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EntomologicalSocietyofAlberta

57 AnnualMeeting LakelandCollege,Vermilion November5th7th,2009 PROGRAM


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EntomologicalSocietyofAlberta

Executive2009
President VicePresident PastPresident Secretary Treasurer Webmaster NorthernRegionDirector CentralRegionDirector SouthernRegionDirector RegionalDirectortoESC ProceedingsEditor BrianVanHezewijk GregPohl RoseDeClerckFloate KenFry KimberlyRondeau AlecMcClay GeraldHilchie MaryReid FranLeggett LloydDosdall EmilyBarnewall

AnnualMeeting2009
LocalArrangements ScientificProgramCommittee RegistrationandFinance PeterWalsh,MichaelCrowe LloydDosdall,AlecMcClay KimberlyRondeau

Thursday,November5 16:30 ExecutiveMeeting(Room256,AlumniHall) 18:30 Registrationopen(Cafeteria,AlumniHall) 19:0022:00Reception(Cafeteria,AlumniHall) AllFridayandSaturdaysessionswillbeheld intheMainTheatre,AlumniHall Friday,November6 08:00 Registrationopen(Hallway,AlumniHall) 08:30 OpeningandWelcome BrianVanHezewijk,President,ESA GlennCharlesworth,President,LakelandCollege JosieVanLent,AssociateDean,LakelandCollege SYMPOSIUM:INSECTSINAGRICULTURE 08:40 LloydDosdall(Moderator) IntroductiontotheSymposium 08:45 MayaEvenden,R.Gries,M.Aurelian,L.M.Dosdall,G.Judd,C. Miluch,A.WinsPurdy PheromonebasedManagementofAgriculturalPests:Current ResearchandFutureNeeds 09:05 AlecMcClay,A.Gassmann,andV.C.Wolf EuropeanInsectsasPotentialBiologicalControlAgentsfor CommonTansy(Tanacetumvulgare)inCanadaandtheUnited States 09:25 RossM.WeissandOwenOlfert BioclimaticApproachestoAssessthePotentialImpactof ClimateChangeonInsectPopulationsinAgroecosystems

09:45 JeffreyNewtonandHeatherProctor ClimateChangeEffectsonRangelandSoilMicroarthropods 10:05 COFFEE 10:35 HctorA.CrcamoandOwenOlfert BiodiversityinAgroecosystems:NewDevelopmentsand ResearchNeeds 10:55 LloydDosdall,H.A.Crcamo,O.Olfert,S.Meers,S.Hartley,andJ. Gavloski InvasionsofInsectsinAgroecosystemsintheWesternCanadian Prairies:CaseHistoriesandPatterns 11:15 ShortBreak 11:30 LakelandCollegeStudentActivity:InsectJeopardy 12:30 LUNCH(onyourown) CONTRIBUTEDPAPERSSESSION1 ModeratorKaterynRochon 13:30 Mori,B.A.,Gries,G.,Otani,J.,Yoder,C.andEvenden,M.L. Developmentofapheromonebasedmonitoringtoolforthered clovercasebearer(Coleophoradeauratella)inAlberta 13:45 Aurelian,V.M.,Evenden,M.L.,andJudd,G.J.R. Semiochemicalbasedmasstrappingoftheappleclearwing moth(Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) 14:00 Vankosky,M.A.,Crcamo,H.A.,Dosdall,L.M. Theeffectsofsoilnitrogen,Rhizobiuminoculationand insecticideseedcoatingsonyieldlossandnitrogenfixationin fieldpeasunderSitonalineatusattack 14:15 Subramaniam,R.,Dosdall,L.M.,ODonovan,J.T.,andHarker,K.N. IdentifyingAgronomicPracticesthatConserveandEnhance NaturalEnemiesofRootMaggots(Deliaspp.)(Diptera: Anthomyiidae)inCanola 4

14:30 Tansey,J.A.,Dosdall,L.M.,andKeddie,A. Hostplantglucosinolateprofilesandthecabbageseedpod weevil 14:45 Blake,A.J.,Dosdall,L.M.,KeddieB.A.. Theinfluenceofcanolanutritionontheovipositionchoiceand larvaldevelopmentofthecabbageseedpodweevil 15:00 COFFEEANDPOSTERVIEWING POSTERPRESENTATIONS Pinzn,J.,Spence,J.R.andLangor,D. DiversityPatternsofSpidersinWhiteSpruceStands Floate,K.D.,andTiberg,K. Whathappenedtothecoprophilousinsectsassociatedwith bison?

DeClerckFloate,R.,Floate,K.D.,andSaunders,P. Atestofcontainmentefficacyusinglivinginsectsinarelease andrecapturestudy Floate,K.D.,andWatson,W. IntroductionofexoticdungbeetlesintoCanadatoaccelerate degradationofcattledung Olivier,C.,Galka,B.,andFloate,K.D. PrevalenceofArsenophonusinleafhoppervectorsof phytoplasma Waller,J.L. Parasitoidcompetition?orCanparasitoidsdistinguish previouslyparasitizedhosts? XiuhuaWu,HectorCrcamo,BrianBeres DoesBraconcephireducestemminingbywheatstemsawfly?

CONTRIBUTEDPAPERSSESSION2 ModeratorEmilyBarnewall 15:30 Larson,D.G.andDrozdiak,R. Theforagingactivityoftheleafcutterant,Acromyrmex echinator,indrytropicalforestpatchesinGuanacaste,Costa Rica 15:45 Esch,E.D.,Spence,J.R.,Langor,D. Mountainpinebeetlephenology,survival,andconditionin whitebarkpine 16:00 Schwarzfeld,M.,Sperling,F. Patternsofichneumonid(Insecta:Hymenoptera)diversityina borealforestecosystem 16:15 Wood,C.M.,Spence,J.R.,andLangor,D.W. Beetlespeciesoffallentremblingaspendeadwood 16:30 Lee,S.I.,Langor,D.W.,andSpence,J.R. Influenceofvariousretentionpatchesonsaproxylicbeetlesin whitesprucestands 16:45 AmandaVanHaga,B.AndrewKeddie,StephenF.Pernal FromEggstoRiches:TheUseofHenEggWhiteLysozymeto ControlChalkbroodDiseaseinHoneyBeeColonies

18:30

BANQUET(Cafeteria,AlumniHall) Cocktailsat18:30 Dinnerat19:00 AwardsPresentations (RoseDeClerckFloate,Chair,AwardsCommittee): StudentTravelGrants,UndergraduateAwardinEntomology, F.S.CarrAward

Saturday,November7 CONTRIBUTEDPAPERSSESSION3 ModeratorMeghanVankosky 08:30 Lysyk,T.J.,andRochon,K. SeasonalActivityofRockyMountainWoodTicks,Dermacentor andersoni,inSouthernAlberta 08:45 JanetSperling,DannyShpeley,SarahLeo,MikeJenkins,Felix Sperling IxodesscapularisandI.pacificusticksinAlberta 09:00 Leech,R.E. TheContinuingSagaofIntroducedSpiderstoAlberta 09:15 Barnewall,E.C.,DeClerckFloate,R. QuarantineassessmentofRhinusapilosaasapotential biologicalcontrolagentforLinariavulgaris 09:30 VanHezewijk,B.H.andBourchier,R.S. Halos,Ripples,andGhostsofDispersalPast 09:45 Dombroskie,J.J. QuantifyingGestalt:TowardsanInteractiveMatrixbasedKeyto CanadianLepidopteranSubfamilies 10:00 ENTOMOLOGICALSOCIETYOFALBERTA ANNUALGENERALMEETING CoffeewillbeservedconcurrentlywiththeAGM.
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ORALANDPOSTERPRESENTATIONABSTRACTS (Alphabeticallybypresentingauthor) Semiochemicalbasedmasstrappingoftheappleclearwingmoth (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) Aurelian,V.M.1,Evenden,M.L.1,andJudd,G.J.R.2. 1 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,CW405BiologicalSciencesBldg, UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB,T6G2E9. 2 AgricultureandAgrifoodCanada,PacificAgrifoodResearchCentre, Summerland,BC,V0H1Z0. Infestationsofappleclearwingmoth,Synanthedonmyopaeformis,a Europeanpestofapples,wererecentlydiscoveredinseveralareasofCanada. Cambiumfeedinglarvaegirdlebarkattherootstockscionunion,which weakensdwarfingappletreesandreducestheiryields.Absenceofnatural enemiesandeffectivepesticideshasresultedinextremelyhighpopulations, especiallyinorganicapplesinsouthernB.C.Ourgoalistodevelopa semiochemicalbasedmasstrappingprogramtargetingmaleandfemale moths.Inthisstudywecomparepheromoneandkairomonebasedmass trappingatthreedifferenttrapdensitiesrelativetountreatedcontrolplots.In kairomonebaitedtraps,weusecommercialgrapejuice,knowntobehighly attractivetobothsexes.Masstrappingwithgrapejuiceremovedlarge numbersofbothmalesandfemales.Interferenceamongpheromonetraps occurredatveryhightrapdensities(100traps/haunderhighmothdensities and50traps/haunderlowermothdensities).Incontrast,notrapinterference wasdetectedwithjuicebaitedtraps.Acombinationofmaleconfusionby ambientlevelsofpheromoneandremovalfromthepopulationthrough captureintrapsmayoperateinpheromonebasedmasstrappingplots.The mechanismsbehindthesignificantdecreaseinthenumberoffemales capturedinassessmenttrapsincontrolplotsversuspheromonebaitedmass trappingplotsremainunknown.Wepredictthathighcapacitytrapsbaited withkairomonesthattargetbothsexesmaybeagoodalternativeto pesticidesfordecreasingmothdensitiesinorganicorchards. QuarantineassessmentofRhinusapilosaasapotentialbiologicalcontrol agentforLinariavulgaris Barnewall,E.C.1,2,DeClerckFloate,R.1 1 UniversityofLethbridge,LethbridgeAB 2 LethbridgeResearchCentre,Agriculture&AgrifoodCanada,LethbridgeAB Yellowtoadflax,Linariavulgaris,isanonnative,invasiveplantofagricultural andnaturalareasinCanada.MultipleintroductionsofthisplanttoNorth Americaaresuspected,hence,anyinsectsusedforbiocontrolofL.vulgaris willbeencounteringmultiplehostgenotypesuponrelease.Aprerelease
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impactassessmentofaEuropeanweevil,Rhinusapilosa,wasconductedin quarantineusingCanadawideL.vulgarispopulationstohelpdeterminethe potentialefficacyofthiscandidatebiocontrolagent.Impactswereexamined bycomparingintraandinterpopulationplantresponsestoweevilgall inductionanddevelopment.Impactsweredeterminedbyassessingstem heightandgrowthrate,flowerproduction,andaboveandbelowground biomass.Preliminaryanalysesshowthatgalledstemswere21%smallerand produced68%fewerflowersthancontrolstems(F2,39=3.54,p=0.039;F2,39= 7.10,p<0.01,respectively).However,abovegroundbiomasswas24%higher ingalledplantsthanincontrolplantsbutthisdifferencewasnotsignificant (F1,21=1.14,p=0.30).Theresultsfromthisstudywillhelpdeterminethe suitabilityofR.pilosatodifferentpopulations(andpotentiallydifferent genotypes)ofyellowtoadflaxandselectnontargetsandtheimpactofany attack.Thisexperimentwillcontributevaluableinformationtoassistan evaluationofthesuitabilityofR.pilosaforrelease. Theinfluenceofcanolanutritionontheovipositionchoiceandlarval developmentofthecabbageseedpodweevil Blake,A.J.1,Dosdall,L.M.2,KeddieB.A.1. 1 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB, 2 DepartmentofAgriculturalFoodandNutritionalScience,Universityof Alberta,Edmonton,AB Thecabbageseedpodweevil,Ceutorhynchusobstrictus(Marsham) (Coleoptera:Curculionidae),isaseriousintroducedpestofcanola,Brassica napusL.Inanefforttobetterunderstandtherelationshipbetweenhost plantnutritionandC.obstrictuspreferencesanditslarvaldevelopmental biology,weexposedgravidfemalestohostplantsgrownunderdiffering regimesofnitrogenandsulfur.Resultsfrompodchoicearenaexperiments indicatethatplantsgrownwithahighersupplyofsulfurwerepreferredas hostsbutonlyinplantsthatweregrowninatalownitrogenlevel.Incontrast, larvaldevelopmentexperimentsshowhigherdevelopmenttimeswith increasingnitrogenlevels.Thisincreaseindevelopmenttimewasnot associatedwithasimilarincreaseinlarvalweight.Thesechangesinlarval developmenttimemayormaynotrepresentasignificantfitnesscostfor larvalandadultC.obstrictus. BiodiversityinAgroecosystems:NewDevelopmentsandResearchNeeds Crcamo,H.A.1andOlfert,O.2 1 AAFC,4031AveS.LethbridgeABT1J4B1 2 AAFC,106SciencePlace,SaskatoonSKS7N0X2 Biodiversitystudiesattempttoquantifythenumberofspeciesinagiven 9

assemblageandtheirrelativedominanceatadefinedspatiotemporalscale.In cultivatedorgrazedecosystemsoftheCanadianprairies,fewsuchstudies havebeenconductedandmosthavefocusedoncarabidbeetles.Acursory literaturesearchusingthetermsCarabidaeandthenameoftheprairie provinceinAgricola,supplementedbyourownrecords,revealed9studiesof carabidsinrelationtoagriculturalpracticeinAlberta.Fourstudiesinclude sitesfromtheshortandmixedmoistgrasslandsandtherestwereconducted intheParklandecoregion;thevastagriculturalPeaceRiverregioninthe BorealPlainshasnotbeenstudied.Spiders,andstaphylinidbeetles,despite theircooccurrencewithcarabidsinpitfallcatcheshavenotreceivedthe sameattention.Forexample,nostudiesofspiderdiversitywerefoundfor agroecoystemsinAlbertabuttwoweredoneinSaskatchewan.Wecouldnot findbiodiversitystudiesofthesetaxafromcultivatedfieldsinManitoba.Also therearenodirectcomparisonsofcultivatedfieldsandnearbygrasslands reserves.Futurechallengesincludefillingthesegeographicgapsandinclude otherkeyguildssuchasherbivores,soilarthropods,foliagedwelling predators,parasitoidsandpollinators.Yetalargerchallengeistotacklethe functionalstudiestoelucidatethelinkagesbetweenbioversityandecosystem function.Thisinformationisneededtoanswertheperennialquestions farmersandpolicymakersask:whataretheenvironmentalandeconomic implicationsofbiodiversityandhowdoweprotectit? Atestofcontainmentefficacyusinglivinginsectsinareleaseandrecapture study DeClerckFloate,R.,Floate,K.D.,andSaunders,P. LethbridgeResearchCentre,AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Lethbridge, AB NorthAmericanregulatorystandardsforthecontainmentofarthropodsin quarantinestipulatethatsuchfacilitiesbespeciallydesignedtoprevent arthropodescapes.Theyaretobeequippedwithavestibulelightlock containingaUVorregularlighttrap,andinnerroomswithnegativeair pressure.Totesttheefficacyofvariouscontainmentmethods,areleaseand recapturestudywasconductedwithinanoperationalquarantineusingthree insectspecies;Aphodiusdistinctus,Muscadomestica,Urolepisrufipes.The optimummethodforescapepreventionvariedwithspecies.Acombination UV/incandescentlighttrap,apan/watertrap,andnegativeairpressureareall recommended. QuantifyingGestalt:TowardsanInteractiveMatrixbasedKeytoCanadian LepidopteranSubfamilies Dombroskie,J.J. Dept.ofBiologicalSciences,CW405,Bio.Sci.Bldg.,UniversityofAlberta, 10

Edmonton,AB,T6G2E9,CANADA IdentifyingLepidopteratosubfamilyortribeusingdichotomouskeysis difficultasexistingkeyscoveronlydistinctivefamiliesorrelyondifficult characters.Amatrixbasedkeyshowsgreatpromiseasawaytoidentify Lepidopteratofamilybecausenondiscretecharacterscanbeused.I constructedakeyusing73externalcharacters(266states)thatarevisible withadissectingmicroscope,examinedfrom1454specimensin221taxon groups.Thiskeywilllikelybecomeavaluabletoolinlepidopteran identifications. InvasionsofInsectsinAgroecosystemsintheWesternCanadianPrairies: CaseHistoriesandPatterns Dosdall,L.M.1,Crcamo,H.A.2,Olfert,O.3,Meers,S.4,Hartley,S.5,and Gavloski,J.6 1 DepartmentofAgricultural,FoodandNutritionalScience,Universityof Alberta,Edmonton,AB 2 AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,LethbridgeResearchCentre,Lethbridge, AB 3 AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,SaskatoonResearchCentre,Saskatoon,SK 4 AlbertaAgricultureandRuralDevelopment,CropDiversificationCentre South,Brooks,AB 5 SaskatchewanAgricultureandFood,3085AlbertStreet,Regina,SK 6 ManitobaAgriculture,FoodandRuralInitiatives,Carman,MB TheNorthernGreatPlainsofNorthAmericahasbeeninvadedbyalieninsect speciesthathavecausedextensiveeconomicdamagetoagricultural production.Inthelast25years,invasionsofRussianwheataphid(Diuraphis noxia(Mordvilko)),cabbageseedpodweevil(Ceutorhynchusobstrictus (Marsham),pealeafweevil(SitonalineatusL.),diamondbackmoth(Plutella xylostella(L.)),andcerealleafbeetle(OulemamelanopusL.)haveoccurred, andmosthaveestablished.Mostinvadingspeciesarebelievedtohave originatedfromsourcepopulationstothesouth,butorangewheatblossom midge(Sitodiplosismosellana(Ghin))andswedemidge(Contarinianasturtii (Keiffer))apparentlyinvadedfromeasternNorthAmerica.Biologicaland chemicalcontrolcomprisekeymanagementstrategiesforinvasiveinsect pestsinagroecosystems.Invasionshaveaffectedecosystemfunctioningby providingvastresourcesofherbivorousinsectsthathavebeenexploitedby somepredatorsandparasitoidsthroughexpandingtheirnormalhostranges. Furthereffectsonecosystemfunctioningresultedfromnegativeimpactsof insecticidespraysonindigenousandbeneficialspecies.

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Mountainpinebeetlephenology,survival,andconditioninwhitebarkpine Esch,E.D.1,Spence,J.R.1,Langor,D.2 DepartmentofRenewableResources,UniversityofAlberta CanadianForestService,NorthernForestryCenter Whitebarkpine(Pinusalbicaulis),anendangeredkeystoneofWesternNorth Americassubalpineforestsisthreatenedbyaninvasivepathogen, Cronartiumribicola,andanativepest,themountainpinebeetle(MPB), Dendroctonusponderosae.MPBphenology,survival,andconditionarelittle knownforthishost,especiallyatthenorthernextentofthetreesrange (WestCentralAlberta).Fieldexperimentsatthenorthernlimitofthetrees rangeshowMPBdevelopmentandsurvivalareinferiorinwhitebark comparedtolodgepolepine,theMPBsprimaryhost.Despitethis,MPBs werecapableofcompletingtheirdevelopmentinoneyear,evenathigh elevations.Differencesinsurvivalanddevelopmentcouldnotberelatedto thehostsphloemthicknessorsusceptibilitytothebluestainfungi. Laboratoryexperimentsonbeetleconditionindicaterelationshipsbetween treediameterandbeetleconditiondifferbetweenwhitebarkandlodgepole pine.Theseresultssuggestverbanoneprotectionmaybethemosteffective meansofcontrollingMPBpopulationinsubalpineforestscontaining whitebarkpine. Pheromonebasedmanagementofagriculturalpests:currentresearchand futureneeds Evenden,M.L.1,Gries,R.2,Aurelian,M.1,Dosdall,L.M.3,Judd,G.4,Miluch, C.3,5,WinsPurdy,A.6 1 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,CW405BiologicalSciencesBldg, UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,ABT6G2E9 2 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,8888UniversityDr.,SimonFraser University,Burnaby,BC,V5A1S6 3 DepartmentofAgricultureFoodandNutritionalSciences,416BAgriculture/ ForestryCentre,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,ABT6G2P5 4 AgricultureandAgrifoodCanada,PacificAgrifoodResearchCentre, Summerland,BCV0H1ZO 5 SchoolofHorticulture,OldsCollege,450050thStreet,Olds,ABT4H1R6 6 EnvironmentalProtectionDivision,Thompson,Okanagan,&Kootenay Regions,BCMinistryofEnvironment,2013547SkahaLakeRd,PentictonBC V2A7K2 Therelianceofmothsonsexpheromonesformatefindingmakestheir chemicalcommunicationsystemanidealtargetforintegratedpest management.Researchinmylaboratoryfocusesontheecologyofchemically mediatedinteractionsofinsects(primarilymoths)consideredtobepestsof 12

agricultural,horticultural,andforestrysystemsandhowtheseinteractions mightbeexploitedinpestmanagement.Thistypeofworkishighly collaborativeandinvolvesbasicdiscoveryofchemicalsignallingsystemsand theirapplicationtomonitoringandcontrolofpestpopulations.Theemphasis ofthisresearchisonunderstandingthemechanismsbywhichmoth behaviourisaffectedbypheromonebasedmanagementstrategies.Examples oftheuseofsyntheticpheromoneformonitoringandcontrolofagricultural pestpopulationsthroughattractandkill,masstrappingandmatingdisruption willbepresented.Recommendedfutureresearchdirectionswillbe discussed. Whathappenedtothecoprophilousinsectsassociatedwithbison? Floate,K.D.1,andTiberg,K.2 1 LethbridgeResearchCentre,AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Lethbridge, AB 2 DepartmentofBiology,TheUniversityofLethbridge,Lethbridge,AB Thereisspeculationthatthevirtualeradicationofbison(Bisonbison)from NorthAmericamayhavecausedtheextinctionofcoprophilousinsectspecies thatbredinbisondung.Alternatively,theseinsectsmaynowbreedincattle dung.Toourknowledge,thesuitabilityofcattledungasasubstituteforbison dunghasnotbeenexperimentallyaddressedfordungbreedinginsects.In Part1ofatwopartstudy,wecomparedcapturesofcoprophilousbeetles (Scarabaeidae,Staphylinidae,Histeridae,Hydrophilidae)inpitalltrapsbaited with:(B)dungofbisonfedadietofmixednaturalgrassandhay,(C)dungof cattlefedahaydietwithca.10%grain,or(CS)dungofcattlefedbarleysilage. Analyseswereperformedonninetaxathatcomprised99.2%ofthe21369 beetlesrecovered.Nonativeornonnativetaxapreferredbisondungover thatofcattle.FourtaxapreferredCStoCdung,andtwotaxapreferredCto CSdung.Theseresultssupportthehypothesisthatnativespeciesofinsects originallybreedingonlyinbisondungwouldhavebeenablebreedincattle dungonceitbecameavailable.InPart2ofthisstudy,wecomparethe richnessandabundanceofinsectspeciesthatcompletedeggtoadult developmentinB,CandCSdung.Theselatterresultsarenotyetavailable. IntroductionofexoticdungbeetlesintoCanadatoacceleratedegradationof cattledung Floate,K.D.1,andWatson,W.2 1 LethbridgeResearchCentre,AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Lethbridge, AB 2 NorthCarolinaStateUniversity,Raleigh,NC Dungfouledpasturesarepoorlyusedbycattle,whichavoidfeedingon contaminatedgrasses.Theresultingpatchygrazingpatterncauseseconomic 13

lossesfortheindustrysuchthatrapiddungdegradationisdesired.Efforts nowareunderwayinsouthernAlbertatoestablishpopulationsofthe coprophagousbeetles,DigitonthophagusgazellaandOnthophagustaurus (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae),whicharerecognizedforefficientlyburyingdung. EstablishmentofO.taurusisconsideredlikely,givenreportsofpopulations within300kmoftheCanada/USAborder.EstablishmentofD.gazellais unlikely,butisbeingstudiedtotestpredictionsofclimaticmodelsunderfield conditions. PrevalenceofArsenophonusinleafhoppervectorsofphytoplasma Olivier,C.1,Galka,B.1,andFloate,K.D.2 1 AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Saskatoon,SK 2 LethbridgeResearchCentre,AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Lethbridge, AB Istheabilityofleafhopperstovectorplantpathogens(e.g.,phytoplasmas) affectedbycoinfectionsofsymbioticbacteria?Weexaminedthisquestionin asurveyoffourleafhopperpopulations(n=66species)collectedinvineyards andcropsinCanada.Geneticmarkersidentifiedinfectionsofthespecies Candidatusphytoplasmaasterisin15speciesandinfectionsofArseno phonusand/orWolbachiabacteriain40species.Thecorrelationbetween infectionsofsymbionts,phytoplasmaandleafhopperpopulationlocationis discussed. Theforagingactivityoftheleafcutterant,Acromyrmexechinator,indry tropicalforestpatchesinGuanacaste,CostaRica Larson,D.G.andDrozdiak,R. AugustanaCampus,UniversityofAlberta,490146Ave,Camrose,ABT4V 2R3 TheforagingactivityandefficiencyofthefungusrearingAcromyrmexleaf cutterants,areadilyrecognizedinsectherbivoreinthedrytropicalforest patchesoftheRioTempesquewatershedinGuanacaste,CostaRica,wasthe focusofoneoftheAugustanaundergraduatestudiescarriedoutinthe February2009TropicalFieldCourse.Thepatternofthedailyforagingactivity period,therateoftravelofladenandunladenants,thesizeandtypesof botanicalloadsbeingcarriedbacktothefungalgardens,lengthofmajor foragingtrails,estimatesofdailyharvestmassandestimatesofcolonysize weredeterminedforsmall,mediumandlargeA.echinatornests. 14

Influenceofvariousretentionpatchesonsaproxylicbeetlesinwhitespruce stands Lee,S.I.,Langor,D.W.,andSpence,J.R. DepartmentofRenewableResources,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB T6G2H1 NaturalResourcesCanada,CanadianForestService,NorthernForestry Centre,Edmonton,ABT6H3S5 Sustainableforestmanagementrequiresintimateknowledgeofhowforest biotarespondstoforestrypractices.Saproxylicbeetles(i.e.beetlesthat dependondeadordyingwoodduringsomepartoftheirlifecycle)area diversegroupoforganismsthatprovideessentialecosystemfunctions.Green treeretentionhasbeenproposedasawayofconservingbiodiversitybecause retentionpatchescanactaslifeboats,providingsourcepopulationsforre colonizationofharvestedlandscapes.Tounderstandtheeffectofharvest intensityandretentionpatchsizeonsaproxylicbeetleassemblagesinboreal whitesprucestands,weinvestigatedsaproxylicbeetlesusingwindowand emergencetrapsamongtwosizesofclumpedretentionpatches(0.20and 0.46ha)withindifferentharvestintensityattheEMEND(Ecosystem ManagementEmulatingNaturalDisturbance)landscape. TheContinuingSagaofIntroducedSpiderstoAlberta Leech,R.E.1,2 1 10534139StNW,Edmonton,ABT5N2K7 2 ResearchAssociate,RoyalAlbertaMuseum,12845102AveNW,Edmonton ABT5NOM6 Sincetheearly70s,16speciesin11familieshavebeen,orarebeing, recordedinthispaperasintroducedtoAlberta.Theseintroductionsinclude speciesthatdoexistnaturallyinAlberta,andalsoindividualsofspeciesthat donotexistnaturallyinAlberta.Thesespiderspecieshavebeenbroughtin unintentionallybycommerce(equipment,crushedrock,fruitandvegetables) andeveninpackedclothingbyunsuspectingholidayersfromtheU.S.A.and otherCanadianprovinces.Notconsideredherearetarantulaandotherspider speciesbroughtinforpetshopsandmuseums.Todate,therehavenotbeen formalrecordskeptofspiderspeciesintroducedtoAlberta.Thefollowing spiderfamiliesandspeciesofspidershavebeenintroducedtoAlberta,and thispaperconstitutesthefirstformalrecordforseveralofthefamiliesand species:AGELENIDAE:?Hololenasp.?imm.,Tegenariaagrestis(Walckenaer, 1802),Tegenariadomestica(Clerck,1758),TegenariaduellicaSimon,1875; AMPHINECTIDAE:Metaltellasimoni(Keyserling,1878);CTENIDAE:Cupiennius salei(Keyserling,1877),CupienniuscoccineusF.O.PicardCambridge,1901; MITURGIDAE:Cheiracanthiuminclusum(Hentz,1847);PHOLCIDAE:Pholcus 15

phalangioides(Fuesslin,1775);SALTICIDAE:Salticusscenicus(Clerck,1757); SICARIIDAE:LoxoscelesblandaGertsch&Ennik,1983;SPARASSIDAE: Heteropodavenatoria(Linnaeus,1767);THERIDIIDAE:Latrodectushesperus Chamberlin&Ivie,1935,Latrodectusmactans(Fabricius,1775);THERAPHOSI DAE:severalunidentifiedgeneraonfruitsfromCentralandSouthAmerica. StudiesonEuropeaninsectsaspotentialbiologicalcontrolagentsfor commontansy(Tanacetumvulgare)inCanadaandtheUnitedStates McClay,A.S.1,Gassmann,A.2andWolf,V.C.2,3 1 McClayEcoscience,15GreenbriarCrescent,SherwoodPark,AlbertaT8H1H8 2 CABIEuropeSwitzerlandStation,ruedesGrillons1,CH2800Delmont, Switzerland 3 UniversityofBielefeld,Universittsstrasse25,33615Bielefeld,Germany Commontansy(TanacetumvulgareL.,Asteraceae)isaninvasiveherbaceous perennialnativetoEurope,andwasintroducedintoNorthAmericaasa culinaryandmedicinalherb.Nowwidelynaturalizedinpastures,roadsides, wasteplaces,andriparianareasacrossCanadaandthenorthernUSA,tansyis alsospreadinginforestedareas.Itcontainsseveralcompoundstoxicto humansandlivestockifconsumed,particularlythujone.Tansyislistedasa noxiousweedinseveralstatesandprovinces.Commontansyisagoodtarget forbiologicalcontrol,asitisaperennialplantgrowinginstablehabitats,and hasfewnativeNorthAmericancongeners.Abiologicalcontrolprogramfor commontansystartedin2006,fundedandcoordinatedbyaCanadianUS consortiumledbytheAlbertaInvasivePlantCouncilandtheMinnesota DepartmentofAgriculture.CABISwitzerlandCentreisidentifyingandtesting potentialagentsforefficacyandhostspecificity.Potentialagentsunderstudy includeastemminingweevilMicroplontusmillefolii,aleaffeedingbeetle Cassidastigmatica,aflowerandstemminingmothIsophrictisstriatella,a stemboringcerambycidbeetlePhytoecianigricornis,andarootfeedingflea beetleLongitarsusnoricus.Studiesareinprogresstounderstandtheeffects ofchemicaldiversityintheessentialoilsofT.vulgareonhostselectionby insects. Developmentofapheromonebasedmonitoringtoolfortheredclover casebearer(Coleophoradeauratella)inAlberta Mori,B.A.1,Gries,G.2,Otani,J.3,Yoder,C.4andEvenden,M.L.1 1 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB 2 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,SimonFraserUniversity,Burnaby,BC 3 AgricultureandAgrifoodCanada,BeaverlodgeResearchFarm,Beaverlodge, AB 4 AlbertaAgriculture,FoodandRuralDevelopment,Research/BioIndustrial Branch,SpiritRiver,AB 16

Theredclovercasebearer(RCC),Coleophoradeauratella,(Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae)isanintroducedpestinthePeaceRiverRegionofAlberta. InfestationsofRCCinclovercancauseupto99.5%seedloss.Componentsof thefemalesexpheromonewereidentifiedas(Z)7dodecenylacetateand(Z) 5dodecenylacetate,bothofwhicharenecessarytoattractmaleRCC.Here wefurtherdevelopthispheromonebasedtooltodeterminethemost attractivedoseofthepheromoneblendtomaleRCC,andthetraptypewith thegreatestefficacyforRCCcapture.Thiswillproduceanoptimized monitoringsystemwhichcanbeincorporatedintoanintegratedpest managementprogramtomonitorthispestthroughoutthePrairieProvinces. Climatechangeeffectsonrangelandsoilmicroarthropods Newton,J.S.1,Proctor,H.C.2 1DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton; jsnewton@ualberta.ca. 2DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton; hproctor@ualberta.ca Canadacontains22,000,000haoflanddedicatedtorangeandforage production.Tomitigatepotentialimpactsofclimatechangeonbiodiversity andsustainableproductionofCanada'srangelands,itisessentialtogainan understandingoflinksbetweentemperature,precipitation,grazingandtheir effectsonsoilchemistryandbiota.Wehaveconductedathreeyearstudyat theKinsellaResearchRanch.Usingafactorialdesignwetestedeffectsof warming,twodifferentprecipitationandtwodefoliationregimesoncarbon andnitrogencycling,foragequality,plantassemblages,soilmicrobialactivity andsoilmicroarthropodassemblages.Thedatapresentedarefromthefirst (2007)andthird(2009)yearsoftheproject.Todate,69arthropodtaxahave beenidentified,mostofthemmites(Arachnida:Acari).Thisincludes8orders ofmacroinvertebrates,3familiesofCollembola,2familiesofAstigmata,2 familiesofEndeostigmata,15familiesofProstigmata(including4familiesof Heterostigmata)and16familiesofOribatida(consistingof25genusor speciesleveltaxa).Themicroarthropodassemblagewasnumerically dominatedbyCollembolaandmites(Acari),thelattermainlyconsistingof prostigmatidmites.Theeffectsoftreatmentshavebeenvalidated,but preliminaryresultssuggestthatonlyloweredprecipitationsignificantlyaffects microarthropodnumbers.2007resultsshowthatmitesofthefamilyTydeidae alongwithjuvenileOribatidaarepositivelyassociatedwithdrought.Iwillalso discusstheextractionmethodsusedinthisstudy,bycomparingresults betweentherarelyusedkerosenefloatationmethodandthemore conventionalTullgrenextractions. 17

DiversityPatternsofSpidersinWhiteSpruceStands Pinzon,J.1,Spence,J.R.1andLangor,D.2 1 InvertebrateEcologyLaboratory,DepartmentofRenewableResources,442 EarthSciencesBuilding,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton. 2 CanadianForestService,NorthernForestryCentre,Edmonton. SpiderswerecollectedattheEcologicalManagementbyEmulatingNatural Disturbances(EMEND)projectlandbase,locatedinthemixedwoodboreal forestofNWAlberta.Eighttreeswithinthreeuncutwhitesprucestandswere selectedandspiderscollectedfrom12heightclasses.Groundspiders(H0) werecollectedusingpitfalltraps;spidersfromtheshrublayer(H1)were collectedbybeatingona1x1mcanvassheetwithin5mradiusfrom selectedtrees;spidersfromtheremainingheightclasses(H2H11)were collectedfromtreebranchesthatwereaccessedusingaluminumsectional ladders,brancheswerecutupto12mhighanddroppedtothegroundontoa 20x15feetplastictarp.Speciesdiversitywascalculatedforeachheightclass bytreeandaveragedusingShannons(H)andSimpsons(1D)diversity measures.Speciesturnover,basedonpairwisecomparisonsbetweenshared, gainedandlostspeciesbetweenheightclasses,wascalculated.Acluster analysis,basedonJaccarddistance,wascarriedouttoassessverticalpatterns inspeciescomposition.Diversityshowedacleardecreasingpatternfromthe groundtohigherlayers.Alayeringeffectwasobservedintermsofvertical speciesturnover,revealingthreemainstrata:ground,understoryand overstory;thus,spidersinwhitespruceshowamarkedverticalstratification inlowerlayersandaweakpatternwithinhigherlayers.Theseresultsshow therelevanceofspiderassemblageswithinaverticalgradientandthe importanceofpreservingstructuralfeaturesintheforesttobettermaintain spiderbiodiversityinoldgrowthforests. SeasonalActivityofRockyMountainWoodTicks,Dermacentorandersoni,in SouthernAlberta Lysyk,T.J.,andRochon,K. AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,LethbridgeResearchCentre,Lethbridge, AB. TickpopulationsweresampledatvariouslocationsinsouthernAlbertaovera threeyearperiod.Thesametransectsweresampledbydraggingweeklyfrom earlyspringuntilmidtolatesummerwhennofurthertickactivitywas detected.Tickactivitypeakedinearlyspring,immediatelyfollowinglossof snowcover,anddeclinedthereafter.Thissurprisingresultgivesnewinsight onRockyMountainWoodTickpopulationdynamics. 18

Patternsofichneumonid(Insecta:Hymenoptera)diversityinaborealforest ecosystem Schwarzfeld,M.1,Sperling,F.1 1 CW405,BiologicalSciencesCentre,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB,T6G 2E9 Ichneumonidae,thelargestfamilyofHymenoptera,areparasitoidsofother arthropods,particularlyamongtheLepidopteraandSymphyta.Assuch,they playanimportantroleinforestecosystems,includinglimitingpopulationsof potentialpestspecies.Howeverbecauseoftheirspecializedlifehistories, theymayalsobeparticularlyvulnerabletoecologicaldisturbances.To determinebaselineIchneumonidaecommunitydataforAlbertasboreal forest,IusedMalaisetrapsinvarioushabitatsduring2007.In2008,I collectedichneumonidsfromfourtreatments(uncut,50%retention,20% retention,clearcut)indeciduousdominatedstandstoassesstheimpactof variableretentionharvestingontheichneumonidcommunity.Thisworkwas performedattheEMEND(EcosystemManagementEmulatingNatural Disturbance)site,approximately90kmnorthwestofPeaceRiver,AB.Twenty foursubfamilieshavebeencollected,withover70%ofspecimensbelonging tothefourmostabundantsubfamilies.Onesubfamily,thePimplinae,has beenfurtheridentifiedtospecies,withatleast46speciesin22genera present.Iwilldiscusstheseasonal,geographicalandhabitatpatternsof Albertasborealichneumonidcommunity. IxodesscapularisandI.pacificusticksinAlberta JanetSperling1,DannyShpeley1,SarahLeo1,2,MikeJenkins2,FelixSperling1 1 Dept.BiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta 2 CityofEdmontonEnvironmentalServices RecentreportshavedocumentedthedistributionofIxodesscapularisandI. pacificusthroughoutsouthernCanadaexceptforAlberta.Asthesetwotick speciesarerecognizedastheprimaryvectorsforLymedisease,thisgap impliesalowriskofLymediseaseforAlberta.However,overthelastdecades intheEdmontonareawehavereceivedforidentificationanumberofticksof thesetwospecies.Althoughtherecenttravelhistoryofthehumanandother hostsoftheseticksisincompletelydocumented,itisimportanttonotethat theputativevectorsofLymediseasehavebeenconsistentlypresentincentral Alberta. 19

IdentifyingAgronomicPracticesthatConserveandEnhanceNaturalEnemies ofRootMaggots(Deliaspp.)(Diptera:Anthomyiidae)inCanola Subramaniam,R.1,Dosdall,L.M.1,ODonovan,J.T.2,andHarker,K.N.2 1 DepartmentofAgricultural,FoodandNutritionalSciences,Universityof Alberta,Edmonton,AB,2AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,Lacombe ResearchCentre,6000C&ETrail,Lacombe,AB Rootmaggots(Deliaspp.)(Diptera:Anthomyiidae)areseriouspestsofcanola inwesternCanada.StudieswereundertakenincentralAlbertatoidentify agronomicpracticesthatcanaffectthesurvivalandabundanceofAleochara bilineata(Coleoptera:Staphylinidae),whichisanimportantnaturalenemyof rootmaggots.AdultsofA.bilineatafeedoneggsandlarvaeofrootmaggots, andA.bilineatalarvaeparasitizeDeliaspp.puparia.AlthoughA.bilineata occurscommonlyincanolainwesternCanada,wehavenoknowledgeof strategiesthatcanenhanceitseffectivenessasapredatorandparasitoid.Our researchaimstoenablefarmerstoincreasepopulationsofthisbeneficial insectbymodifyingcurrentproductionpracticeswithoutincurringmajor inputcosts.Ourstudyinvolvedmanipulationoftillageregime(conventional versuszerotillage),rowspacing,andseedingrate,toassesseffectsonA. bilineatapopulations.Weobservedgreaterrootmaggotdamagetoplants growninconventionaltillagethaninzerotillage,andincreasesinplant densitygenerallyresultedinadeclineinrootmaggotdamagetocanola taproots.ActivitydensityofA.bilineatawasgreaterinplotstilled conventionallythaninzerotillplots.Parasitismwasgenerallygreaterinzero tillplotsthaninplotstilledconventionally;however,noconsistenteffects wereobservedonA.bilineataparasitisminrelationtoseedingrateandrow spacing.TheappropriatecombinationofagronomicpracticesthatenhanceA. bilineatapopulationshasyettobeidentifiedthroughourongoingfurther researchinvolvinganadditionalsiteyearofdata. Hostplantglucosinolateprofilesandthecabbageseedpodweevil Tansey,J.A.1,Dosdall,L.M.1,andKeddie,A2. DepartmentofAgricultural,FoodandNutritionalScience,410Agriculture/ ForestryCentre,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB,CanadaT6G2P5 DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,CW405BiologicalSciencesCentre, UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB,CanadaT6G2E9 CompoundsassociatedwithBrassicaceaehaveelectrophysiologicaland behaviouraleffectsonthecabbageseedpodweevil,Ceutorhynchusobstrictus (Marsham)(syn.C.assimilis(Paykull))(Coleoptera:Curculionidae).These substancesincludeglucosinolatesandtheirhydrolysisproducts.Wepresent resultsofalaboratoryolfactometerstudyexaminingtheattractivenessof odoursfromresistantandsusceptiblenovelgermplasmdevelopedfromS. 20

albaxB.napusandtheparentalgenotypes,B.napusandS.alba.Wealso examinedadultweevilfeedingandovipositionpreferencesforandlarval developmenttimesandweightsassociatedwithresistantandsusceptible germplasm.Theseresultsandcomparisonwithpreviouschemicalanalysesof thesegenotypessuggesttheattractiveeffectsof2phenylethylglucosinolate andpotentialantifeedantortoxiceffectsof1methoxy3indolylmethyl glucosinolate. Theeffectsofsoilnitrogen,Rhizobiuminoculationandinsecticideseed coatingsonyieldlossandnitrogenfixationinfieldpeasunderSitona lineatusattack Vankosky,M.A.1,2,Crcamo,H.A.2,Dosdall,L.M.1 1 UniversityofAlberta,DepartmentofAgricultural,FoodandNutritional Science,410AgricultureForestryCentre,Edmonton,Alberta,Canada,T6G 2P5. 2 AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,LethbridgeResearchCentre,54031 AvenueSouth,Lethbridge,Alberta,Canada,T1J4B1. Thepealeafweevil(SitonalineatusL.,Coleoptera:Curculionidae)isanexotic pestoffieldpea(PisumsativumL.,Fabales:Fabaceae)insouthernAlberta. Yieldlossresultsfromadultfeedingonplantfoliageandlarvalfeedingonroot nodules,whichreducestheproteincontentofseedsandtheamountof nitrogenreturnedtothesoilduetoconsumptionofRhizobiumleguminosa rumbacteria.In2008and2009,weinvestigatedtheimpactsofsoilnitrogen (N),Rhizobiumleguminosaruminoculation(INOC)andinsecticideseed coating(CRUISER),invariouscombinations,onS.lineatusherbivoryandpea yieldatLethbridgeandVauxhall.In2008,aboveandbelowgrounddamage differedamongtreatmentsatVauxhall,withnodifferencesinyield.Foliar damage,determinedbycountingleafnotches,wassignificantlyloweron CRUISERplotsthanonplotswithnoinsecticideapplication.AtLethbridge, onlyyieldandpeaproteindifferedamongtreatments,withthegreatestyield occurringonplotstreatedwithINOC+N,followedbyCRUISER+INOC+Nand INOC.ProteincontentwasgreatestonplotstreatedwithCRUISER+INOC+N, followedbyINOC+NandINOC.In2009,preliminaryresultsshowthatfoliar damagevariedamongtreatmentsatVauxhallandLethbridge.CRUISERplots generallyhadlessfoliardamageandplotswithNorINOC+Nhadmorefoliar damage.Ourresultssuggestthatyieldwillbeprotectedwhenpeasaregrown insoilwithrecommendednutrientlevelsandsufficientRhizobium populations.Incorporatinganinsecticidalproduct,suchasCruiser,inan integratedpestmanagementprogramforS.lineatuswillalsoprotectyield. 21

FromEggstoRiches:TheUseofHenEggWhiteLysozymetoControl ChalkbroodDiseaseinHoneyBeeColonies AmandaVanHaga1,2,B.AndrewKeddie2,StephenF.Pernal1 1 AgricultureandAgrifoodCanada,BeaverlodgeResearchFarm,Beaverlodge, ABCanada,T0H0C0;2DepartmentofBiology,UniversityofAlberta, Edmonton,ABCanada,T6G2E9. Chalkbrood,causedbyAscosphaeraapis(MaassenexClaussen)Spiltoirand Olive(1955),isacosmopolitanfungaldiseaseofhoneybeelarvae(Apis melliferaL.)forwhichthereisnoregisteredchemotherapeuticcontrol. Previously,itwasdeterminedthatlysozymeHCl,abroadspectrum antimicrobialextractedfromheneggalbumen,waseffectiveatcontrolling chalkbroodinvitro.Afieldtrialwasconductedinwhich40artificiallyinfected packagecolonieswereinoculatedwithpollencontaininghomogenizedblack andwhitechalkbroodmummiesandadministeredthreetreatmentsof600, 3000,or6000mglysozymeHClin50%(w/v)sucrosesyrup.Colonieswere evaluatedfordiseaseseverity,broodandadultbeepopulationsandhoney productionoverspringandsummermonths.LysozymeHCldidnotaffect adultbeesurvivalorbroodproductionanddideffectivelysuppressthe developmentofchalkbrooddisease.Dailychalkbroodmummyproduction decreasedbyafactorof10incoloniestreatedwiththreeapplicationsof6000 mgoflysozymeHClwhencomparedwithinfected,untreatedcontrolsand reduceddiseasesymptomstolevelsobservedinuninfectedcolonies.Honey productionwassignificantlynegativelycorrelatedwithincreaseddisease severity.LysozymeHClshowspromiseasanew,foodgradetherapyforthe controlofchalkbrooddiseaseinhoneybeecolonies. Halos,Ripples,andGhostsofDispersalPast VanHezewijk,B.H.1andBourchier,R.S.1 1 Agriculture&AgriFoodCanada,LethbridgeResearchCentre,Lethbridge, Alberta

Ithasbeenpreviouslyobservedthatintheyearsfollowingapointrelease,the weedbiocontrolinsect,Aphthonalacertosa,canhaveanapproximately circularregionofimpactonitshostplantleafyspurge.Insubsequentyears, adultbeetlesarehighlyaggregatedonhealthyplantsattheedgeofthis expandinghaloofdeadplants.Wehypothesizedthatthecauseofthis spatialpatternresultedfromoneoftwoprocesses:outwarddispersalof adultswitharrestmentbehaviourattheedgeofthehalo,or,higherratesof reproductionandemergenceattheedgeofthehalo.Usingagridof140 emergencetrapstomonitorthespatiotemporalpatternsofemergence,and weeklysweepnetsamplestomonitoradultdistributions,wediscoveredan unexpectedpattern.Adultbeetlesdiddiffuseoutwardfromanemergence 22

area,butthisareawasnotfixedinspace.Overthecourseoftheseason,the patternofbeetleemergenceresembledacircularwave,travellingoutward fromacentralfocus.Itisthoughtthatthispatternrepresentsthesignature ofdispersalandovipositionpatternsfromthepreviousyear(s)andhas importantimplicationsforthelongtermpersistenceofthesepopulations. Parasitoidcompetition?orCanparasitoidsdistinguishpreviouslyparasitized hosts? Waller,J.L. DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofAlberta,Edmonton,AB. Parasitoidsarebelievedtoinfluencethepopulationdynamicsoftheforest tentcaterpillar(FTC),Malacosomadisstria(Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae). Therefore,IaminvestigatingtheFTCparasitoidcommunityinnorthern Alberta.Over10,000FTClarvaeandpupaewerecollectedin2008,from whichapproximately3500parasitoidswerereared.Themajorityof parasitoidswereflies,withthetwomostcommonbeingArachnidomyia aldrichi(Parker)(Diptera:Sarcophagidae)andCarceliamalacosomae(Sellers) (Diptera:Tachinidae).C.malacosomaeattacksFTClarvaeandemergesfrom FTCpupae,whileA.aldrichiattacksFTCinthepupalstage.Interspecific competitionwasobservedandinvestigatedbetweenthesetwoparasitoids.In 2008fewerFTCthanexpectedwerefoundtocontainbothA.aldrichiandC. malacosomaeindicatingthateitheroneparasitoidwasoutcompetingthe otherorA.aldrichiwaschoosingunparasitizedFTChosts.The2008data suggeststhatA.aldrichimaynotbeoutcompetingC.malacosomaesinceFTC pupalparasitismbyC.malacosomaewashigherthanFTClarvalparasitismby C.malacosomae,theoppositeofwhatwouldbeexpectedifA.aldrichiwas outcompetingC.malacosomaeinsidethehost.Fieldtestsconductedin2009 supportedthesuggestionthatA.aldrichiselectsunparasitizedFTChosts.This couldleadtoabetterchanceofsurvivalforbothparasitoidspecies,resulting inagreateroverallrateofFTCparasitismwhichmayhaveimportant implicationsforFTCpopulationdynamics. Bioclimaticapproachestoassessthepotentialimpactofclimatechangeon insectpopulationsinagroecosystems Weiss,R.M.andOlfert,O. AgricultureandAgriFoodCanada,SaskatoonResearchCentre.107Science Place,Saskatoon,SK.Canada.S7N0X2.Email:Ross.Weiss@agr.gc.ca Theroleofclimateindeterminingthegeographicaldistributionofplants, arthropodsandpathogensiswelldocumented.Therehasbeenconsiderable concerninrecentyearsaboutclimaticchangescausedbyhumanactivities andtheireffectsonagriculture.Globalwarmingconditionsmayimpact 23

temperateinsectpopulationsbyincreasinggrowthanddevelopmentrates, shortinggenerationtimes,extendingthegrowingseason,reducing overwinteringmortality,alteringtimingofemergencefromoverwintering sites,andchangingtheirgeographicdistribution.Predictivebioclimatic modellingapproacheshavebeenusedtoquantifyspeciesenvironment interactions,inrelationtochangesinclimate.Oncebioclimaticmodelshave beenvalidatedandvettedthroughpeerreview,futureclimatescenarioscan beappliedeitherthrougha)incrementallyadjustingclimatevariables(e.g.+1, +2,+3C)inordertostudythesensitivityofaspecificsystemsresponsetoa rangeofpotentialclimaticchanges,orb)throughapplicationofcomprehen siveclimatescenariostakenfromGlobalClimateModels(GCMs).Thesetwo approachesareusefulinstudyingthebehaviourorresponsivenessofa speciestoprojectedclimatechanges,andtheimpactsthismayhaveonissues ofinterest(e.g.,agricultureandbiodiversity).Casestudiesofinsectpestsare usedtoillustratetheutilityoftheseapproaches,andtodrawoutthegeneral patternsofresponse. Beetlespeciesoffallentremblingaspendeadwood Wood,C.M.1,Spence,J.R.1,andLangor,D.W.2 1 DepartmentofRenewableResources,751GeneralServicesBuilding, UniversityofAlberta,EdmontonAlbertaT6G2H1 2 NaturalResourcesCanada,CanadianForestService,NorthernForestry Centre,5320122StreetEdmonton,AlbertaT6H3S5 Astreesdieanddecay,theyprovideheterogeneoushabitatswhichare anythingbutdevoidoflife.Deadwoodsupportsalargenumberanddiversity offorestdwellingarthropods,manyofwhicharesaproxylic(i.e.entirely dependentondeadordyingwood).Althoughsaproxylicarthropodsare importantinprovidingcrucialecosystemservices(decomposition,nutrient cycling),ourknowledgeofthefaunaandtheirrequiredhabitatsislimited.To determinethedeadwoodassociatedbeetlespeciesandtheirhabitat requirementsinnorthwesternAlberta,wehandcollectedandrearedbeetles fromvariousdecaystatesandsizesoffallentremblingaspen(Populus tremuloides)deadwood.Thecommunitiesofsaproxylicbeetlesinvarious deadwoodhabitatswillbepresentedandimplicationsforforestmanagement practiceswillbediscussed.Theconservationofourforestdwellingspeciesis criticaltomaintainecosystemfunction,resilienceandresistance. 24

DoesBraconcephireducestemminingbywheatstemsawfly? Wu,X.1,2,HectorCarcamo1,BrianBeres1 1 AAFC,LethbridgeResearchCentre,Lethbridge 2 LabofEntomology,CollegeofAgriculture,InnerMongoliaAgricultural University,China Thewheatstemsawflyhasbeenamajorpestofspringwheatinthesouthern prairiesofCanadaandtheadjoiningpartsoftheUnitedStates.Braconcephi (Gahan)isanimportantendemicectoparatoidofthewheatstemsawflythat canreachveryhighlevelsofparasitism.Theobjectivesofthisstudywereto determinetheeffectofB.cephionthefeedingdamage(stemmining)caused bysawflyandconsequencesongrainwheatyield.Thecultivarsstudied includedsolidandhollowstemwheat.ThisstudywasconductedatCoalhurst, westofLethbridgein20032005,and2008.Ourresultsshowedthatstems notinfestedbythewheatstemsawflytendedtohavelightergrainheadsthan thoseinfested.Therewasnoconsistentdifferenceingrainheadweights amongthevariousstemclassesthatwereinfestedbysawfly.In2008,the lengthofthefeedingtunnelwassignificantlyshorterinparasitizedstemsthan thosecutorwithdeadsawflylarvae;inotheryearsthedifferenceswerenot significant.WeconcludedthatalthoughB.cephireducedstemminingbythe wheatstemsawflyitdidnotaffecttheseedweightinourstudy.Neverthe less,reductioninstemlodgingduringthegrowingseasonandlowersawfly populationsinfollowingyearsareimportantreasonstoconservethis parasitoid.

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