interface layer 1 Compared to 3GPP Rel-99, the functionality of the physical layer measurements on the Uu L1 (physical layer) is changed in Rel-5 with respect to the following: Received total wideband power (RTWP) Signal to interference ratio (SIR) Changes on the Uu interface layer 2 The Rel 5-compliant upgrade of the Uu interface affects the Uu layer 2 (L2) which consists of the broadcast/multicast control (BMC), packet data convergence protocol (PDCP), radio link control (RLC), and media access control (MAC), whereby the upgrade of the Uu interface affects only the radio link control (RLC).

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

Changes on the Uu interface layer 3 The following functions of the Uu L3 are affected by the Rel-5-compliant Uu modification for HSDPA support: Radio resource control (RRC) protocol Identification of an MSs 3GPP release Features previously supported (security mode control, radio bearer control services and Tx diversity) RRC error handling The establishment and the release of an RRC connection, however, are not affected by the 3GPP Rel-5 Uu interface modifications.

g In the current software version, NodeBs are not capable of providing Tx diversity for
HSDPA cells. New physical channels for HSDPA HSDPA introduces three additional physical channels: High-speed dedicated physical control channel (HS-DPCCH) The HS-DPCCH is the UL control channel for HSDPA and carries the channel quality information (CQI) of the corresponding MS. High-speed physical downlink shared channel (HS-PDSCH) HS-PDSCH is the DL data channel for HSDPA and carries the user data. High-speed shared control channel (HS-SCCH) The HS-SCCH is the DL control channel for HSDPA. The information carried on this channel enables MSs to receive the HS-PDSCH. New transport channel for HSDPA HSDPA introduces one additional common transport channel: HSDPA downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) The HS-DSCH is a downlink transport channel that is used to carry dedicated user data and/or control information to an MS. The HS-DSCH can be shared by several users. It enables the throughput of higher peak data rates compared to Rel-99 data rates. Enhanced radio interface functions With the support of HSDPA, the radio interface (Uu) is upgraded to 3GPP Rel-5. The 3GPP Rel-5 RNC interoperates with a MS of Rel99, Rel-4, and Rel-5 via the Uu interface. This upgrade provides new Uu interface functions for the HSDPA-capable NodeBs, such as: Mac-hs protocol for scheduling between MSs In the current software version, the scheduler for HSDPA data traffic is implemented in the NodeB rather than in the RNC where the scheduler for Rel-99 traffic is situated. This implementation allows lower latency. The NodeB has implemented the new HSDPA MAC-hs protocol, which is responsible for scheduling between MSs. In general, this functional entity of the NodeB is responsible for: Selecting which MSs are to be served in a specific time transmission interval (TTI) Assigning the HS-PDSCH resources to MSs Selecting the appropriate priority queues which are to be served Managing the HSDPA radio interface resources

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

System Description RAN UMTS

Selecting hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) processes, redundancy versions, modulation schemes, transport block sizes, and the HSDPA transmit signal power Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) Until now, the only modulation scheme used in UTRAN has been quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). With HSDPA support 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is introduced as a new modulation scheme allowing for a higher data rate. The implementation of 16QAM does not require any replacement or modification of the TRX or DRIC card. Management of data queues for each MS

3.1.1.4

Modifications in FDD Mode of Radio Interface for HSUPA


With the support of HSUPA, the Uu interface is upgraded to 3GPP Rel-6. This change provides new Uu interface functionality for HSUPA-capable network elements, such as MAC-e protocol implemented on Node Bs for scheduling between MSs and date rate management for each MS. The UMTS radio interface protocol consists of a 3-layer structure: Layer 1: L1/physical layer Layer 2: L2/MAC (media access control), L2/RLC (radio link control) Layer 3: L3/RRC (radio resource control). Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (L1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. A transport channel is characterized by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. L2/MAC offers different logical channels to L2/RLC. The type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel. To support HSUPA, changes are required in the UTRAN for compliancy to the Rel-6 version of protocols at the Uu interface. These changes affect layer 1 (L1), layer 2 (L2), and layer 3 (L3). In addition to the existing channels, HSUPA introduces new physical and transport channels. Logical channels are not enhanced. Changes on the Uu interface layer 1 Compared to 3GPP Rel-5, the functionality of the Uu interface layer 1 is changed by Rel6 with respect to the performance of signal detection for HS-DPCCH. As specified in 3GPP standard TS25.141 Base station (BS) conformance testing (FDD), the NodeB complies to the following requirements regarding performance of signalling detection for HS-DPCCH: ACK false alarm in static propagation conditions ACK false alarm in multipath fading conditions ACK mis-detection in static propagation conditions ACK mis-detection in multipath fading conditions Changes on the Uu interface layer 2 Compared to 3GPP Rel-5, the functionality of the Uu interface layer 2 is not changed by Rel-6 with respect to the HSUPA feature set. Changes on the Uu interface layer 3 The following functions of the Uu L3 are affected by the Rel-6-compliant modifications:

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

RNC RRC ASN.1 encoding Identification of MSs 3GPP release Rel-6 functionality affecting supported features New physical channels for HSUPA HSUPA introduces four additional physical channels: Enhanced dedicated physical control channel (E-DPCCH) The E-DPCCH is the UL control channel for HSUPA transmitted in parallel with EDPDCH. It contains L1 control information for hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) and scheduling. E-DCH absolute grant channel (E-AGCH) The E-AGCH is the DL shared control channel for HSUPA NodeB scheduling - signaling of absolute grants. E-DCH relative grant channel (E-RGCH) The E-RGCH is the DL common or dedicated control channel for HSUPA NodeB scheduling - signaling of relative grants. E-DCH hybrid ARQ indicator channel (E-HICH) The E-HICH is the DL dedicated control channel carrying signaling ACK/NACK information of the corresponding MS. New transport channel for HSUPA HSUPA introduces one additional dedicated transport channel: Enhanced dedicated channel (E-DCH) The E-DCH is an uplink transport channel that is used to carry dedicated user data information from a MS. Each MS has its own dedicated E-DCH data path to the NodeB that is continuous and independent from the DCHs and E-DCHs of other MSs. It enables higher uplink peak rates compared to Rel99. Enhanced radio interface functions A new shared channel, the enhanced (uplink) dedicated channel (E-DCH), is introduced with the 3G RAN (RNS). The MS still uses dedicated uplink channels, but a fast scheduler coordinates access to the radio resources in a kind of time multiplexing. In Rel99, radio resources are assigned statically to the DCH users by the admission control in CRNC. All these users share the radio interface resources simultaneously. Therefore, either the number of simultaneous users or bandwidth and data rate per user have to be quite low. In enhanced uplink, the scheduler can permit only a small number of users or even just a single user to access the radio channel at a time. This reduces mutual interference between the users and assigns a higher share of radio resources to the users. In this way, enhanced uplink provides higher instantaneous data rates. With the support of HSUPA, the radio interface (Uu) is upgraded to 3GPP Rel-6. The 3GPP Rel-6 RNC interoperates with a MS of Rel99, Rel-4, Rel-5, and Rel-6 via the Uu interface. This upgrade provides new Uu interface functions for the HSUPA-capable NodeBs, such as: MAC-e protocol implemented on NodeBs for scheduling between MSs Date rate management for each MS

3.1.1.5

TDD Mode of the Radio Interface g The TDD mode is currently not supported by NodeB products. It will be supported
by future NodeB products.

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

System Description RAN UMTS

The UMTS radio interface protocol consists of a 3-layer structure: Layer 1: L1/physical layer Layer 2: L2/MAC, L2/RLC Layer 3: L3/RRC. Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (L1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. A transport channel is characterized by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. L2/MAC offers different logical channels to L2/RLC. The type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel. Radio frequency carriers and bands The radio frequency carrier belongs to the physical layer. According to the 3GPP standards, the Uu interface is the radio interface between the NodeB antenna and the MS. The TDD mode of the UMTS system provides the UMTS frequency band (1900-1920 MHz and 2010-2025 MHz for uplink and downlink respectively). In the UMTS TDD mode frequency bands, 4 or 3 discrete duplex carriers are available, one carrier for uplink transmission and one for downlink transmission between the MS and the RNS. The specifications of the UMTS TDD mode radio frequency bands are as follows (see Figure 17): Carrier frequencies of the RNS receivers (uplink)/ transmitters (downlink): fup/down(n) = (1900 + 5 x n) MHz (with UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number, UARFCN 1 n 4) fup/down(n) = (2010 + 5 x n) MHz (with UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number, UARFCN 1 n 3)

Radio frequency carrier spacing: 5 MHz


Transceiver frequency band of the RNS and MS (uplink/downlink) MS receive/transmit channel numbers RNS receive/transmit channel numbers Carrier frequency (RFCH) C1 ... C3 01 02 03 04 MHz Transceiver frequency band of the RNS and MS (uplink/downlink) MS receive/transmit channel numbers RNS receive/transmit channel numbers Carrier frequency (RFCH) C1 ... C2 01 02 03

1900

1905

1910

1915

1920

2010

2015 Radio frequency carrier spacing 5 MHz

2020

2025

Radio frequency carrier spacing 5 MHz

Figure 17

Radio frequency carrier spectrum for the UMTS TDD mode

Physical channels Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. In the TDD mode, a physical channel is characterized by the radio frequency carrier and the code as in the FDD mode.

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

Physical channels typically consist of a three-layer structure of superframes, radio frames and timeslots. The configuration of the radio frames or timeslots differ depending on the resource allocation. All physical channels need guard symbols in every timeslot. The timeslots are used in the sense of a TDMA component to separate different user signals in the time and the code domain. A superframe has a duration of 720 ms and consists of 72 radio frames. A radio frame is a processing unit which consists of 15 timeslots. Figure 16 in the section 3.1.1.2, FDD Mode of Radio Interface shows, as an example, a physical channel structure which is also valid for the TDD mode. A physical layer has the following physical channels: Dedicated physical channel (DPCH) Primary common control physical channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary common control physical channel (S-CCPCH) Physical random access channel (PRACH) Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) Page indicator channel (PICH) Synchronization channel (SCH). In the TDD mode, a physical channel is a burst which is transmitted in a particular timeslot within allocated radio frames. The allocation can be continuous, that is, the timeslot in every frame is allocated to the physical channel, or discontinuous, that is, the timeslot in only a subset of all frames is allocated. A burst is the combination of a data part, a midamble and a guard period. The duration of a burst is one timeslot. Several bursts can be transmitted at the same time from one transmitter. In such a case, the data part must use different orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) channeling codes, but the same scrambling code. The midamble part has to use the same basic midamble code, but can use different midambles. The data part of the burst is spread between a combination of the channeling code and the scrambling code. The channeling code is a OVSF code, that can have a spreading factor of 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16. The data rate of the physical channel depends on the spreading factor of the OVSF code used. The midamble part of the burst can contain two different types of midambles: a short one with a length of 256 chips, or a long one of 512 chips. The data rate of the physical channel depends on the midamble length used. So, a physical channel is defined by frequency, timeslot, channeling code, burst type and radio frame allocation. The scrambling code and the basic midamble code are broadcast and can be constant within a cell. When a physical channel is established, a start frame is given. The physical channels can either be of infinite duration, or a duration for the allocation can be defined. The TDMA frame has a duration of 10 ms and is subdivided into 15 timeslots. A timeslot corresponds to 2560 chips. The physical content of the timeslots are the bursts of corresponding length. Each timeslot is allocated to either the uplink or the downlink (see Figure 18). With such a flexibility, the TDD mode can be adapted to different environments and deployment scenarios. In any configuration at least one timeslot has to be allocated for the downlink and at least one timeslot has to be allocated for the uplink. Multiple and single-switching-point configurations as well as symmetric and asymmetric uplink/downlink allocations are possible.

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3.84 Mchip/s 1 radio frame = 15 timeslots (T_f = 10 ms)

Figure 18

The TDD frame structure

Transport channels Transport channels are the services offered by layer 1 to the higher layers. A transport channel is defined by how the information is transferred over the radio interface. Transport channels can be classified into two groups: Common transport channels, where there is a need for in-band identification of the MS when particular MS are addressed. Dedicated transport channels, where the MSs are identified by a physical channel, that is, frequency, code and timeslot for TDD. There are seven types of common transport channels: Random access channel (RACH) Forward access channel (FACH) Downlink shared channel (DSCH) Uplink shared channel (USCH) Broadcast channel (BCH) Paging channel (PCH) Synchronization channel (SCH). There is one type of dedicated transport channel: Dedicated channel (DCH). Logical channels The L2/MAC layer provides data transfer services on logical channels. A set of logical channel types is defined for different kinds of data transfer services as offered by L2/MAC. Each logical channel type is defined by the type of information that is transferred. The logical channel can be classified into two groups: Control channels, for the transfer of control plane information Traffic channels, for the transfer of user plane information. There are five types of control channels (CCH): Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Paging control channel (PCCH) Dedicated control channel (DCCH) Common control channel (CCCH) Shared channel control channel (SCCH).

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There are two types of traffic channels (TCH): Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH) Common traffic channel (CTCH).

3.1.1.6

Internal 3G RAN PLMN Interfaces


Iu,cs interface The Iu,cs interface is the interface of the MSC functionality of the MSC/VLR node and the RNC. The Iu,cs interface is an ATM interface for 3G CN circuit-switched services. The protocol stack on the Iu,cs interface comprises: Data transport (user plane) Control signaling (control plane) Transport signaling (transport plane) On the user plane, the ATM adaptation layer 2 (AAL2) is dedicated for circuit-switched traffic to allow for optional quality of delay-sensitive services such as voice. The speech codec for voice is the adaptive multiple rate (AMR) codec with a bandwidth of 16 kbit/s. On the control plane, the radio access network application part (RANAP) signaling is based on the message transfer part 3 - B (MTP3-B) and the signaling connection control part (SCCP). This protocol provides load sharing and changeover/back between the links of a single link-set. The Iu,cs interface consists of permanent virtual connections (PVCs) which are established on the ATM adaptation layer level between the RNC and the MSC/VLR node. PVCs carry packet and signaling data simultaneously but not in the same PVC. The Iu,cs interface is used to carry information concerning for example: 3G RAN management Call data transmission Mobility management. Iu,ps interface The Iu,ps interface is the interface of the SGSN functionality of the SGSN node and the RNC. The Iu,ps interface is an ATM interface for 3G CN packet-switched services. The protocol stack on the Iu,ps interface comprises: Data transport (user plane) Control signaling (control plane) At the user plane the packet-switched data transport is using GTP-U and IP over ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5). At the control plane the radio access network application part (RANAP) signaling is based on message transfer part 3 - B (MTP3-B) and signaling connection control part (SCCP). This protocol provides load sharing and change over/back between link within one link-set. The Iu,ps interface consists of permanent virtual connections (PVCs) which are established on the ATM adaptation layer level between the RNC and the SGSN node. PVCs carry packet and signaling data simultaneously but not in the same PVC.

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The Iu,ps interface is used to carry information concerning, for example: Packet data transmission Mobility management. Interface between the RNC and NodeB (Iub interface) When the 3G RAN consists of a Radio Network Controller (RNC) and one or more base transceiver stations (NodeB), this interface is used between the RNC and NodeB to support the services offered to the mobile subscribers. The interface also allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the NodeB. Interface between two RNCs (Iur interface) The Iur interface is used to logically connect two RNCs within the 3G RAN. It is specified as an open interface in order to facilitate: Inter-connection of RNCs supplied by different manufacturers Support of continuation between RNSs of the 3G RAN services offered via Iu interface Separation of Iur interface radio network functionality and transport network functionality to facilitate the introduction of future technology

3.1.2

Service Handling Functions of the RNC and NodeB (FDD Mode)


Important circuit-switched/packet-switched service handling functions comprise, e.g.,: Radio channel management Support of AAL2 switching in CN for Iur Channel encoding and decoding Antenna diversity Macro diversity Handling of radio access bearer (RAB) services - single call/multi call QoS: Packet-switched streaming Real time gaming Remote modem access with circuit-switched streaming RAB (BS20 bearer service) Handling of short message services (SMS), circuit-switched/packet-switched Handling of SMS cell broadcast service Handling of ciphering and data integrity Handover/relocation Serving radio network subsystem (SRNS) relocation 3G to 2G handover and UMTS to/from GPRS (re)selection (intersystem handover) 2G to 3G handover (intersystem handover) IMSI based handover Service-based handover Load-based handover RRC connection reestablishment via dedicated channel (DCH) RAB and RRC establishment on RACH/FACH Admission control of prioritized bearers Preemption Bit rate adaptation (BRA) Enhanced congestion control Transcoder free operation (TrFO)

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Power control Synchronization Fractional asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) Support of HSDPA Support of HSUPA

Radio channel management Radio channel management includes dealing with the types of radio channels and the configuration of the radio channels. We can distinguish between three levels of radio channels: Physical channels Transport channels Logical channels Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (layer 1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. In the FDD mode the physical channel is characterized by the code, frequency and in the reverse link the relative phase. Physical channels typically consist of a three-layer structure of superframes, radio frames, and timeslots, although this is not true for all physical channels. Depending on the symbol rate of the physical channel, the configuration of radio frames or timeslots varies. Transport channels are the services offered by layer 1 to the higher layers. A transport channel is defined by the way in which information is transported over the radio interface (Uu interface). Logical channels: The MAC layer provides data transfer services on logical channels. A set of logical channel types is defined for different kinds of data transfer services as offered by MAC. Each logical channel type is defined by the type of information transferred. Logical channels are classified into two general groups: Traffic channels (for the transfer of user plane information) Control channels (for the transfer of control plane information). Support of AAL2 switching in CN for Iur To provide a cost-effective transmission, new switching technologies are needed in the access network of third-generation PLMNs. The use of AAL2 switching technique in the Core Network (CN) nodes reduces the need for link capacity. Most important sources of these savings are the statistical fluctuation of the number of AAL2 connections, the fluctuation of the number of users at NodeB site due to mobility, and the granularity of the ATM virtual channel peak cell rate. Iur traffic is carried through dedicated ATM permanent virtual connection (PVCs). The bandwidth of these PVCs is configured and reserved during the roll-out phase of the RNC via database/MML commands. The Iur traffic is carried either over the same physical line (STM-1) used for Iu interface traffic (but within separate PVCs) or a direct point-to-point STM-1 connection between the RNCs. Since the Iur interface traffic volume is difficult to estimate and often very low compared to Iu traffic, the transport capacity reserved for the Iur interface PVCs is usually overestimated, which leads to a waste of bandwidth.

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Support for AAL2 switching in the CN adds more flexibility to the assignment of resources for the Iur interface: Direct point-to-point connections are justifiable for persistent high traffic loads. Less demanding requirements can be met by installing Iur interface PVCs that are routed through the CN, using existing Iur interface connections. However, this resource allocation is also static, and all Iur interface PVCs between all RNCs must be installed beforehand. If AAL2 switching in the CN is applied, connections are set up and deleted automatically as they are requested from one of the RNCs involved. AAL2 switching in the CN is recommended for low traffic Iur interface connections. To optimize the usage of the available transmission capacity (STM-1), Iur traffic is not carried any more through dedicated PVCs but over the same PVCs reserved for Iu interface traffic. Thus, significant transport capacity optimization is achieved by this feature. Channel encoding and decoding Data stream from/to the message authentication code (MAC) and higher layers (transport block/transport block set) is encoded/decoded to offer transport services over the radio transmission link. The channel coding scheme is a combination of a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and channel coding for detecting and correcting errors, rate matching, interleaving and transport channels and mapping onto/splitting from physical channels. Antenna diversity (transmitting and receiving) NodeB executes the transmitting diversity function by using multiple antennas for transmitting downlink signals. With a NodeBs transmitting diversity function, small-sized mobile station (MS) which do not have any additional antennas can benefit from the advantages of receiving diversity. Several modes of the downlink transmit diversity setup in a NodeB can be controlled by the RNC. The PLMN operator can decide to activate/disable transmit diversity and can select support of specific transmit diversity modes on a per radio cell basis to cope with specific radio scenarios. NodeB performs receiving diversity by using the rake receiver. It receives signals from branch 1 and 2 of sectors 0 through 2. The path selector in the rake receiver selects (at most) the best 8 paths by using the delay profile information sent from the searcher part and inputs signals from the selected paths into each finger in the finger part. Despreading is executed for the signal input to each finger by using the pseudo noise (PN) code specified by the path selector. The channel estimator removes fading vectors from the signals obtained by despreading. The automatic frequency control (AFC) function adjusts the frequency shift. The input signals to each finger are synthesized according to their signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) value. Macro diversity Multiple radio links are simultaneously established between an MS and NodeBs in the W-CDMA system. This enables a smooth handover without any communication disconnection when the MS moves from one sector to another. Inter-sector handover actions are controlled by the diversity handover trunk (DHT) in the Radio Network Controller (RNC). The DHT performs the macro-diversity function for uplink signals in the following way: it selects radio frames from received ones according to the received signal's quality, synthesizes them, and sends them to the Core Network

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(CN). The DHT performs the macro-diversity function for downlink signals in the following way: it gives a frame sequence number to each block of data to be transmitted, generates a copy of each frame per transmission branch and distributes them to the correspondent NodeBs with appropriate timing. For inter-RNC handover, the DHT ensures a smooth handover action by absorbing any transmission delay caused by MS movement between RNCs. Handling of radio access bearer (RAB) services - single call/multi call 3G PLMN offers a range of different bearer services within the 3G RAN (RNS). The RNS network elements NodeB and RNC support various RAB services for a single call and for a multi call, which are described in the System Description, register Network System Concept. Furthermore, the RNS provides many signaling radio bearers for the Iu control plane traffic, e.g., dedicated control channel (DCCH), paging control channel (PCCH), common control channel (CCCH), broadcast control channel (BCCH) with appropriate data rates uplink (UL)/downlink (DL). Quality of service (QoS): Packet-switched streaming The QoS mechanism on the Iu,ps interface differentiates between the traffic flow for various types of packet-switched services and thus helps to optimize business opportunities within the 3G market. It determines the success of audio/video as well as other application data services and their overall market acceptance by guaranteeing a steady traffic flow inherent to the performance of such features. This feature introduces 3Gs real-time QoS class packet-switched streaming that preserves time relation variations while defining a guaranteed bit rate and a maximum transfer delay for a particular service. QoS streaming is ideally suited for multimedia applications, e.g., video/audio streaming. The packet-switched streaming radio access bearer (RAB) is bidirectional and always used in combination with an interactive or background packet-switched RAB, supported combination: packet-switched S UL/DL 16/64 kbit/s + packet-switched I/B UL/DL 8/8 kbit/s. The packet-switched streaming RAB is used to carry the real-time data while the interactive or background packet-switched carries the feedback and/or signaling to the application. In general, the quality of traffic is defined by its type, either real-time or non-real-time traffic. QoS criteria for real-time traffic is defined in terms of delay-sensitive services, while non-real-time traffic describes QoS in terms of loss. Here, admission control recognizes incoming traffic accordingly and distributes it to general bearer services defined in accordance with the networks traffic model. Going a step further, radio access bearer services need to account for multimedia services such as audio/video packet services that require a guaranteed throughput in order to deliver proper service. The packetswitched streaming RAB is bidirectional and always used in combination with an interactive/background packet-switched RAB. Both the media (real-time transport protocol (RTP)) and the control (real-time transport control protocol (RTCP)) flows are carried over a streaming bearer, while the signaling flow (real time streaming protocol (RTSP)) is multiplexed on the non-real time (NRT) interactive/background packet-switched bearer. The streaming server and MS streaming application negotiate the QoS required for the service, whereby the negotiation is transparent to both 3G RAN (RNS) and the CN. The QoS parameters are notified to the MS via the network access signaling (NAS) layer and the MS requests a secondary PDP context to the packet-switched CN via NAS signaling transparent to 3G RAN (RNS). The packet-switched CN assigns a secondary PDP context for the streaming packet-switched and requests the RNC to set up the packet-

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switched RAB. The RNC sets up the streaming packet-switched RAB with the required QoS and reconfigures the existing interactive/background packet-switched to UL:8 kbit/s, DL:8 kbit/s. During the lifetime of the streaming service, the RNC does not reduce or increase the rate of the streaming packet-switched below or above the guaranteed bit rate. Real-time gaming 3G brings the possibility to offer real-time gaming applications to the end user, either by the mobile operator or by a service provider. Furthermore, future mobile phones will be based on Java technology, which will enable the end user to download games online to their mobile phone. Data rates of 8 kbit/s and 16 kbit/s are supported in the conversational class, that is, real-time class. Because the application is either installed on a client or directly via JAVA in the mobile phone, the 3G RAN (RNS) only has to handle the signaling of the application. The application does not require the whole information to be sent again; only modified information. As already mentioned, with this network managed feature PLMN operators can supply a platform that enables multiuser game applications to be played and provide gamerelated sessions, profiles, and community services. In addition, PLMN operators are also able to handle the operation & maintenance (O&M) of the gaming services or any other hosted applications, as well as the storage and management of content and their respective databases. PLMN operators can make games and other applications available to end-users, monitor usage and behavior of content consumers, and monitor billing and payment of the application-based services. The transmission of real-time information for games and other applications and the processes related to them has so far been a very load and cost-intensive procedure. The real-time gaming feature changes this by using a new radio access bearer (RAB) combination, PS conversational + PS interactive/background (I/B) to support the transmission of only the minimum of real-time data required by an application. The PS conversational QoS class is used for the first RAB of this multi-RAB because it provides the expedited forwarding quality of service (QoS) inherent to the real-time aspect of this feature that is presented via the user plane or more simply on the display of the MS or personal digital equipment (PDA). Any incoming request for data volume reports directed to this part of the multi-RAB is immediately rejected with the cause set to requested information not available. Is to be, however, the data volume request report pertain solely to the PS I/B RAB, the usual request handling applies because the PS I/B RAB for this release offers the same QoS on the Iu interface. A player accessing a game application is directed to the PS conversational + PS interactive/background via the admission control and the required connection is set up, giving the player access to the application server and enabling playtime, acquisition of billing information, etc. Remote modem access with circuit-switched (CS) streaming RAB (BS20 RABs) Today, many V.xx series modems support data rates of up to maximum 57.6 kbit/s (circuit-switched asynchronous data service, bearer service BS20). These modems might change their data rates between 14.4 kbit/s, 28.8 kbit/s and 57.6 kbit/s in both directions. This feature supports all these data rates and the adaptation based on requests of the modems. Furthermore, this feature supports the retransmission of erroneous data between the Core Network (CN) and the MS respectively a PCMCIA card installed in a notebook. Because these services are also available in the 2G PLMN, this feature enables the PLMN operator to offer seamless services over 2G and 3G PLMN by using the handover features from UMTS to GSM and vice versa.

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The CS data service uses the non-transparent data mode to enable subscribers to access analog modem servers via fixed networks using the CS streaming RAB (CS streaming class (non-transparent mode)). The application behind the terminal equipment (TE), e.g., computer and/or MS request is unknown. This RAB is mainly used to access the system via the radio layer protocols (RLP) and layer 2 relay (L2R) protocols where the changing requirements can be more easily satisfied. The time delay is somewhat longer, which enables missing data to be transmitted to the interworking function (IWF) of the MSC upon request. The time delay involved is associated with the support mode and enables the MSC to acquire missing information (retransmission of data) from the accessing entity in order to be able to ensure that the transmitted bit rates match those supported by the requesting entities (TE/MS). Thus, all CS data services are mapped to the user plane in the non-transparent support mode that allows the RAB sub flow streaming combination to be adapted to the incoming data. The establishment of the CS streaming RAB (single call) is similar to that of the current single CS AMR RAB establishment procedure. The radio bearer translation (RBT) is invoked to determine the radio bearer type and the transport format set (TFS) via the initial rate allocation mechanism. Because this feature is optional, a check is made to inquire whether the service is enabled. If the service is not enabled, the RAB assignment is immediately rejected with an appropriate cause. Handling of short message services (SMS) circuit-switched/packet-switched Implementing the SMS feature in the 3G RAN (RNS) represents the service continuity of one of the most successful 2G features in the 3G PLMN. Handling of SMS cell broadcast service This feature allows a unidirectional point-to-multipoint communication between a Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) and a number of end users that are located in a certain area. Customers who already operate a 2G PLMN and make use of the SMS cell broadcast service have a high demand to provide this kind of service to their mobile subscribers as well, that is, service continuity between 2G PLMNs and 3G PLMNs. In most cases, the connection from the RNC to the CBC is direct, although a connection is also possible using the existing Iu interface via the SGSN. Direct connections are supported by an interconnected ATM/Ethernet converter. Its conversion function is part of the operators management backbone called the Data Connection Network (DCN) that includes the ATM/Ethernet conversion functionality. Handling of ciphering and data integrity Ciphering and integrity protection can be seen as two mechanisms available to guard against a variety of security threats by an adversary and to maintain confidentiality and data integrity. The main aspects of the functionality are: Ciphering, It uses an encryption method, called KASUMI (UEA-1), used by the RNC (on the downlink) and the MS (on the uplink) to guard against a third party accessing user data and signaling information over the radio interface. Ciphering consists of two tasks, namely its execution and its control. Integrity protection An authentication mechanism used on the signaling link (DCCH) over the radio interface. Its purpose is to allow the receiver of a radio resource control (RRC) message to detect whether the message has been manipulated or generated by a third party

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other than the RNC/MS. Any RRC messages that cannot be verified as authentic by the receiver are discarded. In general, it is considered mandatory to activate integrity protection. Controlling ciphering in the serving RNC (SRNC) is part of the security mode control that also comprises integrity protection. Therefore, ciphering is applied. Ciphering does not add any delay on the radio interface. The ciphering algorithm in the SRNC is executed with the minimum delay. This delay is invisible to NodeB because the data is delivered to NodeB in good time for transmission in the same radio frame as if no ciphering were executed. Ciphering is usually activated jointly with integrity protection after an RRC connection establishment. Ciphering is not activated when integrity protection is not applied. Handover/relocation Handover management includes all actions in the RNS by means of which an existing connection is switched from one radio channel to another. The handover is intended to make it possible for existing connections to be continued when an MS moves from one radio cell to the next. The handover can take place between physical radio channels which belong to the same NodeB (intracell handover) or to different NodeBs (intercell handover). If the handover is controlled by the RNC, it is described as an RNC-controlled handover (intraRNC handover). 3G PLMN supports external and internal handovers. The 3G RAN (RNS) supports both intercell and intracell handovers. These kinds of handover are described in full in section 4.2.4, 3G Handover/Relocation. Several kinds of handover/relocation supported by the proposed system are described for clarification here: Hard handover is a category of handover procedure where all the old radio links in the MS are abandoned before the new radio links are established. A common procedure is the tuning of the receiver of the MS to another channel that causes an interruption. Soft handover is a category of handover procedure where the radio links are added and abandoned in such a manner that the MS always keeps at least one radio link to the 3G RAN (RNS). In 3G RAN this is supported within an RNC area (softer handover) or between RNCs, if the Iur interface is implemented. In cases of soft handover, the procedure SRNC relocation is performed on the Iu interface. inter-frequency (hard) handover is triggered by the limited coverage of a frequency layer or by the load control for the following events: (a) Radio access bearer (RAB) assignment; the MS is reassigned to the radio cell that is identified by the load control. (b) Channel type switching from CCH to DCH; the DCH is set up in the radio cell that is identified by the load control. (c) Handover; load control only takes place when a different number of frequencies is available throughout the network and is initiated when the last soft handover branch to the one frequency area is removed. Forward handover is a type of handover initiated by the MS. The MS sends the request for establishment of a new radio link in the new radio cell, that is, it does not use the current radio link for performing handover but a radio link of the new radio cell. 3G RAN has to provide the traffic channels after the handover on radio interface, which can not be successful. 3G RAN needs information to find a previously allocated serving process (either within the same 3G RAN or within another). Backward handover is a type of handover initiated by either the MS or the network. The MS or an appropriate network entity sends the request for establishment of a

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new radio link in the source radio cell, that is, it uses the current radio/fixed link for performing handover. The new traffic path down to the reservation of the new radio channel is done in advance. Subsequently, the MS changes to the new radio channel. If this works, it is guaranteed, that the communication proceeds. SRNC relocation is a procedure after handover between RNCs is covered within the access network. The signaling and traffic is led from the MSC/VLR or the SGSN to the serving RNC (SRNC) which corresponds to the old RNC, to the target RNC (DRNC) which corresponds to the target RNC, and then towards the MS. A prerequisite is the support of the Iur interface between RNCs. Independent of the time of the current handover, the SRNC can request SRNC relocation from the CN (no time constraints). This procedure sets up a new Iu leg to the DRNC and subsequently releases the old Iu connection. Serving radio network subsystem (SRNS) relocation SRNC relocation is a handover of the servicing function from one RNC to another. The procedure can also involve a switchover in the Core Network (CN). An SRNC relocation with a temporary Iur link between RNCs is supported as follows: While maintaining the existing Uu connection to a NodeB of the SRNC, a second Uu link is established to a NodeB of the target RNC (DRNC). An Iur link is established between the DRNC and the SRNC. The RNCs exchange their functions; the former DRNC now becomes the SRNC, and vice versa. The links running via the DRNS are canceled. This function is located in the RNC (and the Core Network (CN)). The serving radio network subsystem (SRNS) relocation function coordinates the activities when the SRNS role is to be taken over by another RNS. The SRNS relocation function manages the Iu interface connection mobility from one RNS to another. The SRNS relocation is initiated by the serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC). There are more scenarios in the relationship between the radio interface mobility and the Iu interface mobility for SRNS relocation. It is to be noted that in all scenarios where the MS is connected to 3G RAN, the connection can use dedicated channels (DCH) or common channels (CCH). In the common transport channel state, only hard handover is possible, while in the DCH state both hard and soft handover can be possible (depending on the scenario). For handover between the frequency division duplex (FDD) and the time division duplex (TDD) modes, only hard handover is possible. 3G to 2G handover and UMTS to/from GPRS (re)selection (intersystem handover) At initial deployment, the coverage of 3G (UMTS) is such that it is concentrated in certain hot spot areas (such as cities and major roads) while 2G (GSM) provides nationwide coverage. The handover from the 3G to the 2G feature offers worldwide access for mobile subscribers since a call/session which was established within a 3G radio cell can be handed over when the mobile subscriber moves from a island into an area covered by 2G only. Previous releases did not include provision of handover to 2G (GSM/GPRS). The current software release performs intersystem handover from the 3G to the 2G GSM for circuit-switched calls and intersystem handover (that is, cell (re)selection) to/from 2G GPRS for packet-switched data sessions.

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The preparation of an intersystem handover necessitates mobile station (MS) measurements on other frequencies while still receiving on the current frequency. MSs with dual receivers are able to simultaneously perform these tasks. However, some MSs features single receivers only and, therefore, require periodical interruptions of the downlink transmission to tune in to another frequency for their measurements. This mode of operation is the compressed mode which is part of the 3G to 2G GSM handover feature. In order to support the mobility of subscribers who started a circuit-switched transaction within a 3G radio cell, it is essential that their calls can be handed over to a 2G GSM coverage area and that the continuity of the service is guaranteed when moving around. Otherwise, an MS loses all its active connections when approaching the boundary of an area covered by the 3G RAN. It can be distinguished between two situations: Handover from 3G to 2G GSM (circuit-switched calls) Intersystem information exchange is needed to enable 3G RAN (RNS) to notify the MS of the existing 2G GSM frequencies in the area. Based on measurements taken by the MS, the RNC determines the need for a handover and coordinates it. If necessary, the compressed mode is used to allow time for these measurements. Upon completion, the RNC sends a message to the Core Network (CN) node indicating the target 2G radio cell. If the relocation is possible, the RNC receives a pertinent RANAP relocation command which triggers an intersystem handover command being sent to the MS. Following the MSs successful access to the 2G radio cell, the RNC receives another message from the CN node and release all resources and contexts relating to the Iu connection for this MS. Cell (re)selection between 3G and 2G GPRS (packet-switched services) The MS performs intersystem cell (re)selection to 2G GPRS, based on the MSs intersystem measurement results. The RNC is a passive party and its activities remain constricted to CN requests.

Handover of packet-switched services from 3G to 2G GPRS is based on forward cell reselection and is initiated by the MS. Handover of circuit-switched services from 3G to 2G GSM is based on hard handover and is triggered by 3G RAN (RNS). 3G to 2G handover (intersystem handover) Intersystem handover procedures provide seamless service coverage especially for early rollout scenarios consisting of 3G islands embedded in an overall 2G PLMN. The 2G to 3G handover supports incoming circuit-switched handovers for voice and data calls originating from a 2G PLMN. 2G to 3G handovers take place when a circuitswitched call is made. These handover procedures ensure that 2G hands over all 3G calls, which are temporarily online in a 2G PLMN, to a 3G PLMN as soon as 3G coverage allows. On the one hand, from a 3G perspective, this feature reduces 2G network/roaming use to a minimum while at the same time increasing 3G revenue. On the other hand, from a 2G perspective, it enables calls to be handed over to 3G that might otherwise have to be dropped due to traffic congestion or poor radio quality. Whereas cell selection/re-selection initiated by an MS ensures that an MS is handed back to 3G in the idle mode, a 2G to 3G handover for circuit-switched voice or data is initiated by the PLMN and takes place during a call. Triggering events for the handover are defined within the 2G PLMN and can range from sufficient 2G coverage (the related event to 3G to 2G trigger coverage loss) to handovers caused by too much traffic in the 2G radio cell or a quality dependent handover is met by a 3G target radio cell that meets the standard of best cell criteria.

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Generally, if the triggering condition defined is fulfilled, a handover request to 3G RAN (RNS) is sent via the CN to the RNC. If the radio resources and the required NodeB resources are available, the handover procedure can be started and measurements, including the compressed mode, are invoked. The handover command is sent to the MS during a successful establishment of a Iub link. After the RNC receives a handover complete message from the MS, it sends a final relocation complete message back to the CN. The RNC checks the information element (IE) Core Network (CN) domain ID on receiving a relocation request message via the Iu interface. When a request to trigger an intersystem handover has been received from the circuit-switched domain, it is always accepted. The IE service to target RNC container is evaluated and used as input for radio access bearer translation together with the given IE radio access bearer (RAB) to be setup and admission control; whereby any value is accepted for the IE cause. If either the radio resources or the NodeB resources cannot be ceased, the RNC sends a relocation failure message back to the CN domain from where the request was originally received. If the relocation is accepted, the RNC sends a relocation request acknowledgement. This acknowledgement contains the Iu related information in addition to the intersystem handover to 3G RAN (RNS) message for the MS. IMSI based handover This feature provides the functionality for RAN sharing by extending the support of handover and cell re-selection to adjacent 2G GSM/GPRS networks as well as 3G UMTS networks. In 3G UMTS, MSs in IDLE and cell_FACH mode are continuously monitoring neighboring radio cells. The MS can measure up to 32 adjacent cells per intra, inter-frequency or inter radio access technology. The parameters for handover and cell re-selection measurement are provided by the RNC. For network sharing, handover and cell re-selection between networks can exist and depending on the mobile subscriber's PLMN-ID (obtained from the mobile subscriber's IMSI), the MS can be handed over into selected neighbor networks. In order to control such a handover or cell re-selection, the functionality of a filtered adjacent neighbor cell list, based on the mobile subscriber's PLMN-ID is introduced in the RNC whereby an O&M defined mapping table determines the filtering algorithm. The filtered adjacent neighbor cell list is then used as the input for the general procedure to control the intra, inter-frequency handover. In case the mobile subscribers PLMN-ID is included in the defined O&M mapping tables, the corresponding neighbor cell PLMN-IDs in this mapping table determine the neighbor cells, which are applicable. The applicable neighbor cells are used for configuration of intra, inter-frequency and inter radio access technology measurement. In case the mobile subscribers PLMN-ID is not included in the defined O&M mapping tables, the applicable neighbor cell list must be empty except for those cells with the same PLMN-ID as the RNS (that is, the list is empty for 2G GSM/GPRS neighbor cells), because no other corresponding neighbor cell PLMN-ID can be found. Service-based handover Service-based handover provides PLMN operators with the means to define service differentiation between their UMTS and GSM/GPRS networks by handing over calls between these networks based on the RAB assignment request message received from the Core Network (CN). Depending on the information element (IE) received with this message, a circuit-switched RAB can be set up in GSM instead of UMTS. This allows network operators to optimize their network resource usage and increase network

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capacity, for example, the PLMN operator can define that all voice calls are handed over to its GSM network whilst focusing its UMTS network on offering data services. Load-based handover The load-based handover provides PLMN operators with a means to optimize their UMTS network depending on the cell load. Certain service (RAB) types can be handed over to the GSM/GPRS network in case the load threshold defined by the PLMN operator for such services is reached. Specific service calls (for example, voice) are no longer rejected or dropped due to radio cell congestion. This increases customer satisfaction, call setup success, and call retention rates. RRC connection reestablishment via dedicated channel (DCH) This feature supports a reinstallation of radio links after an interruption has occurred. Especially in urban environments the radio link can be interrupted temporarily while the MS is outside the coverage area of a NodeB, for instance in an elevator or in an underground tunnel. Radio resource control (RRC) reestablishment allows a reconnection of the call/session instead of releasing it. Circuit-switched calls and packet-switched sessions is being reestablished, and packet-switched sessions can be resumed (the PDP context is preserved) from where they were interrupted. If this feature is not supported, a circuit-switched call is definitely being released, and (for example) a file down-load in a packet-switched session can have to be restarted from the beginning. The functionality involves the establishment of all physical resources associated with the MS in question: radio link(s), an Iub link and if necessary an Iur link, depending on the radio cell update scenario. RRC reestablishment can be performed not only within the same radio cell, but is also supported when the MS reappears in a radio cell belonging to a different RNC. Therefore, RRC reestablishment is provided over the Iub and the Iur interface. The latter case is handled similarly to an inter-RNC handover. RAB and RRC establishment on the random access channel (RACH)/forward access channel (FACH) Mobility management only needs to transmit a small amount of data between the MS and the Core Network (CN), e.g., for registration or location updates; thus, setting up dedicated channels/resources for these purposes alone is no longer necessary. Radio resource control (RRC) requests for specific signaling types, or interactive/background RABs are detected as being associated with the non-RAB-related connection or the interactive/background traffic classes and can now be established on the common channel. In all other cases, the RRC is established on the appropriate dedicated channel by using parameters that can be configured by a PLMN operator. These parameters have been added to enable the system to distinguish between the establishment causes for signaling radio bearers (SRBs) and radio access bearers (RABs) that are to be set up on either common or dedicated transport channels. Admission control of prioritized bearers The admission control (AC) of prioritized bearers feature contains a collection of changes to the admission control algorithm which improve the handling of emergency calls and simplify the handling for the PLMN operator. Emergency calls are handled as network access signaling (NAS) related signaling bearer and therefore the admission control threshold for NAS related signaling radio bearer (SRB) is used. Additional operator-configurable thresholds for emergency calls

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are introduced. Emergency calls are identified by the setting of the RANAP allocation/retention priorities and based on the conversational traffic class. Furthermore, an additional flag call control (CC) for emergency calls is introduced for an operator-configurable congestion check. Based on the allocation/retention priority, the handling for emergency calls is also available over Iur interface. Preemption Network dimensioning is usually a trade-off between providing sufficient capacity and avoiding over-provisioning. Thus, resources are planned according to typical load situations rather than for rare load peaks. In consequence, without prioritization mechanisms, during such peaks, some calls or data services can not be served. The preemption feature allows the PLMN operator to prioritize radio access bearers (RAB), in order to assure availability of services that are considered as important or to allocate resources to high priority users. The feature uses the allocation/retention priority attributes of the RAB provided by the Core Network (CN) to force an admission of higher priority RABs for scarce resources as defined in 3GPP standards. This mechanism can be used for example to avoid blocking of emergency calls, speech calls, other premium services and high priority users. The allocation/retention priority attributes can be provided by the CN and are stored in the RNC for the duration of the call, consisting of: the priority level whereby 15 priorities can be distinguished, the preemption capability indicating whether the RAB can or can not trigger preemption, and the preemption vulnerability indicating whether the RAB is or is not preemptable. When resources are scarce, the RNC uses these parameters to implement an optimal resource allocation policy. The 3G RAN uses the priority and preemption attributes of a RAB in order to preempt other RABs of lower priority so that enough resources are freed to accommodate the new RAB. If a RAB cannot be established or modified due to any kind of resource shortage and this RAB can preempt others, the RNC initiates the preemption process of lower priority RABs to free enough resources for the load requirements of the new RAB. The RNC checks the ordered list of preemptable RABs and selects the RABs to be preempted as follows: RABs are selected in ascending priority level (lowest priority first). Only RABs with lower priority than the RAB to be established can be selected. RABs belonging to the MS that triggered preemption is to be excluded from the selection process. Only in the case where there are not enough lower priority RABs available to free sufficient resources for the preempted RAB, the preemption process is being stopped. Bit rate adaptation (BRA) The aim of this feature is to provide quality of service (QoS) for dynamically changing data rates of packet-switched services, based on a general bit rate adaptation concept that takes into account the radio link quality and the service requirements. The bit rate adaptation (BRA) measurements are used in the evaluation of the radio link quality of incoming call requests handled by the PS best effort (BE) RAB. In order to be able to estimate the transmission power required by a new service, the current transmission power must be calculated using the current TX power together with the initial signal to interference ratio (SIR) target.

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In the case of PS best effort RAB establishment on dedicated channels, PS best effort RAB re-establishment, or channel type switching (CTS) from common to dedicated channels or dedicated channel (DCH) inactive to DCH active transitions, the RNC determines the initial rate. The general strategy is to choose the largest RNC-supported rate, which is smaller or equal to the maximum MS capabilities, that is, initial PS interactive/background data rate, OMC parameter, and maximum Core Network (CNps) requested rate. If the maximum PS Core Network (CNps) requested rate is smaller than the minimum RNC supported rate, the RNC assigns the supported rate which is closest to the maximum Core Network (CNps) requested rate. The downlink radio link quality is controlled by the power control mechanism. When the downlink power reaches its maximum, the power control can no longer increase power. In this case, there is a high probability of radio link quality degradation. Measuring the downlink transmitted code power can detect when the power is close to maximum and the radio link quality is likely to start to degrade. On uplink, the MS continuously monitors the state of each transport format combination (TFC) based on its required transmission power in comparison to the maximum MS transmission power on the downlink. TFCs requiring excessive power are removed from the list of allowed TFCs. Enhanced congestion control The event triggered measurements that have been introduced to speed up bit rate adaptation (BRA) interwork with enhanced congestion control to relieve the system of the signaling load based solely on the previously used periodic measurements. This situation has been improved by the introduction of two new parameters that have been added to the congestion decision. Event triggered common measurements of type E are used to detect congestion. This means, congestion is detected as soon as the received total wide band power/transmitted carrier power exceeds a certain threshold 1, and a measurement report A is received. Congestion is resolved as soon as the received total wide band power/transmitted carrier power falls below a certain threshold 2, and a measurement report B is received. The congestion control (CC) algorithm can be basically described in two stages: Congestion decision: Detection of a congestion when the received total wide band power, transmitted carrier power exceeds a certain level. Congestion handling: Selection of the bearers that have to be bit rate adopted/switched/dropped. In general, these stages are repeated periodically for the duration of the congestion handling period until the congestion is resolved (received total wide band power, transmitted carrier power falls below a certain level). The bearer with the lowest uplink (UL) or downlink (DL) spreading factor is used to handle UL or DL congestion via a forced transport channel type switch because this does not diminish QoS. Transcoder free operation (TrFO) The general principle of transcoder free operation (TrFO) according to 3GPP Rel-4 standard is to enable the support mode operation of the Iu user plane not only on the Iu interface but end-to-end either between two RNCs, for a mobile-to-mobile call, or between an RNC and a gateway Core Network (CN) node for a mobile-to-fixed call. If TrFO is implemented in the 3G RAN, transcoder equipment can be saved in the CN and the mobile subscribers can expect a voice quality improvement. Also considerable transport capacity savings within CN backbone transport can be achieved for mobile-to-

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Functions of the 3G RAN Subsystem

mobile call and mobile originating call (MOC) (via Media Gateway (MGW)) call scenarios as adaptive multirate (AMR) voice traffic (12.2 kbit/s) is transported in compressed form instead of pulse code multiplex (PCM) format, that is, time division multiplex (TDM) with 64 kbit/s channels. For a mobile-to-mobile call in a 3GPP Rel. 99 configuration the Iu user plane terminates at the originating MSC (that is, rate control works only between transcoder in MSC and RNC). Originating MSC then transcodes the AMR speech into PCM (TDM) coded speech and transports this to the corresponding transit MSC (T-MSC) of the terminating mobile while the T-MSC transcodes the PCM to AMR alike Iu user plane packets and sends them to the transit RNC (T-RNC). With the implementation of the transcoder free operation feature in the 3G RAN, during establishment of a call, the MSC servers (MSC-Ss) negotiate out of band codecs and codec modes that can be used. This procedure is called out of band transcoder control (OoBTC). The originating MSC-S takes into account the capabilities of the RNCs and its Media Gateways (MGWs) (that is, it keeps the information available of which AMR rates are supported at this RNC and MGW). The originating MSC-S determines a subset of the AMR rates that are supported by MS, MGW and RNC together and signals these to the terminating MSC-S out of band (OoB). The T-MSC-S combines the supported AMR rates of its nodes with the ones signaled from the originating MSC-S and sends these back to the originating MSC-S. The originating MSC-S then starts the RAB establishment. This procedure ensures that the RNC is requested to establish only AMR rates, that both RNCs support. Power control NodeB performs power control: to reduce interference to maintain connection quality and to save output power used for transmission. On the radio interface between NodeB and MS, more output power is required in the following instances: When the distance between NodeB and MS increases When movement of MS causes fading of radio frequency (RF) signals. NodeB executes open-loop power control and closed-loop power control to control the output power consumed by NodeB and MSs. The RNC executes outer loop power control to control the output power consumed by NodeB and MSs. Synchronization We can distinguish between the following 3G RAN (RNS) synchronization types: Node synchronization Transport channel synchronization Radio interface synchronization. Node synchronization refers to the estimation and compensation of timing differences among 3G RAN (RNS) nodes. The following two types of node synchronization are identified: RNC NodeB node synchronization and inter-NodeB node synchronization. Node synchronization between the RNC and NodeB allows knowledge of timing differences between the RNC and its NodeBs to be made available. The purpose of having a common timing reference is to allow radio frame synchronization within neighboring NodeBs to minimize cross interference.

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The transport channel (or L2) synchronization provides L2 common frame numbering between 3G RAN (RNS) and MS (frame synchronization between the L2 entities). This frame number is the connection frame number (CFN), and it is associated at L2 to every transport block set (TBS) and passed to L1: the same CFN is received on the peer side associated with the same TBS. FDD radio interface synchronization ensures that MS gets the correct frames when receiving from several sectors. MS measures the timing difference between its dedicated physical channel (DPCH) and the SFN in target when executing handover and reports it to SRNC. SRNC sends this time difference value in two parameters frame_offset and chip_offset over Iub interface to NodeB. NodeB rounds off this value to the closest 256 chip boundary to get downlink orthogonality (regardless of used spreading factor). The rounded value is used in NodeB for the downlink dedicated physical channel (DPCH). Downlink offset (DOFF) is selected by the SRNC in relation to the interleaving period (e.g. 10, 20, 40 or 80 ms) when entering into the dedicated channel state from the common channel state. MS uses the uplink dedicated physical channel (DPCH) as it is a more defined time instant than the downlink DPCH because the fingers of the rake receiver move all the time owing to time-dispersion. Fractional asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) Fractional ATM is a mechanism that allows a PLMN operator to transport both ATMbased 3G traffic and time division multiplexed (TDM)-based 2G GSM traffic on one physical line (E1). It is ideally suited for sites with low traffic volume (< 2 Mbit/s) where the 3G RAN Iub traffic can use the same transmission link (E1) as the 2G GSM traffic between BTS and BSC. Fractional ATM becomes an advantage for co-location sites with low traffic volume, that is, when NodeB and GSM BTS are placed at the same location. Therefore, they share the same physical transmission capabilities for access to third generation and second generation 2G GSM PLMN. Otherwise, it makes no sense because PLMN operators cannot save at least one E1 leased line. This feature focuses on the requirements on how to map the Iub interface ATM traffic on a circuit mode bearer or TDM connection supporting unrestricted information transfer rates at integer multiples of 64 kbit/s up to the maximum rate of the interface. If a NodeB does not have any TDM crossconnect it does not internally combine 3G and 2G GSM traffic. In the current software release, some NodeBs (e.g., NB-440, NB-441) have an internal TDM mux/demux. Therefore, this NodeB can statically mix and split external TDM traffic and use spare capacity (see section 4.2.15.1). Support of HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a new radio technology, which enables up to ten times higher downlink data transmission rates than normal UMTS. Within UMTS, the acceptance of mobile data services strongly relies on high data throughputs and high user peak rates with minimum delay. HSDPA is the breakthrough UMTS feature-set that satisfies highest capacity demands thus providing the prerequisite for broadband services. HSDPA is specified in the 3GPP Rel-5 standard. On the downlink, the HSDPA standard implemented in the current software version refers to a high-speed shared control channel (HS-SCCH) and a high-speed shared data-bearing channel (HS-DSCH). Key characteristics of HSDPA are: A downlink only service, the uplink service remains unchanged

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A packet data service. The network allocates resources for transmitting packets over the radio. Typical achievable throughput rates are in the range of 2- 3 Mbit/s

The HSDPA key principles are: Scheduling in the time domain (2 ms) and code domain (15 parallel codes). This reduces latency and improves the peak rate. Adaptive modulation and coding (QPSK and 16 QAM) which leads to higher data rates Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) which leads to higher efficiency in transmission and error correction HARQ is an implicit link adaptation technique. In HARQ, link layer acknowledgements are used for retransmission decisions. For HSDPA, HARQ is performed by the MAC-hs protocol situated in the NodeBs and MSs. The new downlink transport channel for HSDPA, the HS-DSCH, is mapped to up to 15 high-speed physical downlink shared channels (HS-PDSCHs). The new uplink channel HS-DPCCH, carries the feedback information from each HSDPA-capable MS in the active set. HSDPA terminal capabilities extend from 0.9 Mbit/s to up to 14 Mbit/s. The HSDPA capability is independent of Rel-99-based capabilities. However, if the HS-DSCH has been configured for the terminal, the DCH capability in DL is limited to the value provided by the terminal. Support of HSDPA traffic affects the following network functions of the 3G radio access network which are described in more detail in chapter 4 Network Functions of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN): Radio channel management (see section 4.1.1) Transport network layer (see section 4.1.2.1) Channel coding/encoding (see section 4.1.3.1) Radio access bearer handling (see section 4.1.5) Quality of service differentiation (see section 4.1.7) Resource allocation (see section 4.2.5) Power control (see section 4.2.9) Radio cell configurations (see section 4.2.11) Handling of special MSs (see section 4.2.16) Protocol stacks (see section 4.3.6) Support of HSUPA HSUPA complements High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), thus enabling PLMN operators to provide a wide spectrum of multimedia services to a large number of end users at affordable prices. HSUPA is specified within the 3GPP Rel-6 standard. The key principles of HSUPA are: Fast scheduling by the Node B coordinates access to the UL radio resource Fast power control Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) which leads to higher efficiency in transmission and error correction In HSUPA, the fast scheduler is located in the NodeB. This scheduler monitors the unused received total wideband power (RTWP) budget and, based on this budget, grants access to the radio channel via E-DCH for MSs. Mutual interference between

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users thus has to be controlled by the scheduler to increase capacity and reduce latency. Controlling is performed, for example, within the limits set by QoS demands and the traffic load in the cell. In this way, a higher share of radio resources is assigned and HSUPA provides higher instantaneous data rates. The HSUPA scheduler can thereby react much faster if noise rise approaches the critical value. Thus for HSUPA a smaller margin is sufficient, enabling better exploitation of radio cell capacity. Using fast power control, the NodeB will adjust the rate of the scheduled channels to varying traffic conditions over time and thus avoid loss of capacity due to under-utilization of noise rise budget. HSUPA introduces fast retransmissions based on the hybrid ARQ protocol for error recovery at the physical layer. In HARQ, link layer acknowledgements are used for retransmission decisions. For HSUPA, HARQ is performed by MAC-e in the NodeB. The HSUPA standard implemented in the current software release introduces a number of new physical channels. The dedicated uplink data channel is known as E-DPDCH, the control channel E-DPCCH and the signaling channels are: E-HICH for ACK and NACK in the DL E-AGCH for absolute grant in the DL E-RGCH for relative grant in the DL HSUPA terminal capabilities extend from 1.44 Mbit/s to 5.76 Mbit/s. The HSUPA capability of a MS is independent from the Rel 99 based capabilities. However, if E-DCH has been configured for the terminal, the DCH capability on the UL is limited to the value given by the terminal. The throughput rate of the associated Rel99 DCH on the UL is thus limited to 64 kbit/s. Furthermore, restrictions apply with regard to the supported RAB combinations when E-DCH has been configured for the MS.

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Network Functions of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN)

4 Network Functions of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN)


The services of the 2G PLMN are based on the network functions. The network functions include basic functions and services and radio network functions.

4.1

Basic Functions and Services


The basic functions and services comprise the functions apply to mobile subscribers (circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS)) provided a function is not explicitly mentioned for one particular type of mobile subscriber. These include: Radio channel management Transport network layer Channel coding/decoding Bearer services Short message service (SMS) Quality of service (QoS) Location services

4.1.1

Radio Channel Management


Radio channel management includes dealing with the types of radio channels and the configuration of the radio channels. We can distinguish between three levels of radio channels: Physical channels Transport channels Logical channels Physical channels are defined in the physical layer. The physical layer (layer 1) offers different transport channels to L2/MAC. In the FDD mode the physical channel is characterized by the code, frequency and in the reverse link the relative phase. Physical channels typically consist of a three-layer structure of superframes, radio frames, and timeslots, although this is not true for all physical channels. Depending on the symbol rate of the physical channel, the configuration of radio frames or timeslots varies. Transport channels are the services offered by layer 1 to the higher layers. A transport channel is defined by the way in which information is transported over the radio interface (Uu interface). Logical channels: The MAC layer provides data transfer services on logical channels. A set of logical channel types is defined for different kinds of data transfer services as offered by MAC. Each logical channel type is defined by the type of information transferred. Logical channels are classified into two general groups: Traffic channels (for the transfer of user plane information) Control channels (for the transfer of control plane information).

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System Description RAN UMTS

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) introduces additional physical and transport channels. Logical channels are not enhanced. See section 3.1.1.3 Modifications in FDD Mode of Radio Interface for HSDPA

4.1.2

Transport Network Layer


The transport network layer (TNL) is responsible for operating and maintaining the transport resources that are provided to the application layers, that is, the radio network layer. According to the 3GPP standards, the TNL covers all transport resources within a 3G RAN. This includes the communication paths as well as the communication and signaling protocols on the user and control planes. The TNL only deals with general data transport issues; all 3G RAN specific data and protocols are confined to the radio network layer. 3G RAN uses ATM as the basic data transportation means providing a frame-based transmission (ATM multiplexing) for an efficient utilization of resources. ATM transports data in a fixed block size of 53 bytes, each block consisting of a 5 byte header and 48 byte payload data. These blocks are called ATM cells. Traffic is routed between ATM end-points along virtual paths (VP or VPC, virtual path connection). Within a virtual path, traffic is split up into several virtual channels (VC or VCC, virtual channel connection) which correspond to distinct services or applications inside the end-point of a virtual path (VP). Thus, VPs and VCs represent a point-to-point connection. For instance, there is a VP set up between the RNC and each of the NodeBs, and further VPs are set up between the RNC and the OMC (that is, Radio Commander, RC), neighboring RNCs, MSC and SGSN. Circuit emulation service (CES) As described above, it is possible to connect a NodeB to the RNC via the 2G GSM transmission network using fractional ATM. Circuit emulation services (CES) is a consolidated and reliable mechanism that allows a PLMN operator to emulate 2G GSM traffic by using the 3G ATM transport network. By connecting a 2G GSM base station (BTS) to a NodeB using CES, the PLMN operator is able to transport both the 3G NodeB and 2G GSM BTS traffic on a common ATM-based transport network. This feature is required if a NodeB and a 2G GSM BTS are co-located and an ATM-based transport network is used. Because CES is an integrated functionality of the NodeB, the PLMN operator has no need for external equipment, such as ATM switches at the NodeB location. This results in lower investment for the PLMN operator. CES is especially useful for 2G/3G PLMN operators who aim to provide high bit rate data services to a significant number of 3G mobile subscribers and want to optimize the bandwidth utilization by adopting a common ATM transport platform. The traffic of one 2G GSM BTS transmitted via the Abis interface, which operates in time division multiplex (TDM), can be carried over the 3G NodeB via the Iub interface, which operates in the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). CES packets n of the 64 kbit/s timeslots of the GSM traffic into an ATM virtual connection of the Iub interface. Overbooking on the Iub interface The overbooking feature achieves a significant gain in statistical multiplexing by appropriate NodeB traffic aggregation. In particular, overbooking on the Iub interface enables setting up ATM virtual paths (VPs), even if the total bandwidth required for all VPs exceeds the STM- 1 physical line capacity (146.75 Mbit/s). More specifically, by setting the parameter overbooking factor, the PLMN operator can define a total logical band-

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Network Functions of the 3G Radio Access Network (3G RAN)

width of up to 200% of one STM-1, resulting in 293.52 Mbit/s available on the STM-1 Iub interface. This feature allows the PLMN operator to allocate more bandwidth than is physically available. The overbooking factor can be selected by the PLMN operator according to the real traffic load of the network and can be adjusted via O&M as the conditions change. This feature allows the overbooking of STM-1 line, which is connected to an external ATM switch in the Iub interface. Via the O&M system, the PLMN operator has to monitor that the occupied bandwidth does not exceed the physical capacity of the STM-1. As soon as the measurements indicate that the overbooking needs to be reduced, it is recommended that the overbooking factor be downgraded. Bandwidth optimization during BRA The bandwidth of an already established AAL2 connection that carries the data packets for certain radio access bearers (RABs) or signaling bearers can be modified, increasing the available bandwidth for new calls. This is achieved by the support of ITU-T recommendation Q.2630.2: AAL type 2 signaling protocol - capability set 2, which is standardized in 3GPP Rel-4. When an AAL2 connection is set up by the RNC, its initial bandwidth is chosen according to the actual rate rather than the required rate as indicated by the setup request. Each time call admission control or bit rate adaptation are invoked and the bandwidth of the radio access bearer is changed, the bandwidth of the associated AAL2 connection is modified accordingly. Flexible common channel bandwidth settings for each cell Without this feature, the Iub bandwidth for the common channels (for example, RACH, FACH, PCH) is statically reserved for each RNC. The bandwidth settings for RACH, FACH, and PCH depend on the number of radio cells per NodeB. This means that the Iub bandwidth for dedicated channels will decrease if a radio cell configuration is extended, for example, from 1/0/0 to 2/2/2. The Flexible common channel bandwidth settings per cell feature allows PLMN operators to configure the bandwidths of common channels with regard to different sites, depending on the real traffic requirements and the user behavior. PLMN operators can decrease the data rate of the common channels. Therefore, the data rate can effectively be adjusted according to the traffic inside the radio cell. If the PLMN operator does not set the common channel bandwidth during radio cell creation, a set of default values is applied by the RNC. The PLMN operator can change these values by using a command offered by this feature. If a new radio cell is deleted, the previous common channel bandwidth settings are replaced by the default values. Before modifying common channel bandwidth settings, deactivation of the corresponding radio cell is required. After modification of the common channel bandwidth settings, the radio cell has to be reactivated.

4.1.2.1

Transport Network Layer Modifications for HSDPA


Introducing HSDPA affects the transport network layer (TNL) by higher capacity demands of the radio interface. The higher system capacity with HSDPA also allows higher data rates per user and many more users per radio cell. Therefore, the Iub transport capacity demands increase accordingly. In comparison to 3GPP Rel99, HSDPA: Allows user throughput of more than 384 kbit/s

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Increases the maximum cell data throughput from 1 Mbit/s to a theoretical maximum of 13.98 Mbit/s. These increased data rates require either E1 IMA groups or STM-1 lines for the Iub interface. The maximum throughput is only achievable using STM-1 lines. Using IMA, the radio cell data throughput is limited to some 12 Mbit/s. On the Iub interface, HSDPA data is carried through the same AAL2 user plane virtual channels (VCs) as conventional Rel99 traffic. On the Iu interface, HSDPA data uses the same AAL5 user plane VCs as conventional user plane traffic. HSDPA is not supported over the Iur interface. HSPDA uses a new transport channel HS-DSCH for interactive and background traffic classes. This traffic is expected to exhibit pronounced bursts that might use an Iub interface to full capacity. A flow control mechanism in combination with QoS differentiation has been introduced to allow maximum Iub usage while at the same time ensuring that HSDPA traffic does not interfere with Rel-99 traffic. In the event of congestion, HSDPA traffic is discarded first. HSDPA is carried on the same ATM AAL2 VCs as conventional traffic. Therefore, on the transport network layer there are no configuration changes required for HSDPA in comparison to conventional Rel-99 networks. However, because of the increased bandwidth requirements and the limited number range of call identifiers inside an AAL2 VC, it is necessary to configure more AAL2 user plane VCs on the Iub interface. AAL2 user plane VCs can be shared between several calls. To facilitate this, the VC carries several AAL2 links which each are associated with an individual call. AAL2 links are identified by their call identifier (CID), which is transported as an additional header byte of an ATM cell. HSDPA traffic separation and UBR+ With the introduction of HSDPA the PS interactive/background traffic will increase significantly. In order to maintain the network and service quality and at the same time reduce the transmission cost for the PLMN operator, the features for traffic separation and support of UBR/UBR+ at the Node B are introduced for the Iub interface. These features focus on the traffic separation between the real-time and non-real-time traffic (for example, Rel99 and HSDPA traffic) and the support of unspecified bit rate (UBR/UBR+) at the Node B. Traffic separation on VP layer provides the functionality for the network operator to separate the Iub interface traffic based on the quality criteria requirements with respect to delay and radio cell loss for Rel99 and HSDPA traffic. The traffic separation mechanism, applies high statistical multiplexing to the bursty HSDPA data traffic inside the network while for the Rel.99 traffic low delay paths are used. Thus, the network operator can exploit the ATM resources that are not used by the higher QoS traffic by assigning them to be used for the best effort HSDPA traffic. Together with the support of unspecified bit rate (UBR/UBR+) in the NodeB, the network operator is able to reduce the transport cost with the multiplexing gain in the intermediate ATM network and Node B. Earlier software releases only support constant bit rate (CBR), which is used for real-time services such as CS and PS streaming and conversational traffic as well as for the Rel99 best effort PS services. On the Iub the whole traffic has to be treated as real-time, since the scheduling function is located inside the RNC. With the introduction of HSDPA in the network, the best effort traffic (interactive/background) can be mapped to the unspecified bit rate (UBR/UBR+) service class. UBR provides an ATM bandwidth allocation service that does not guarantee any throughput levels and uses only the available bandwidth, hence it is relevant for HSDPA

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traffic use. UBR+, as an extension, provides a minimum guaranteed bit rate for the traffic assigned to it. HSDPA flow control The NodeBs flow control protects the priority queues from an overflow situation and supplies the NodeB with user traffic data in such a way that the throughput at the Uu interface is maximized under the given QoS constraints. The flow control mechanism dynamically assigns capacity to the HS-DSCH on the Iub interface. The relevant capacity is allocated in accordance with the available buffer space for priority queues and the current radio interface capacity. With regard to HSDPA, it is not the RNC but the NodeB that controls the transfer rate on Iub. This transfer rate is adjusted to the transfer rate that is achieved on the radio interface Uu. For each HSDPA-capable MS, NodeB maintains a buffer (priority queue) that stores the HSDPA user data until it is transmitted over the Uu interface. The NodeB requests data from the RNC using the credit-based flow control mechanism of the 3GPP standard. By requesting more or fewer data packets from the RNC, this buffer is kept at a filling level between an upper and a lower boundary. Among other factors, the Uu transfer rate depends on radio interference and the number of retransmissions. Refilling the priority queues is subject to the availability of bandwidth on the Iub interface: if conventional traffic does not leave enough bandwidth, HSDPA buffers may temporarily become empty. This is an intentional behavior since HSDPA data is of the interactive and background (I/B) traffic type and conventional traffic always takes precedence over it. Flow control for a certain queue is activated during radio link setup, or if the NodeB receives an HS-DSCH capacity request control message from RNC. For each HSDSCH capacity request message the NodeB responds with a HS-DSCH capacity allocation message. This message contains information elements (credits, interval, repetition period) which can be interpreted by the RNC as an offer regarding data rates or data packets. After the first capacity allocation, the HS-DSCH MAC-d flow control is mainly driven by the filling level of the NodeB HS-DSCH priority queues. Depending on the filling level, the NodeB sends further adequate HS-DSCH capacity allocation messages to the RNC. Priority queue management for HSDPA The NodeBs priority queues are buffers for the HSDPA user traffic data. By means of the priority queues, the total amount of pending user data in the priority queues is visible to the flow control unit and the scheduler. MAC-d is the protocol in the radio network layer that is used for data transfer and mapping between logical channels and transport channels. Each HS-DSCH is represented as a MAC-d flow and occupies an AAL2 call identifier (CID) within the virtual channel (VC) for AAL2 user plane traffic. Managing priority queues includes the following functions: Setup of new priority queues, upon request by the SRNC Deletion of priority queues, if required Processing of incoming data Transport block assembly and transfer of the transport block to the HS-PDSCH symbol rate processing entity Reporting relevant information to the scheduler Error handling

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HSDPA over Iur HSDPA over Iur provides the ability to change the HSDPA cell between two RNCs via a Iur interface. Thus, inward/outward mobility at a DRNC-controlled cell is supported. This feature provides better performance for HSDPA users who cross RNC boundaries. This feature, furthermore, contributes to reducing the use of DCH resources. HSDPA over Iur offers: Support of a serving HS-DSCH radio cell change to a DRNC-controlled radio cell Inward/outward mobility to a DRNC-controlled radio cell Inter-frequency handover from an DRNC MS-not-involved relocation for HSDPA Multi-vendor compliance to other RNCs Improvement of error handling through the introduction of RRC connection re-establishment on DCH instead of RRC connection Re-establishment on HS-DSCH to avoid the possibility of failure because the HSDPA capable radio cell at the DRNC is not always enabled Better user experience with long running data connections during handover across RNC boundaries VP traffic separation on Iur interface With VP traffic separation on Iur, the whole traffic on the Iur interface can be separated into two different ATM virtual paths (VPs). The two VPs have different QoS (specifically, delay) requirements. The tolerable delay for HSDPA traffic is much higher compared to that for Rel99 connections. By introducing the traffic separation mechanism, high statistical multiplexing can be applied to the bursty HSDPA data traffic inside the network while for the Rel99 traffic low delay paths are used. Thus, the PLMN operator can exploit the ATM resources that are not used by the higher QoS traffic, by assigning them to be used for best-effort HSDPA traffic. HSDPA congestion control Although the flow control mechanism optimimizes the utilization of resources at the Iub interface, it cannot completely prevent congestion. Congestion may occur if the user traffic at the air interface (Uu interface) is greater than the transport capacity of the Iub interface. Thus, when the RNC uses the total capacity allocated for all HS-DSCH MAC-d flows, congestion may occur at the ATM layer (AAL2), with the following consequences: Packet losses ATM/AAL2 packets of different users frame protocol (FP) packet data units (PDUs) are lost. Retransmissions Retransmissions are initiated by upper layer protocols, such as the radio link control (RLC) and/or protocols at the application layer. These retransmissions degrade the average throughput per HSDPA user accordingly. Retransmissions, rather than packet losses, are the main cause for end user throughput degradation. The HSDPA Iub interface congestion control mechanism is provided on top of the enhanced flow control mechanism. This congestion control mechanism detects congestion situations and reacts accordingly by reducing the source user plane traffic.

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4.1.2.2

Transport Network Layer Modifications for HSUPA


Also with HSUPA, the 3GPP principle is valid to keep radio network layer (RNL) and transport network layer (TNL) independent of each other. However, introduction of FDD enhanced uplink dedicated channel (E-DCH) implies the fulfillment of some TNLspecific requirements such as: Low/reduced delay (compared to Rel99) Higher throughput per user (compared to Rel99) Efficient use of transport resources The following additional modifications are implemented or HSUPA: HSUPA traffic separation Traffic separation on ATM VC and VP level HSUPA traffic separation With the introduction of HSUPA, the PS interactive/background traffic in the uplink direction will increase significantly. HSUPA as well as HSDPA traffic can exhibit pronounced bursts which could lead to loss of ATM cells used for real-time traffic if these traffic classes were transported together. In order to maintain the network and service quality and at the same time reduce the transmission cost, HSUPA traffic separation is provided for the Iub interface. Traffic separation distinguishes real-time and non-real-time (best-effort) traffic (that is, Rel99 and HSDPA/HSUPA traffic) and provides separate transport resources for these traffic classes. This is done on the ATM layer: using traffic separation, one or more ATM VPs are set up to transport real-time traffic with guaranteed bandwidth. One or more separate VPs are used for best-effort traffic which can be mapped to the UBR/UBR+ traffic classes. UBR provides an ATM bandwidth allocation service that does not provide any bandwidth guarantees and uses only the bandwidth that is otherwise left unused. UBR+, as an extension to UBR, provides a minimum guaranteed bandwidth for the traffic assigned to it. It is possible to use a common VP for both HSUPA and HSDPA traffic, or to use separate VPs. Because RNC does not support UBR/UBR+, the ATM network has to provide the means to cross-connect CBR VPs to the RNC and UBR/UBR+ VPs to the Node B. Traffic separation on ATM VC and VP level With HSDPA traffic separation, delay sensitive Rel.99 traffic can be separated from delay tolerant HSDPA traffic on the VP level. Separation on the VC level is also introduced. In the standard use case, this extension allows the operator to isolate the three UMTS traffic types Rel99, HSDPA, and HSUPA from each other on the Iub interface and, in particular, allows the HSDPA uplink control traffic to be protected from the uplink HSUPA user traffic. Together with the introduction of the traffic separation on VC level, the possibility for asymmetric VC bandwidth configurations is also introduced. Depending on the operators transport network needs, the following basic scenarios are recommended: Two VP configuration If Iub interface traffic is statistically multiplexed in ATM switching hubs that support traffic prioritization and scheduling on ATM VC level, then the configuration using two VPs is recommended. In this case all Rel99 traffic is mapped into ATM VCs for DCH usage. All HSDPA traffic is mapped into ATM VCs for HSDPA usage and the HSUPA traffic is mapped into specific ATM VCs for HSUPA usage. All the user traffic VCs are then created in one of two ATM VPs. The real-time VP will contain

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the VCs for DCH usage and the best effort VP will contain the VCs for HSDPA and HSUPA usage. Three VP configuration If the ATM network between NodeB and RNC only supports VP switching, this configuration can be applied. The traffic mapping onto VCs is done the same way as in the two VP configuration. The user traffic VCs are then created in one of three ATM VPs. The real-time VP will contain the VCs for DCH usage, one best-effort VP will contain the VCs for HSDPA and the other best-effort VP will contain the VCs for HSUPA usage.

Other configurations are also possible, for example, PLMN operators can map Rel99 back end traffic into a separate VC or a common VC with HSxPA traffic. If the Iub interface transmission bandwidth between NodeB and RNC is not shared with other virtual connections and no statistical multiplexing is performed, then a single VP without any traffic separation can be used. The prioritization and protection of Rel99 CS traffic is done on the AAL2 scheduling level. HSUPA congestion control The HSUPA Iub interface congestion control mechanism is split into two basic functions: Congestion detection Since HSUPA traffic is sent from NodeB to RNC, detection of a congestion situation is performed in the RNC as the receiving node. Congestion control This function is performed in the Node B, which is the transmitting node. Iub congestion control is performed individually for each MAC-d flow. There is one MACd flow for each E-DCH per MS. The E-DCH FP performs the flow control taking into account the radio interface capability. It controls transmission delay and data discarding in UTRAN by adjusting the transmission rate at the Iub interface to the transmission rate at the Uu interface.

4.1.3

Channel Coding/Decoding
Transport channels (TrCHs) are encoded to provide reliable and high-quality radio transport services over the radio interface. The performance is optimized by a combination of cyclic redundancy checks (CRC) and forward error correction coding. This section describes NodeBs channel encoding/decoding applied to transport channels (TrCHs). Transport channel coding/multiplexing Data arrives at NodeBs coding/multiplexing unit in the form of transport block sets once every transmission time interval. The transmission time interval depends on the specific transport channel from the set (10 ms, 20 ms, or 40 ms). The coding/multiplexing steps are as follows: Add CRC to each transport block Transport block concatenation and code block segmentation Channel coding Rate matching Insertion of discontinuous transmission (DTX) indication bits Interleaving Radio frame segmentation

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Multiplexing of transport channels Physical channel segmentation Mapping to physical channels

4.1.3.1

Enhancement of Channel Coding /Decoding for HSDPA


Introducing HSDPA affects the coding and encoding of transport channels. This section describes functions which are extended or newly created in the NodeB to support HSDPA: Transmission control for HSDPA (HSDPA scheduler) HARQ Control Transport block assembly Channel quality estimation

Transmission control for HSDPA (HSDPA scheduler) The transmission control function manages the HSDPA Uu interface resources in terms of transmission time, channelization codes, and transmit power. With regard to the transmit power for HS-PDSCHs, on the other hand, all HS-PDSCHs of the same MS have to be transmitted with the same power. When assigning the transmit power to the HS-PDSCHs, the transmission control functional entity has to make sure that it does not exceed the transmit power available for HSDPA. Furthermore, if the scheduler decides to apply the 16QAM modulation for at least one MS, it reduces the HS-PDSCH transmit power by a certain amount. The transmission control functional entity includes the scheduler functionality where, in the current software function, either a maximum CIR (carrier- to interference-power ratio) or a proportional pair scheduler is used. The maximum CIR scheduler works according to the following principle: at each time transmission interval (TTI), it selects the MS(s) for transmission in decreasing order of their current channel quality (CQI). In other words, the MS with the best channel quality (based on the fact that different conditions are valid) is served first; MSs with lower CIRs are served if HS-PDSCH resources are still available in relation to the other MS which has already selected for data transmission. Thus, the maximum CIR scheduler ensures high peak data rates as well as a maximum NodeB cell throughput. Each MS reports its channel quality information (CQI) at every TTI via the HS-DPCCH. Refer to channel quality estimation topic below. The proportional fair scheduler provides a fairer distribution of transmission bandwidth among the HSDPA users within a radio cell. Thus, the proportional fair scheduler assures that all HSDPA users within this radio cell benefit from the availability of HSDPA. In addition to the above features, the transmission control functional entity is able to set the following parameters for each scheduled MS: Channelization code for HS-SCCH Channelization codes for HS-PDSCH Transport block size In the event of a retransmission, the transport block size must be equal to that of the initial transmission. Modulation scheme When selecting the modulation scheme, the transmission control function must take into account restrictions arising from MS capabilities and those which are implied by the optional feature handling.

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HARQ control Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is an implicit link adaptation technique. In HARQ, link layer acknowledgements are used for retransmission decisions. For HSDPA, HARQ is performed by the MAC-hs protocol situated in the NodeBs and MSs, where the latter deal with the main processing load. The hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) provides functionality for fast and efficient retransmission techniques and error detection. Thus, the MS calculates the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of the incoming packet from the NodeB. If this CRC is the same as the one contained in the packet, an ACK (acknowledged) signal is sent to the NodeB. Otherwise, a NACK (not acknowledged) signal is sent, thus requesting for a retransmission of the erroneous packet. HARQ functionality is based on an N-channel stop and wait automatic repeat request (ARQ). HARQ supports both chase combining and incremental redundancy. Transport block assembly The transport block assembly unit prepares each transport block for further physical layer processing. Preparing the transport blocks is done upon request of the scheduler. Among other things, this preparation must take into account whether the scheduler demands either initial transmission or retransmission. Furthermore, the transport block assembly is responsible for managing both the priority queues and the retransmission buffer. This functionality, however, is implementation-dependent. Another functionality that the transport block assembly provides is cleaning up the retransmission buffer. The buffer is cleaned up if the protocol data units (PDUs) are either successfully transmitted or dropped due to reaching the relevant time-outs. Channel quality estimation The channel quality estimation (CQE) functional unit provides an estimate of the channel quality of a specific MS in the currently scheduled time transmission interval (TTI) for the transmission control function. This estimate allows the transport block size and the number of HS-PDSCH channelization codes for the relevant MS to be selected appropriately. The HS-PDSCH radio channel quality is estimated for each MS using the HS-DSCH. At least two pieces of input information form the basis for the channel quality estimation. The information provided for this estimation is, on the one hand, the DL transmit power for the associated DCH and, on the other hand, the channel quality information (CQI) periodically reported by the MS on the HS-DPCCH. The RNC determines the configuration parameters for CQI reporting and provides them to both MS and NodeB.

4.1.4

Enhancement of Channel Coding /Decoding for HSUPA


Introducing HSUPA affects the coding and encoding of transport channels. This section describes enhanced or new functions in the NodeB to support HSUPA: HSUPA transport channel coding/multiplexing HSUPA scheduler

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HSUPA transport channel coding/multiplexing HSUPA introduces a new transport channel E-DCH, which provides uplink transport channel processing similar to that of DCH with two exceptions: There can only be one E-DCH transport channel in the MS as there may be multiple DCHs that are multiplexed together to a single CCTrCH of DCH type. Nevertheless, the MAC layer can multiplex multiple parallel services to the E-DCH. HARQ support for the E-DCH is provided in the transport channnel processing chain. Transport channel processing on E-DCH comprises the following steps: CRC attachment Code block segmentation Channel coding Physical layer HARQ functionality/rate matching Physical channel segmentation Interleaving and physical channel mapping A single E-DCH transport channel processing chain always gets one transport block to process for transmission in one transmission time interval. This is because a set of transport blocks for each configured DCH is delivered to the processing chain . HSUPA scheduler The HSUPA scheduler, which is part of the MAC-e layer, grants access to the E-DCH for selected MSs and limits their data rates according to available resources. With regard to limits set by QoS demands and traffic load in the radio cell, for example, the scheduler: Maximizes user peak rates Reduces latency Maximizes the capacity of the cell Latency and capacity, however, cannot be optimized simultaneously. Instead, scheduling always leads to a tradeoff between these two values. While transmitting, each MS causes interference to the signals of other MSs in the same radio cell as well as in neighboring radio cells. The scheduler controls the interference, which ensures radio conditions that allow the received signals be decoded correctly. The HSUPA scheduler performs the following tasks: Select MSs which are allowed to access the uplink radio channel. Specify the acceptable transmit power of those MSs which are allowed to access the uplink radio channel. HSUPA scheduling is divided into two parts: Common HSUPA scheduling The trigger for common HSUPA scheduling is derived from radio cell timing. Dedicated HSUPA scheduling The trigger for MS-specific, that is, dedicated, HSUPA scheduling is derived from the respective MSs DPCH timing.

4.1.5

Bearer Services
Bearers can be seen as specific combinations of properties and settings that make up an instance of a protocol stack.

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The properties of a bearer include: Maximum and guaranteed bit rate Delivery order Maximum transfer delay Tolerable bit error rate 3G (UMTS) offers a range of different bearer services and allows the PLMN operator to allocate available bandwidth efficiently and map user services to the limited radio resources. The UMTS bearer services consist of Radio access bearer (RAB) services Radio access bearer services provide confidential transport of signaling and user data between MS and the Core Network (CN) Iu interface edge node. The supported quality of service (QoS) for all types and speeds of traffic in the user plane and control plane is either adequate for the negotiated UMTS bearer services or the default QoS for signaling. The RAB services are based on the characteristics of the radio interface and are maintained for a moving MS. Core Network bearer services Core Network bearer services connect the Core Network (CN) Iu interface edge node with the CN gateway to the external network. These services control and uses the backbone network in order to provide the contracted UMTS bearer services. RABs for user plane traffic Radio access bearer services consist of Radio bearer services Radio bearer services cover all aspects of the radio interface transport and use the UTRA FDD. There are three types of radio bearer services: Single RAB services, where only one type of service is supported. Multi-RAB services, where multiple services such as voice with simultaneous email, download or webbrowsing or video conferencing with simultaneous email, download or Web-browsing with different combinations of UL/DL bit rates (QoS) are supported. Two simultaneous non-realtime services - combinations with 2 PS I/B services at the same time required for some PS domain based services such as voice with simultaneous e-mail and download/web-browsing or video conferencing with simultaneous e-mail and download/Web-browsing with different combinations of UL/DL bit rates (QoS) - are supported. Iu-bearer services Iu-bearer services provide the transport between 3G RAN and CN together with physical bearer services. The RABs are based on the prioritized reference RABs depicted in 3GPP standard. RAB assignment When a connection is requested, bearers are allocated by a bearer translation function. This function correlates the requested attributes with the list of supported bearers and makes an appropriate choice.

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A second function, admission control, checks whether there are resources available to create a bearer of the chosen type. Admission control is called prior to each RAB assignment/reconfiguration procedure. Its function is to estimate the capacity requirements of the requested bearer within a given cell in terms of soft load. This is defined by the UL interference relative to the thermal noise and the total DL transmission power relative to the common channel power. If the outcome of the admission control procedure is successful, the SRNC can proceed with the RAB setup/reconfiguration procedure. Data rate management - for packet-switched services Data rates of packet-switched (PS) services change dynamically. For interactive/background PS services only a maximum rate is required. The data rate on the radio interface is adjusted to the current need of a service by a best effort approach. The mechanisms for managing the resources on the radio interface are: Transport channel type switching (CTS) Bit rate adaptation (BRA) These algorithms are based on traffic volume measurements reported by the MS and the RNC platform plus certain timers to trigger the transitions between the different traffic states. Transport channel type switching (CTS) Channel-type switching performs transitions between dedicated and common (DCH and FACH) channels. This procedure re-allocates resources from silent MSs towards active ones for efficient use of the available resources on the radio interface. Channel type switching involves shifting of users who did not transfer data for a given period of time from dedicated to common channels, and vice versa for active users. Upon transition to DCH the maximum available data rate is assigned and it can not be reconfigured to another DCH rate. These radio resource management states are defined in 3GPP standard. Bit rate adaptation (BRA) Bit rate adaptation is a mechanism that adjusts the data rate of dedicated channels to the current need of the service and accounts for the radio link quality. Bit rate adaptation performs the reconfiguration of the data rates for PS RAB. Bit rate adaptation improves the dedicated radio resource usage and the user QoS by adapting the dedicated rate to the need of the service. Additionally, it minimizes call drops due to poor radio link conditions and failures of PS interactive/background RAB establishment. Bit rate adaptation performs the reconfiguration of the data rates for PS RAB. Bit rate adaptation is used in the case of multi-call services. Multi-call services are only supported for dedicated channels. The rate of the PS radio access bearer is achieved by reconfigure the currently existing channels.

PS streaming RAB PS streaming is only possible with the capability of Internet engineering task force (IETF) DiffServ in the Iu,ps interface. The PS streaming radio access bearer (RAB) is bidirectional and always used in combination with an interactive/background PS RAB. Both the media (real-time transport protocol (RTP)) and the control (real-time transport control protocol (RTCP)) flows are carried over a streaming bearer, while the signaling flow (real-time streaming protocol (RTSP)) is multiplexed on the non-real time (NRT) interactive/ background PS bearer.

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Streaming PS establishment The streaming server and MS streaming application negotiate the QoS required for the service, whereby the negotiation is transparent to both 3G RAN and the CN. The QoS parameters are transmitted to the MS via the network access signaling (NAS) layer, and the MS requests a secondary PDP context from the CNps, which is sent via NAS signaling transparently to 3G RAN. The CNps assigns a secondary PDP context for the streaming PS and requests the RNC to set up the PS RAB. The RNC sets up the streaming PS RAB with the required QoS and reconfigures the existing interactive/background PS to UL:8 kbit/s DL:8 kbit/s. Streaming PS active During the lifetime of the streaming service the RNC does not reduce or increase the rate of the streaming PS below/above the guaranteed bit rate. The interactive/background PS rate is fixed to UL:8 kbit/s DL:8 kbit/s. When there is heavy congestion in the system that cannot be resolved by actions on the non-real-time RABs, the RNC releases streaming RABs together with the associated interactive/background PS service. Streaming and conversational RABs are treated in the same way during congestion. Streaming PS release The streaming PS release is negotiated between MS and CNps via NAS signaling. The CNps releases the secondary PDP context and requests the RNC to release the streaming PS. The RNC releases the streaming PS RAB and maintains the interactive/ background PS.

CS streaming RAB for remote modem access The CS streaming RAB is needed for circuit-switched (CS) data services, which use the non-transparent data mode to enable subscribers to access analogue modem servers via fixed networks (remote modem access), e.g., for e-mail synchronization and Intranet access. For CS streaming class (non-transparent mode) the application behind the terminal equipment (TE), e.g., PC computer and/or mobile station (MS) request is unknown. This RAB is mainly used to access the system via the radio layer protocols (RLP) and layer 2 relay (L2R) protocols where the changing requirements can be more easily satisfied. Here the time delay is somewhat longer enabling missing data to be transmitted to the interworking function (IWF) of the MSC upon request. The time delay involved is associated with the support mode and enables the MSC to acquire missing information (retransmission of data) from the accessing entity in order to be able to ensure that the transmitted bit rates match those supported by the requesting entities (TE/MS). Thus, all CS data services are mapped to the user plane in the non-transparent support mode that allows the RAB sub flow streaming combination to be adapted to the incoming data. The establishment of the CS streaming RAB (single call) is similar to that of the current single CS AMR RAB establishment procedure. The radio bearer translation (RBT) is invoked to determine the radio bearer type and the transport format set (TFS) via the initial rate allocation mechanism. The RNC continues checking and storing the parameters included in the RAB assignment request and immediately rejects the CS streaming RAB when its RAB asymmetry indicator IE is set to an incompatible value, which is done to avoid UL/DL rates that can conflict with the maximum bit rate (MBR) requested by the Core Network (CN). The MBR can be either 57,6 kbit/s, 28,8 kbit/s or 14,4 kbit/s.

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PS C + PS I/B RAB for real-time gaming The radio access bearer (RAB) combination, PS conversational + PS interactive/background supports the transmission of only the minimum of real-time data required by an application. The PS conversational QoS class is used for the first RAB of this multi- RAB because it provides the expedited forwarding quality of service (QoS) inherent to realtime gaming that is presented via the user plane or more simply on the display of the mobile station (MS) or personal digital equipment (PDA). Any incoming request for data volume reports directed to this part of the multi-RAB is immediately rejected with the cause set to requested information not available. Is to be, however, the data volume request report pertain solely to the PS I/B RAB, the usual request handling applies since the PS interactive and background RAB for this release offers the same QoS on the Iu interface. A player accessing a game application is directed to the PS conversational + PS interactive/background via the admission control and the required connection is setup, giving the player access to the application server and enabling playtime, acquisition of billing information, etc. Any requests for data are immediately directed to the interactive/background RAB that handles messaging and data change transmission. Behind all this, the initial rate allocation accounting for Core Network (CN) requirements, MS capabilities and the list of RNC supported rates, as well as the appropriate rate combination are used as input for the radio bearer translation (RBT) algorithm that determines the radio bearer type to be used for the application being accessed via the gaming portal. Therefore, the final output from the rate allocation mechanism produces a valid UL and DL rate combination for a particular RAB that can be supported by both the MS and the RNC. The radio bearer translation mapping function then provides the correct type that is used to derive the Iu/Iub and the radio link control parameters that remain the same for the duration of the call. If the initial allocation fails due to admission control or signaling problems a single retry is performed. After successful access to the application the player begins playing as usual, and all data related information, which can be triggered from both the MS and the RNC side is transported between them via the interactive background radio access bearer. On the MS side, only game relevant information comes in and any data necessary for further gaming is stored for the length of the session on the user services identity module (USIM). The information transmitted in the other direction MS -> RNC is stored and evaluated there and when necessary reported back to the MS. All messaging processes are triggered by either an action of the player requesting information or gaming accessories, e.g., multiplayer scores, layer information, tokens, shields, or power-ups or by the RNC requesting specific information. During a gaming session, any additional connection setup requests for an MS are immediately rejected. The closing of a session is normally handled by the RNC by releasing the PS Conversational RAB; whereby the PS I/B is reconfigured to the common channel and traffic volume measurements are restarted. In some cases it is also possible that both RABs be released, in which case the RNC requests that the RBT retranslate the radio bearer configuration to the stand-alone signaling radio bearers. In this case the radio links are reconfigured (NodeB application part (NBAP)/radio network system application part (RNSAP)) and the RRC radio bearer release procedure notifies the MS that both PS RABs have been released. A third option also exists since the RNC doesnt maintain the PS I/B RAB alone, if such a request comes in the RNC sends a request to the CN to be allowed to also release the PS conversational RAB.

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Two simultaneous non real-time services with speech or video Multiple parallel PS Services in combination with a speech or video are necessary especially to be able to receive incoming voice or video calls while multiple packet services are active, for example, to receive or send e-mails while surfing the internet without blocking incoming or outgoing voice calls. This is realized by the handling of up to 2 simultaneous PS domain interactive/background RABs. In addition, a CS domain RAB is supported in combination with these 2 PS I/B RABs. Tasks for two simultaneous PS domain best effort (BE) RABs are: Connecting the corporate mailbox via one RAB and the private mail box via the other RAB. Terminating a PS BE call while another PS RAB is already established. Separating the billing for the 2 PS RABs, for example, one RAB is used as a freeof-charge signaling channel and the other is used for the actual user data and charged by volume, event or time. The 2 simultaneous PS I/B RABs are configured according to 3GPP standards. Therefore, the maximum rate of both RABs is identical. Both RABs are multiplexed on the same dedicated channel (DCH) and the maximum rate of the DCH is the same as the maximum rate of each individual RAB. By multiplexing both PS RABs onto the same transport channel, they are always in the same state of the bit rate adaptation model. Each PS RAB allocates its own packet radio link controller (PRLC) entity. The PRLC entities operate independently with respect to measurements and no coordination takes place between them. SRNS relocation is supported for all new RAB combinations. If one or several of the RABs cannot be relocated, then the relocation procedure fails for all RABs. Multiple PS RABs are established upon reception of the RANAP RAB assignment request message. The RNC is able to process two RABs received within the same RANAP RAB assignment request message. If the RANAP RAB assignment request message contains two or more RABs, the RNC processes the first two RABs. Furthermore, the RNC checks whether the RAB combination is supported for these first two RABs. The procedure fails for both RABs even if one out of the two RABs is supported. HSDPA RAB handling For HSDPA support there are modified procedures and information elements that enable bearer management in an HSDPA system. The establishment and release of a RAB on HSDPA must confirm to special criteria. The criteria for assigning HSDPA resources take the following into account: MS capabilities, in particular: whether or not the MS supports HSDPA RAB type, since not all RABs are suitable to be supported on HSDPA The decision whether a RAB is eligible to be assigned to the HS-DSCH is based on: The requesting CN domain (CS/PS) The traffic class (conversational/streaming/interactive/background) PS interactive and PS background RABs are supported on the HS-DSCH. All PS interactive/background RABs belonging to Rel-5 MSs supporting HSDPA are specified as eligible for HSDPA even if they cannot be assigned on an HS-DSCH due to their location or the RAB combination.Circuit-switched (CS) RABs and packetswitched (PS) conversational RABs are not eligible for HS-DSCH and can only be supported on DCH. This is because these RABs have very strict delay requirements, which are difficult to meet with a shared resource such as HS-DSCH.

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RAB combination The single PS best effort (BE) RAB + DCCH radio bearer combination may be established on the HS-DSCH. The following mapping is implemented for the use of this RAB combination with HSDPA: The PS BE RAB is mapped to the HS-DSCH and on a bidirectional DCH with zero rate on the downlink. The DCCH is mapped to a bidirectional DCH A PS interactive/background RAB is used with PS (UL: 64 kbit/s, DL: 0 kbit/s) + PS (UL: 384 kbit/s, DL: 0 kbit/s) in combination with HS-DSCH on the downlink. Any other radio bearer combination is mapped onto DCH only or onto DCH/FACH for the DCCH only radio bearer combination. MS state and criteria depending on the state

HSUPA RAB handling For HSUPA support there are modified procedures and information elements that enable bearer management in an HSUPA system. The establishment and release of an RAB on HSUPA must confirm to special criteria. E-DCH RAB handling covers establishment, release and modification of bearers for an HSUPA system. Establishment on HSUPA requires that the respective MSs and radio cells support HSUPA and HSDPA.

4.1.6

Short Message Service (SMS)


The short message service (SMS) is a service that provides the users the possibility to send text messages of limited size to and from MSs or mobile subscribers in the PLMN. The provision of SMS makes use of a service center, which acts as a store and forward centre for short messages. SMS cell broadcast service The SMS cell broadcast forward the messages to all the MSs in a predefined service area: CBC messages are broadcast to defined geographical areas (cell broadcast areas). These areas can be composed by one radio cell, by a group of radio cells or also by the whole PLMN, depending on the coverage customers needs. For SMS cell broadcast services (CBS) an additional node in the Core Network, called Cell Broadcast Center (CBC), is introduced. The Cell Broadcast Center is connected to the corresponding RNCs via IP connections that can also be routed via the SGSN. CBS is an unidirectional point to multipoint communication. One RNC can be connected to only one CBC, whereas a CBC can be connected to multiple RNCs. The RNC might be connected Directly to the CBC Indirectly to CBC through the SGSN which acts as the router (protocol converter) CBCs that do not support the ATM/AAL5/IP/TCP interface according to 3GPP standard need the SGSN to be connected to the RNC. The text messages (cell broadcast messages) are sent to the NodeB through the related RNC with informations about the number of times they is to be repeated and with the frequency of repetition, in order to address all the MSs that enter in the area served by the set of radio cells for a certain amount of time; the broadcasting of the messages is under the RNC responsibility.

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4.1.7

Quality of Service
A bearer service with well-defined characteristics is set up between the source and the destination of a service to provide a certain network quality of service (QoS). Network services are considered end-to-end, that is, from one MS to another MS. There are two categories for traffic: Real-time traffic Non-real-time traffic The characteristics for the quality of service depends on the category of traffic. The QoS is defined in terms of time delay for real-time traffic, and in terms of bit errors for nonreal-time traffic. Different levels of QoS are provided to support an end-to-end QoS according to 3GPP standard. Each bearer service on a specific layer offers individual services using the services provided by the layers below. UMTS QoS classes Four different QoS classes are defined by 3GPP standard to describe the restrictions and limitations of the Iu interface. Conversational class The conversational class is used for real-time conversation such as telephony speech or voice-over-IP and video conferencing. Real-time conversation is performed between human end users. Thus, the required characteristics are strictly given by human perception. The basic characteristics of QoS are Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Conversational pattern, e.g., stringent and low delay Streaming class The streaming class is used for multimedia applications, e.g. real-time video or audio. The real-time data flow is always aimed at a human destination. It is a bidirectional transport and always used in combination with an interactive/background QoS class. The basic characteristics of QoS are Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Define a guaranteed bit rate and a maximum transfer delay Interactive class The interactive class is used if either a machine or a human being requests online data from remote equipment (e.g., a server). The basic characteristics of QoS are request response pattern preserve payload content Background class The background class is used if a computer sends and receives data files in the background. The basic characteristics of QoS are The destination does not expect the data within a certain time Preserve payload content

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UMTS bearer service attributes The following traffic classes are supported for the PS domain and the CS domain: PS domain: conversational, streaming, interactive and background traffic classes CS domain: conversational traffic class Differentiated services (DiffServ) In order to provide the full solution of the quality of service (QoS) in the 3G RAN network, IP-based Iu bearer services offer DiffServ, which include 3 QoS classes identifying prioritization for packet loss: Expected forwarding (EF) Assured forwarding (AF) Best effort (BE) The source/destination packet principle allows switching, routing and rerouting of packets that carry all the valid information in their header. The expected QoS class is assigned to each packet in the type of service (TOS) field of the IP header. Software determines the DiffServ QoS class according to the traffic class defined in the RANAP assignment request message. The mapping of the DiffServ (specified in the TOS field) and the current UMTS QoS class (streaming, conversational, interactive or background), is performed using the office data stored in the RNC. This can be changed via the Radio Commander (RC). Initially destination code points for the QoS classes interactive/background and streaming can be configured by the Radio Commander. The RNC marks the appropriate DiffServ code point in the TOS field of the IP header for each packet of the uplink traffic. The SGSN marks the downlink traffic for the Iu,ps interface. The QoS on the Iu,ps interface is configured via the ATM AAL5 link between the RNC and the CNps during the transport bearer setup. The TOS field in the IP header is used to distinguish between real-time and non-real-time IP packets. A buffer control mechanism is used to avoid non-real time services to fill up the buffer when the radio interface rate is fixed and no rate control is allowed. On the Iur interface the QoS depends on the link characteristics of the AAL2 connection (transport bearer) carrying the user plane traffic between RNCs. No Iur-specific QoS differentiation exists because the highest QoS class is used to accommodate all QoS classes including PS streaming, which helps to prevent cell loss or excessive delays. It must be noted that QoS cannot be guaranteed on the DRNC Iub interface when external resources are involved. On the Iu,ps interface the QoS is defined by the configuration of the transport channel, TFCS and physical channel parameters of the PS RAB. QoS mechanism for HSDPA Within the RNC, QoS differentiation is performed on the AAL2 level. With the support of HSDPA, the assigned priorities listed below ensure that HSDPA traffic has least priority: Highest priority: UDI, PS streaming, AMR voice Low priority: PS best-effort (BE) traffic on DCH Lowest priority: HS-DSCH

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QoS for HSUPA The end user of HSUPA services (3GPP Rel-6) experience improved QoS compared to 3GPP Rel99 UMTS and 3GPP Rel-5. The improved QoS apparent in terms of: Peak data rate in uplink Average data rate (that is, packet call throughput) Reduction of transmission delay for interactive and background services Higher availability of high data rate services.

4.1.8

Location Services
The location services (LCS) feature is a new radio access network capability which enables the PLMN to determine the geographic location of an MS to use this information in certain location-based applications.

g The location services is primarily a 3G RAN-based feature supported by the current


3G RAN software release. Implementation of this feature is the basis for a wide range of new possibilities for optimizing a network such as detection of hot spots, handover performance analysis, hierarchical radio cell system planning, or automatic capacity adjustment. Further potential LCS application categories are listed below. Value-added services (use LCS to support various commercial services such as information services, tracking services, navigation services). PLMN internal location services (functions which enhance or support certain O&Mrelated tasks or Intelligent Network services, e.g., location-dependent routing, locationdependent (home zone) billing, location-assisted handover). Emergency services determine the position of a mobile subscriber, e.g., for a car breakdown service. Location services network architecture Figure 19 shows the location services network architecture to support the service area ID-based location for MS in the circuit-switched mode.

RNC Iur interface

HLR Lh interface

MS

NodeB

SRNC SRNC (SMLC)

MSC/VLR

GMLC

LCS client

Uu interface

Iub interface

Iu interface

Lg interface

Le interface

Figure 19

Location services network architecture to support the location of MS

The MSC/VLR contains the functionality responsible for mobile subscriber subscription authorization and for managing call-related and non-call related positioning requests of location services. The MSC is accessible to the GMLC via the Lg interface. The location

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service functions of MSC are related to charging and billing, location service co-ordination, location request, authorization and operation of the location services. The Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) performs a key control function for the introduction of location services (LCS) implemented 3G PLMN subsystems, that is, the serving RNC (SRNC) fulfills the LCS functional entity of a serving mobile location center (SMLC)). The SMLC manages the overall co-originating and scheduling of resources required for the location of an MS. It also calculates the final location estimate and estimates the achieved accuracy. There can be more than one SMLC in one PLMN. SMLC receives location requests from its associated SRNCs and determines the positioning calculation method to be used. This determination is based on the quality of service (QoS) parameters, capabilities of the network, and the MSs own location capabilities. The SMLC calculates the final location estimate and accuracy and returns this data to the requesting SRNC. The SRNC (SMLC) and GMLC are connected through the visited MSC.

g In the next 3GPP Release (Rel-4), the SRNC can control a number of location measurement units (LMUs) for the purpose of obtaining radio interface measurements to locate or help locate mobile subscribers in the area that it serves. This is used for the release 4 positioning method observed time difference of arrival (OTDOA) which uses measurement of 3G RAN time framing. The SRNC is administered with the capabilities and types of measurement produced by each of its LMUs. Signaling between an SRNC and LMU is transferred using the Iub interface, sometimes the Iur interface and also the Uu interface for possible stand-alone LMUs. The SRNC (SMLC) reports the location information together with the time of day and the estimated errors of the location of the MS to the client. The client is allowed to specify QoS parameters when requesting the service (e.g., accuracy). The location request message from a client can specify any of the following reporting events: Direct, immediately report the specified MS's current location. The MSs location is specified either by its current service area (service area identifier, SAI) or by returning the geographical coordinates of the radio cells center as an estimate of the MSs geographical coordinates. The form of location reporting is specified in the location request message. If SAI reporting is specified, the location reported is normally the SAI derived from the cell ID of a radio cell from the MS's active set. If the MSs active set comprises more than one radio cell, then the smallest radio cell is selected to increase the accuracy of the location estimate. If geographical coordinate reporting is specified, the cell ID is determined in the same way as for SAI reporting and the coordinates of the center point of the selected radio cell are returned as the MS location. The Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC) verifies the identity of the client and its subscription to the service, collects all information necessary to serve the request (such as identification of the MS by means of its MSISDN or IMSI) and triggers the positioning procedures. The LCS client provides the mobile subscriber with location dependent services. It interacts with an LCS server to obtain location information of the MS.

g For the LCS in the circuit-switched domain, there is also the possibility of a Nokia
Siemens Networks (Siemens-originated) proprietary solution with the help of CAMEL phase 1/phase 3 based network elements SCP/CSE in the role of an LCS client. In this case, the combined mobility management feature Gs interface exten-

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sion and CAMEL phase 3 pre-paging are used between the circuit-switched domain and the packet-switched domain. Positioning method The location information can be requested by (and reported to) a client within the MS, or by a client within or attached to the Core Network (CN). In addition, LCS can be offered without subscription to basic telecommunication services and are applicable to any target MS whether or not it supports LCS.

g According to 3GPP Release 99, the current LCS implementation for 3G (UMTS) is
using the service area ID (SAI) method, offering an accuracy of about 500 m up to 2000 m depending on the radio cell size (that is, more accurate for smaller cell in urban areas). A service area my be an area consisting of one ore more radio cells belonging to the same location area. If a service area is equal to one radio cell, the SAI identifies a determined sector or antenna of a radio cell in the 3G RAN (RNS) network. For the future 3GPP Release 4 the more accurate positioning method observed time difference of arrival (OTDOA) is being implemented on the 3G RAN (RNS) side. The CN side is able to support this positioning method as well. Network positioning procedure The network positioning procedure is triggered by the GMLC. It consists of the following sub-procedures: Location preparation procedure, to verify the privacy restrictions of the mobile subscriber, to reserve network resources and determine the positioning method according to the requested QoS and the capabilities of MS and network. Positioning measurement procedure, to perform measurements from which the position of the MS can be calculated. Location calculation and release procedure, is initiated after the measurements are completed and is concerned with calculating the MSs location, releasing all involved network and/or MS resources and sending the charging information to the CN.

The messaging and processes in each sub procedure depend on the source of the location request. According to 3GPP Release 99 and Release 4, the following cases can be distinguished: Mobile terminating location request (MT-LR) The LCS application invokes the positioning procedure and receives the location estimate. Privacy is an issue. Mobile originating location request (MO-LR) for self location The MS itself invokes the positioning procedure and receives the location estimate; optionally, the location estimate can also be transferred to a third party. Network induced location request (NI-LR) not yet released for CN The network invokes the positioning procedure autonomously.

4.2

Radio Network Functions


The radio network functions comprise the functions apply to mobile subscribers (circuitswitched (CS) and packet-switched (PS)) provided a function is not explicitly mentioned for one particular type of mobile subscriber.

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These include: Antenna diversity Receiving diversity Macro diversity Radio-access security and user authentication management Data integrity User data confidentiality (ciphering) Separated or combined mobility management 3G handover/relocation inter-frequency handover Hard handover / soft handover SRNS relocation (including intra-frequency intra-PLMN relocation, inter-frequency inter-PLMN relocation) Inter-system handover 3G to 2G for circuit-switched services and inter-system cell reselection (handover) 2G to 3G for packet-switched services IMSI based handover for RAN sharing Resource allocation Admission control of prioritized bearers Preemption for prioritized RAB Overload handling Transcoder free operation (TrFO) Remote electrical antenna tilt 3G RAN radio cell configurations Transmit power control Single-cell and multi cell operation as a radio network architecture tool for flexible cell layout Smart cell configuration Hierarchical radio cell structure Versatile multilayer handling 3G RAN network element configurations 3G RAN / 2G RAN co-location configuration Fractional asynchronous transfer node (ATM) Handling of special MSs

4.2.1

Antenna Diversity
This section describes the diversity functions in NodeB. Diversity is a means of improving connection quality, mobility and link susceptibility to interference. The diversity functions are categorized as follows: Receiving diversity Macro diversity Receiving diversity NodeB implements receiving diversity via the RAKE receiver concept. A RAKE receiver has a number of RAKE fingers. Each of these RAKE fingers changes (by despreading) broadband signals with different delays from the same source (that is, with the same spreading code) back into user information by using the spreading code. This can be

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done because the different RAKE fingers apply the spreading code with delays. The RAKE receiver receives signals from many paths over the radio link. The path selector in the RAKE receiver selects the (at the most) 8 best paths by using the delay profile information transmitted from the searcher part. The path selector sends the signals from the selected paths into each finger in the finger part. The signal input to each finger is despread using the pseudo noise (PN) code specified by the path selector. The channel estimator removes fading vectors from the signals obtained by despreading. The automatic frequency control (AFC) function adjusts frequency shift. The signals input to each finger are synthesized according to their signal to interference ratio (SIR) value. Macro diversity Within 3G RAN, multiple radio links can be established simultaneously between an MS and NodeBs, e.g., an MS can have three radio links carrying the same UMTS radio bearer. This allows smooth handover without any communication disconnection when the MS moves from one cell to another.

4.2.2

Radio-Access Security
The radio-access security management functions protect: Radio-access to the mobile services Disclosure of information on the radio path The radio-access security and user authentication management functions safeguard the Data integrity Confidentiality of the user data on the radio interface (ciphering)

4.2.2.1

Data Integrity
In the 3G PLMN, data integrity together with authentication (described in the previous section) and user identity confidentiality (described in the following section) is an integral part of the overall safeguarding system in the 3G PLMN. Most mobility management (MM) and call/session control signaling information elements are considered sensitive and their integrity must be protected. An integrity function is being applied to these signaling information elements transmitted between the MS and the Core Network (CN). The authentication and key agreement (AKA) mechanism uses quintets including an integrity key (IK). Therefore, support of MS with USIM chip cards is secured. The data integrity procedure ensures that the receiving entity is able to verify that the signaling data has not been modified in an unauthorized way because it was sent by the sending entity and that the data origin of the signaling data received is indeed the one claimed. For this a stamp, which is derived from the integrity key (IK), is added to signaling messages that are sent over the radio interface between the RNC and MSC or SGSN network element.

g This handling is not only supported for 3G mobile subscribers (USIM) but also
enhanced for 2G mobile subscribers (SIM) roaming in the 3G RAN (RNS). Data integrity procedure Data integrity handling is supported between the MS and the RNC / MSC or SGSN network element. For this the integrity key (IK) agreement is done during authentication

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in the MSC or SGSN network element and the integrity algorithm agreement is done after authentication in the MSC or SGSN network element. Figure 20 shows the principle of data integrity in the circuit-switched domain of 3G UMTS.

MSC or SGSN

1 RNS (RNC) 3

5 Radio interface

MS

Figure 20

Principle of data integrity in the circuit-switched domain of 3G UMTS

1. The MSC or SGSN network element starts data integrity handling by providing the integrity algorithm to the RNC through an appropriate message. 2. The data integrity function is started in the RNC. 3. The RNC sends a security control request message to the MS. 4. The data integrity function is started in the MS. 5. The MS sends a security control response message to the RNC. 6. After successful initiation of data integrity the RNC responds with an adequate response to the MSC or SGSN network element.

4.2.2.2

User Data Confidentiality (Ciphering)


The confidentiality of user data on the radio interface is a function that prevents the user/signaling information exchanged on the traffic channels from being made available or revealed to unauthorized persons, bodies or processes. This function protects the confidentiality of user/signaling information on traffic channels by ciphering the user/signaling data on the radio interface, and is used for speech and data communication. This ciphering of the user/signaling information extends only to the path MS to RNC and not to the entire call. The end-to-end protection of user data is the responsibility of the user. Ciphering and the data integrity function are started simultaneously.

g This handling is not only supported for 3G mobile subscribers (USIM), but also
enhanced for 2G mobile subscribers (SIM) roaming in the 3G RAN (RNS). The cipher key CK is computed in the MS (chip card with USIM) during the authentication procedure with the aid of the individual subscriber authentication key K (secret key,

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K), the random number RAND and algorithm f3 of the cipher key CK. This means that this parameter is also available in the MS without having to be sent via the radio interface. On the PLMN side, the 3G RAN (RNS) is responsible for ciphering and the VLR or SGSN transfers the required CK. After authentication, both sides can begin ciphering the messages to be sent via the radio interface. Ciphering algorithm f8 is used for ciphering. The ciphering function is carried out either in the radio link control (RLC) sub-layer or in the media access control (MAC) sub-layer, according to the following rules: In the case of a logical channel that uses a non-transparent RLC mode (acknowledged mode or unacknowledged mode), ciphering is performed in the RLC sublayer. In the case of a logical channel that uses the transparent RLC mode, ciphering is performed in the MAC sub-layer (MAC-d entity). A logical channel that is being supported on a common transport channel is to be use the unacknowledged mode RLC mode. According to this model, ciphering is always performed in the Serving RNC (SRNC). The ciphering context, such as cipher key (CK) and hyper frame number (HFN), is only known in the SRNC. In the RLC sub-layer, ciphering performs the encryption/decryption of the data part of an RLC protocol data unit (PDU). The protocol data unit is ciphered based on exclusive OR (XOR) combining with a mask that is obtained as an output of the ciphering algorithm. In the MAC sub-layer, ciphering performs the encryption/decryption of the data part of a MAC signaling data unit (SDU). The signaling data unit is ciphered based on an XOR operation with a mask that is obtained as an output of the ciphering algorithm. The ETSI/3GPP Security Algorithms Group of Experts has specified an encryption algorithm named KASUMI in ETSI/3GPP standard.

4.2.3

Separated or Combined Mobility Management


In a Core Network (CN) architecture case either a separated mobility management or a combined mobility management (with Gs interface) is possible. In the 3GPP specifications for the CN architecture the CN consists of both a circuitswitched (CS) service domain and a packet-switched (PS) service domain (Figure 21). This means that there is an individual CS service state machine within the MSC/VLR node and an individual PS service state machine within the SGSN node. The two peers of the service state machine are working independently of each other. These separated service states in the MSC/VLR node and in the SGSN node are also available in the MS. In the same way, all location information are separated in the HLR by two individual logical location parts. For example, the following mobility management functions are working independently of each other for the CS and for the PS service domain: Attach/detach Location update - routing area update. With the assistance of a Gs interface, it is possible to combine the mobility management of the CS and PS domain.

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The aim of 3G RAN is in the 3G case to offer a unified set of radio bearers that can be used for PS and CS traffic. This leads one to conclude that only one logical control channel structure is being used for all kinds of traffic. The radio resource control (RRC) handling is a 3G RAN internal functionality and the CN does not define the type of radio resource allocated.

HLR PS location CS location *) Gs interface, optional Gs interface *)

SGSN PS service domain PS state

MSC/VLR CS service domain CS state

3G RAN with distribution functionality 3G RAN

Iu interface (separate signaling connections, that is, RANAP instances per service domain)

Radio interface (one RRC connection) PS state CS state MS

Figure 21

Separated/combined mobility management (MM)

4.2.4

3G Handover/Relocation
In the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) the mobility of the user equipment is ensured by relocation and handover procedures: Handover is the transfer of a users connection from one radio channel to another (can be the same or a different cell). The term handover is used in 2G (GSM). Relocation (SRNS Relocation) is the change of the Iu (or Gn) instance through a changeover of the SRNC (or SGSN) function from one RNS (or SGSN) to another. It is to be noted that SRNS relocation was previously known as streamlining.

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Classification of handover/relocation Generally we can classify a handover/relocation by one or more of the following criteria: Handover/relocation type Handover in FDD mode in TDD mode between both modes Handover within a frequency (intra-frequency) between two frequencies (inter-frequency) Handover within a code (intra-code) between two codes (inter-code) Cell handover intra-cell handover (intra-NodeB) inter-cell handover NodeB handover intra-NodeB handover (see cell handover) inter-NodeB handover (see RNC handover) RNC handover intra-RNC handover inter-RNC handover (with/without Iur interface) MSC/SGSN SRNS relocation/cell-reselection intra-MSC/SGSN SRNS relocation/cell-reselection inter-MSC/SGSN SRNS relocation/cell-reselection Inter-system MSC handover 3G MSC/SGSN to 2G MSC/SGSN handover/cellreselection (within unified 2G/3G MSC/SGSN node) 3G MSC/SGSN to 2G MSC/SGSN handover/cellreselection (between different 3G MSC/SGSN nodes) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x RNS perspective CN perspective

3G CS-MGW handover (intra-system/inter-system) - separated MSC architecture - intra-3G CS-MGW handover - inter-3G CS-MGW handover - internal/external-3G MGW handover Hard handover Table 2 Classification of handover/relocation x x x x x x x

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Handover/relocation type Soft handover Handover direction forward handover backward handover Handover sequence first handover subsequent handover Table 2 Classification of handover/relocation (Cont.)

RNS perspective x

CN perspective

x x

x x

x x

Inter-frequency (hard) handover RNS perspective: The commercial RNS product supports a deployment with a multiRNS. In order to improve the RNS system capabilities with multifrequency layering of radio cells, an inter-frequency (hard) handover procedure is necessary. Hard handover/soft handover Hard handover RNS perspective: Hard handover is a category of handover procedures where all the old radio links in the MS are abandoned before the new radio links are established. A common procedure is the tuning of the receiver of the MS to another channel, which causes an interruption. Soft handover RNS perspective: Soft handover is a category of handover procedures where the radio links are added and abandoned in such a manner that the MS always keeps at least one radio link to the RNS. In 3G this is supported within an RNC area (softer handover) or between RNCs, if the Iur interface is implemented. For soft handover the procedure SRNC relocation is performed on the Iu interface.

Forward handover/backward handover Forward handover RNS perspective: Not applicable for 3G circuit-switched call. A type of handover initiated by the MS. The MS sends the request for establishment of a new radio link in the new radio cell, that is, it does not use the current radio link for performing handover but a radio link of the new radio cell. RNS has to provide the traffic channels after the handover on radio interface, which can be not successful. RNS needs information to find previously allocated serving processes (either within the same RNS or within another). CN perspective: This kind of handover is not being supported within the context of the UMTS. The CN has to provide the traffic channels after the handover on radio interface, which can be unsuccessful. The CN needs a user-id or an identifier of the previous serving process as backward index, to get data from the previous serving protocol entities. GPRS implicitly uses this mechanism while performing a routing area update (RAU) procedure. However, inter-system handover scenarios between UMTS and GPRS can have to rely on forward handover mechanisms.

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Backward (hard) handover RNS and CN perspective: The CN performs the SRNS relocation procedure. A type of handover initiated by either the MS or the network. The MS or an appropriate network entity sends the request for establishment of a new radio link in the source radio cell, that is, it uses the current radio/fixed link for performing handover. The new traffic path down to the reservation of the new radio channel is done in advance. Subsequently the MS changes to the new radio channel. If this works, the communication is guaranteed to proceed.

SRNC relocation RNS and CN perspective: The CN performs the SRNS relocation procedure. SRNC relocation is a procedure after handover between RNCs is covered within the radio network subsystem (RNS). Signaling and traffic is lead from the MSC to the serving RNC (SRNC), to target RNC (DRNC) and then towards the MS. A prerequisite is the support of the Iur interface between RNCs. Independent from the time of the actual handover, the SRNC can request SRNC relocation from the CN (no time constraints). This procedure sets up a target Iu leg to the DRNC and subsequently releases the source Iu connection.

4.2.4.1

Inter-Frequency Handover g The current software version supports inter-frequency handover within a NodeB in
2/2/2 configuration or higher. That is, the destination frequency needs to be provided by the same NodeB and the same antenna within this NodeB. In this case, the frequencies most likely exhibit different fading conditions, but experience the same timing and path loss conditions which are already known to the RNC. An inter-frequency handover is required and possible if 1. the current frequency becomes congested, overloaded or is subject to excessive interference, and 2. another frequency is available which covers the same area and offers the possibility to maintain the quality of service. It is recommended that PLMN operators with multi-frequency NodeBs implement this feature. It offers the possibility of performing functions such as load balancing and load overflow between frequency layers without the need to cancel existing MS connections via dedicated channels (DCH). Without inter-frequency handover, load balancing would only be possible within the access control function by selectively granting or denying requests for new radio resources. The inter-frequency (hard) handover procedure removes all radio links in the active set on the current frequency layer and establishes a new radio link in the target frequency layer. An inter-frequency handover can be initiated by coverage trigger events and load control function. Coverage triggered handover A coverage triggered handover is performed if an MS has reached the border of an area covered by radio cells of one frequency layer and if there is another frequency layer available which provides coverage in the destination area of the MS.

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Radio cells with frequency 2

2 MS

2 macro layer

Radio cells with frequency 1

Figure 22

Coverage triggered inter-frequency handover

The RNC knows which radio cells are at the border of the coverage. If an MS is about to leave such a border radio cell (radio cell 5 in Figure 22) into a neighbor radio cell which does not provide coverage on the current frequency, then a coverage-triggered inter-frequency intra-NodeB handover into frequency layer 2 is performed. As the timing and path loss conditions can be assessed to be identical for both frequency layers, there is no need to perform inter-frequency measurements within the MS (which either requires a dual receiver MS or a switchover into compressed mode) as a preparation for the handover. A second (intra-frequency) handover is being performed within frequency layer 2, from radio cell 2 into radio cell 3. Measurement 2nd is used to trigger the inter-frequency handover. By appropriate adjustment of the thresholds for event 2nd, the PLMN operator can choose to have the handover triggered as soon as the MS has set up one radio link into the border radio cell, when the MS is at a certain point of the radio cell, or to disable the coverage-driven inter-frequency handover as a whole. Load-triggered handover Load control takes place when a dedicated transport channel is being set up or changed. An inter-frequency handover is triggered by load control for the events: Radio access bearer (RAB) assignment The MS is reassigned to the radio cell that is identified by load control. Channel type switching from control channel (CCH) to dedicated channel (DCH) The DCH is set up in the radio cell that is identified by load control.

Load control can work in either of two mechanisms: Load overflow Load overflow uses one frequency layer for all connections as long as its resources are sufficient to carry the traffic. It is only after these resources have been exhausted that further requests is being redirected and served by the other frequency layer. Load balancing Load balancing keeps the traffic load distributed equally among the radio cells which share the same coverage area but operate on different frequencies.

4.2.4.2

Hard Handover g A hard handover is a handover in which the MS is required to either tune its radio
equipment or reestablish synchronization. A hard handover applies to the FDD and TDD mode.

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Hard handover is the passing on of a call from radio cell to radio cell. The physical connection between the MS and the Radio Network System (RNS) is changed. This process is always started whenever a new radio cell provides better transmission quality, e.g., because the mobile subscriber moves into the new radio cell during a call, or the transmission quality changes for other reasons. This method ensures that the call is always assigned to the most suitable radio path. Different types of hard handover are distinguished according to the arrangement of the old and new radio cells within the 3G RAN (RNS) network. Several hard handovers in succession can be necessary while a call is in progress. A distinction is made between the first hard handover and subsequent hard handovers. RNC-controlled hard handover In RNC-controlled hard handovers a distinction is made between: Intra-cell hard handover An intra-cell hard handover is a hard handover between channels within a radio cell which is controlled by a single RNC. Inter-cell hard handover An inter-cell hard handover is a change between old and new radio cells which belong to the same Radio Network Controller (RNC). This process is performed solely by the RNC. Figure 23 shows the RNC-controlled hard handover.

Core Network (CN)

3G RAN (RNS)

NodeB

MSC

RNC

NodeB

Figure 23

RNC-controlled hard handover

4.2.4.3

Soft Handover
In CDMA systems there are two kinds of soft handover: Soft handover Softer handover Soft handover A soft handover is the simultaneous support of an MS by multiple NodeBs on the traffic channel. A soft handover applies only to the FDD mode. When a 3G call is in soft handover condition, the mobile subscriber unit is monitored by two or more cell sites (NodeB) (see Figure 24).

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The 3G transcoder circuitry (TRAU server card (TSC) within MSC network element) compares the quality of the frames from the two receive cell sites (NodeB) on a frameby-frame basis. The 3G RAN (RNS) is able to take advantage of the moment-bymoment changes in the signal strength at each of the two radio cells by picking out the best frame. The frame-by-frame selection ensures that the best possible frame is used in the CDMA decoding process. The transcoder can literally toggle back and forth between the radio cell sites involved in a soft handover on a frame-by-frame basis. Soft handovers also contribute to high-call quality by providing a make before break connection. This eliminates the short disruption of speech one hears in former technologies when the radio frequency connection breaks from one radio cell to establish the call at the destination radio cell during a handover. Soft handovers also have another benefit. They avoid the ping pong effect. The ping pong effect occurs in narrowband systems when a call gets switched back and forth between radio cells when the mobile subscriber unit is near a radio cell border. Ping ponging causes more noise during handovers and increases the chance of a dropped call.
Core Network (CN) 3G RAN (RNS)

NodeB MSC RNC NodeB NodeB

RNC-controlled soft handover

Figure 24

Principle of soft handover

The inter-RNC handover is implemented as a soft handover (soft Iur handover). Unlike with the intra-RNC handover, the NodeBs involved in the soft handover belong to different RNCs. Softer handover A softer handover occurs when a mobile subscriber unit is simultaneously communicating with more than one sector of the same radio cell. The softer handover enhances the quality of the call by combining the signals of the multiple sectors to produce a higher quality smoother sector-to-sector handover. The intra-NodeB/intra-RNC handover is implemented as a softer handover (softer Iur handover). One NodeB that is controlled by one RNC is involved in the softer handover.

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4.2.4.4

SRNS Relocation
SRNS relocation is a handover of the servicing function from one RNS to another. It allows inter-RNC roaming without having to support common channels over the Iur. SRNS relocation, also known as streamlining, involves changing the Iu connection and the location of the serving functionality in order to keep connection path lengths restricted to a minimum. It is performed using a temporary Iur link between RNCs. 3GPP standards describe two types of SRNS relocation: MS not involved MS resources (radio bearer, active set etc.) are not reconfigured during the course of the procedure. The Iur connection is required and the relocation procedure is performed on cell_FACH combined with cell update/URA update or with soft handover. MS involved MS resources are necessary and therefore MS is notified via the Uu interface. The Iur connection is not necessary and the relocation procedure is performed on cell_DCH combined with the hard handover. Two SRNS relocation scenarios are provided: Intra-frequency intra-PLMN relocation Inter-frequency inter-PLMN relocation Intra-frequency intra-PLMN relocation The main goal of intra-PLMN intra-frequency relocation is to reduce Iur usage. For this reason relocation is only triggered when all of the active set belongs to the same drift RNC for two successive active set updates. The general relocation procedure is as follows: While maintaining the existing Uu connection to a NodeB of the serving RNS (SRNS), a second Uu link is established to a NodeB of the target or drift (target) RNC (DRNC). An Iur link is established between the DRNC and the SRNC. The RNCs exchange their functions; the former DRNC becomes the SRNC and vice versa. The links running via the DRNC are canceled. Inter-frequency inter-PLMN relocation This type of relocation is triggered when an inter-frequency measurement event is reported and the best reported cell belongs to a different PLMN to the existing active set. This enables PLMN operators with networks in neighboring countries to retain the MS in their network when the MS crosses the border between the countries, without the need for an Iur connection between RNCs belonging to different PLMNs. The general relocation procedure is as follows: The RNS relocation is initiated by the SRNC. While maintaining the existing Uu connection to a NodeB of the serving RNC (SRNC), the Iu connections from the original serving RNS (SRNS) to a new target RNS are re-configured. The handover from the SRNS to the drift RNS (DRNS) is done using hard handover, that is, all the old radio links in the MS are abandoned before the new radio links are established.

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4.2.4.5

Inter-System Handover
The inter-system handover is the handover between two different Core Networks. Two cases are possible for the 3G RAN (RNS) involved: The RANs have the same type, e.g. an inter-PLMN handover This scenario is supported by 3G RAN (RNS) as a hard handover. The RANs have different types, e.g., a 3G UMTS - 2G GSM/GPRS handover This scenario is supported by 3G RAN (RNS) as a hard handover when it is assumed that there is no direct 3G RAN (RNS) - 2G RAN (BSS) interface. At initial deployment, the coverage of 3G UMTS is incomplete and concentrated on certain areas, for example cities and major roads. Outside these areas, no 3G UMTS connections can be provided. In order to have a level of service that is perceived by the user as being at least as good as that of existing 2G GSM/GPRS networks, handover mechanisms from 3G UMTS to 2G GSM/GPRS are necessary when an MS leaves the 3G UMTS coverage area while having an active connection. For 3G UMTS - 2G GSM/GPRS handovers different services within the two CN domains must be considered: Handovers between 3G UMTS and 2G GSM (CS calls) based on hard handovers and triggered by 3G RAN Handovers between 3G UMTS and 2G GPRS (PS services) based on forward cell re-selections and initiated by the MS Handovers from 3G UMTS to 2G GSM/GPRS (PS services) based on cell change order procedures and controlled by 3G RAN.

3G UMTS - 2G GSM handover Inter-system information must be exchanged to enable 3G RAN to notify the MS of the existing 2G GSM frequencies in the area. Based on measurements taken by the MS, the RNC determines the need for a handover and coordinates it, and compressed mode is used, if necessary, to allow time for these measurements. On completion, the RNC sends a message to the Core Network (CN) node indicating the target 2G GSM radio cell. If the relocation is possible, the RNC receives a RANAP relocation command that triggers an inter-system handover command to the MS. After the MS has successfully accessed the 2G GSM radio cell, the RNC receives another message from the CN node and releases all resources and contexts relating to the Iu connection for this MS. 3G UMTS cell (re-)selection to/from 2G GPRS In the situation where the MS performs inter-system cell reselection to the 2G GPRS system, the RNC is a passive party. The only actions is being related to CN requests. The MS performs inter-system routing area update and accesses the 2G GPRS system based on inter-system measurement results. 2G GSM - 3G UMTS handover At initial deployment, early rollout scenarios consist of UMTS islands embedded in an overall 2G GSM network. The 2G GSM - 3G UMTS handover provides seamless service coverage supporting incoming circuit-switched (CS) handovers for voice and data calls coming from 2G GSM. It is initiated by the 2G GSM network and takes place during a call.

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3G UMTS cell change order to 2G GSM/GPRS The purpose of the cell change order procedure is to transfer a 3G RAN PS RAB connection to a 2G GSM/GPRS cell under the control of the 3G RAN. The 3G RAN orders the MS to perform a cell change to a 2G GSM/GPRS cell if the radio condition quality measurements are below a certain threshold and the GSM measurement quality is above a certain threshold. The conditions for the cell change order procedure are: The MS is in CELL_DCH state and Only PS RAB(s) exist and No signaling connection to the CS domain exists

4.2.4.6

IMSI-Based Handover (for RAN Sharing)


This feature enables 2G GSM PLMN operators to share a common 3G UMTS PLMN. The 3G UMTS PLMN can not have its own mobile subscribers, but can be used by either national or international roaming mobile subscribers. The feature is implemented by means of an IMSI-based handover, that is, a handover to a second radio access network based on the mobile subscriber identity and a mobile subscriber traffic sharing agreement between two PLMNs. Depending on the mobile subscribers home PLMN ID, the MS can be handed over to selected neighbor networks. The feature extends the existing 2G GSM-neighbor-cell selection mechanism in a way that two PLMN operators can share the revenue generated by 3G UMTS mobile subscribers performing an inter- radio access technology handover from 3G UMTS to 2G GSM and an inter-frequency handover. In order to prepare a manipulated set of target 2G GSM- and 3G UMTS-neighbor-cells, the feature uses the fixed non-access stratum MS identity (the IMSI) of the subscriber combined with a preselected set of PLMN identifiers. A table of allowed PLMN identifiers per mobile subscriber PLMN-ID is used as a filter to select the radio cell the MS is allowed to move into. The IBHO functionality is provided within the measurement control function: A determination is made whether the IMSI-based handover is applicable, and if so, a filtering process takes place using the allowed set of PLMN IDs identified and stored in OAM by the PLMN operator. Once a set of allowed cell PLMN-IDs has been identified, this mask must then be applied to the list of 2G GSM neighbor cells found in the current active set of the MS. Additionally, a filtered list of allowed and available cells must be produced. This list is built into a measurement control message. The measurement control message is built by the measurement control function and sent to the MS.

4.2.5

Resource Allocation
The resource allocation function decides whether a new radio link can be admitted in a particular radio cell or not. Furthermore, it reserves capacity and code resources for the new radio link. So the following functions can be differentiated: Admission control Code allocation Admission control The main function of admission control is to indicate whether a new radio link can be established in a given cell without causing congestion. The function resides in the controlling RNC.

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Admission control is invoked in the following events: Radio link setup, addition and reconfiguration Release of a new bearer Soft or softer handover Transport-channel-type switching The hierarchical admission and load control concept achieves a real-time admission decision and a precise estimation of the network load with low processing requirements. Admission and congestion control for HSDPA The HSDPA feature affects admission control handling for HSDPA users with respect to the following topics: Handovers New calls and call reestablishment Reconfiguration from DCH to HS-DSCH and vice versa HSDPA support requires functionality to admit MSs onto the physical HSDPA channel, that is, the HS-PDSCH. MSs which support HSDPA are only admitted to the HS-PDSCH if certain preconditions, such as a successful load check and the support of the applied service or bearer on the HS-DSCH, are fulfilled. With regard to admission control and congestion control, the following applies: Admission control The main function of admission control is to indicate whether a new radio link can be established in a given cell without causing congestion. Given that the HS-PDSCH and the HS-SCCH use the power left from DCH users and when an HS-DSCH needs to be established, the A-DPCH and the uplink HS-DPCCH are the only channels subject to admission control. Congestion control With regard to HSDPA users, congestion control monitors the DPCH and the uplink HS-DPCCH. Based on these channels, congestion decision and congestion detection is performed. When a congestion has been detected, HSDPA users are treated only in congestion stage 2. Admission control for HSUPA A new radio bearer or a new radio link is admitted in a radio cell only if the required resources are available in the radio cell and the QoS requirements of already existing connections can be met after the admission. With the introduction of HSUPA, the admission control algorithm has been enhanced in the following ways: The rules for accepting HSUPA calls in a radio cell are added. The admission control algorithm has been adapted in relation to the admission of Rel99 DCH MSs . Admission control in the CRNC is triggered by procedures which set-up, add, delete, or reconfigure a radio link. The CRNC decides on the admission of each radio link for the corresponding radio cell and informs the SRNC about the outcome of this decision. The allocation of resources includes the allocation of the corresponding downlink spreading factor and channelization code pair. This is handled via a CRNC-internal request from admission control to the code allocation function, if necessary.

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Code allocation When a new radio link is set up, a downlink scrambling and channelization code must be assigned by the controlling RNC. Code allocation is called in the controlling RNC for the following reasons: Initialization of the tree Reservation of codes Blocking of the tree Allocation of a code Release of a code The interactions with the call processing protocols is defined by the code allocation and code release. Code allocation for HSDPA For High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), channelization codes have to be allocated for the following channels: HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH. The channelization codes spreading factors (SFs) for HS-PDSCHs and HS-SCCHs are 16 and 128, respectively. All HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH channelization codes that can be received by one single MS can receive are subordinated to one single primary scrambling code. However, no restrictions exist regarding associated DPCHs. In other words, the corresponding signaling radio bearer (SRB) and PS interactive/background bearer can be assigned to any secondary scrambling code of the radio cell, whereas the HSDPA specific channels have to be assigned to the UTRAN radio cells primary scrambling code. Interactions between admission control and code allocation When a new radio link is required: the admission control function determines whether the available resources in the channel meet the requested quality of service (QoS) requirements, and the code allocation function determines whether there are codes available (downlink scrambling code set, downlink channelization code, defragmentation) for the new user.

4.2.5.1

Admission Control of Prioritized Bearers


The admission control of prioritized bearers feature is a collection of changes that improve the admission control algorithm with respect to the handling of emergency calls and simplified handling for the PLMN operator. This section provides an overview of all improvements. Emergency calls were handled as network access signaling (NAS) related signaling bearer. Therefore, the admission control threshold for NAS related signaling bearer was used. With the admission control of prioritized bearers feature, additional operatorconfigurable thresholds are introduced for emergency calls to specify the admissible UL load, and the admissible DL power. These thresholds are used for both the radio resource control (RRC) signaling (establishment cause emergency call) and the emergency RAB.

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The controlling RNC applies the emergency-RAB admission control thresholds if the traffic class is set to emergency call: RAB preemption is active: The emergency call uses the emergency call threshold instead of the highest threshold of any traffic class. If admission control rejects the setup, normal preemption handling is applied. RAB preemption is inactive: The emergency call uses the emergency call threshold. The soft handover thresholds, however, are used for emergency calls in the event of a soft handover. The SRNC indicates in the internal message to the controlling RNC that the corresponding bearer belongs to the emergency-call traffic class.

4.2.6

Preemption for Prioritizing RABs


The PLMN operator can control 3G RAN resource allocation to users and/or services by allocating priorities and preemption properties to different RABs. If the core network requests the establishment or modification of an RAB, it provides the allocation/retention priority attributes of this RAB: Radio link allocation priorities identify which radio links can preempt others Radio link retention priorities identify radio links that can be preempted The SRNC maps the RAB allocation/retention priority attributes received from the core network onto dedicated channel (DCH) allocation/retention priorities. These priorities are then mapped onto radio link allocation/retention priorities which are used by the controlling RNC and the NodeB to perform radio link preemption. If preemption is required, the controlling RNC and/or the NodeB selects radio links for preemption and informs the SRNC. The SRNC deletes these radio links by Triggering RRC connection re-establishment to common channels. Releasing the RRC connection if the connection cannot be switched to cell_FACH. In order to allocate resources to high priority users, the RNC based radio link preemption frees codes and/or reduces the cell load the NodeB based radio link preemption frees baseband resources (will be introduced in a future release).

4.2.7

Overload Handling
The purpose of overload handling is the supervision of resource overload of the network elements in the 3G RAN (RNC, NodeB) and the network nodes in the circuit-switched domain of the CN (CNcs) (MSC/VLR network elements, HLR/AC network elements) network nodes in the packet-switched domain of the CN (CNps) (SGSN network elements). Overload handling has access to the results of performance management (load information) and initiates overload control measures. Overload handling in the 3G RAN (RNS) The load in the 3G RAN (RNS) results from the MSC or SGSN network element load transferred via the Iu interface, from the MS loads transferred via the Uu interface

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(radio interface), and to a smaller extent from the O&M activities transferred via the O&M interface. The part of the load that originates from the MSC or SGSN network element results from Call handling Handover requests Resource requests Allocations. The part of the load that originates from the MS results from Call handling Mobility management Radio frequency management Measurement data processing. The overload in the RNS can be related to an RNC or a radio cell. The overload handling process begins with: Instructing the MSC or SGSN network element to reduce paging activities or handover requests gradually Switching to queuing operation by manual intervention by the PLMN operator Redistribution of communication links (neighborly help). If the power management exhibits frequent overload, the bottlenecks must be eliminated by suitable measures (e.g., extension of resources). Overload handling in the CNcs g The overload handling in the CNcs or CNps is described in the corresponding System Descriptions.

Overload situations can occur in every network element, and particularly in the 3G RAN (RNS) and CN processors, on the SS7 transmission paths and on the radio channels. Overload supervision encompasses the detection of an overloaded resource, the recording of information concerning the overloaded SS7, the recording of data on the overloaded RNS, the evaluation of the load and the initiation of countermeasures. The threshold parameters for overload detection can be set by the PLMN operators. Several overload levels are defined for overload control. The corrective action to be taken depends on the applicable overload level, the type of call and the authentications of the mobile subscriber. The highest overload level restricts the entire traffic. It is used during a system start-up. Overload treatment restricts the incoming traffic, depending on the overload level which is progressively increased as long as the overload condition exists. When the overload condition ceases to exist, the overload level and therefore the traffic restriction is progressively reduced again. The maintenance functions monitor the events which affect the traffic volume conditions. The PLMN operator is notified of the existence of an overload condition.

4.2.8

Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO)


Transcoder free operation (TrFO), as specified in 3GPP Rel-4 standard, enables the support mode operation of the Iu user plane not only on the Iu interface but also for endto-end connections: Between two RNCs, for a mobile-to-mobile call Between an RNC and a gateway CN node for a mobile-to-fixed call

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When transcoders are used speech is modulated from adaptive multirate (AMR) to pulse code multiplexed (PCM) at the originating CN and then from PCM to AMR at the terminating CN. This leads to a loss of information and thus degradation of the voice quality. Therefore, TrFO improves the voice quality and reduces the employment of transcoder equipment in the CN. The transcoder free operation (TrFO) feature, which is a configuration of a speech or multimedia call for which transcoders are not present in the communication path, is characterized by: Iu user plane protocol data unit (PDU) type The Iu user plane protocol data unit (PDU) types are defined for a given Iu user plane mode of operation. An Iu user plane protocol data unit type represents a defined structure of an Iu user plane protocol frame. For instance, a frame made of a certain frame header mask part and a frame payload part would be specified as a certain protocol data unit type valid for a given Iu user plane mode of operation. RAB sub-flow combination (RFC) RAB sub-flow combination is defined as an authorized combination of the RAB subflows variable attributes (e.g., signaling data unit (SDU) sizes) of currently valid RAB sub-flows that can be submitted simultaneously to the Iu user plane for transmission over the Iu interface. Each combination is given by the CN and cannot be altered by the SRNC. RAB sub-flow combination indicator (RFCI) This indicator uniquely identifies a RAB sub-flow combination for the duration of the Iu user plane peer protocol instances, that is, it is valid until the termination of the call or until a new initialization is performed. Usage of RFCI applies only to the Iu user plane protocol when it is operated in support mode for predefined signaling data unit (SDU) size. TrFO is based on the use of the Iu user plane protocol as a framing protocol within the circuit-switched AAL2/ATM. The feature comprises changes to Iu user plane and RANAP.

4.2.9

Transmit Power Control


Power control performed by the NodeB has the following purposes: To reduce interference To maintain connection quality To save output power used for transmission. On the radio interface between the NodeB and the MS, more output power is required under the following conditions: When the distance between the NodeB and the MS increases When movement of the MS causes fading of radio carrier signals. Modifications of power control for HSDPA/HSUPA In general, no generic assignment of a guaranteed minimum power for HSDPA/HSUPA over the Iub interface exists, and HSDPA/HSUPA users are only assigned the power left over from DCH users.

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4.2.10

Remote Electrical Antenna Tilt


Antennas with a remote down tilt functionality are well known in RADAR systems. For mobile communication systems such antennas can help to adapt the installed radio and baseband capacity to special traffic demands. Demands for higher capacity can occur for instance as hot spots temporary within stadiums or public festivals. Moreover such kind of antennas support a real-time network configuration when there are network expansion and network/site failure. An industrial standard has been produced by the Antenna Interface Standards Group (AISG) to ensure the basic interoperability of antennas and control infrastructure. The Nokia Siemens Networks (Siemens-originated)/NEC solution complies to this standard and consists of an remote electrical tilt (RET) module containing a stepper motor which adjusts a phase shift within the antenna. The stepper motor is controlled via an RS-485 interface connected to the TMA. Signaling and DC power from the DUAMCO to the RET module via the TMA and vice versa are transported through the antenna feeder cable. The stepper is located directly under the antenna.

4.2.11

3G RAN Radio Cell Configurations


A 3G RAN radio cell is a radio network element that can be uniquely identified by an MS from a radio cell identification that is broadcast over a geographical area from one 3G RAN access point, that is, NodeB. Radio cells are the basic elements of the whole network. Depending on the traffic, a radio cell can cover a radius of up to several kilometers. There are two types of cells: Omnidirectional cells An omnidirectional cell reaches out in all directions from its hosting NodeB. Sectored cells A sectored cell covers a sector of e.g., 120, seen from the NodeB. In this example, a set of three cells is necessary to provide access from all directions. Because a radio cell can only accommodate a limited number of mobile subscribers and transport a limited amount of traffic, a larger number of (smaller) radio cells must be used to cover areas where more traffic is expected. Traffic hot-spot areas are highly populated areas, trade fare centers or railway stations. The number of radio cells per site is defined by the number of radio cells per frequency and the number of available frequencies per PLMN operator. Because of the comparably small size of 3G RAN radio cells and high mobility of mobile subscribers, a mobile subscriber is not being found dwelling in a certain radio cell for extended amounts of time. When reaching the end of the coverage area of a radio cell, an ongoing call needs to be transferred to a neighboring radio cell. This transfer is known as a handover. Adjacent radio cells To provide effective support for network management and call handover, the spatial relationships between radio cells must be specified. A radio cell must know which radio cells are its neighbors. Adjacent 3G RAN radio cells An adjacent 3G RAN radio cell (hereafter simply adjacent radio cell) is a radio cell that is a physical neighbor of another radio cell in a network. For every radio cell, information about its adjacent radio cells must be provided. Adjacent radio cell information is a result of network planning.

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Adjacent 2G RAN radio cells Since some 3G UMTS networks might be unable, at least initially, to provide universal coverage, a means must be provided to hand over calls to neighboring 2G RAN radio cells. Therefore, adjacent 2G RAN radio cells need to be registered. External radio cells External radio cells must be configured to communicate with radio cells belonging to another RNC or 2G GSM network, in order to provide handovers if the MS leaves a coverage area during an ongoing call. External radio cell relationships are specified at the RNC level. External radio cells can be: 3G RAN radio cells: 3G RAN radio cells are external radio cells if they belong to another RNC area. 2G RAN radio cells: 2G RAN radio cells are always external within a 3G RAN network.

Cell individual offset The load among neighboring radio cells can be balanced by the radio cell individual offset on adjacent radio cell level. Thus, unnecessary often soft handover in special areas, e.g., crossings, can be avoided by shifting the radio cell borders of a single neighbor relation. The network is optimized on a single radio cell relation level by adapting the radio cell form according to special geometric requirements on adjacent radio cell level. The offset can be positive or negative, the MS adds this offset to the measurement quantity before it evaluates whether an reporting event has occurred: Decreasing the radio cell individual offset of a radio cell MSs in this area tend to moved to this radio cell. Increasing the radio cell individual offset of a radio cell MSs move away or are not being invited to this radio cell.

HSDPA-based radio cell configurations (HSDPA mobility) HSDPA introduces the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) which is a common transport channel that is shared by several MSs in the same radio cell. The new MAC-hs protocol of the NodeB performs scheduling of MSs on a per radio cell basis. Therefore, the MS receives the HS-DSCH of one radio cell and can receive dedicated channels (DCHs) of multiple radio cells. The radio cell where the HS-DSCH is currently established is called the serving HS-DSCH radio cell. The quality of the serving HS-DSCH radio cell constantly varies due to the mobility of the MS. If the quality is degraded or the serving HS-DSCH radio cell is deleted, the SRNC needs to move the serving function to another radio cell where the quality is good. Furthermore, the MS can enter or leave the area where HSDPA is supported. In this case, the SRNC performs channel-type switching from DCH to HS-DSCH or from HS-DSCH to DCH. An HSDPA cell is defined in this document as a radio cell that supports HSDPA and has the resource operational state set to enabled. A radio cell is not taken into account as an HSDPA cell if it supports HSDPA but its operational state is disabled. The SRNC does not try to establish HS-DSCH on such a radio cell. HS-DSCH is not supported using the Iur interface. Therefore, all radio cells under the control of another RNC are considered to be non-HSDPA cells.

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The following MS mobility scenarios are supported: HS-DSCH establishment (when the MS is in Cell_DCH or Cell_FACH state) The SRNC tries to establish HS-DSCH if the active set of the MS includes HSDPAcapabale cells (Cell_DCH state) or the MS has an RRC connection to a cell where HSDPA is supported (Cell_FACH state) The scenarios supported upon HS-DSCH establishment are: Intra-frequency, intra-SRNC, intra-NodeB handover Inter-frequency, intra-SRNC, intra-NodeB handover (at channel-type-switchingfrom FACH to HS-DSCH) Inward mobility (DCH -> HS-DSCH) Inward mobility occurs if the MS enters an HSDPA-capable cell and special condition criteria for inward mobility are fulfilled. Therefore channel-type switching from DCH to HS-DSCH is performed. The scenario supported by inward mobility (DCH -> HS-DSCH) is: Intra-frequency, intra-RNC, inter-NodeB handover Change of the serving HS-DSCH cell A change of the serving HS-DSCH cell occurs if the MS uses HS-DSCH and moves within the area where HSDPA is supported. The purpose of a change of the serving HS-DSCH cell is to establish the HS-DSCH on the best cell within the active set. The scenarios supported upon change of the serving HS-DSCH cell are: Intra-frequency, intra-RNC, intra-NodeB handover Intra-frequency, intra-RNC, inter-NodeB handover Outward mobility (HS-DSCH -> DCH) Outward mobility occurs if the MS leaves the area where HSDPA is supported. In this case, the quality of the non-HSDPA cell is much better than the quality of the HSDPA cell or the HSDPA cell is removed from the active set. Therefore, channeltype switching from HS-DSCH to DCH is performed. The scenarios supported upon outward mobility are: Intra-frequency, intra-SRNC, inter-NodeB handover Intra-frequency, inter-RNC handover Intra-frequency, inter-RNC (SRNC) relocation Inter-frequency, intra-SRNC, inter-NodeB handover Compared to the initial introduction of HSDPA, enhanced mobility procedures are provided in order to increase the chance of mobile subscribers to have PS data communication on HS-DSCH. Furthermore, multiple frequencies with HSDPA are supported and the capacity for HSDPA increases. HSDPA mobility enhancements comprises the following: Enhancement of the MS differentiation procedure Blind inter-frequency handover with HS-DSCH Compressed mode for inter-frequency measurement with HS-DSCH Inter-frequency handover with inter-frequency measurement Enhanced mobility procedures HSDPA mobility over Iur provides the ability to change the HSDPA radio cell between two RNCs via Iur interface and better performance for HSDPA users who cross RNC boundaries. HSDPA mobility over Iur interface, furthermore, contributes to reducing the use of DCH resources. HSDPA over Iur includes the following sub-features: Support of HS-DSCH cell change to/from a DRNC controlled radio cell

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Support of intra DRNC HS-DSCH radio cell change Support the Inward/Outward Mobility at a DRNC controlled radio cell Inter-frequency handover under DRNC MS-not-involved relocation for HSDPA

HSUPA mobility HSUPA (E-DCH) mobility is a feature to setup, maintain, or release the E-DCH connection for accommodating various MS mobility patterns. In addition, the feature is needed for an environment with varying radio conditions. Its principle aim is to provide and maintain optimum E-DCH/HS-DSCH configuration by ensuring that the E-DCH is always connected to the radio cell with the best radio link quality. The main scope of E-DCH mobility impacts are: Enhanced MS differentiation algorithm E-DCH inward mobility Intra-frequency handover Inter-frequency handover E-DCH serving cell change Intra-frequency handover Inter-frequency handover E-DCH outward mobility Intra-frequency handover Inter-frequency handover E-DCH impacts on the active set update procedure This impact is due to the addition of non-serving E-DCH radio links via active set update. E-DCH inter-system handover E-DCH relocation Indication of HSDPA-capable radio cells From an PLMN operators perspective it is very useful to show users that HSDPA coverage is provided in a specific radio cell. This feature allows MSs to display HSDPArelated information of the radio cell it is camped on. In other words, the MS can show the mobile subscriber whether or not the current radio cell is part of the HSDPA coverage area defined by the PLMN operator with a sufficient level of reliability. The coverage area means the zone where HSDPA can typically be allocated to HSDPAcapable MSs. The HSDPA cell indicator information element (IE) is automatically configured for the following radio cell types: Cells that are HSDPA-capable. Inter-frequency cells being adjacent to an HSDPA-capable cell. Adjacent inter-frequency cells are UMTS cells at the same antenna but on a frequency layer different from the frequency used for HSDPA. The HSDPA cell indicator IE is applied for user notification purposes only, but cannot be used by the MS for any other purpose.The feature is 3GPP Rel. 6-compliant. Indicating the HSDPA capability of a radio cell is allowed for Rel-5-compliant MSs.

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Indication of HSUPA-capable radio cells From a PLMN operators perspective, the HSUPA coverage area can be defined with a sufficient level of reliability. This feature introduces the possibilty for MSs to retrieve information on whether or not the cell they are camped on is part of an HSUPA coverage area. Otherwise, MSs could only guess the presence of HSUPA, based on HSUPAspecific layer 1 channels being configured in the cell. Guessing the presence of HSUPA, however, is highly unreliable and has negative impact on the MSs battery life. HSUPA indication is done by means of a new information element (IE) within the system information block 5 (SIB5), which complies to 3GPP standard. The E-DCH cell indicator IE is automatically configured for the following cell types: Radio cells for which HSUPA data are specified by the PLMN operator Radio cells with at least one adjacent inter-frequency cell for which HSUPA data are specified and with the same antenna parameter set to true The E-DCH cell indicator is applied for user notification purposes only but cannot be used by the UE for any other purpose. Upon cell setup, the E-DCH cell indicator IE will not be included in the SIB5 if the HSUPA channel is absent in both the current radio cell and its adjacent inter-frequency radio cells. Restriction control for PS bearers (within an HSDPA enabled network) Within an HSDPA enabled network, it is expected that PS interactive/background radio access radio bearers will be established on the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) rather than on the dedicated channel (DCH). However, the following situations lead to the preferred choice to set up a PS interactive/ background bearer on the DCH: The MS does not support HSDPA The requested multicall/bearer combination is not supported by the current HSDPA implementation The NodeB is either out of resources on the CHC card or the load is too high to allow the setup of the associated DPCHs In either case, a retry with the minimum rate is attempted on the DCH. The RNC traces the number of HSDPA-capable MSs being served within the HSDPAcapable radio cell. The HSDPA-specific restriction control mechanism restricts the setup or reconfiguration of PS interactive/background bearers on the DCH when a specified threshold is exceeded. The HSDPA-specific restriction control mechanism applies if there are more than X HSDPA-capable MSs within the HSDPA radio cell. If there are less than or exactly X HSDPA-capable MSs in the HSDPA-capable radio cell, the spreading factor (SF), that is, the rates, will not be restricted by the HSDPA-specific restriction control but the normal restriction control algorithm will be applied if necessary. This maximizes the throughput for legacy MSs, especially in case of low HSDPA load. X is the value of the threshold for activating the HSDPA-specific restriction control for PS interactive/background bearers on DCH in an HSDPA-capable radio cell. In the scenarios above it is recommended that the admission of PS interactive/background bearers on DCH within HSDPA-capable radio cells is limited to rates less than or equal to 128 kbit/s. This can be configured by restricting the spreading factor (SF).

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Proportional fair scheduler for HSDPA This feature provides an alternative HSDPA scheduling mechanism, which provides a fairer distribution of transmission bandwidth among the HSDPA mobile subscribers within a radio cell. For many applications of HSDPA this feature therefore provides a very useful extension of the basic HSDPA functionality, which uses a maximal carrier to interface ratio (max-CIR) scheduler. While the max-CIR scheduler maximizes the cell throughput, the proportional fair scheduler assures that all HSDPA mobile subscribers within this cell will benefit from the availability of HSDPA. Therefore this feature increases the overall service quality perception by the HSDPA mobile subscribers. The max-CIR scheduler ensures high peak data rates as well as maximum NodeB radio cell throughput. However, due to the very limited fairness of selecting and serving HSDPA mobile subscribers, PLMN operators expressed a demand for a fair scheduling of all HSDPA mobile subscribers within a radio cell. If HSDPA mobile subscribers are located close to the NodeB antenna they will experience superior radio channel quality compared to most other mobile subscribers. The max-CIR scheduler prefers to serve this mobile subscriber with best radio channel quality first. Other mobile subscribers with worse radio conditions can be blocked as long as the radio link quality of another mobile subscriber is still better. So, it is likely that the majority of HSDPA mobile subscribers within a radio cell is not satisfied with the performance of this new high-end data service The proportional fair scheduler is a solution that is well-known to achieve a good balance between throughput maximization and fairness for different HSDPA mobile subscribers. In contrast to the max-CIR scheduler, the proportional fair scheduler ensures a fair share of the radio cell throughput for each MS. This is achieved at the cost of a small reduction in NodeB radio cell throughput. Especially situations are avoided where HSDPA mobile subscribers receive zero throughput. HSUPA/HSDPA cell configurations HSUPA operation is only supported for radio cells in which HSDPA has been set up. As a consequence, three types of radio cells have to be distinguished: Non-HSxPA radio cells In these cells, only Rel99 channels have been set, but neither HSDPA- nor HSUPAspecific channels. HSDPA radio cells In these radio cells, only Rel99 and HSDPA-specific channels have been set up, but no HSUPA-specific channels. HSxPA radio cells In these radio cells, only Rel99 as well as HSDPA- and HSUPA-specific channels have been set up. HSUPA operation is therefore only possible in these types of radio cells. HSxPA operation is possible in all radio cells configured in a NodeB, independent of the used frequency layer or sector configuration. No restrictions apply for HSxPA cell configurations, even with regard to multi-carrier operation. Each cell can thus be set independently to HSxPA mode regardless of the NodeB type.

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4.2.11.1

Single-Cell and Multicell Operation as a Radio Network Architecture Tool for Flexible Cell Layout
The RNS has been designed to satisfy a large number of traffic requirements and to implement as many NodeB configurations as possible (see traffic-handling capacity in System Description, register Network System Concept, section basic requirements for PLMN systems). On the basis of the basic provision of the macro FDD NodeB (a macro NodeB currently comprises up to 2 carrier frequencies), both single-cell and multicell operation are possible (Figure 25). With single-cell operation, one NodeB serves exactly one radio cell. With multicell operation, one NodeB serves more than one radio cell. Both single-cell operation and multicell operation can be used for a wide variety of antennas with omnidirectional and sectorial (bidirectional) structure and therefore allow flexible radio cell layout structures.

Radio cell 1

Radio cell

Radio cell 2

Radio cell 3

NodeB (with 1 carrier) Example 1: One NodeB with 1 carrier controlling one radio cell via an omnidirectional antenna

NodeB (with 3 carriers) Example 2: One NodeB with 3 carriers controlling three radio cells via a threesector antenna

Figure 25

Examples of single-cell operation and multicell operation

4.2.12

Hierarchical Radio Cell Structure


Hierarchical radio cell structures describe the structure and relation between multifrequency layers in 3G RAN (RNS) and optimize the radio cell use, for example, by assigning services in one congested radio cell to the one with spare capacity. The hierarchical radio cell structures and handover mechanisms are implemented in the RNC.

g The procedures for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and intersystem handover (see


section 3.1.2) are independent of each other. This feature provides the PLMN operator with flexibility in terms of network deployment. The NodeB is capable of supporting two different frequency layers. A handover between

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different frequency layers provides a higher system utilization and is mandatory in a mixed environment where some NodeBs support two frequencies and some NodeBs support only one frequency layer. The customer receives further key benefits when implementing hierarchical radio cell structures: Flexibility in frequency planning owing to different frequency layers Easy introduction of load balancing mechanisms with combination of handovers Increases the capacity of the network. Implementing hierarchical radio cell structures optimize the radio cell use. The radio cells are in different layers. The differences between different layers are based on frequency, coverage and capacity. The scenario for the current software version is illustrated in Figure 26. Two macro layers with exactly identical coverage are considered, that is, each macro NodeB supports two different frequency layers with three different sectors (2/2/2 configuration), that is, the radio cells are in the same NodeB and on the same antenna. Therefore, the timing and path loss relation is known.

Radio cells with frequency 2 2 macro layer Radio cells with frequency 1

Figure 26

Hierarchical radio cell structure scenario

Hierarchical radio cell structure mechanisms and algorithms The support of hierarchical radio cell structures requires two different basic radio resource management algorithms: Load control Load control is responsible for the load distribution within the network. This function is responsible for determining the frequency layer and cell that an MS with a dedicated channel is being assigned to. Load control is triggered by one of the following events: Radio access bearer (RAB) assignment Channel type switching from control channel (CCH) to dedicated channel (DCH) Handover to another 3G radio cell, provided that the handover takes place within an area that is covered with two frequency layers. Load control comprises two basic load control mechanisms namely load overflow and load balancing. The load overflow mechanism allocates traffic to the same frequency layer as long as there is sufficient capacity left. Only when this capacity has been taken up, any further requirements for resources are being redirected to other frequency layers with the same coverage area. In other words, load overflow splits frequency layers into first and second priority. The load balancing mechanism maintains an equal distribution of allocated resources over all frequency layers.

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Handover control The support of hierarchical radio cell structures requires a special type of handover which is the inter-frequency handover. In the current software an inter-frequency handover can be initiated by a coverage trigger or a load trigger event. Handover control with respect to intra-frequency soft and softer handover or intersystem handover to 2G (GSM) falls outside the use of hierarchical radio cell structures.

4.2.13

Versatile Multilayer Handling


Versatile multilayer handling enables the PLMN operator to deploy mixed radio cell scenarios, especially a mixed micro and macro cell deployment, compared macro/macro scenarios supported by previous releases. Macro cells were deployed in the first phase of building up the 3G PLMNs. The deployment of macro radio cells is focused on coverage rather than on capacity reasons. Micro radio cells are focused more on capacity deployment and black spot coverage, that is, areas which are typically small, but which are not yet covered by macro radio cells. Black spots are very common in areas such as street canyons. Micro radio cells have a much smaller radio cell radius compared to macro radio cells. This type of radio cell can be deployed with both a macro NodeB, e.g., NB-440, or a micro NodeB, e.g., NB-341, depending on the requirements at the site location. Furthermore, versatile multilayer handling enables efficient use of any numbers of frequency layers. Handovers to a different frequency layer in 3G can require simultaneous measurements on this frequency, which is also supported by using the compressed mode. Compressed mode enables the MS to measure simultaneously on a frequency during an ongoing speech/data connection at a different frequency. The feature also includes the handover control. Handovers are triggered due to coverage reasons and due to a high interference level from adjacent radio cells. interfrequency handovers to radio cells, which are controlled by other RNCs connected via the Iur interface, are also supported. Versatile multilayer handling for inter-frequency handovers Intersystem multilayer handling uses MSs that have a dual synthesizer to simultaneously receive both frequencies. However, because most PLMN operators have licences for more than one frequency and the majority of the MSs still have only a single synthesizer system, adaptations have been made to enable measurements on other frequencies. Based on these inter-frequency measurements, it is no longer necessary for the system to be bound by the limitations imposed by blind handovers, that is, triggering calls to another frequency without knowing the circumstances of the connection (interference, etc.) or if the call is dropped altogether. This feature enables the system to gain control over inter-frequency handovers. Compressed mode The compressed mode introduced here interrupts downlink transmission for a short period of time, creating a defined pattern of gaps in the transmission flow. During these gaps, the MSs can tune to another frequency and perform measurements that can be used for inter-frequency handovers. The success of inter-frequency measurements requires a specific compressed mode pattern that has a very restrictive minimum gap density, quite different than that used up until now for intersystem measurements. In accordance with 3GPP standards, only one of these measurement types applies for a defined period of time. The interaction between inter-fre-

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quency measurements for coverage, adjacent channel interference (ACI), and intersystem measurements are PLMN operator defined via the 2d event thresholds. The first 2d event received decides which compressed mode pattern is to be activated; any subsequent 2d event received is ignored as long as the compressed mode is activated. Activation of the inter-frequency measurements using compressed mode is triggered via the hierarchical radio cell structure (see section 4.2.12). Initially, the RNC sends a request to the MS for an appropriate information element. The MS then reports its capabilities in a response information element and when compressed mode is required in one direction the RNC enables the appropriate parameter. Using compressed mode, the hierarchical radio cell structure is capable of triggering handovers for calls where low quality of the radio interface conditions has been detected, these include both coverage and ACI based inter-frequency handovers. Load control With this feature, load control manages distribution within the network and determines the frequency layer and cell that an MS requesting a dedicated channel is assigned to. Load control is now able to handle handovers to radio cells of a different frequency residing on different antennas where the path loss and timing relations are not yet known. Load control for macro-macro and macro-micro hierarchical radio cell structure in this release is performed by a cell selection and reselection mechanism, which differs from the previous release where a load control mechanism triggers inter-frequency handovers during radio resource control (RRC) connection setup or channel type switching (CTS). The selection and reselection mechanism is mainly designed to balance between the two frequencies by focusing on the best candidate radio cell and achieving a quality improvement. This also means that inter-frequency handovers or bit rate adaptations due to poor quality are reduced to a minimum. Handover control The handover control mechanism already accounts for intra-frequency (soft and softer handovers), intersystem, and inter-frequency handovers. This release extends handover control to include handover control for ACI of micro-macro scenarios for inter-frequency handovers. The hierarchical radio cell structure macro-macro scenario same coverage has already been introduced in previous releases and consists of a number of cells on different frequency layers where overlapping radio cells of two different frequencies have the same coverage. This type of coverage is limited to inter-frequency handovers from one frequency to a radio cell of a different frequency where the pathless relations and timing relations are known, that is, preferably to a radio cell that lies on the same antenna as a radio cell of the active set where compressed mode is not necessary. Hierarchical radio cell structure scenarios with different coverage must handle inter-frequency handovers for radio cells in different frequency layers where coverage is also different. Two scenarios can be distinguished; either the radio cell size is the same and only coverage is different, e.g., macro-macro scenario with different radio cell coverage or both the radio cell size and the radio cell coverage area are different, e.g., micro-macro deployment. Micro-macro scenarios either have radio cells on the same antenna with different coverage areas and/or additional radio cells on separate antennas deployed to reach full coverage with more radio cells than on another frequency layer. This is illustrated in the Figure 27 where radio frequency 1 denotes the micro and radio frequency 2 the macro layer. inter-fre-

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quency handovers are possible to all of the suitable target radio cells defined according to the handover criteria.

Radio cells with frequency 2 (Macro layer)

Radio cells with frequency 1 (Micro layer)

Figure 27

Macro-macro scenario with possible target radio cells

Mixed hierarchical radio cell structure scenarios are also possible; these include handling scenarios having the same coverage, as well as those with different coverage individually, denoting two or more radio cell selections/re-selections depending on the number of frequencies involved.

4.2.14

3G RAN Network Element Configurations


Nokia Siemens Networks (Siemens-originated)/NEC 3G RAN products provide a family of macro FDD NodeBs for area coverage as well as hotspot radio cells and a corresponding RNC. The two different implementation platforms, platform 1 and platform 2, are provided for NodeBs. Shelf and module design on these two platforms differ and therefore modules can only be exchanged between NodeBs on the same platform. Iub interface configurations The RNC and the connected NodeBs can be arranged in a star, cascade, hub or loop configuration. If the RNC is connected to an external ATM switch via an STM-1 line, overbooking is possible on the STM-1 line between the RNC and the external ATM equipment. This section provides an overview of these configurations: Star configuration NodeBs link up to the RNC via several E1 lines or via a partly filled STM-1 line. TheE1 lines can be used with inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA). Hub configuration The NodeB hub (NodeB #1) links up to the other NodeBs (NodeB #2, #3, #4) via several E1 lines and links up to the RNC either via an STM-1 line or via several E1 lines. It must provide an ATM cross-connect function for mapping data between the RNC and the other NodeBs. The E1 lines can be used with IMA. If an STM-1 interface is used, the ATM cells are transported in VC-4 virtual containers. Links via STM-1 lines are implemented by point-to-point synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) connections. Cascade configuration Each NodeB in the chain acts as a NodeB hub optimizing the overall transmission band towards the next NodeB. NodeBs link up to the RNC and to each other via STM-1 lines or via several E1 lines. This configuration requires an ATM VP switch-

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ing functionality. E1 lines could be used with IMA. NodeBs (NB-4xx) provide the required ATM VP switching function. If required for a specific cascade configuration, the internal capacity of a NodeB can be complemented by an external implementation with an OEM product. If an STM-1 interface is used, the ATM cells are transported in VC-4 virtual containers. Links via STM-1 lines are implemented by point-to-point SDH connections. Loop configuration NodeBs can link up to the RNC and to each other via several E1 lines or via STM-1 lines. Loop topologies increase the availability of the network by providing two or more paths between network nodes. If one path fails, the traffic can be seamlessly taken over by a redundant path. There are 2 different types of IMA configuration: IMA aggregation mode. All IMA links must be active. IMA protection mode. The protection can be changed from an n to an n + x redundancy with an overall number of E1 links configured in a IMA Group of n + x. External ATM configuration with overbooking Overbooking on Iub interface improves the efficiency of the STM-1 lines giving PLMN operators high link utilization and saving both bandwidth and transmission costs simultaneously. Overbooking on Iub interface enables operators to set up ATM virtual paths (VPs), even when the total bandwidth required for all of the VPs exceeds the STM-1 physical line capacity for a short period of time. When an overbooking factor is specified, the RNCs bandwidth management calculates the total logical bandwidth by multiplying the physical capacity of an STM-1 line with the overbooking factor. More specifically, by setting the overbooking factor parameter, the operator can tune the balance of the network between assured transmission under high load circumstances (factor 100%) and very efficient STM-1 usage (factor 200%) when applicable.

Iur interface configurations The Iub interface is mainly used for the RNC-RNC handover sequence. Protocol messages and user plane data are transmitted on an ATM link over the Iur interface, where the MSC does not cover call processing related topics between RNCs. Direct physical connection between two RNCs There are physically meshed connections among the RNCs within the network. Depending on the number of adjacent RNCs, this configuration can be very elaborate and expensive. Indirect physical connection between two RNCs via MSC (ATM VC switching) The RNCs within the network are connected via MSC. This configuration is used to save on physically meshed connections. The number of physical connections to other RNCs is reduced to one per RNC by using the Iu interfaces. The MSC provides ATM switching capability only with the number of logical Iur interface ATM connections (VP/VC) being equal to the number of physical direct connections. Indirect physical connection between two RNCs via MSC (ATM link termination) RNSAP and ALCAP messages from an RNC are terminated in the MSC and transferred to the destination RNC (SRNC or DRNC) by MSC using a separate ATM link. This configuration requires MSC to terminate the signaling flow at the incoming interface of the MSC. Signaling is then generated and sent once again at the outgoing interface to the destination RNC.

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Iu connection configuration The Iu interface connects 3G RAN to the CN and handles switching, routing and service control. For transmitting protocol messages and user plane data three instances with different transport technologies are used: Iu,cs for the connection to the circuit-switched CN (CNcs) Iu,ps for the connection to the packet-switched CN (CNps) Iu,bc for the connection to a Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) in the CN Three types of CN architecture are supported to provide CS, and PS and SMS CB services: Uniform Core Network (CN) architecture The RNC supports common access via one and the same termination point for both ALCAP and RANAP messages, that is, RANAP and ALCAP protocols on the Iu-CS are addressed by the same destination point code (DPC). Split CN architecture The 3G RAN can be connected to a split CN configuration consisting of a separate Media Gateway (MGW) and an MSC. All connections from the RNC into the core net are physically connected to the MGW. There are individual signalling links for ALCAP and RANAP which are both carried in the VP running between RNC and the MGW, that is, RANAP and ALCAP protocols on the Iu,cs are addressed by separate DPCs. The MGW terminates the ALCAP link, whereas the signalling links carrying RANAP are cross-connected in the MGW and are terminated in the MSC or SGSN respectively. SMS CBC architecture To provide CBS functionality CBC, RNC, MS, NodeB and SGSN interwork. RNC does not interpret the contents of CBS messages and data coding scheme parameters. Scheduling is done according repetition period information, which are received together with CBS messages from CBC. NodeB does not have a specific task except to provide the physical layer. SGSN is responsible for routing only.

4.2.15

3G RAN/2G RAN Co-Location Configuration


Many of todays 2G RAN operators owning 3G UMTS licenses require the reuse of existing 2nd generation sites to a maximum possible extent. This leads to co-location of 2G RAN base stations and 3G RAN Nodes B. Transmission re-use Transmission re-use for 3G RAN - 2G RAN co-location is implemented by two ways which are mutually exclusive: Circuit emulation service (CES) Circuit emulation over ATM networks (3G UMTS) provides emulation of Abis transport layer and is performed on ATM links (STM-1, inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA) on n x E1). Fractional asynchronous transfer mode (FRAC) Fractional ATM over circuit-switched networks (2G GSM) provides transport of Iub timeslots and is performed on TDM links (E1) (see also section 4.2.15.1). Concatenation of timeslots Co-location can only be fulfilled if the timeslot assignment for the 2G circuit-switched (GSM) traffic (on the Abis interface) remain unchanged when 3G UMTS circuit-switched traffic is added. This means, 3G UMTS circuit-switched traffic is only allowed to use

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those timeslots of an E1 line or port that are assigned to 2G circuit-switched (GSM) traffic. Reassignment is not allowed.

4.2.15.1

Fractional Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)


Fractional ATM becomes an advantage for co-location sites with low traffic volume, that is, when NodeB and 2G GSM base station controllers (BSC) are placed at the same location. They then share the same physical transmission capabilities for access to 3 rd generation (3G) and 2nd generation (2G) GSM networks. Otherwise it makes no sense because operators cannot save at least one E1 leased line. NodeB and RNC can only be interconnected by E1 links. E1 links are widely used for access of the 2G base transceiver stations (BTSs) to the 2G base station controllers (BSCs). Many of todays 2G PLMN operators have received or are being awarded UMTS licenses. These PLMN operators attempt to re-use existing 2G sites to the maximum possible extent. This leads to co-location of 2G BTSs and 3G NodeBs. The principle of fractional ATM is that the ATM-based 3G traffic uses only a part of the physical line resources. The remaining time slots can be assigned to other traffic (e.g., TDM-based 2G traffic). Fractional ATM provides a mapping of ATM cells on a circuitmode connection by supporting transfer rates at integer multiples of 64 kbit/s up to the maximum rate of the interface. The NodeB ATM cells are mapped into the n time slots aligning an ATM byte to a TDM time slot. For the co-location of a 3G NodeB and 2G BTS using fractional ATM in current software release, there are different implementations to combine and split the ATM-based 3G traffic and the TDM-based 2G traffic (e.g., NodeBs NB-440 and NB-441 have the mux/demux functionality integrated, see Figure 28).

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E1 Fractional ATM E1, STM-1 (ATM) Fractional E1, (ATM) RNC function NodeB NodeB, (internal I/F) Fractional E1, (ATM)

TDM/ATM Mux/Demux

Fractional ATM

Fractional E1, (TDM)

NodeB function NodeB TDM/ATM Mux/Demux Fractional E1, (TDM) BSC function E1 BTS function

BSC

BTS

unused time slots

Figure 28

NodeB providing an integrated TDM/ATM Mux/Demux for fractional ATM

4.2.16

Handling of Special MSs


Some early MSs do not support certain 3G RAN mechanisms. However, the RNC provides the following special handling for early MSs: RAB handling Measurement control handling Handling of transport channel information at RAB release Handling of RNS relocation on cell_DCH MS support of HSDPA The criteria for the identification of early MSs refer to the following MS capabilities which are received by the RNC during the RRC connection establishment procedure: RLC capability Transport channel capability Physical channel capability The RNC stores these criteria in the RNC system data to distinguish and identify early MSs (classified in type A, type B, and type C) in order to avoid incompatible configurations at the MS and 3G RAN, data loss, and call releases. Early MSs of type A, B, and C do not support all available packet-switched bearer element (PS BE) rates both in single calls and in combination with circuit-switched adaptive multi-rate (CS AMR) services.

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MS support of HSDPA The introduction of HSDPA requires HSDPA-capable MSs. MS categories, that is, HSDSCH physical channel capabilities, specify the throughput rates more precisely. Furthermore, the channel quality information (CQI) mapping table specifies the modulation scheme (QPSK or 16QAM) supported by the MS. The SRNC uses the MS capabilities to determine whether or not the MS supports HSDPA and if so, which HS-DSCH category it belongs to. The SRNC determines the MS to be HSDPA capable if the following conditions are true: The UE radio access capability IE indicates that the MS is 3GPP Rel-5 and that it supports HSDPA. The HSDPA feature is enabled. Otherwise, the SRNC determines the MS to be non-HSDPA capable. MS support of HSUPA By the following procedure, the SRNC determines the MSs HSUPA capabilities: RRC connection establishments SRNS relocation in target RNC 2G/3G Inter-RAT handover

The SRNC determines the UE to be HSDPA-capable if all of the following conditions are met: Access stratum release indicator = REL-6 (or later value) HSDPA capability indicator = TRUE CHOICE support of E-DCH IE = supported HSUPA licensing information = enabled

4.3
4.3.1

Protocol Stacks for Transport and Signaling


Protocol Stacks
In 3G PLMN we can distinguish the following two kinds of planes within the protocol stacks: User (transport) plane The user plane defines different user data transport protocols for the circuit-switched domain and packet-switched domain. Control (signaling) plane The control plane defines different signaling protocols for control and transport. The control signaling is used for circuit-switched/packet-switched service management, user management and resource management. The transport signaling is only responsible for the allocation of the bearer between the RNC and the MSC/VLR (Iu interface), in the case of the circuit-switched domain. It comprises only the AAL2 layer 3 signaling.

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g The transport signaling is clearly separated from control signaling, as opposed to


2G GSM BSSAP signaling where transport signaling is mixed within the control signaling. Figure 29 gives an overview of all the 3G PLMN points (3G PLMN interfaces) of the described protocol stacks.

Data server MS

Uu interface Gn interface Gr interface Ge interface SCP CAP interface Gf interface Gs interface MSC/ VLR EIR HLR/AC

CN SGSN

NodeB

GGSN

Gi interface

PDN

Iub interface RNC Iu interfaces

Fixed subscriber

F interface C/D interface E interface

C interface

GMSC

PSTN/ ISDN

3G RAN (RNS)

Figure 29

Overview of all 3G PLMN points (3G PLMN interfaces) of the described protocol stacks

g At the Iu interface ATM is used as the underlying network layer for signaling and
transport protocols for circuit-switched and packet-switched connections. In the whole 3G PLMN we can distinguish the following three main transport and/or signaling protocol systems (Figure 30): ATM backbone SS7 network IP network.

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ATM backbone Corporate network SS7 network RNC MSC/VLR, SGSN RNC EIR SCP/ CSE WAP gateway GGSN Direct access ISP

IP network

Internet

HLR/AC GMSC

ISDN/PSTN

Figure 30

The three main transport and/or signaling systems within the 3G PLMN

The following sections describe the protocols on the Iu interface (section 4.3.2); protocols on the Iub interface (section 4.3.3); protocols on the Iur interface (section 4.3.4); protocols on the Uu interface (section 4.3.5). protocols for HSDPA traffic (section 4.3.6) protocols of the EM or other TMN components (section 4.3.8).

4.3.2

Protocols on the Iu Interface


Figure 31 shows the complete Iu interface protocol stack. Two independent Iu interface instances are envisaged, one for circuit-switched and one for packet-switched traffic. These two instances can or can not be handled on the same SCCP connection for one user.

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Data data transport (user plane) Transport signaling Circuitswitched Packetswitched

Control signaling (control plane)

RANAP (SM, MM, RM, SMS) AAL2L3 signaling SCCP-CO

Layer3

GTP-U UDP

MTP3-B IP AAL2 Layer2 ATM Layer1 SDH/PDH SAAL

AAL5

Figure 31

Iu interface protocol stack for circuit-switched and packet-switched instances

4.3.2.1

User Data Transport Protocol ATM-based in the Circuit-Switched Domain on Iu Interface


The Figure 32 shows the Iu interface protocol stack (terminated in MSC/VLR network elements or RNC) of an ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) in the circuit-switched domain on the Iu interface.
OSI layer 3 AAL2 2 ATM 1 SDH/PDH

Figure 32

The Iu interface protocol stack of ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) in the circuit-switched domain the Iu interface

SDH/PDH (layer 1) The functions of layer 1 (physical layer) are the sending, receiving and transferring of bits and coding. These functions depend on the transport medium used. World-wide application parts on the physical medium are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

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or the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH). PDH describes a multiplex system (e.g., PCM30) for copper double wire or coaxial wire for higher bit rates. Older networks work with PDH. SDH is used for synchronous optical networks. ATM (layer 2) Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) describes a variable bit rate service. The functions of ATM are cell structure and encoding, cell multiplexing and relaying, cell header generation/extraction, generic flow control, traffic control and congestion control. AAL2 The ATM adaptation layer 2 (AAL2) is defined by ITU-T and provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate, short and variable length packets for delay sensitive applications. AAL2 uses an ATM connection called AAL2 path into which up to 248 individual AAL2 connections for users are multiplexed. On the ATM platform at Iu interface the AAL2 path is always setup as virtual channel contained within a virtual path. As specified by 3GPP, AAL2 is used for the transport (user plane) of circuit-switched user data at the Iur interface (between two RNCs) and Iu interface. A simple signaling protocol for AAL2 bearer control (basically setup and release of AAL2 connections) is defined.

4.3.2.2

User Data Transport Protocol in the Packet-Switched Domain on the Iu Interface


Figure 33 shows all protocol stacks for user data packet transport in the packet-switched domain over all interfaces from Iu to Gi.
RNC GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM SDH/PDH SGSN network element GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM SDH/PDH L1 L1 L1 GTP-U UDP IP L2 GTP-U UDP IP L2 L2 GGSN IP ISP IP

Iu interface

Gn interface

Gi interface

Figure 33

Protocol stack overview for user data packet transport in the packetswitched domain over all interfaces from to Iu to Gi

Iu interface protocol stack (packet-switched) Figure 34 shows the protocol stack (terminated in RNC network element or SGSN) of an ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) for the packet-switched domain on the Iu interface.

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OSI layer

GTP-U 3 UDP IP AAL5 2 ATM 1 SDH/PDH

Figure 34

Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based user data transport protocol (user plane) in the packet-switched domain on the Iu interface

SDH/PDH (layer 1) The functions of layer 1 (physical layer) are the sending, receiving and transferring of bits and coding. These functions depend on the transport medium used. World-wide application parts on the physical medium are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH). PDH describes a multiplex system (e.g., PCM30) for copper double wire or coaxial wire for higher bit rates. Older networks work with PDH. SDH is used for synchronous optical networks. ATM (layer 2) Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) describes a variable bit rate service. The functions of ATM are cell structure and encoding, cell multiplexing and relaying, cell header generation/extraction, generic flow control, traffic control and congestion control. AAL5 (layer 2) The ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) is very useful for transporting data packages. Because the signaling of information is also a kind of data transport, the AAL5 can be used for the data services and the (control) signaling part. IP (layer 3) The Internet layer defines an official packet format and protocol called IP (Internet protocol). The job of the Internet layer is to deliver IP packets where they are supposed to go. Packet routing is clearly the major issue here. For these reasons, it is reasonable to say that the IP Internet layer is very similar in functionality to the OSI network layer. UDP (layer 3) The layer above the Internet layer in the IP model is usually called the transport layer. It is designed to allow peer entities on the source and destination hosts to carry on a conversation, the same as in the OSI transport layer. The user datagram protocol (UDP) carries PDUs for protocols that do not need a reliable data link (e.g. IP). UDP provides protection against corrupted PDUs. GTP-U (layer 3) The GPRS tunnel protocol user plane (GTP-U) is used for the transport of user data between the RNC network element and the SGSN. The GTP-U layer supports transport

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of user data packets of different users (multiplexing) via the Iu interface on a common link resource (ATM connection). The encapsulation by the GTP-U supports the transport of different user packet data protocols with private or public addressing. It operates on UDP/IP which allows a variety of transport technology for the interconnection of the network elements in the backbone via the Gn interface.

4.3.2.3

Control Signaling Protocols on the Iu Interface


Control signaling protocol SS7 (in CS domain and PS domain) In a 3G PLMN, the SS7 signaling protocol is used on the Iu interface between RNC and MSC/VLR or SGSN. The Iu interface is based on an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) system on which the SS7 signaling system is set up.

g Furthermore in the Core Network (CN) the C, D, F and Gd, Ge, Gs, Gr and CAP
interfaces use the classic SS7 signaling system for control signaling which is based on non-ATM PCM30 systems. The System Description, register CN GSM/UMTScs describes this SS7 signaling system. SS7 signaling in CN can be considered as a control plane and is used in the CS domain and the PS domain of the Iu interface. In 3G PLMN for each domain (CS and PS) there are individual independent Iu signal connections and RANAP instances. The Figure 35 shows the Iu interface protocol stack terminated in the RNC network element or MSC/VLR or SGSN of an ATM-based control signaling protocol (control plane).
OSI layer

PMM/SM/RM/SMS

RANAP SCCP-CO 3 MTP3-B SAAL AAL5 2 ATM 1 SDH/PDH

Figure 35

Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based control signaling protocol

SDH/PDH (layer 1) The functions of layer 1 (physical layer) are the sending, receiving and transferring of bits and coding. These functions depend on the transport medium used. World-wide application parts on the physical medium are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

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or the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH). PDH describes a multiplex system (e.g., PCM30) for copper double wire or coaxial wire for higher bit rates. Older networks work with PDH. SDH is used for synchronous optical networks. ATM (layer 2) asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) describes a variable bit rate service. The functions of ATM are cell structure and encoding, cell multiplexing and relaying, cell header generation/extraction, generic flow control, traffic control and congestion control. AAL5 (layer 2) The ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) is very useful for transporting data packages. Because the signaling of information is also a kind of data transport, the AAL5 can be used for the data services and the (control) signaling part. SAAL (layer 2) The signaling ATM adaptation layer (SAAL) was defined, because the AAL is not sufficient for the (control) signaling stack and additional functions are necessary. The SAAL in combination with AAL5 performs the reliability functions of the (control) signaling protocol. The SAAL consists of a common part (SSCOP) and the user-specific part (SSCF). For 3G, the SSCF with a network node interface (NNI) specific adaptation is being used. MTP3-B (layer 3) The message transfer part 3 - B (MTP3-B) defines the protocols for the reliable transmission of messages between the broad band PLMN control signaling nodes. The most important difference of the narrow band MTP3 is the maximum amount of user data supported for signaling links. SCCP-CO (layer 3) The signaling connection control part (SCCP) is an ITU-T standardized signaling system no. 7 (SS7) signaling protocol and covers the layer 3 functions of the OSI model as described in the previous section. Within SCCP there are two different modes: the connectionless data transfer mode which works together with the TCAP and the connection-oriented data transfer mode which demands a logical connection. The last variant connection-oriented is used in the Iu interface protocol stack. Radio access network application part (RANAP) The RANAP defines the procedures required on the RNC interface to the MSCVLR and SGSN network elements (Iu interface). The RANAP uses the MTP and the SCCP to support communication between the 3G RAN (RNS) network elements and the MSC/VLR and SGSN. The RANAP is subdivided into two sub-user parts, the Radio Network Controller management application part (RNCMAP) and the direct message transfer application part of the RANAP (DMTAP). Radio Network Controller management application part (RNCMAP) The RNCMAP supports the procedures for resource management between 3G RAN (RNS) network elements and the MSC/VLR and SGSN. The following functions (in the MSC/VLR and SGSN network elements) are provided: Allocation of a traffic channel (TCH) Barring of a traffic channel (TCH) Resource indication Reset Handover required indication

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Handover resource allocation Handover execution Release Paging Radio cell identity Flow control Classmark update Encryption update. Direct message transfer application part (DMTAP) of the RANAP The direct message transfer application part is used for the transfer of configuration management (CM)/session management (SM) and mobility management (MM) messages between the MS and the MSC/VLR and SGSN network elements. The DMTAP information in these messages is not evaluated by the 3G RAN (RNS). The majority of the messages from the radio interface are transferred transparently by the DMTAP over the Iu interface. g The current software version implements RANAP Rel-5 according to the 3GPP standards. This release ensures multivendor capability and enables interoperability with RNCs of other vendors.

4.3.2.4

Transport Signaling Protocols on the Iu Interface


The transport signaling deals with the allocation of the bearer between the RNC and the MSC part. This signaling is clearly separated from control signaling (as opposed to 2G GSM BSSAP signaling where transport signaling is mixed in the control signaling). Figure 36 shows the Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based transport signaling protocol. Transport signaling is only necessary in the circuit-switched domain of the Iu interface.

OSI layer AAL2L3 signaling 3 MTP3-B SAAL AAL5 2 ATM 1 SDH/PDH

Figure 36

Iu interface protocol stack of an ATM-based transport signaling protocol in the circuit-switched domain of Iu interface

SDH/PDH (layer 1) The functions of layer 1 (physical layer) are the sending, receiving and transferring of bits and coding. These functions depend on the used transport medium. World-wide

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application parts on the physical medium are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH). PDH describes a multiplex system (e.g. PCM30) for copper double wire or coaxial wire for higher bit rates. Older networks work with PDH. SDH is used for synchronous optical networks. ATM (layer 2) Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) describes a variable bit rate service. The functions of ATM are cell structure and encoding, cell multiplexing and relaying, cell header generation/extraction, generic flow control, traffic control and congestion control. AAL5 (layer 2) The ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) is very useful for transporting data packages. Because the signaling information is also a kind of data transport, the AAL5 can be used for the data services and the (control) signaling part. SAAL (layer 2) The signaling ATM adaptation layer (SAAL) was defined, because the AAL is not sufficient for the (control) signaling stack and additional functions are necessary. The SAAL in combination with AAL5 performs the reliability functions of the (control) signaling protocol. The SAAL consists of a common part (SSCOP) and the user-specific part (SSCF). For 3G the SSCF with a network node interface (NNI) specific adaptation is being used. MTP3-B (layer 3) The message transfer part 3 - B (MTP3-B) defines the protocols for the reliable transmission of messages between the broad band PLMN control signaling nodes. The most important difference of the narrow band MTP3 is the maximum amount of user data supported for signaling links. AAL2L3 signaling (Q.2630.1) For the AAL2, bearers of different calls are multiplexed in one ATM connection. For the call handling (setup, release) of each AAL2 connection, the AAL2L3 (Q.2630.1) is being used. This implies that, the signaling protocol for AAL2 connections is AAL2L3. Capability set 1 (Q.2630.1) has been finished at ITU-T in 1999. The signaling protocol Q.2630 basically defines the procedures to set up and release AAL2 connections. It is strictly a bearer control protocol, that is, deals with the bearer capabilities of the transport only. All call control issues must be taken care of by other protocols, e.g., RANAP, that appear as the users of the AAL2 connections. In the reference model of Q.2630 these users are denoted in a generic way as served user for which a specified interface is defined. Because AAL2 is applicable to a variety of different environments, the transport of peer-to-peer AAL2 messages is kept generic too. To this end, a generic signaling transport is defined. Adaptations to a specific transport are made by means of a signaling transport converter (STC). Currently STCs are defined that allow operation via an ATM NNI (MTP3-B) or entirely self-contained, that is the signaling is conveyed in the associated AAL2 path. The AAL2 STC performs adaptations to a specific transport and is specified in Q.2150.1. AAL2 signaling protocol capability set 1 (ALCAP) is the signaling protocol for controlling AAL2 connections.

4.3.3

Protocols on the Iub Interface


(Figure 37) shows the Iub interface protocol stack of the user data transport and signaling (control an transport) protocols.

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OSI layer

User data transport (user plane)

Control signaling (control plane)

Transport signaling

3 NBAP SAAL 2 AAL2 ATM 1 L1 AAL5 ATM L1 AAL2L3 SAAL AAL5 ATM L1

Figure 37

Iub interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling (control and transport) protocol

User data transport (user plane) Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer. Layer 2 Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures of establishing physical connections between NodeB an RNC and the sub-layer AAL2 which defines procedures related to the operation of NodeB. Control signaling (control plane) Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer. Layer 2 Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures for establishing physical connections between NodeB an RNC and sub-layer AAL5 and SAAL (consisting of SSCOP and SSCF) which defines procedures related to the operation of NodeB. NodeB application part (NBAP) The NBAP defines the procedures required on the interface between NodeB an RNC (Iub interface). It consists of the two components: Common NBAP Dedicated NBAP The component common NBAP is used for common channel signaling links that are not related to a specific MS. The component dedicated NBAP is used for dedicated channel signaling links that are related to a specific MS. Transport signaling Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer.

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System Description RAN UMTS

Layer 2 Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures for establishing physical connections between NodeB an RNC and the sub-layer AAL5 and SAAL (consisting of SSCOP and SSCF) which defines procedures related to the operation of NodeB. Layer 3 Layer 3 is the AAL2L3 signaling consisting of sub-layer AAL2 STC (signaling transport converter) and sub-layer ALCAP (AAL2 signaling protocol capability set 1).

4.3.4

Protocols on the Iur Interface


(Figure 37) shows the Iur interface protocol stack of the user data transport and signaling (control an transport) protocols.

OSI layer

User data transport (user plane)

Control signaling (control plane)

Transport signaling

RNSAP SCCP-CO 3 MTP3-B SAAL 2 AAL2 ATM 1 L1 AAL5 ATM L1 MTP3-B SAAL AAL5 ATM L1 AAL2L3

Figure 38

Iur interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling (control and transport) protocol

User data transport (user plane) Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer. Layer 2 Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures of establishing physical connections between two RNCs and the sub-layer AAL2 which defines procedures related to the operation of RNC. Control signaling (control plane) Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer. Layer 2

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Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures for establishing physical connections between two RNCs and sub-layer AAL5 and SAAL (consisting of SSCOP and SSCF) which defines procedures related to the operation of RNC as well as sub-layer MTP3-B which defines the protocols for the reliable transmission of messages between the broad band PLMN control signaling nodes. Radio Network System application part (RNSAP) The RNSAP defines the procedures required on the interface between two RNCs (Iur interface). It consists of four different modules with different sets of RNSAP procedures: Basic inter-RNC mobility procedures Dedicated channel traffic procedures Common channel traffic procedure Global resource management procedures The module basic inter-RNC mobility procedures implements mobility handling within 3G RAN and for 3G RAN/2G RAN interworking. The module dedicated channel traffic procedures implements handling of DCHs, DSCH, HS-DSCH between two RNSs. The module common channel traffic procedures implements control of common transport channel data streams (excluding the DSCH, HS-DSCH and USCH) over Iur interface. The module global resource management procedures implements resource management not related to a specific MS involving two peer controlling RNCs and for 3G RAN/2G RAN interworking. Transport signaling Layer 1 Layer 1 is the physical layer. Layer 2 Layer 2 consists of the sub-layer ATM (transport layer) which defines procedures for establishing physical connections between two RNCs and the sub-layer AAL5 and SAAL (consisting of SSCOP and SSCF) which defines procedures related to the operation of RNC as well as sub-layer MTP3-B which defines the protocols for the reliable transmission of messages between the broad band PLMN control signaling nodes. Layer 3 Layer 3 is the AAL2L3 signaling consisting of sub-layer AAL2 STC (signaling transport converter) and sub-layer ALCAP (AAL2 signaling protocol capability set 1).

4.3.5

Protocols on the Uu Interface


Figure 39 shows the Uu interface protocol stack of the user data transport and signaling protocols.

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OSI layer

L3 / MM, CC L3 / Duplication avoidance 3 L3 / RRC L2 /PDCP L2 / BMC 2 L2 / RLC L2 / MAC 1 L1

Figure 39 Layer 1

Uu interface protocol stack of user data transport and signaling protocol

Layer 1 of the radio interface consists of the physical radio channel used to transfer the data packets, that is, carrier frequency, modulation and transmitter/receiver characteristics and transport channel structure. The physical access scheme is direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) with an information spread over approximately 5 MHz bandwidth, often called wide band CDMA. UTRA has two modes FDD (frequency division duplex) and TDD (time division duplex) for operating with paired and unpaired bands respectively. In layer 1 transport channels are categorized into the common transport channels and the dedicated transport channels. Layer 2 (MAC, RLC, BMC, PDCP) Layer 2 of the radio interface consists of several sub-layers. The lowest sub-layer is the media access control (MAC) protocol which provides access to the physical radio resource. That means, it is responsible for the physical allocation of a packet data channel. In addition, the MAC provides data transfer services on logical channels. A set of logical channel types is defined for different kinds of data transfer services as offered by MAC. The MAC is strongly associated with the next sub-layer, the radio link control (RLC) protocol which provides a reliable link via the radio interface that fits the block structure of the physical channel. The next sub-layer, the broadcast/multicast (BMC) transmission service, provides services for broadcast message handling. The highest sub-layer is represented by the packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) which provides mapping of network PDUs from one network protocol to one RLC entity. Layer 3 Layer 3 (and sub-layer RLC in layer 2) are divided into control planes and user planes. Both sub-layers BMC and PDCP of layer 2 can also be allocated to the user plane. In the control plane (control signaling), layer 3 is partitioned into sub-layers where the lowest sub-layer, called radio resource control (RRC), interfaces with layer 2 and termi-

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nates in the 3G RAN (RNS), also called UTRAN. The next sub-layer provides the duplication avoidance functionality, and terminates in the Core Network (CN) but is part of the access stratum. It provides the access stratum services to higher layers. The higher layer signaling such as mobility management (MM) and call control (CC) are assumed to belong to the non-access stratum, and therefore does not fall within the scope of 3GPP TSG Radio Access Network (RAN).

4.3.6

Protocols for HSDPA Traffic


The user plane protocol stack of High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in UTRAN (see Figure 40) implements the HS-DSCH frame protocol (HS-DSCH FP) on the Iub interface, which performs flow control taking into account the radio interface (Uu) capability. It controls transmission delay and data discarding in UTRAN by adjusting the transmission rate at the Iub interface to the transmission rate at the Uu interface. The HS-DSCH FP is used by the NodeB to inform the RNC about the permitted transmission rate at the Iub interface. On the Uu interface, the NodeB introduces the new HSDPA MAC-hs protocol, which is responsible for scheduling between terminals (MSs), adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), and the management of data queues for each MS.

PDCP RLC MAC-d HS-DSCH FP MAC-hs MAC-hs AAL2 ATM L1 L1 L1

PDCP RLC MAC-d

GTP-U UDP

IP HS-DSCH FP AAL2 ATM L1 AAL5 ATM L1

MS

Uu

NodeB

Iub

RNC

Iu

Figure 40

User plane protocol stack of HSDPA for UTRAN Uu and Iub interfaces

HS-DSCH frame protocol The new HS-DSCH FP is responsible for: Extracting HS-DSCH capacity requests and forwarding them to the flow control unit Signaling flow control credits to the serving RNC (SRNC) Controlling incoming user traffic. In other words, the NodeB can potentially discard incoming user traffic if the RNC exceeds the assigned credit limit. Extracting the incoming user data and putting the data into the priority queues MAC-hs protocol MAC-hs is a new protocol in the NodeB. It is required to support the HS-DSCH. The MAC-hs scheduler is responsible for supervising the HSDPA performance in a radio

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System Description RAN UMTS

cell, efficiently utilizing the Iub interface, and guaranteeing the QoS provided to the subscribers. The MAC-hs supports both interactive and background (I/B) services. The MAC-hs protocol provides functions for: Handling of parameters Flow control Transmission control HARQ Channel quality estimation Measurements and performance measurement (PM) counters MAC-d protocol The MAC-d protocol provides the following functions for the radio network layer: Data transfer Mapping between logical channels and transport channels Each HS-DSCH is represented as a MAC-d flow and occupies an AAL2 call identifier (CID) within the virtual channel (VC) for AAL2 user plane traffic. The MAC-d PDU is generated from the RLC-PDU carried by the internal frame protocol (HSDPA) from the HSPRLC card. When MAC-d multiplexing is performed, the C/T field is added. MAC-d multiplexing (C/T multiplexing) is not supported.

4.3.7

Protocols for HSUPA Traffic


The protocol stack of HSUPA in UTRAN (see Figure 41) introduces the E-DCH FP as specified in the 3GPP standard. The E-DCH is a channel that exists only in uplink and only effects the physical and transport channel levels, it is not visible in logical channels provided above MAC. The E-DCH FP performs the flow control taking into account the radio interface capability. It controls transmission delay and data discarding in UTRAN by adjusting the transmission rate at the Iub interface to the transmission rate at the Uu interface. The E-DCH FP is used by the RNC to inform the NodeB about the permitted transmission rate at the Iub interface.

PDCP RLC MAC-d E-DCH FP

PDCP RLC MAC-d

GTP-U UDP

IP E-DCH FP AAL2 ATM L1 AAL5 ATM L1

MAC-es/ MAC-e

MAC-e

AAL2 ATM

L1

L1

L1

MS

Uu

NodeB

Iub

RNC

Iu

Figure 41

User plane protocol stack of HSUPA for UTRAN Uu and Iub interfaces

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E-DCH frame protocol The E-DCH frame protocol (FP) performs flow control while taking into account the radio interface capability. It controls transmission delay and data discarding in UTRAN by adjusting the transmission rate at the Iub interface to the transmission rate at the Uu interface. The E-DCH FP is used by the RNC to inform the NodeB about the permitted transmission rate at the Iub interface. The E-DCH FP user plane protocol is supported as specified in 3GPP standard. The EDCH UL data frame transports MAC-es PDUs across the Iub interface from NodeB to RNC. The E-DCH FP user plane processes the burst E-DCH UL data frames due to unexpected condition on Iub interface as much as possible. Call processing on E-DCH is affected by HARQ functionality. The hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) provides functionality that was already introduced for HSDPA. MAC-es protocol The 3GPP standard introduces the MAC-es protocol, a new protocol that is supported by the MAC-es user plane. For each MS, there is one MAC-es entity in the SRNC. The implemented MAC-es layer consists of three entities: Reordering entity Macro diversity selection (combining) Disassembly MAC-d protocol The MAC-d protocol provides the following functions for the radio network layer: Data transfer Mapping between logical channels and transport channels The high speed diversity handover trunk card (HDHT) is introduced for E-DCH covering the functions of MACd/MAC-es and E-DCH FP. The introduction of the HDHT does not affect the functions of other cards. Though HSDST exists between the HDHT and HSPRLC, HSDST does not terminate any protocol above ATM for HSUPA UL traffic.

4.3.8

Protocols of the EM or other TMN Components


Between the element managers (EM) or other Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) components and the Radio Access Network (RAN) there are definite communication protocols. Communication protocols for O&M connections The TCP/IP (UDP/IP) communication protocol The TCP/IP communication protocol with the OSI layer structure is used between the RC and the 3G RAN network elements.

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System Description RAN UMTS

NMC

OS

CORBA TMN RC

TCP/IP (FTP, CMIP)

TCP/IP (FTP, CMIP)

3G RAN (RNS)

TCP/IP (FTP, CMIP)

RNC (NodeB)

Figure 42

Communication protocols for the O&M connections of the 3G PLMN with 3G RAN (RNS) nodes

4.3.8.1

Structure of the TCP/IP or UDP/IP Communication Protocol


Figure 43 shows the structure of the transport control protocol (TCP) or user datagram protocol (UDP)/Internet protocol (IP), implemented at the local area network (LAN).
OSI layer Application 7

56 TCP/ UDP

3 2 1

IP Host-tonetwork

Figure 43

Structure of the TCP/IP communication protocol

Layer 7 (application layer) Above the transport layer is the application layer. It contains all the higher-level protocols. The early ones include the file transfer protocol (FTP), TELecommunication

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NETwork (TELNET), simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) and simple network management protocol (SNMP). The FTP provides a way to move data efficiently from one machine to another. The TELNET provides a remote login or virtual terminal. The SMTP provides the transmission of electronic mail. The SNMP provides the transfer of management informations between network elements and management systems. Layers 6, 5 (presentation and session) These layers are not present in the IP reference model. Layer 4 (transport layer) The layer above the Internet layer in the IP model is usually called the transport layer. It is designed to allow peer entities on the source and destination hosts to carry on a conversation, the same as in the OSI transport layer. There are two possible protocols: User datagram protocol (UDP) carries PDUs for protocols that do not need a reliable data link (e.g. IP). UDP provides protection against corrupted PDUs. Transport control protocol (TCP) carries PDUs for protocols that need a reliable data link. TCP provides flow control and protection against lost and corrupted PDUs. Layer 3 (network layer) The Internet layer defines an official packet format and protocol called IP (Internet protocol). The job of the Internet layer is to deliver IP packets where they are supposed to go. Packet routing is clearly the major issue here. For these reasons, it is reasonable to say that the IP Internet layer is very similar in functionality to the OSI network layer. Layer 2 (data link layer) and layer 1 (physical layer) Beyond the Internet layer (layer 3) is a great void. The IP reference model does not really say much about what happens here, except to point out that the host has to connect to the network using some protocol so it can send IP packets over it. This protocol is not defined and varies from host to host and network to network.

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System Description RAN UMTS

5 Abbreviations
16QAM 2G RAN 3G RAN 3GPP AAL2 AAL5 AC AC ACI AFC AICH AISG AKA ALCAP AMC AMP-SC AMR A-SHF ASI ATM BCCH BCH BE BMC BRA BSC B-SHF BSS BTS CAPEX 16-quadrature amplitude modulation Second Generation Radio Access Network Third Generation Radio Access Network Third Generation Partnership Project ATM Adaptation Layer 2 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Admission Control Authentication Center Adjacent Channel Interference Automatic Frequency Control Acquisition Indication Channel Antenna Interface Standards Group Authentication and Key Agreement AAL2 Signaling Protocol Capability Set Adaptive Modulation and Coding Amplifier Supervising and Control Card Adaptive Multirate Air Link Shelf ATM Switch Interface Card Asynchronous Transfer Modus Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Best Effort Broadcast/Multicast Bit Rate Adaptation Base Station Controller Base Shelf Base Station System Base Transceiver Station Capital Expenditure

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Abbreviations

CAT CBC CC CC CCCH CCH CDMA CES CFN CG CHC CID CIR CK CM CMN CMUX CN CNcs CNps CP CPCH CPICH CPRI CPS CQI CRC CS CSE CSICH CS-MGW CTCH

Combined Amplifier and Transceiver Module Cell Broadcast Center Call Control Core Controller Common Control Channel Control Channel Code Division Multiplex Access Circuit Emulation Service Connection Frame Number Charging Gateway Channel Coding Card Call Identifier Carrier- to Interference-Power Ratio Cipher Key Configuration Management Call Mediation Node Cell Multiplexer Core Network Circuit-Switched Domain of Core Network Packet-Switched Domain of Core Network Central Processing Card Common Packet Channel Common Pilot Channel Common Public Radio Interface Common Part Sublayer Channel Quality Information Cyclic Redundancy Check Circuit-Switched CAMEL Service Environment CPCH Status Indicator Channel Circuit-switched Media Gateway Common Traffic Channel

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System Description RAN UMTS

CTS DC DCCH DCH DHT DL DMTAP DOFF DPC DPCCH DPCH DPDCH DRIC DRNC DS-CDMA DSCH DTCH DTMA DTMARET DTX DUAMCO E-AGCH E-DCH E-DPCCH E-DPDCH E-HICH EIR EIU E-RGCH FACH FAUSCH FDD

Channel Type Switching Direct Currency Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Channel Diversity Handover Trunk Downlink Direct Message Transfer Application Part Downlink Offset Destination Point Code Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Digital Radio Interface Card Drift (target) RNC Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel Dual Tower-Mounted Amplifier Dual Tower-Mounted Amplifier including Remote Electrical Tilt Discontinuous Transmission Duplex Amplifier Multi-Coupler E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel Enhanced Dedicated Channel Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel Equipment Identity Register External Interface Unit Card E-DCH Relative Grant Channel Forward Access Channel Fast Uplink Signaling Channel Frequency Division Duplex

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Abbreviations

FP FRAC FTP GGSN GMSC GSM MGW GSM HARQ HFN HLR HSDPA HS-DPCCH HS-DSCH HSDST HS-PDSCH HSPRLC HS-SCCH HSUPA HWY IE IETF IK IMA IP IPS ITU-T K L2R LCS LE LMT LMU

Frame Protocol Fractional ATM File Transfer Protocol Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway MSC GSM Media Gateway Global System of Mobile communication Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Hyper Frame Number Home Location Register High-Speed Downlink Packet Access High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel HSDPA Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel Trunk High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Packet Radio Link Controller High-Speed Shared Control Channel High-Speed Uplink Packet Access Highway Interface Information Element Internet Engineering Task Force Integrity Key Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Internet Protocol Intelligent Packet Solution International Telecommunication Union, Sector Telecommunication Standardization Secret Key for authentication Layer 2 Relay Location Service Local Exchange Local Maintenance Terminal Location Measurement Unit

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System Description RAN UMTS

LNA LPA max-CIR MAC MBR MCPA MGW MM MO-LR MS MSC MSC-S MT MT-LR MTP3-B NAS NBAP NEM NNI NodeB NRT OoB OoBTC OPEX OTDOA OVPT OVSF PCCH P-CCPCH PCH PCM PCPCH

Low Noise Amplifier Linear Power Amplifier maximal Carrier to Interface Ratio Media Access Control Maximum Bit Rate Multi-Carrier Power Amplifier Media Gateway Mobility Management Mobile Originating Location Request Mobile Station Mobile-services Switching Center MSC Server Mobile Termination Mobile Terminating Location Request Message Transfer Part 3 - B Network Access Signaling NodeB Application Part Network Element Manager Network Node Interface Base Transceiver Station for 3G RAN (RNS/UTRAN) Non-Real Time Out of Band Out of Band Transcoder Control Operational Expenditure Observed Time Difference Of Arrival Overvoltage Protection and Tracer Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Paging Control Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel Paging Channel Pulse Code Multiplex Physical Common Packet Channel

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Abbreviations

PCS PDA PDCP PDH PDSCH PDU PICH PICH PID PLMN PN PRACH PRLC PRS PS PSCCCH PUSCH PVC QoS QPSK RAB RACH RAN RANAP RAU RBT RC RE REC REP RET RF

Policy Control Server Personal Digital Assistant Packet Data Convergence Protocol Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit Page Indicator Channel Paging Indicator Channel Product Identification Data Public Land Mobile Network Pseudo Noise Physical Random Access Channel Packet Radio Link Controller Power Redundant Supply Packet-Switched Physical Shared Channel Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Permanent Virtual Connection Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Radio Access Network Application Part Routing Area Update Radio Bearer Translation Radio Commander Radio Equipment Radio Equipment Controller Repeater Card Remote Electrical Tilt Radio Frequency

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System Description RAN UMTS

RFC RFCI RLC RLP RNC RNCMAP RNS RNSAP RRC RRH-m RRH-p RS RSSU RTCP RTP RTSP RTWP SA STP SAAL SAI SCC SCCH SCCP S-CCPCH SCH SCP SCPA SDH SF SGSN SIM SIR

RAB sub-Flow Combination RAB sub-Flow Combination Indicator Radio Link Control Radio Layer Protocol Radio Network Controller Radio Network Controller Management Application Part Radio Network System Radio Network Application Part Radio Resource Control Remote Radio Head - macro Remote Radio Head - pico Radio Server Radio Server Slider Unit Real-time Transport Control Protocol Real-time Transport Protocol Real-Time Streaming Protocol Received Total Wideband Power Stand-alone Signaling Transfer Point Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer Service Area Identifier Smart Cell Configuration Shared Channel Control Channel Signaling Connection Control Part Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Synchronization Channel Service Control Point Single Carrier Power Amplifier Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Spreading Factor Serving GPRS Support Node Subscriber Identity Module Signal to Interference Ratio

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Abbreviations

SLR SMLC SMS SMTP SNMP SRB SRNC SRNS SSCF SSCOP SSP STC SW TA TBS TCH TCP TDD TDM TDMA TE TELNET TFC TFS T-MSC TNL TOS TRAU TrCH TrFO TRX TSC

Subscriber Location Register Serving Mobile Location Center Short Message Service Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Signaling Radio Bearer Serving Radio Network Controller Serving Radio Network Subsystem Service Specific Convergence Sublayer Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol Service Switching Point Signaling Transport Converter Software Terminal Adapter Transport Block Set Traffic Channel Transport Control Protocol Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiplex Time Division Multiple Access Terminal Equipment TELecommunication NETwork Transport Format Combination Transport Format Set Transit MSC Transport Network Layer Type Of Service Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit Transport Channel Transcoder Free Operation Transceiver TRAU Server Card

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Abbreviations

System Description RAN UMTS

TTA TTI TX AMP UDP UL UMTS USCH USIM UTRA UTRAN VC VCC VLR VP VPC WAP W-CDMA WLSC

Top Tower Amplifier Time Transmission Interval TX Amplifier User Datagram Protocol Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Uplink Shared Channel User Services Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Virtual Channel Virtual Channel Connection Visitor Location Register Virtual Path Virtual Path Connection Wireless Application Protocol Wideband Code Division Multiplex Access Wideband CMP and Line Switch Controller

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