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Preparing Teachers for a Mobile World to Improve Access to Education
Mohamed Ally Professor Athabasca University, Canada Margarete Grimus PhD Student Department Social Learning Graz University of Technology, Austria Martin Ebner Associate Professor Department Social Learning Graz University of Technology, Austria

Abstract
Based on the recent global statistics on the use of mobile technology, the world is becoming mobile. People are using mobile technology to socialize, to conduct business, to search for information, etc. This is the first time in history that people around the world has the potential to learn from any location at their own convenience. To achieve this goal, the education system has to change to allow mobile access to education. The most important change will have to be teacher training on the use of mobile technology to design and deliver education and to bridge informal learning. Existing Teachers will have to be provided professional development to improve their knowledge and skills on mobile learning. Existing Teacher training programs have to be revised to include training on the use of mobile technology in education. The infrastructure to design and deliver mobile learning has to be established for efficient delivery of mobile learning. There is limited research on the use of mobile technology in education. Past research studies were short-term and they looked at learners’ satisfaction with mobile learning rather than how mobile learning improves performance and retention. Future research must look at the long-term benefits of mobile learning and how it impact performance and retention. As mobile technologies emerge, teachers have to keep up with the changes so that they can take advantage of the power of the technology already used for informal learning to design and deliver education. Keywords: Mobile learning, teacher training, quality of education

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Introduction
The world is becoming more connected and mobile which will revolutionize education. Existing Teachers will have to be provided with professional development to improve their knowledge and skills on the use of mobile technology in education. Also, existing teacher training programs will have to be revised to include training on the use of mobile technology in education. Currently mobile smart devices are single multi-purpose computing devices, include multi-core processors, high resolution touch-sensitive displays of various sizes, network connectivity, and are interfaced to a variety of sensors such as cameras, touch screens, and accelerometers which add potential to be used in education. According to a recent ITU report (2013), very soon there will be as many mobile-cellular subscriptions as people inhabiting the planet, with the figure set to surpass the seven billion mark early in 2014. In developing countries, there are more mobile phones than computers. Citizens are by-passing the personal computer and notebook phases and moving directly into the mobile phase. Mobile-broadband subscriptions have climbed from 268 million in 2007 to 2.1 billion in 2013 which reflects an average annual growth rate of 40% (ITU, 2013). Privately owned (personal) devices are possibly one of the more important factors, The mobile device has become a kind of personal ecosystem (Sharples, mLearn, 2011), when teachers engage with this effectively they are able to engage effectively with the student. Because of the proliferation of mobile technologies around the world, there should be a sense of urgency to implement learning with mobile devices in education. This is the first time in history that citizens, in different age groups, around the world have information and communication technologies in their own hands. Citizens are using the mobile technologies to complete everyday tasks and for informal learning by accessing information just in time from the world largest library, the Internet. Recent statistics show that people do not spend much time learning when using mobile phones. They spend time playing games, searching for information, socializing, reading the news, etc. (Bosomworth, 2013). The focus on technology must be overcome by understanding the nature of learning in a wider context as part of an increasingly mobile lifestyle (Sharples, 2009). Teachers must be trained on how to use mobile technology when teaching and students must be motivated to use mobile technology for learning. Teacher training and professional development programs must be re-designed to train teachers on the use of emerging technologies in education.

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In developing countries, the number of mobile-broadband subscriptions more than doubled from 2011 to 2013 (from 472 million to 1.16 billion) and surpassed those in developed countries in 2013 (ITU, 2013). The people in developing countries are investing in mobile education so that they can be connected and improve their quality of lives. Despite the high cost of mobile
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the tablet computer/iPad. by creating authentic learning experience to solve real life problems: Mobile E#/(&$&+$&"#& & . emphasizing “learning with mobile devices” e. This includes the Education for All goals that are being implemented by UNESCO with help from a variety of organizations from around the world (UNESCO.&4%%16LL0*. and prescribes the appropriate learning activities for the learner.#0&1230*)4(5&*. This is apparent from the number of conferences on mobile learning and the extremely successful Mobile Learning Week Symposia hosted by UNESCO in Paris in December 2011 and in February 2013. and Capture) of mobile learning which shows the value of mobile technology for learning. the PDA. style of learning. learner problems. Mobile learning is not yet part of mainstream professional learning. The authors will add a fifth C and refer to this as Coordinate where the technology will have some intelligence to determine the learner’s progress. Communicate.9&<"*=2)9&:. etc.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.&@ABC./("&I(%4("0#. sensors. GPS.)1"*. The learner can capture information using the capture features such as camera.!"#$%&'(")*+. including multimedia content. There are many ongoing projects in developing countries that are trying to bring the education to the people since many live in remote locations and cannot afford to go to distant places to access education. This will require that teachers be trained to use emerging learning technologies to educate citizens and the teacher role will change from lecturing to that of facilitator of learning. Quinn (2010) identified the 4 Cs (Content.8)./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. In a device-centric view. 2013).&-&.M. Also. Some citizens in remote regions and in developing countries have mobile technology that they can use to learn.&1. to capture information for learning and sharing. they will be used more widely in education.("9&:.&The technologies will become multipurpose for learning and to complete other everyday activities such as socializing. There has been considerable interest in the use of mobile learning in education. The mobile technology can be used to deliver the Content."*/*. The Communication features of the mobile technology allow the learner to communication with other learners and the teacher and to share information. or more recently.&BJBK. the uptake is greater than in developed countries (ITU. The teacher can use the computing power of the mobile technology to develop simulation and games and can prompt the learner for data and then process the data. Mobile Technology and Learning As the mobile technologies become more user-friendly and powerful.g. audio. mobile learning is often equated with the mobile phone. etc.9&>3. doing business. 2000.6&70089&:.&H1"*. The question is: “Why the increasing interest in mobile learning?” Mobile learning removes barriers to learning since people in remote locations can use wireless mobile technologies to access learning materials from anywhere and anytime without having to leave their families and communities. A shift in interpretation of mobile learning can be figured out. p.5).BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& connectivity in developing countries. Computer./(". there are many initiatives around the world that require the use of wireless mobile technologies to achieve the goals of these initiatives. etc.. The most efficient way to achieve these goals is by using mobile technology to reach the people who were unreachable in the past.&E"+)1(F%2).

("9&:.)1"*.M. attitudinal changes occur. learning is more learner-centered since learners can determine what they learn and they can readily access information from the Internet. 2009) Mobile learning has moved beyond the information access paradigm.&-&. which is individualized. Literature Review There have been many definitions of mobile learning but most of the definitions are based on the technology rather than on the learning. informal and non formal learning seems to become less relevant. 2007. 10).. or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunity offered by mobile technologies (Brasher and Taylor.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. (Aubusson et al. the electronic learning materials can be updated easily since they are in electronic format and learners can see the updated learning materials right away.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. A very important reason to implement mobile learning in the education system is because of the new generations of learners. media structures and habits and learning of children and young people” (Bachmaier et al.."*/*. One general definition is any learning that happens when a learner is not in a fixed. what is important is learning which occurs in different environments and E#/(&%&+$&"#& & ./(".&E"+)1(F%2).#0&1230*)4(5&*. Taylor. 2012). (Mylläri et al./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. 2012) A high level of personal ownership of the leverage these benefits devices (Burden et al.9&<"*=2)9&:. With the increasing availability of open education resources.&H1"*. As a result. portable. Definitions should also reflect that mobile technologies can be used both inside and outside of the classroom for learning. have no start-up time. p 32).&BJBK. For the teacher.&4%%16LL0*. 2009).BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& devices are cheap.!"#$%&'(")*+.&@ABC.5). they will expect to have the option of access learning materials using their existing mobile devices. With mobile technology. require very little maintenance./("&I(%4("0#. & Vavoula. 2005). they are familiar with the technology so they can use the technology to access learning materials. 2011). on mobile computing devices to allow access from anywhere and at anytime (Ally. with built-in learning strategies. predetermined location. Since learners can learn in their own communities. learners will be able to access learning materials at no or minimal cost. enticing users to work as partners and collaborators in the coconstruction of their collective wisdom and knowledge. Bachmaier refers to the dominant media culture of everyday life. (Isaacs. the system will determine their preferences and style and prescribe appropriate learning materials based on their style and preferences. The young learners today are very comfortable using mobile technology since They use mobile technology for a variety of activities. they are learning in context and they can apply what they learn right away.9&>3. 2010) “Mobile learning is the didactic response to the changes in culture. As the student use the technology to learn. p. A good example of a definition is “the processes of coming to know through conversations across multiple contexts amongst people and personal interactive technologies” (Sharples.&1. Youths are an important driver of change: when their awareness of technology-mediated learning increases. hence. Another definition is delivery of electronic learning materials. Many people around the world already use mobile technologies. and are easy to use.6&70089&:. However. The uses can range from simple transmission of information from teacher to student to more specific use as cognitive tools in authentic learning environments. mobile and convergent and the increasing relevance of informal learning and decreasing reach of school-based learning. 2013. (Schuck et al. With mobile learning the gap between formal.

” (UNESCO 2013.&E"+)1(F%2).&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. 2009).#0&1230*)4(5&*. The curricula and associated materials should be designed to work within the national context and mirror the conditions that teachers will find on the ground (UNESCO 2013). The ubiquity of mobile technologies that are already present in classrooms makes education less dependent on one-to-one technology projects that require governments or organizations to provide the devices (Isaacs. 2009) An issue for schools is how to accommodate young students equipped with powerful personal technologies and new and disruptive skills of informal collaboration and networked learning (Sharples. Open content and standards Context. 2012). anywhere learning Focus Access.!"#$%&'(")*+. 2011.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& under various circumstances.&H1"*.&1. emerging contexts. teacher education should be reflected in the curricula of both preand in-service teachers and clearly reflect the important roles that mobile learning might play in education./(". Community. It offers a number of themes and related modules as a generic offering and can be adapted by the implementing institution to reflect local societal and E#/(&#&+$&"#& & . Policy Guidelines for Mobile Learning)./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.("9&:. To stress pedagogical aspects. 2011).9&<"*=2)9&:. Connecting (formal and informal learning) Device-centric: Delivery and relevance Table 1.&BJBK.&4%%16LL0*. It is recommended to offer access to curriculum. which is presented as a modular solution for adaption to accommodate differing contexts. a government’s investment in teacher training is more important than its investment in technology itself.)1"*. currently very few education systems use mobile technologies to support the work and development for teachers. Mike Sharples reviewed research into mobile learning worldwide tends to take on the flavour of the culture in various countries in which it is situated (Sharples."*/*. Conversation is seen as a bridge that enables learning within and across contexts.&-&. In spite of this statement./("&I(%4("0#.. Teacher training should include mobile pedagogy as well as some technical training to build confidence (Kukulska-Hulme.5). selection) “In many instances.6&70089&:.&@ABC. A group of practitioners in South Africa and international colleagues started in 2011 to develop a Mobile Curriculum Framework. whether through a discussion that builds on ideas formed in different settings or by making a note to oneself that can be read at a different time or place. Area Africa Canada/Australia Europe United States Research topics Mobile Learning for Development ( M4D) Personalised (distance) education Contextual and Connected learning Anytime.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. basic technologies Learning design. educational resources and lesson plans to teachers via mobile devices. Research of worldwide m-learning (after Sharples. (Sharples. “Learning with mobiles started as an extension of the institutional e-learning built into courses and programs.M.9&>3.” (Traxler. but now it is just one more activity for individuals and communities on their mobiles. 2012). 2010).

9&>3. (Koole.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. During an UNESCO Symposium in Washington in March 2012 policy issues and teacher development was pointed out as “a crucial place to break into the educational cycle and promote education for all.#0&1230*)4(5&*./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. Incorporating mobile technologies into teacher training E#/(&&&+$&"#& & . To incorporate the advantages of mobile technologies into pedagogical practice teachers need to be trained to improve approaches to teaching and learning. or to increase the benefits for the learners. 2012) Training teachers to use technology themselves as learners is a necessary first step for preparing them to help students leverage technology for learning. Teacher Development in Mobile Learning It is widely noted that improving instructional quality depends on providing teachers with the specific training. problem solving creative learners through using ICT so they will be effective global citizens.M. teachers embrace learning for them-selves and used the tools to transform their own knowledge of their subject areas and develop.&H1"*. and to support learner’ transitions across learning contexts./(". 2004) To build appropriate attempts to design learning with mobile devices findings from mobile learning research suggest the need to create quick and simple interactions and to use mobile technology not only for “deliver” learning but facilitate it for communication.&@ABC. To support policies and practice in education UNESCO has published a framework on the topic of mobile learning. 2013). UNESCO’s framework emphasizes that it is not enough for teachers to have ICT competencies to be able to teach them to their students. (Sutherland et al./("&I(%4("0#. The curriculum covers three topics: to know about mobile learning. Teacher development is one of the most manageable and cost-effective ways of using mobile technologies to break into the cycle and the system of education. “Teachers will be a pillar of mobile learning models” (MLW.("9&:.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& institutional needs (Botha et al.9&<"*=2)9&:. and to understand the implications of implementing mobile learning.&BJBK. 2006)."*/*. expandand and adjust their teaching repertoire.” (Botha et al. He suggests instructional design should support learners to reach personal understanding through conversation and exploration. to coach them through learning and applying that learning.&4%%16LL0*.&-&.)1"*. 2009) This requires new generation learning skills and the transformation of teachers’ roles and identities. According to Koole. Teachers need to be able to help students become collaborative. their devices.6&70089&:.5).&E"+)1(F%2). Teachers need to be prepared to effectively engage students in today’s digital learning environments. note taking and time management.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Mobile learning is a combination of interactions between learners.. (Naismith & Corlett.!"#$%&'(")*+. to be able to facilitate mobile learning. 2012). This means to support learners’ collaboration in order to construct common knowledge using technology for collaborative knowledge building with other learners and teachers.&1. Sharples (2009) refers to design learning activities driven by specific learning objectivities that were otherwise not possible. and the social environment. By use of technology embedded within a subject.

more personalized when needed • Contextual learning: how to create more authentic learning experiences using a problembased learning approach where students solve specific real-world problems in their own context • Role of teachers: evolving role of the teacher and how to cater for the new generations of learners so that the needs of the learners can be met (Koole.9&<"*=2)9&:. When mobile devices are used for instruction in pre-service training. characterising the pedagogy of mobile learning scenarios: • Authenticity (contextualised and situated): As an authentic task it provides real world relevance and personal meaning to the learner E#/(&'&+$&"#& & . 2013) Teachers will have to be trained on how to design good learning strategies for learners.&BJBK.)1"*.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.&E"+)1(F%2). creating bridges between the two” (MLW. 2013) Pre-Service Teacher Development To transform new theories of how to leverage the potential of technology in the classroom. “….Mobile learning is poised to blur lines between formal and informal learning. “bite-sized” packages (micro-content) for flexible delivery. how to become more independent in navigating through and filtering information and how to recognize.&-&. since teachers’ willingness and preparedness to adopt with mobile learning is one of a critical success factor (Ismail et al..#0&1230*)4(5&*. teachers have the opportunity to observe concrete examples of pedagogical strategies for mobile learning and to consider mobile learning from a student’s perspective.9&>3. teachers must experience mobile learning in their initial training to make effective use of what is available./("&I(%4("0#. including open educational resources.M.!"#$%&'(")*+..5). evaluate and processes information • Just in time: how can teachers provide “just in time” content in manageable."*/*. how to embed social learning into lessons • New generation learning: because of information explosion. NA) The perceptions and acceptance of such educational changes are crucial.&1.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& allows them to learn how to incorporate mobile technologies into class teaching./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.6&70089&:. This can be experienced in during their study and practice in class to create the best personalized learning experiences in the categories of • Social learning and collaboration: how to most effectively use mobile devices for interaction with other learners and systems (online communication) and how the use of mobile devices might change the process of interaction between their learning community and the schools. This can help to ameliorate existing educational divides and provide opportunities to learners in resource-poor areas.&H1"*. 2009) The topics mentioned above cover three distinct features.&@ABC. Pre-service teachers need professional development to understand and embrace successful interventions.&4%%16LL0*./(".("9&:. (UNESCO 2012.

communicating multi-modally with peers. sharing information across time and place. produce and exchange ‘‘content’’.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. (Hartnell-Young.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Mentors can observe the practice of less experienced educators or pre-service teachers conducting video observations and provide constructive feedback. This may also improve the quality of feedback by allowing the mentors to pause and replay the video and sending feedback by mobile phones./("&I(%4("0#.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& • • Personalisation (agency and customization) offering promising ways to select. E#/(&(&+$&"#& & . making notes for later use and the calendar.&@ABC. Networking creates shared. The use of the PDA’s for learning through a reflective blog and a capacity to communicate with others were hardly utilised (Wishart.("9&:. Furthermore she reported that pilots and trials conducted with provided devices are not often scaled up or sustained. manipulate and apply information to their own unique needs Collaboration (conversation and data sharing).'4+=' 87"9&22$"+4%'5&/&%"3:&+1'. 2012) The current generation of pre-service teachers need to vitalise schools towards using technological tools in new ways and maybe push policy boundaries so that schools more realistically support contemporary school-age learners who carry better connectivity in their pocket than their schools provide (Williams & Sutton. Knowledge building and knowledge-building environments support practices and discourse that define knowledgecreating communities. mentoring and participation in professional communities. Learners consume. 2009). They can also strengthen collaborative PD by facilitating communication among peers and mentors. 87"9&22$"+4%'5&/&%"3:&+1'.74:2' PD programs for teachers should provide learning opportunities for in-service teachers and include formal and informal instruction.9&>3.#0&1230*)4(5&*.&1..5).&BJBK.&-&. 2013). Three functions were named as most popular and useful: the camera to record personal and work events.6&70089&:. Mobile devices enable access to online courses and can enable teachers to participate in PD more frequently and with more flexibility than traditional training sessions that are constrained to a particular time and place. Teachers can access online PD from any location that has wireless connectivity. 2011).M.)1"*.9&<"*=2)9&:.&4%%16LL0*.85<'' • UK – PDA’s: Handheld mobile devices in initial teacher training in UK provided PDA’s to support (science-) student teachers.&H1"*. To be effective.&E"+)1(F%2)."*/*. teachers and other experts. The aim was to support teaching and learning of science content as well as science process to promote students understanding of abstract concepts./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+./(". (Kearny et al. PD needs to be ongoing supported by collaboration and teamwork among educators. socially interactive environments.-'$+'87&>2&7/$)&'(&4)*&7>(74$+$+. 2009) 642&'210=$&2'"9'!"#$%&'(&)*+"%". and exchange information. (Wishart.85<'87". enabling students to relate science to their own and real world experiences and facilitate data collection and presentation.!"#$%&'(")*+.

&BJBK. They used the technology to facilitate an enhanced awareness of Maths in everyday contexts.and teachercentered to a student-centered infrastructure.9&>3. The collaborative inquiry model was also reported to have provided the pre-service E#/(&)&+$&"#& & . 2011). 2011).)1"*. investigating pre-service teachers’ existing knowledge. The project is focusing on the transformative process of redesigning existing curriculum and the corresponding learning activities by building curriculum driven use scenarios based on the framework of a mobilized curriculum./(".. Characteristics of a mobilized curriculum are outlined as • to exploit mobile technologies to achieve learning in context.#0&1230*)4(5&*. A collaborative inquiry approach can be adapted across curriculum or discipline classes to provide pre-service teachers and lecturers a way to critically and productively investigate the relationship between devices and appropriate activity and their particular disciplinary knowledge.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. And: Each discipline area has nuanced differences in the application (Graham. in school settings and more informal settings to rate the critical features of these mlearning activities from a pre-service teacher learning perspective: The use of their iPads is reported as to notice and capture ‘out – of . perceptions. (Mylläri et al.class’ Maths phenomena. • student-centered and inquiry-based learning activities. adapting it to their class situation and to reflect their understanding of the activities. which allows schools to apply mobile tools in their individual kinds of practices.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. Curriculum: This attempt is addressed in the Sys Tech project (Systemic Learning Solutions): In Finland schools have a lot of freedom to design their own local curriculum. • access to students’ artefacts is utilized for formative learning assessment and adjusting teaching/instruction • collaborative interactions are enabled and promoted../&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. reflective.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Therefore attention is shifting to use of learners’ own devices.M.!"#$%&'(")*+.&@ABC. contextualised ideas for their own ICT-mediated K-6 Maths tasks."*/*. 2011) • • Pre-service –teachers – reflection of learning with mobile devices: The Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) research project aims to gain an understanding of the way mobile learning can enhance the development in pre-service Maths teacher education on campus.5). and experiences using technology to support their learning and teaching (Graham. by enabling 1:1 computing to bridge formal and informal learning and to foster personalized and self-directed learning (Looi et al.6&70089&:./("&I(%4("0#. access to.&E"+)1(F%2). and then used this knowledge to develop rich.9&<"*=2)9&:. following–up and discussing implications for their Maths-teaching.&H1"*. 2013) This is part of the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) program.&-&.("9&:. The pre-service teachers are invited to reflect on the experience of working with resource packages. 2009). • Teacher development for curriculum development is facilitated (Looi et al. Existing curriculum and conventions of instruction are reshaped into benefitting from use of mobile technologies by capturing the systematic transformation from a content.&1.&4%%16LL0*. 2012). (Kearny et al. It was resumed that the most significant experience offering scalability and promising longevity in impact was when students were engaged in a critical. and collaborative inquiry using the digital devices in their practice in class.

Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa. Self-reflection. • Collaboration in mobile learning: Another small-scale research from Australia and the UK reflects the role of mobile learning and the value of collaboration between teachers and students in professional learning. provide many functions offered by computers. collaboration and feedback. peer support and idea-sharing contributed to improving trainees’ practice and employability. 2011). support of staff development as well as ethics of use in the classroom. (Cushing.6&70089&:. (Adam et al. tutors. provides a large variety of highly structured study units for teachers based Open Educational Resources (OER).BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& teachers and lecturers with a framework for ongoing professional learning.&E"+)1(F%2). In Sub Sahara Africa the demand for teachers is rising rapidly as the school-age population continues to grow.("9&:. and especially teenagers are well acquainted with their functions” (Ekanayake & Wishart.9&<"*=2)9&:. In Sri Lanka the possibilities of using mobile phones for science teaching and learning were investigated to figure out the possibilities to substitute inadequate ICT resources in teacher training and in schools. 2011). This provides opportunities for authentic examples of classroom experiences and enables sharing of learning experiences with other teachers to stimulate professional conversations with a goal of improving the classroom learning environment.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.&4%%16LL0*. peer assessment. either on formal programs or E#/(&!*&+$&"#& & .&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. September 2012."*/*. • Mentoring: MENTOR ME (Mobile Enhanced Mentoring) was a pilot project with 20 teacher training students at Barnet College.#0&1230*)4(5&*. Barriers when introducing mobile phones for teaching and learning of science in schools were encountered by the small displays.&-&. widely spread.. To improve the mentoring and teaching experience the observations were shared with peers.&H1"*. “Mobile phones are cheap.&1. • In developing countries due to restricted infrastructure (PCs. Teachers use laptops to source materials. (Abusson et al. 2013)./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. develop new resources and enhance lesson delivery./(". mentors and lesson observers.M. costs associated with use and discipline in class. thereby improving their ICT skills in ways that will benefit their learners. These initiatives also have the potential to enhance teacher uptake of ICT integration. The survey (n=200) explored that Sri Lankan teachers exhibit competences in a variety of uses and show positive attitudes towards the use of mobile phones in science teaching and learning.&@ABC.&BJBK. video camera and still cameras. 2011). (Williams & Sutton. North London. Owning laptops is likely to lead teachers to engage in informal learning at their own pace. TESSA. In some countries initiatives provide groups of teachers with free laptops (Ghana.5). 2009) “The role of mobile learning in teacher’s professional learning refers to teachers’ personal use of mobile devices for their own learning./("&I(%4("0#.!"#$%&'(")*+.)1"*. national newsletters and personal oberservation by the author).9&>3. landlines/ electricity and Internet) use of mobile devices for learning becomes more crucial.” It is suggested to capture the spontaneity of learning moments through the use of mobile technologies. for reflection. in their own time.

music and religious education. Administrators pointed out that students who used iPads. Also.5). where a school invested in 30 iPads.M. in Madison.&-&. Another school in which students are using iPads is located in Manhattan Beach Unifed.("9&:. Kuznia (2012) pointed out that the iPads helped to increase learning. Art and Culture. Mauritius and Nigeria and Open University of Sudan. Germany. e. For example. In California 560 iPads were purchased and teachers were trained on how to use the iPads. Use of the modules is also reported from Togo. 2010).!"#$%&'(")*+.6&70089&:. Mathematics. Increased teacher preparation has enhanced their confidence in many cases. Literacy./(". (Keane et al../("&I(%4("0#.&@ABC. richer questioning and answer sessions. 2013) Examples of Mobile Learning Projects across the Globe After taking a close look to the teacher professional development a more general look must be done to the learners’ side. A first report (Hollstein. available from www. supportive and prepared teachers within the context of a broader pedagogical change program for successfully integration. Ghana.)1"*. Personal learning (involvement in a community of educators). (Wolfenden et al.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. E#/(&!!&+$&"#& & .F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. • • • Much of research is documented from Australia: Comparing netbook-classes versus iPad classes in an Australian school it was resumed. "were more engaged in the classroom" and according to the Wisconsin State Journal "the iPads were acquired due to the fact that they are less expensive. 2012).&BJBK.9&>3. The pilot study is financed by the Ministry of Education. The tablets are being used in mathematics.net (Wolfeneden. The situation is similar in Cologne. Increased enjoyment amongst students and teachers and cooperation among teachers are reported as well as and the impact on teacher educators at the partner institutions: Increased awareness of OER and the potential in education. Social Studies.&1. 2011) Currently studies concentrate more or less on the use of iPads in the classroom. and Lifeskills) has been developed for different cultural and linguistic contexts.g./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+."*/*. that it is not necessarily the selection of the device but rather the use of devices by engaged. schools were equipped with more than 1400 iPads. A set of 75 study units (Science.tessafrica.9&<"*=2)9&:.&4%%16LL0*.&E"+)1(F%2). easier to use and more portable than Tablet PCs" (Sande. 2012). in Austria a high school with a special focus on computer science and commercial started with the use of iPads. Studies have shown that increased screen size can lead to greater enjoyment and a positive impact on learning (Kim. but also mentioned that longer-term results show a decrease of the enthusiasm. due to the fact that this device was the first one on the market and it is the market leader.#0&1230*)4(5&*. a number of schools started with pilot projects using Tablet PCs for enhancing the classroom activities with a new device. Previously. Changing notions of the role of the teacher.&H1"*. Arts.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& through self-motivation. and methods encouraging problem solving and creativity. Findings highlight two important facts: • • A much more diverse set of teaching practices. 2011) pointed out that students are working more carefully and are more concentrated in their work.

In developing countries about 50% of m-Learning programs are designed to be compliant with feature phone technologies (smart-phone penetration is still low). English.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Regulated by the Office of Basic Education Commission (OBEC) under the Ministry of Education (MOE). While many pupils may be more adept than their teachers in using technology. Implementing Mobile Learning The infrastructure.g. capable for e-books."*/*. Tablets for studrents should be expanded in 2013 to all Grade 7 students nationwide.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.6&70089&:. girls looking for anonymous help with questions of HIV prevention etc. South Korea has also launched a nationwide initiative to shift from paper to digital textbooks by 2015. Students are allowed to take the equipment back home (UNESCO MLW 2013).. manuals and lesson plans.9&>3.M. out of school children. and then find it difficult to scale up the pilot offering. and it has recently made this content available via mobile devices. to prevent heavy schoolbags. Thai and Social Studies can be downloaded to students tablet computers.&-&.&H1"*./("&I(%4("0#. Other large projects are in Russia and Turkey which will provide hundreds of thousands of low cost tablets to teachers and students (UNESCO Mobile Learning Week 2013). e. the LSystem acts as a data warehouse to keep all e-content as well as the student’s learning performance and progress (Kunakornpaiboonsiri. In addition to reaching students in low-resource environments. mobile learning is now reaching those with disabilities. Few projects have adopted an evolutionary design strategy to expand over time. Teachers were trained to master the equipment and to use it in teaching. in developing countries much of the discussions is around the use of lower cost mobile phones or simple ebook readers (Trucano. The device management software works alongside a pre-installed Learning System (LSystem).!"#$%&'(")*+. deliver content for every single child and support first reading and calculus.("9&:. Sustainable and well documented implementations of learning with mobile devices are for example Nokia Mo Maths (MoMaths Wiki.)1"*. software. because access to learning material via mobile phones does not only support formal settings but is often the only chance for informal learning. Schools have been provided with 4-10 Mbps Wi-Fi. (Grimus et al./(". This is important. Science. and systems for mobile learning are improving and costs are decreasing..9&<"*=2)9&:. 2013). thus it makes mobile technology more affordable and sustainable. Mathematics. 2012)./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& While in industrialized countries there are scores of iPad in education projects. Most technology enhanced learning interventions in formal education are piloted at a small scale.&BJBK.&1. young students in E#/(&!"&+$&"#& & . In Latin America.#0&1230*)4(5&*.5). In 2012 all Grade 1 students were provided with low cost tablet PCs. 2012) and iRead (iRead 2012) in Africa. 2012). The one tablet per child policy (OTPC) in Thailand was presented during the UNESCO mobile learning week in Paris in February 2013. and those living in secluded or nomadic communities. special learning needs.&@ABC. The government wants textbook content to display on a variety of mobile devices including larger-screen tablet computers.&4%%16LL0*. hardware.&E"+)1(F%2). The tablets for teachers are more efficient. the government of Chile supports a widely used education portal that helps students prepare for the national university admissions test.

(Leblois. Safe and responsible use of technologies is important. Teachers give up on being expert… students are the technical experts in devices…. “…Mobile phones and tablets are poised to be omnipresent in most education settings—in developing nations in particular. user security and responsibility need to be supported by providing skills. 2011).9&<"*=2)9&:. robust infrastructure and technical support.("9&:. However.. to prevent cyber-bullying and potential public access to events E#/(&!$&+$&"#& & . and access to digital content and instructional resources” are required. teachers the experts in teaching and learning”./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. 39% naming it as their key priority.&4%%16LL0*. (Shapley et al. 63% said they could clearly see the potential to use their mobile for learning and accessing educational content. more versatile mobile devices”.. faster and cheaper these trends will always be mediated by social./(". Lauren Dawes investigated in the Future report how mobile technology affects the daily life of young people in remote areas and to achieve further aspirations (Dawes. economic and political factors.&BJBK. and India.”a device that by necessity requires teachers to change pedagogy….)1"*. overcoming negative perceptions of mobile devices in a classroom. Uganda.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA./("&I(%4("0#. specific attention has to be drawn to particular ethical issues when implementing mobile devices in class teaching: parental and student informed consent is a responsibility of the teacher to play an educative role. The study included statistics on mobile use among young people in Morocco. 2010.M. create and display the knowledge that they are gaining (Ferry."*/*.&E"+)1(F%2). Ghana.10) Students should be forced to act responsibly.#0&1230*)4(5&*.6&70089&:. 2009) While technology gets better. With regards to mobile learning. Restricting students from using their own technologies for education at school cannot be a solution. • What mobile devices are used and available to learners in different contexts? • Where and how do learners reflect on their experiences? • What assignments are already used by teachers to support the students’ learning? Furthermore. Trustworthy infrastructure and technologies to protect teachers and students must be ensured. that education is one of the three priorities in life for the young people. 2012) After having implemented 1:1 iPads in class an Australian teacher (early adopter) stated: . Sixty-three percent said they could learn through a mobile device. which can leapfrog personal computer technology and adopt cheaper. Dawes found that only 25 percent of the young people surveyed listed the classroom as their primary source of information and education.!"#$%&'(")*+. 2012) To implement mobile learning in an effective way “leadership and planning.&@ABC.&-&. p. and providing accessibility to content and texts where copyright laws are strict.&H1"*.5). some important challenges for mobile learning in developing countries are: ensuring availability of technology for everyone at an affordable price.&1. As one of her key findings Dawes reports.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& particular need dedicated teachers to create rich learning environments that allow them to make effective use of the technology to acquire.9&>3. (Traxler. supportive school culture training and professional development. (Keane et al. 2013) Some questions should be asked before starting to use mobile devices for learning in schools.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.

)1"*. what is the main problem and what are the chances for introducing such devices in class. The research aims first to answer the question whether it is possible to teach English or not and second if yes. installation of apps turned out much more complicated than expected due to the fact that more than five iPads connected to the Internet did not work. The table carries out a direct relation between the teaching strategy and the practical work on the iPad. Tab.&@ABC. But does this guideline also fit E#/(&!%&+$&"#& & . For example.-'1"'*&%3'1&4)*&72'37"/$=&'2033"71'$+'%&47+$+. The same phenomena occurred when looking to appropriate German textbooks.&-&.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& and materials intended for a limited audience. 2011): In October 2010 a first attempt was started to bring such devices into a primary school in Salzburg./(". She herself conducted classes in an innovative and novel way. Graz.?'642&'@10=$&2' $+'A>BC' Graz University of Technology has a long tradition in research in using iPads in K-12 education. The pupils were allowed to carry home the devices and as well as to use it in the classroom. Apple itself provides so called Human Interface Guidelines which should be used to design a highly usable app (iPad Human Interface Guidelines.#0&1230*)4(5&*. which pedagogical method was carried out and which apps were used for this realization.&H1"*. the teacher applied the iPads to an English class with more than 20 pupils for another 6 weeks." However. Salzburg (Huber. This leads to a major problem of the six trial weeks. The teacher as well as all the students received new iPads for a period of about six weeks. because any app has to be installed by the teacher or by the pupils at home. that only few apps in the store are appropriated for education in primary school.9&<"*=2)9&:. The purpose of the research was to determine how the technology in general works in a classroom setting and to think about the potential of using the technology.Annotate app was done. !"#$%&'(&)*+"%". 2012): Based on the first experiences in the primary school.9&>3. Based on this three-detailed case-studies the complexity of introducing mobile technologies will be easier understandable. The teacher concluded that "a lot of potential is simply wasted through lack of adequately reflected practical experience.&4%%16LL0*. by using just the iPads there were no textbooks." Teachers should be trained on the use of mobile technology in the classroom so that these problems do not occur./("&I(%4("0#. The teacher concluded in her first reaction that the "iPad definitely grab children's attention straight away. the report carried out that it was very unsatisfactory.&1. The following are three case studies and their outcomes.5). (Reading-Strategies) gives a short impression which reading-strategies were applied to the class.6&70089&:.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. In the second part of the study we also asked for the usefulness of such apps especially for a group of young learners.&BJBK. 2011).("9&:./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+..&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. and also sharing of digital materials for professional purposes (distribution should be controlled and managed). The teacher attended the class to conduct interviews and observe students using the iPad.!"#$%&'(")*+.&E"+)1(F%2). Austria (Huber. b) Secondary School. during pre-reading strategy brainstorming with the MindMeister app or vocabulary work with the app net. namely before unpacking the devices for the first time. Secondly. Furthermore a detailed look was done to different apps and how they perform in classroom settings. a) Primary School."*/*.M. no paper and pencil and no further additional equipment.

adapting courses to individuals../&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. a didactical concept was carried out to learn about music by using iPads and appropriate apps like GarageBand."*/*. positions and functions of auxiliary bars must be explained .&-&.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& young learners? Must this guideline be enhanced with respect to children's needs? Huber & Ebner (2013) pointed out following crucial aspects: a) Rotation: If rotation is allowed within an app there should be clear hints what restrictions are implied in the two directions b) Hierarchy: The concept of hierarchy. Graz./(".("9&:. c) Secondary School.M. digital portfolios. Teacher’s skills should cover the following. courses). Austria (Frühwirth. time-management and task-management tools (to organize work and learning). therefore it is hard to close the gap between the musicians and non-musicians. file sharing tools./("&I(%4("0#. wikis. how can I find it. etc). children have to compose and play their own piece of music.$&2'$+'@)*""%2' The 21st century teachers need to develop skills to engage students in order to coach them through meaningful learning in all content areas to equip them with 21st Century Technology skills. 2013): Another field experiment was carried out in a secondary school in Austria.9&>3.&4%%16LL0*. simulations and applications. digital audio. personal networks.&E0$7&='#-'(&4)*&72'1"'02&'!"#$%&' (&)*+"%".6&70089&:. In order to use mobile devices effectively. online assessment and evaluation. E#/(&!#&+$&"#& & .5). For this research. community building.&1. Therefore a short introduction is absolutely necessary.children are not aware about such concepts c) Multi-touch gestures: Children must be familiar with such gestures before starting using apps. accessibility. @D$%%2'.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.&E"+)1(F%2).F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.)1"*. • Create and share: digital products.&H1"*. for success in their education. At the end of the lecture which lasted three hours. and lifelong learning experiences. collaboration tools. assessment tools (to create quizzes. Music education is based on three stages . In this research study children got iPads during their music education. f) Keyboard: Children must be aware how to use the touch based keyboard. Due to the fact that many functions are hidden in a first glance.!"#$%&'(")*+.&BJBK. annotating web-pages. Most of the pupils in a class never played any instrument. The teacher reported not only a high engagement but also a higher learning outcome due to the fact of active learning with the iPads. • Research and information skills: find evaluate and use authentic web based content (reliability) and effective resources (content.9&<"*=2)9&:. jobs. social bookmarking. policies and preparation. • Using Tools: free online programs.&@ABC. concepts of differentiation. and use of it to draw conclusions or create a product. video and online content. practical experiences with music and general knowledge about music. blogs.music history. The result was quite amazing .without knowing any music notes the children (carried out by a short pretest) got engaged in the lecture deeper than ever before. skills include models and methods in pedagogy. d) File-Handling: Especially on the iPad it is hard to understand where are my files located. Teachers should act as door-openers to facilitate mobile devices as tools for learning and participate actively in educators’ networks and blogs. it saves a lot of time when children get supported when using it.#0&1230*)4(5&*.

The University College London (UCL) has published a list “The 33 Digital Skills Every 21st Century Teacher should Have”./("&I(%4("0#.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.9&>3. Reading Strategy Strategy includes Brainstorming Movies Pre-Reading Strategy Vocabulary Work Making predictions During-Reading Strategy Intensive reading (highlighting text) Retelling new information Reconstructing passages / scenes from a text in comic form Reconstructing passages / scenes from a text in movie E#/(&!&&+$&"#& & Suggestions for realization on the iPad: Suitable apps TotalRecall.!"#$%&'(")*+.Annotate + PDF Microphone + Recording Comic Life (after taking suitable photos) Video editing in iMovie Post-Reading Strategy . collaboration methods and practicalities of the informal learning space."*/*.ucl. Issues related to safety and online security: copyright.&1. edited by Clive Young.M.5).. In A Practical Guide for Educators Liz Kolb gives an overview how K-12 teachers can use cell phones in classroom (Kolb. twitter.&H1"*.&E"+)1(F%2).6&70089&:. Social media and Social skills – Digital Citizenship: using textmessaging tools and social media for collaborative work and cooperative learning.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. appropriate use of social media • Photographs and videos • Podcasts • Voice recording • Calculators • Polling • Research • Calendars (develop organization skills) • Taking notes. 2011) • Discussions: blogs./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. sharing good practice.&@ABC./(". MindMeister YouTube Worksheets in neu. dropbox applications Finally Table 2 summarizes for example how reading skills can be taught in classes by using mobile technologies. This list can be retrieved from the from the University College London (UCL).&-&.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& • • Social learning. 15 June 2012 (https://blogs.#0&1230*)4(5&*.Annotate + PDF Writing a possible ending in Pages Annotations and highlighting with neu. plagiarism.ac.)1"*. posting things to topics covered in class.("9&:.&BJBK.9&<"*=2)9&:. creative commons and fair use of online material.uk/ele/2012/06/15/33digital-skills-for-21st-century-teachers/).&4%%16LL0*.

f) Battery life: Teachers must be aware that the devices should be fully charged in the early morning.&BJBK.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. These include: a) Visual aid: If a number of children is working in parallel on their personal devices there could be many questions. Therefore we like to suggest that there is a strategy or responsibility by whom and when the devices are charged."*/*.M. For example. b) Organization: It is highly recommended that apps on the iPad should be organized to improve the efficiency of teaching and learning.!"#$%&'(")*+.':"#$%&'1&)*+"%". but it can be suggested that a projector should be constantly in the classroom./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.5). c) Material: Teachers must be careful with the copyright issues. 2012) ! F+9742170)107&'7&E0$7&='1"'37"/$=&'85'9"7'1&4)*&72'02$+.("9&:. Technical Issues Visual aid (beamer …) Battery life Connectivity Didactical Issues Choice of applications (to be checked beforehand) Administrative Issues E#/(&!'&+$&"#& & . Hence. If more than 20 children try to get access to the same time it might be helpful to add an additional router to guarantee stable Internet connections. The checklist in Table 3 lists some of the issues when implementing mobile learning which can be used as a reminder./(". 2013). These observations lead to a short checklist.)1"*.#0&1230*)4(5&*. Open Educational Resources are suggested for use in digital classrooms. unexpected appearing error messages can be a problem for inexperienced users. which is highly recommended to use before starting a mobile learning lecture.g. Furthermore. Therefore explaining the app is one precondition. dropbox) can assist the file exchange in a meaningful way. Doodle Body for drawings Table 2 How to foster reading skills by using mobile technologies in schools (Huber.&-&.9&<"*=2)9&:.$&2' There are some criteria that must be taken into account when applying mobile learning in the classroom (Huber & Ebner.&1./("&I(%4("0#. Each necessary app has to be moved to an appropriate accepted folder. d) Choice of apps: Each app used in classroom has to be tested by the teacher beforehand.&@ABC.&4%%16LL0*.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.6&70089&:.&H1"*. e) Connectivity: One of the biggest technical problems is about the connectivity to the Internet.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& form Creating a portfolio (adding text) Pages (pre-set layouts or own design)..&E"+)1(F%2). an online file-sharing service (e.9&>3.

Instead of banning mobile phones in schools. In North America educators are training students to take responsibility E#/(&!(&+$&"#& & . Teachers must be trained on how to effectively use mobile technology as a learning tool in and out of the classroom. Therefore the teacher will become a facilitator of learning and they will have to be trained in this new role.9&<"*=2)9&:.M.!"#$%&'(")*+.#0&1230*)4(5&*.&BJBK. As the mobile technologies become more user-friendly and powerful. This challenges the possibilities of large scale take-into-use of mobile solutions and the possibilities of providing authentic learning experiences are restricted. 2013) UNESCO has issued a working paper series on Turning on Mobile Learning.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Latin America. administrators and parents have led many institutions to ban the use of mobile phones in schools. Also. Successful educational use of mobile phones needs to adopt acceptable use policies and users guidelines. teachers must be trained on how to use mobile phones as a tool for learning.&H1"*.&-&. but their use in schools is limited.&E"+)1(F%2).. including smart phones and tablets. because of information explosion where there is constant change of information. North America.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Organization (folders …) Tool to manage classes and grades File-sharing (Dropbox …) Table 3 Checklist for teachers who want to promote m-Learning (Huber & Ebner. Asia. teachers must be trained on how to design and deliver education on a variety of mobile emerging technologies. Research in different countries has pointed the slowness of change processes at school cultures compared to the speed of technology development.&1.9&>3. eventually all humans will have access to information and communication technology. teachers have to find creative ways to design learning materials for delivery on mobile devices in accordance to the subjects they teach.&@ABC.6&70089&:. more often constrained by policy than by the capabilities of the devices."*/*. also in regard of access issues./(". Concerns about the disruptive nature of mobile phones expressed by teachers./("&I(%4("0#.&4%%16LL0*. Global Themes) and Mobile Learning for Teachers to support teachers and improve practice. initiatives and policy implications (Africa and the Middle East. As a result. These are helpful documents when planning to implement mobile learning in education. Conclusion Based on the trend in the growth of mobile technology.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. Europe. Ethical concerns and worries are preventing teachers from embracing the full potential of mobile technologies for their own professional learning. learners will be able to access the materials from anywhere and at their convenience using wireless mobile technology. Having the technology in their hands – as well in schools as at home and on transfer—usage is easier and material always available– on one single device. learners can use the mobile technology to access up to date information. The number of educational applications for mobiles is growing at a rapid pace.("9&:./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.)1"*. Student safety is a key component of any discussion about mobile learning. Innovations are necessary around mobile learning pedagogies: the technology is here. As more learning materials become electronic and available in the cloud.5). now pedagogies to realize its potential for learning is needed.

There is rapid development in mobile learning technology that will impact how education is delivered.&@ABC. The technology is getting smaller and more powerful.M. there will need to be a mechanism to validate the learning materials. Since learning materials will be available in electronic repositories.&BJBK. or courses in a short time by searching for the learning materials to achieve the learning outcomes.&H1"*. Teachers must be aware of the development of these emerging technologies. At the same time it is getting nonphysical or virtual where one can project a full-size virtual screen or keyboard to use rather than using the small careen and keyboard on the mobile device. There will be more use of multimedia materials to meet the needs of the current and upcoming generations of learners. units. learners. (West. multimedia materials are information rich materials which require less text. demonstrating how it can improve learning.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.&1./("&I(%4("0#. • Learning materials will be available in electronic repositories which will allow learners to access the learning materials from anywhere at their convenience. Teachers will be required to develop multimedia materials. As these technologies become available. however.&E"+)1(F%2). • Different grade levels require different teacher training • Degrees to which teachers should be digitally competent and confident should be mirrored in curricula of teacher education E#/(&!)&+$&"#& & .!"#$%&'(")*+. experts. Some trends that will affect how learning materials are developed and delivered are described below. teachers will be able to assemble lessons.6&70089&:. The learning materials will be intelligent where it will learn about the learner as the learner progress and adapt the interface for the learner or prescribe the next appropriate learning sequence. WikiEducator.)1"*. modules./(".#0&1230*)4(5&*.&4%%16LL0*.9&>3. and as a result schools are beginning to loosen constricting rules and statutes. learners will enter a learning outcomes and the system will assemble the learning materials that students have to complete to achieve the learning outcome.5). Also. etc. Because of initiatives such as Wikipedia. Teachers may have to customize the learning materials for their culture or the student ago group.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& over how they use digital technologies instead of simply banning them.. research will be needed on how to design learning materials for delivery on virtual devices."*/*.("9&:. • • • • • • Most case reports from Australia refer to the adoption of mobile learning of pre-service teachers. Learning materials will be available as open education resources under creative commons license that allow teachers to use the learning materials at no cost for education purpose. For example. 2012). and others will be able to generate content for other learners to access.&-&. This can be a chance to implement new pedagogies in teaching and learning when it comes to training instructors to incorporate mobile technologies in classrooms: What works for a primary school teacher may be entirely different to what works for a secondary school teacher./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.9&<"*=2)9&:.

Pachler.. They should not be used if they don’t have a purpose in the learning process. A. Traxler. Cook. 33–37. Prepared for the African Development Bank.).co. E#/(&"*&+$&"#& & .BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& • • • • Ethics of using mobile devices for professional learning must be part of school guidelines Teaching should be seen as a reflective profession Assessment approaches need to be adapted to reflect the new ways of learning Teachers will become lifelong learners themselves.)1"*.&H1"*. controlled./("&I(%4("0#.unaoc.aupress. Mobile learning transforming the delivery of education and training. C. (2012) Towards a Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework IST-Africa 2012 Conference Proceedings. Sibthorpe.smartinsights. J. Development of a research plan for use of ambient technology to test mobile learning theories../&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. 2013 from http://www. J. Each device must serve a particular need in the learning process. ISBN 978-1905824-34-2 http://researchspace.6&70089&:.&E"+)1(F%2). L.ca/books/120155/ Bachmair. Bosomworth. Parameters and focal points for planning and evaluation of mobile learning London Mobile Learning Group. background. This can be accomplished by training teachers for education in the mobile world. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.&-&. I.. and age. (2005).&@ABC. Available online at: http://www. Final Report. References Adam."*/*. de Waard. C. B.londonmobilelearning. Athabasca University Press. (2011). Batchelor. J.#0&1230*)4(5&*. & Savill-Smith.pdf Brasher.. Transformation-Ready: The strategic application of information and communication technologies in Africa. http://www./(".("9&:.za/dspace/bitstream/10204/6057/1/Botha3_2012. Sibtorpe. Education Sector Study. M. Tusubira. Herselman.csir. The use of these tools to facilitate learning must be in a distributed. Butcher.pdf (retrieved April 3. The technology exists in the hands of learners: The use mobile of devices can replace needed supplies.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. eds.&BJBK. M. J. Educators must be creative on the use of mobile technology in education to reach out to learners to provide high quality education regardless of location. Mobile marketing statistics 2013.5). Mobile learning anytime everywhere. & Taylor. (Ed.).net/downloads/Parameter_flyer. http://mil. In: Attewell. C. N.. Souter.9&<"*=2)9&:..M..org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/12/Education_Fullreport. the World Bank and the African Union.. Retrieved on March 27. D. and managed learning environment.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. A.&4%%16LL0*. D.&1.. There are contradictions and dialectics of mobile learning that are developing in the area between media use in everyday-life and use of mobile technologies by schools. (Ed. N..9&>3. (2013).com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobilemarketing-statistics/ Botha. (2009). (2011). pp. 2013).!"#$%&'(")*+. These tensions need to be resolved in professional teacher development.pdf Ally. J. F.

&4%%16LL0*. from Die Welt: http://www.worldreader. http://ceur-ws. Sydney (UTS). Norderstedt. Helsinki.pdf ITU report (2013). IREAD Ghana Study..scribd. unpublished term paper at Graz University of Technology iPad Human Interface Guidelines. (Ed.com/19/cushing1106.&@ABC. 2012. ISSN 1613-073. Masterthesis at Graz University of Technology Grimus.Blessing or Curse?. The Mastercard Foundation. Book on Demand GmbH. Finland. Australia E#/(&"!&+$&"#& & . D.#0&1230*)4(5&*.org/images/0021/002163/216359E. 2013 from http://www. J. Kearney. The world in 2013: ICT facts and figures. (2013).medienpaed. (2011).F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Coordinating Editors: Steven Vosloo and Mark West. L.6&70089&:. (2013) Innovativer Technologieeinsatz I'm Musikunterricht. UNESCO Working Paper Series on Mobile Learning 2012 http://unesdoc.9&<"*=2)9&:. M. M. Retrieved February 2013 from Apple Inc. German. (2011) iPads in Schools .&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Cushing. Shaping The Future – Realising the potential of informal learning through mobile. M. India."*/*. Ebner. S. Masterthesis at Graz University of Technology./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+./(".org/wp-content/uploads/GSMA-and-TheMasterCard-Foundation-mLearning_Report. 2013 pp76 . Volume 955.de/print/die_welt/politik/article12613412/Wenn-die-Generation-iPad-denRanzen-schnuert. in print Huber. (2011) A Case Study of Mobile Learning in Teacher Training Mobile Enhanced Mentoring) Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung Themenheft Nr. (2011.&1.welt.&H1"*. (2013) iPad Human Interface Guidelines for M-Learning. Final Report January 26. S. http://mastercardfdn.: http://www.!"#$%&'(")*+.M. M. http://www. p.pdf.pdf Frühwirth.eu Huber. Retrieved February 2013.("9&:. Handbook of Mobile Learning.. A. Ebner.org/Vol-955/ Hollstein. from: http://itug. (2012) iPads in the Classroom.pdf Dawes. (2013). Volume 27 Number 3. Multisittla.unesco.org/uploads/Worldreader%20ILC%20USAID%20iREAD%20Fina l%20Report%20Jan-2012.itu.html Huber.. In: mLearn 2012 Conference Proceedings. A. February 22)..&-&.com/doc/61285332/iPad-Human-Interface-Guideline iRead (2012).)1"*.5). accepted. Maher. 340-345.84 University of Technology. M. Impact on Reading of E-Readers And Digital content.&BJBK. (2011).int/ITU-D/ict/facts/material/ICTFactsFigures2013. M-Learning Report: Findings from Ghana. Sharples. Turning on Mobile Learning in Africa and the Middle East. 19: Mobile Learning in Widening Contexts: Concepts and Cases ISSN 1424-3636 http://www. Retrieved February 2013. M. Mobile Learning in Maths Reacher Education using iPads to Support Pre-Service Teachers’ Professional Development Australian Educational Computing. Wenn die Generation iPad den Ranzen schnürt. Specht. S. Holzinger. S.pdf Isaacs. Mobile Learning as a chance to enhance education in developing countries – in the example of Ghana..9&>3.. Retrieved on March 28. Morocco and Uganda./("&I(%4("0#.). M.&E"+)1(F%2). (2012).. A..

London: Sage. Andrews and C.unesco. 2013 from http://blog. South Bay schools on an iPad mission. Cell Phones in the Classroom: A Practical Guide for Educators. Retrieved from http://www. (2013).Viewing mobile learning from a pedagogical perspective. Retrieved on March 28./(". C.com/?p=1459 Sande. Summary Report.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*.org/sites/default/files/2012_meducation_alliance_internatio nal_symposium_summary_report. Stepping up Education Reform.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Research in Learning Technology .meducationalliance. L. from Mercury News: http://www.6&70089&:. In: 2012 mEducation Alliance International Symposium.nokia.pdf MoMAths Wiki (2012). A.The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research... In R.&E"+)1(F%2). M. Schuck. Haythornthwaite (eds.). February 20).&BJBK. (2012).#0&1230*)4(5&*. https://projects. T. (2013) One Tablet per Child. K. Mobiles as Assistive Technologies: Presenters Reflection. Kunakornpaiboonsiri. Retrieved February 2013. from TUAW: http://www. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education.5).9&>3. Nokia Projects. 25-27) Retrieved from http://www. 2013: UNESCO mobile Learning week 2013.learnlets.&@ABC. IITE Policy Brief. (2011). A. achieved from (12. Edmonton Kukulska-Hulme."*/*.&1. S.v20i0.tuaw.9&<"*=2)9&:.. P.14406 Kolb.mercurynews. Retrieved from http://unesdoc. (2009) A Model for Framing Mobile Learning.meducationalliance. S.asia/articles/2013/jan/15/one-tablet-child-policy-stepping-educationreform/ Kuznia.L.unesco.com/Momaths/wiki and https://projects.developer. Traxler. Writing and the 4C’s of Mobile.).developer. Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training.org/sites/default/files/2012_meducation_alliance_internatio nal_symposium_summary_report..("9&:.&4%%16LL0*.nokia. (2007) A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age.&H1"*.org/images/0019/001921/192144e.futuregov. Aubusson. Future Government Asia Pacific online.)1"*.com/Momaths Quinn. M.pdf E#/(&""&+$&"#& & . (2012. The 2012 mEducation Alliance International Symposium.com/2012/01/30/ipads-for-madison-wi-schools-purchased-withmicrosoft-lawsuit-s/ Sharples. Koole. G.3402/rlt./("&I(%4("0#. Retrieved February 2013. International Society for Technology in Education.2013) http://www. M. M..pdf. J. In focus: Mobiles as Assistive Technologies. 221-47.pdf MLW. & Vavoula. p.. January 30).M. (2010): Mobile learning for quality education and social inclusion. R./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. iPads for Madison. WI schools purchased with Microsoft lawsuit settlement funds. (pp. DOI: 10. In Ally. 15 January 2013 .com/california/ ci_20001723 Leblois. (ed.!"#$%&'(")*+. 13 http://www. Taylor. Symposium report.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Kearny . pp. J. (2012. (2010). (2012). Burdenb.&-&.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/ICT/pdf/MLW_Report.3.

June 2011 Ferry. M. In J. Olne y./("&I(%4("0#.&E"+)1(F%2).org/edutech/some-moretrends UNESCO MLW 2013: UNESCO Symposium on Mobile Learning 2013: Walking Gallery. Vol. (Glenniw. Wolfenden. ISBN 978-92-3 001143-7. Volume 2.("9&:. T. 233–247 Ekanayake. . 3. 45 .. Ten trends in technology use in education in developing countries that you may not have heard about.1 (2009).worldbank..S. (2009).) Commonwealth of Learning. Policy Guidelines for Mobile Learning. http://unesdoc. (Ed).5).&H1"*. new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (pp. Edutech. C. F. India. B. Coordinating editors: Steven Vosloo and Mark West.&@ABC. Butcher. Umar. M. J. Education Quality and Gender Equality. In: Sixth Pan Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning. S. http://blogs.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Trucano.M. K. http://oro. Herrington. K.pdf UNESCO NA (2012) Mobile Learning for Teachers in North America. Wollongong: University of Wollongong. (2012). UNESCO Working Paper Series on Mobile Learning. Hartnell-Young. Kraut. Computers and Education.). November 2009.M. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE)."*/*. West.unesco. & B. R. Kochi. P. (2012). Using OERs to improve teacher quality: Emerging findings from TESSA. C.&4%%16LL0*. 1953-1960. Coordinating editors: Vosloo. UNESCO 2013.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA. Mobiles for Literacy. Global Themes.6&70089&:. Authored for UNESCO by Jennifer Fritschi and Mary Ann Wolf. Research in Learning Technology. In: Open Educational Resources and Change. OER Production and Adaption through Networking across Sub-SaharanAfrica: Learning from TESSA. J. E#/(&"$&+$&"#& & .. Issue 2. Turning on Mobile Learning.&BJBK. Wishart. van Wyk.9&>3. 2012. UNESCO 2013. Eds. Harley.. Co-Authors: Hawkins. Mantei. and West. Ferry (Eds. Elizabeth A. No. Burden. http://unesdoc. Jessica and Abdel Gafar. 24-28 Nov 2010.. M.org/images/0021/002196/219641e. UNESCO 2012.S.55). Herrington. 17. Graham.. New technologies.!"#$%&'(")*+./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. (2012).M.#0&1230*)4(5&*. R. 57.&1. Aguti.)1"*.unesco. Vancouver.pdf Wolfeneden..org/images/0021/002164/216451E.uk/27174/2/PCF_6_Full_paper_Wolfenden_Amended. Yatigammana J. "Learning for teaching: building professional knowledge on a national scale" Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 35./(". (2011).9&<"*=2)9&:. I.open. R. Authored for UNESCO by Mark West. F.blogSubmitted June 6. Worldbank.K. Investigating the Possibility of Using Mobile Phones for Science Teaching and Learning: Is It a Viable Option for Sri Lanka? T. obstacles and issues ALT-J. Amani (2010).ac. N.&-&. Theoretical considerations for understanding technological pedagogical knowledge (TPACK).&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. Mobile learning for teacher professional learning: benefits. Using mobile phones to enhance teacher learning in environmental education . Abdurrahman. A. ST. Schuck.pdf Aubusson. Paris February 2013. (2009). (2011). Jimenez Iglesias. ISSN 2227-5029.

M.&E"+)1(F%2). and Harper-Merrett T.lsl. No.6&70089&:. Akoh B.H. B. S./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+./(".edu. Vol. (2012) mLearn.M.J.x http://www. 1:1 mobile inquiry learning experience for primary science students: A study of learning effectiveness. Michelle Williams and Paul Sutton. Volume 955 pp280-283.-H. Wong L.S.. C.-J.. So H.mobile learning for a higher education community'.. Abusson. 2013. (2010). Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education..BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Isaacs S. (2008). Jarkko Mylläri. Bennet. Porto Portugal.&1. Hollow D.. und Kristiina Nurmela. CEUR Workshop Proceedings.#0&1230*)4(5&*. and Park.2010.1365-2729. International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS).)1"*. E. p 29-33 Kearney.1111/j. In Across generations and cultures. Australian Educational Computing 27(2). Computers & Education 53. Mobile Phone as Pedagogical Tools: Are Teachers Ready? International Education Studies. ISSN 1913-9020 E-ISSN 1913-9039. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning [SSCI]. P.K. (2012) Keane. D. 3(4). N. G. p 69-76. Siti Norbaya Azizan & Nizuwan Azman.. Seow..&4%%16LL0*.nie. Looi C. Sanna Vahtivuori-Hänninen. Schuck S. Proceedings Mobile Learning 2010. Chen W. (2009). Toh Y. DOI:10. Reflections on success: A retrospective of the mLearn conference series 2002–2005..00390.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. ICWE: Germany Issham Ismail.. Zhang... Chen W. The eLearning Africa Report. The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning. The effects of screen-size and communication modality on psychology of mobile device users. Lasse Lipponen. 6.sg/people/researchers/chen-wenli Maniar. Hand. Anna Aarnio. (2013). E. (2013) A case for including online pedagogy as subject matter in ICT and pedagogy methods units. (2011). Journal of Software. D.. CEUR-WS. p 1207-1212.&BJBK.. Norris C. & Soloway E. Mobile learning in maths teacher education: Driving preservice teachers' professional development. C. & Maher. Marja Kankaanranta.. Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. G.. 3.&-&. Sundar. (2011). & Corlett. and Allen. Tiina Mäkelä..9&>3.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.9&<"*=2)9&:.5).("9&:. (2013). Seow P. Australian Educational Computing Volume 27 Number 3. P.(2013). Tuula Nousiainen. 2013. L. Looi. 269–287. pp51-61. in Isaacs S (ed) 2013."*/*. Naismith.&@ABC. book of abstracts (p. Findings from the eLearning Africa Survey 2013.!"#$%&'(")*+. S./("&I(%4("0#. C. Kearny. (2006).. (2013). p 133-142.. Lang. K. Pia Niemelä. M.. T.27.. Pilgrim. Anatomy of a mobilized lesson: learning my way. 1120–1132. Pedagogy! iPadology! Netbookology! Learning with Mobile Devices.-K. Australian Educational Computing 27(3). 'Mobagogy . & Chia.&H1"*.org. Jenni Rikala. E#/(&"%&+$&"#& & . 118–120).p 7684 Kim.

J. N. Maloney.)1"*. ed. Wishart.).aupress. Vavoula. Andy. Jocelyn Wishart) April 2011. Technology.&-&. 9(4)... (2004) Transforming teaching and learning: embedding ICT into everyday classroom practices..9&<"*=2)9&:.&4%%16LL0*.. Brawn. (2009). Cahpre 14.&?@ABCD&E"(1#"*. Olivero F.ca/index. The journal of technology.V.. Evaluating the Implementation Fidelity of Technology Immersion and its Relationship with Student Achievement. Ally. pp413–425 Sweeney. Sheehan. (2011). 265–78. J. Use of mobile technology for teacher training. Canada: Athabasca University Press..6&70089&:. learning. A. Sharples. M. In Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training.&@ABC. mLearn 2011. Gall. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2004 Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 20 .1007/978-1-4020-9827-7 14. 2007. & Caranikas-Walker.&E"+)1(F%2). F. G. Armstrong. M. Technology enhanced Learning. 117-123 Wishart. M. (2011) Handheld mobile devices in initial teacher training./&%(#F4(")&$+"&#&=+3*0(&G+"059&%+&*=1"+'(& #FF())&%+&(52F#%*+. V. P.M."*/*. 1. Pedagogy and Education. In: Balacheff et al (eds. (2010).&H1"*. Big Issues. C Springer Science+Business Media B. Angela (2007). & John P.. M.. Volume 16./(". 2009 Sutherland. DOI 10. p 95 – 110.How Prepared are our Pre-service Teachers to Integrate Technology? A Pilot Study. In: Making mobile learning work: case studies of practice (Eds John Traxler.. D.F+=L#"%*F0(LBA.("9&:. Milrad. & Drummond. I. Bejing Sharples. Wishart. PDAs and handhelds: ICT at your side and not in your face. R.. Small devices. Arnedillo-Sanchez. and assessment. Matthewman S.&1. A. E#/(&"#&+$&"#& & . Jocelyn. McFarlane. http://www. Breeze./("&I(%4("0#.5). 2013. Triggs.. Taylor. C.(2013). S. Ramsden. T.9&>3.. (2009). K. Australian Educational Computing Volume 27 Number 3.php/books/120155.&BJBK.. R. Issue 1. Barnes. Edmonton.!"#$%&'(")*+. Mobile Learning. M. Wishart J....#0&1230*)4(5&*.BAAKN@O)BBB@PJABCJ Q@QRJ@& Shapley. Keynote Presentation..