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Elements of a Control Chain

Pneumatics/ Hydraulics Cylinders Motors Components Directional control valves Directional control valves Isolating valves Pressure valves Switches Push button actuators Limit switches Program module Sensors Working elements

Electrics/ Electronics Electric motors Solenoids Linear motors Power contactors Power transistors Power thyristors Contactors Relays Electronic modules Switches Push button actuators Limit switches Program module Sensors Indicators/generators

Control elements

Processing elements (Control elements)

Input elements

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TP 201, Transparency 01

Single-Acting Cylinder

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TP 201, Transparency 02

Double-Acting Cylinder

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TP 201, Transparency 03

Non-return, Flow Control and Pressure Control Valves


Non-return valves Non-return valve (check valve) Non-return valve, spring-loaded Shuttle valve (OR function) Dual pressure valve (AND function)

Quick exhaust valve One-way flow control valve Flow control valve Flow control valve (throttle valve), adjustable Pressure control valve Adjustable pressure regulating valve without relief port Adjustable pressure regulating valve with relief port
1

2 3

Pressure sequence valve with external supply line

1
12

2 1

Pressure-relief valve
2 2

Pressure sequence valve-combination


1 12
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TP 201, Transparency 04

Pressure Regulating Valve

P1

P2
1

P1

P2

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TP 201, Transparency 05

One-Way Flow Control Valve


1A

1V2

1V3

1V1

1Y1

1Y2

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TP 201, Transparency 06

Quick Exhaust Valve


3 3
2 1 3

1
1V2
1

1A

1A

2 3

1V2
3

1V1

1V1

1Y1

1Y2

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TP 201, Transparency 07

Conversion of Electrical Signals into Pneumatic Signals


2 1 3

3 2 1 unactuated
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3 2 1 actuated
TP 201, Transparency 08

Conversion of Pneumatic Signals into Electrical Signals


14

14 actuated
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14 unactuated
TP 201, Transparency 09

Switching Symbols for Valves


The valve switching position is shown by a square.

The number of squares corresponds to the number of switching positions.

Lines indicate the flow paths, arrows indicate the direction of flow.

Closed ports are shown by two lines drawn at right angles to one another.

The connecting lines for supply and exhaust air are drawn outside the square.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 10

Directional Control Valves: Ports and Switching Positions


Number of ports Number of switching positions
2

2/2-way valve, normally open position


1 2

3/2-way valve, normally closed position


1 2 3

3/2-way valve, normally open position


1 3 2

4/2-way valve flow from 1 2 and from 4 3 5/2-way valve flow from 1 2 and from 4 5
4

1 4

3 2

5 2

5/3-way valve, mid-position closed


5 1 3

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TP 201, Transparency 11

Function Principle of a Solenoid Coil


Coil winding

Soft iron core

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TP 201, Transparency 12

2/2-Way Solenoid Valve without Pilot Control

2
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TP 201, Transparency 13

Solenoid Valves with Pilot Control

An electrical signal is applied to the solenoid coil

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TP 201, Transparency 14

3/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control


2 1 3

3 2 1 2

3 1

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TP 201, Transparency 15

5/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control


4 2

14
84 5
1

14 84 5 4 1 2 3
14
84 5
1

14 84
Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

3
TP 201, Transparency 16

5/2-Way Double Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control


4 2

14
84 5
1

12
3 82

14 84 5 4 1 2 3 82

12
4 2

14
84 5
1

12
3 82

14 84
Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

12 5 4 1 2 3 82
TP 201, Transparency 17

5/3-Way Solenoid Valve


4 14 14 84 5 13 82 2 12

14 84 5 4 1 2 3 82

12
4 14 14 5 84 13 82 2 12

14 84 5 4 1 2 3 82

12
14 14 84

2 12

13 82

14 84 5 4
Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

12 1 2 3 82
TP 201, Transparency 18

Power Supply Units


Alternating current Direct current Battery
+

Transformer

Rectifier Power supply unit

Stabilizer

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TP 201, Transparency 19

Switching Contacts and Types of Actuation


Normally-open contacts Normally-closed contacts Changeover switch Mechanically connected contacts

Push-button with normally open contacts manually actuated by pushing

Rotary switch with normally open contacts manually actuated by turning

Limit switch with normally open or normally closed contacts, mechanically actuated

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 20

Types of Actuation of Switching Elements


2 4

Type of actuation (push-button) Switching element Connection (normally-closed contact) Connection (normally-open contact)

4
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4
TP 201, Transparency 21

Switching Symbols for Solenoid Coils and Relays


Electro-magnetically actuated on both sides Electro-magnetically actuated on one side, with spring return Representation in electrical circuit diagrams
Y1

Electro-magnetically actuated, with pilot control

Contactor or relay with 3 normally open contacts and 1 normally closed contact
K1

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TP 201, Transparency 22

The Relay
Return spring Relay coil Armature Coil core Insulation Contact
A1 A2 11 21 12 14 22 24

A1 A2
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4 2

1
TP 201, Transparency 23

Magnetic Proximity Sensors (Reed Switches)


+24V BN BK

BU 0V

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TP 201, Transparency 24

Electrical Output Devices


Signalling device

Audible indicator:

Horn

Siren

Bell

Illuminating indicators:

Lamp

Light emitting diode (LED)

Motors

DC motor
M

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TP 201, Transparency 25

The AND Logic Function


1 S1 S2 H1 0V

+24V

Input 1 Input 2

&

Output

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TP 201, Transparency 26

The OR Logic Function


1 S1 S2 2

+24V

Input 1 Input 2
H1 0V

Output

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TP 201, Transparency 27

Control Chain
1A

+24V S1

2 Signal input

1V1

S2 K1 K1 1Y1 0V
2

1Y1
5 1 3

Signal processing Signal output

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TP 201, Transparency 28

Direct Actuation of a Single-Acting Cylinder


1A

+24V S1

1V1

1Y1

1Y1 0V

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TP 201, Transparency 29

Indirect Actuation of a Double-Acting Cylinder


1A

+24V S1

1
13 14

1V1

1Y1

1Y1 0V

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TP 201, Transparency 30

Electrical Memory Circuit Dominant Set


+24V S1 1 K1 S2 2
13 14

3 K1
23 24

K1 0V
2 3
Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

H1

TP 201, Transparency 31

Electrical Memory Circuit Dominant Reset


+24V S1 1 K1 2
13 14

3 K1
23 24

S2 K1 0V
2 3
Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

H1

TP 201, Transparency 32

Electropneumatic Memory Circuit with Double Solenoid Valve


1A 1S2

+24V S1

1 1S2

2 K1

3 K2

1V1

1Y1

1Y2

K1

K2

1Y1

1Y2

0V
3 4

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 33

Stroke-Dependent Control
1A 1S1 1S2

+24V S1

1 1S2

2 K1

3 K2

1V1

1Y1

1Y2

1S1 K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2

0V
3 4

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 34

Pressure-Dependent Control

1A

1B2

+24V S1

1
1B2

3 1B1 p

6 K1 K2 K3

1B1

1V1

1Y1

1Y2

K1

K2

K3

1Y1

1Y2

0V
5 6 6

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 35

The Electropneumatic Circuit Diagram


1B1 1A 1B2 2A 2S1 2S2

1V1

2V1

1Y1

2Y1

+24V 1B1

2 1B2

4 Start K1 K6

5 K3

6 K2

7 K4

8 2S2

9 K5

10 2S1

11 K3

12 K4

13

K3 K4

K4 K5

K5 K6 1Y1 2Y1

K5

K1 0V
5

K2

K3

6 7 12

8 9 13

13 10 11

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 36

Circuit Diagram Structure

1A

1S2

+24V S1

1 1S2 K2

2 K1

3 K2

1V2

1V1

1Y1
0Z
5 1 3

1Y2

K1

K2

1Y1

1Y2

0V
3 4

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TP 201, Transparency 37

Displacement-Step Diagram

Step 1 1A 0 1 2A 0 1 2 3 4 5=1

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TP 201, Transparency 38

Terminal Connection Diagram


1B1 1A 1S2

Machine
Target

Control cabinet
Target
Terminal no. X1

Component code

Connection code

1Y1

+24V
X1-1 X1-9

2
X1-2 X1-12

3
X1-3 X1-14 3 4 11 14 A1 A2

4
X1-4 1 2 11 14 X1-16

+24V

1B1

S1
X1-13 X1-11 X1-10 A1 A2

1S2
X1-15

K2

21 24

0V

K1

K2

K1
X1-5 X1-6

K2
X1-7

1Y1
X1-17 X1-8

0V
3 4 5

1B1 1B1 1B1 S1 S1 1S2 1S2 1Y1 1Y1

+ 3 4 1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

X1 X1 X1 K2 X1 K1 K2 X1 X1 K1 X1 X1 K1 X1 K2 K2 X1

Connection code
9 12 14 21 11 A2 A2 17 1 A1 5 2 11 3 11 24 8
TP 201, Transparency 39

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

Component code

1V1

Jumper

Checklist for the Terminal Connection Diagram


Each current path must be connected Enter all external components with the

to the positive +24 V rail via a terminal.

designation of the connection in the terminal connection diagram. and complete the wiring diagram.

Each current path must be connected

to the negative 0 V rail via a terminal. sensors and solenoids are each connected via one terminal per unit. and 0 V in the wiring diagram.

Systematically check all current paths Note:

External components, such as switches,

Identify the connection point for +24 V

Not all of the connections have to be entered in the wiring diagram (e.g. relay connections are exempt).

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 40

Protective Circuits for Inductive Loads

I1

I1 = 0

IM = I1 +24V 0V

ID = 0

IM +24V 0V

ID = IM

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 41

Alterable Controls
Signal input
Switch S1 S2 S3 S4

Signal processing
Relays K1 K2 K3 K4 K3 K4 Contacts K1 K2

Signal output
H1

H2

S1 S2 S3 S4

E1 E2 E3 E4

Program: WHEN

AND

E0.1 E0.2 A0.1 A0.1 E0.3 E0.4 A0.2 A0.2

A1

H1

THEN SET OTHERWISE RESET WHEN AND

THEN SET OTHERWISE RESET

A2

H2

Inputs

Processor

Outputs

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

TP 201, Transparency 42