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Preparing Teachers for a Mobile World to Improve Access to Education
Mohamed Ally Professor Athabasca University, Canada Margarete Grimus PhD Student Department Social Learning Graz University of Technology, Austria Martin Ebner Associate Professor Department Social Learning Graz University of Technology, Austria

Abstract
Based on the recent global statistics on the use of mobile technology, the world is becoming mobile. People are using mobile technology to socialize, to conduct business, to search for information, etc. This is the first time in history that people around the world has the potential to learn from any location at their own convenience. To achieve this goal, the education system has to change to allow mobile access to education. The most important change will have to be teacher training on the use of mobile technology to design and deliver education and to bridge informal learning. Existing Teachers will have to be provided professional development to improve their knowledge and skills on mobile learning. Existing Teacher training programs have to be revised to include training on the use of mobile technology in education. The infrastructure to design and deliver mobile learning has to be established for efficient delivery of mobile learning. There is limited research on the use of mobile technology in education. Past research studies were short-term and they looked at learners’ satisfaction with mobile learning rather than how mobile learning improves performance and retention. Future research must look at the long-term benefits of mobile learning and how it impact performance and retention. As mobile technologies emerge, teachers have to keep up with the changes so that they can take advantage of the power of the technology already used for informal learning to design and deliver education. Keywords: Mobile learning, teacher training, quality of education

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Introduction
The world is becoming more connected and mobile which will revolutionize education. Existing Teachers will have to be provided with professional development to improve their knowledge and skills on the use of mobile technology in education. Also, existing teacher training programs will have to be revised to include training on the use of mobile technology in education. Currently mobile smart devices are single multi-purpose computing devices, include multi-core processors, high resolution touch-sensitive displays of various sizes, network connectivity, and are interfaced to a variety of sensors such as cameras, touch screens, and accelerometers which add potential to be used in education. According to a recent ITU report (2013), very soon there will be as many mobile-cellular subscriptions as people inhabiting the planet, with the figure set to surpass the seven billion mark early in 2014. In developing countries, there are more mobile phones than computers. Citizens are by-passing the personal computer and notebook phases and moving directly into the mobile phase. Mobile-broadband subscriptions have climbed from 268 million in 2007 to 2.1 billion in 2013 which reflects an average annual growth rate of 40% (ITU, 2013). Privately owned (personal) devices are possibly one of the more important factors, The mobile device has become a kind of personal ecosystem (Sharples, mLearn, 2011), when teachers engage with this effectively they are able to engage effectively with the student. Because of the proliferation of mobile technologies around the world, there should be a sense of urgency to implement learning with mobile devices in education. This is the first time in history that citizens, in different age groups, around the world have information and communication technologies in their own hands. Citizens are using the mobile technologies to complete everyday tasks and for informal learning by accessing information just in time from the world largest library, the Internet. Recent statistics show that people do not spend much time learning when using mobile phones. They spend time playing games, searching for information, socializing, reading the news, etc. (Bosomworth, 2013). The focus on technology must be overcome by understanding the nature of learning in a wider context as part of an increasingly mobile lifestyle (Sharples, 2009). Teachers must be trained on how to use mobile technology when teaching and students must be motivated to use mobile technology for learning. Teacher training and professional development programs must be re-designed to train teachers on the use of emerging technologies in education.

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In developing countries, the number of mobile-broadband subscriptions more than doubled from 2011 to 2013 (from 472 million to 1.16 billion) and surpassed those in developed countries in 2013 (ITU, 2013). The people in developing countries are investing in mobile education so that they can be connected and improve their quality of lives. Despite the high cost of mobile
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connectivity in developing countries, the uptake is greater than in developed countries (ITU, 2013). There are many ongoing projects in developing countries that are trying to bring the education to the people since many live in remote locations and cannot afford to go to distant places to access education. Also, there are many initiatives around the world that require the use of wireless mobile technologies to achieve the goals of these initiatives. This includes the Education for All goals that are being implemented by UNESCO with help from a variety of organizations from around the world (UNESCO, 2000, p.8). The most efficient way to achieve these goals is by using mobile technology to reach the people who were unreachable in the past. Some citizens in remote regions and in developing countries have mobile technology that they can use to learn. This will require that teachers be trained to use emerging learning technologies to educate citizens and the teacher role will change from lecturing to that of facilitator of learning.

Mobile Technology and Learning
As the mobile technologies become more user-friendly and powerful, they will be used more widely in education. In a device-centric view, mobile learning is often equated with the mobile phone, the PDA, or more recently, the tablet computer/iPad.&The technologies will become multipurpose for learning and to complete other everyday activities such as socializing, doing business, etc. Quinn (2010) identified the 4 Cs (Content, Computer, Communicate, and Capture) of mobile learning which shows the value of mobile technology for learning. The mobile technology can be used to deliver the Content, including multimedia content. The teacher can use the computing power of the mobile technology to develop simulation and games and can prompt the learner for data and then process the data. The learner can capture information using the capture features such as camera, audio, GPS, sensors, etc. to capture information for learning and sharing. The Communication features of the mobile technology allow the learner to communication with other learners and the teacher and to share information. The authors will add a fifth C and refer to this as Coordinate where the technology will have some intelligence to determine the learner’s progress, style of learning, learner problems, etc. and prescribes the appropriate learning activities for the learner. There has been considerable interest in the use of mobile learning in education. Mobile learning is not yet part of mainstream professional learning. This is apparent from the number of conferences on mobile learning and the extremely successful Mobile Learning Week Symposia hosted by UNESCO in Paris in December 2011 and in February 2013. The question is: “Why the increasing interest in mobile learning?” Mobile learning removes barriers to learning since people in remote locations can use wireless mobile technologies to access learning materials from anywhere and anytime without having to leave their families and communities. A shift in interpretation of mobile learning can be figured out, emphasizing “learning with mobile devices” e.g. by creating authentic learning experience to solve real life problems: Mobile
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devices are cheap, portable, have no start-up time, require very little maintenance, and are easy to use. (Mylläri et al, 2012) A high level of personal ownership of the leverage these benefits devices (Burden et al., 2012). Since learners can learn in their own communities, they are learning in context and they can apply what they learn right away. Many people around the world already use mobile technologies; hence, they are familiar with the technology so they can use the technology to access learning materials. With mobile technology, learning is more learner-centered since learners can determine what they learn and they can readily access information from the Internet. As the student use the technology to learn, the system will determine their preferences and style and prescribe appropriate learning materials based on their style and preferences. For the teacher, the electronic learning materials can be updated easily since they are in electronic format and learners can see the updated learning materials right away. With the increasing availability of open education resources, learners will be able to access learning materials at no or minimal cost. A very important reason to implement mobile learning in the education system is because of the new generations of learners. Youths are an important driver of change: when their awareness of technology-mediated learning increases, attitudinal changes occur. (Isaacs, 2013, p 32), The young learners today are very comfortable using mobile technology since They use mobile technology for a variety of activities. As a result, they will expect to have the option of access learning materials using their existing mobile devices.

Literature Review
There have been many definitions of mobile learning but most of the definitions are based on the technology rather than on the learning. Definitions should also reflect that mobile technologies can be used both inside and outside of the classroom for learning. A good example of a definition is “the processes of coming to know through conversations across multiple contexts amongst people and personal interactive technologies” (Sharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, 2007, p. 10). One general definition is any learning that happens when a learner is not in a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunity offered by mobile technologies (Brasher and Taylor, 2005). Another definition is delivery of electronic learning materials, with built-in learning strategies, on mobile computing devices to allow access from anywhere and at anytime (Ally, 2009). The uses can range from simple transmission of information from teacher to student to more specific use as cognitive tools in authentic learning environments. (Aubusson et al, 2009) Mobile learning has moved beyond the information access paradigm, enticing users to work as partners and collaborators in the coconstruction of their collective wisdom and knowledge. (Schuck et al, 2010) “Mobile learning is the didactic response to the changes in culture, media structures and habits and learning of children and young people” (Bachmaier et al, 2011). Bachmaier refers to the dominant media culture of everyday life, which is individualized, mobile and convergent and the increasing relevance of informal learning and decreasing reach of school-based learning. With mobile learning the gap between formal, informal and non formal learning seems to become less relevant. However, what is important is learning which occurs in different environments and
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under various circumstances. The ubiquity of mobile technologies that are already present in classrooms makes education less dependent on one-to-one technology projects that require governments or organizations to provide the devices (Isaacs, 2012). “Learning with mobiles started as an extension of the institutional e-learning built into courses and programs, but now it is just one more activity for individuals and communities on their mobiles.” (Traxler, 2012). Mike Sharples reviewed research into mobile learning worldwide tends to take on the flavour of the culture in various countries in which it is situated (Sharples, 2011). Area Africa Canada/Australia Europe United States Research topics Mobile Learning for Development ( M4D) Personalised (distance) education Contextual and Connected learning Anytime, anywhere learning Focus Access, emerging contexts, basic technologies Learning design, Open content and standards Context, Community, Connecting (formal and informal learning) Device-centric: Delivery and relevance

Table 1. Research of worldwide m-learning (after Sharples, 2011, selection) “In many instances, a government’s investment in teacher training is more important than its investment in technology itself.” (UNESCO 2013, Policy Guidelines for Mobile Learning). In spite of this statement, currently very few education systems use mobile technologies to support the work and development for teachers. It is recommended to offer access to curriculum, educational resources and lesson plans to teachers via mobile devices. The curricula and associated materials should be designed to work within the national context and mirror the conditions that teachers will find on the ground (UNESCO 2013). Conversation is seen as a bridge that enables learning within and across contexts, whether through a discussion that builds on ideas formed in different settings or by making a note to oneself that can be read at a different time or place. (Sharples, 2009) An issue for schools is how to accommodate young students equipped with powerful personal technologies and new and disruptive skills of informal collaboration and networked learning (Sharples, 2009). To stress pedagogical aspects, teacher education should be reflected in the curricula of both preand in-service teachers and clearly reflect the important roles that mobile learning might play in education. Teacher training should include mobile pedagogy as well as some technical training to build confidence (Kukulska-Hulme, 2010). A group of practitioners in South Africa and international colleagues started in 2011 to develop a Mobile Curriculum Framework, which is presented as a modular solution for adaption to accommodate differing contexts. It offers a number of themes and related modules as a generic offering and can be adapted by the implementing institution to reflect local societal and
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institutional needs (Botha et al, 2012). The curriculum covers three topics: to know about mobile learning, to be able to facilitate mobile learning, and to understand the implications of implementing mobile learning. To support policies and practice in education UNESCO has published a framework on the topic of mobile learning. UNESCO’s framework emphasizes that it is not enough for teachers to have ICT competencies to be able to teach them to their students. Teachers need to be able to help students become collaborative, problem solving creative learners through using ICT so they will be effective global citizens.

Teacher Development in Mobile Learning
It is widely noted that improving instructional quality depends on providing teachers with the specific training. To incorporate the advantages of mobile technologies into pedagogical practice teachers need to be trained to improve approaches to teaching and learning. During an UNESCO Symposium in Washington in March 2012 policy issues and teacher development was pointed out as “a crucial place to break into the educational cycle and promote education for all. Teacher development is one of the most manageable and cost-effective ways of using mobile technologies to break into the cycle and the system of education.” (Botha et al, 2012) Training teachers to use technology themselves as learners is a necessary first step for preparing them to help students leverage technology for learning. “Teachers will be a pillar of mobile learning models” (MLW, 2013). By use of technology embedded within a subject, teachers embrace learning for them-selves and used the tools to transform their own knowledge of their subject areas and develop, expandand and adjust their teaching repertoire. (Sutherland et al, 2004) To build appropriate attempts to design learning with mobile devices findings from mobile learning research suggest the need to create quick and simple interactions and to use mobile technology not only for “deliver” learning but facilitate it for communication, note taking and time management. (Naismith & Corlett, 2006). Sharples (2009) refers to design learning activities driven by specific learning objectivities that were otherwise not possible, or to increase the benefits for the learners. He suggests instructional design should support learners to reach personal understanding through conversation and exploration. This means to support learners’ collaboration in order to construct common knowledge using technology for collaborative knowledge building with other learners and teachers, and to support learner’ transitions across learning contexts. According to Koole, Mobile learning is a combination of interactions between learners, their devices, and the social environment. (Koole, 2009) This requires new generation learning skills and the transformation of teachers’ roles and identities. Teachers need to be prepared to effectively engage students in today’s digital learning environments, to coach them through learning and applying that learning. Incorporating mobile technologies into teacher training
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allows them to learn how to incorporate mobile technologies into class teaching. (UNESCO 2012, NA) The perceptions and acceptance of such educational changes are crucial, since teachers’ willingness and preparedness to adopt with mobile learning is one of a critical success factor (Ismail et al, 2013)

Pre-Service Teacher Development
To transform new theories of how to leverage the potential of technology in the classroom, teachers must experience mobile learning in their initial training to make effective use of what is available, including open educational resources. This can help to ameliorate existing educational divides and provide opportunities to learners in resource-poor areas. “…..Mobile learning is poised to blur lines between formal and informal learning, creating bridges between the two” (MLW, 2013) Teachers will have to be trained on how to design good learning strategies for learners. When mobile devices are used for instruction in pre-service training, teachers have the opportunity to observe concrete examples of pedagogical strategies for mobile learning and to consider mobile learning from a student’s perspective. Pre-service teachers need professional development to understand and embrace successful interventions. This can be experienced in during their study and practice in class to create the best personalized learning experiences in the categories of • Social learning and collaboration: how to most effectively use mobile devices for interaction with other learners and systems (online communication) and how the use of mobile devices might change the process of interaction between their learning community and the schools, how to embed social learning into lessons • New generation learning: because of information explosion, how to become more independent in navigating through and filtering information and how to recognize, evaluate and processes information • Just in time: how can teachers provide “just in time” content in manageable, “bite-sized” packages (micro-content) for flexible delivery, more personalized when needed • Contextual learning: how to create more authentic learning experiences using a problembased learning approach where students solve specific real-world problems in their own context • Role of teachers: evolving role of the teacher and how to cater for the new generations of learners so that the needs of the learners can be met (Koole, 2009) The topics mentioned above cover three distinct features, characterising the pedagogy of mobile learning scenarios: • Authenticity (contextualised and situated): As an authentic task it provides real world relevance and personal meaning to the learner
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• •

Personalisation (agency and customization) offering promising ways to select, manipulate and apply information to their own unique needs Collaboration (conversation and data sharing). Networking creates shared, socially interactive environments, communicating multi-modally with peers, teachers and other experts, and exchange information. Learners consume, produce and exchange ‘‘content’’, sharing information across time and place. (Kearny et al, 2012)

The current generation of pre-service teachers need to vitalise schools towards using technological tools in new ways and maybe push policy boundaries so that schools more realistically support contemporary school-age learners who carry better connectivity in their pocket than their schools provide (Williams & Sutton, 2013).

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PD programs for teachers should provide learning opportunities for in-service teachers and include formal and informal instruction, mentoring and participation in professional communities. Teachers can access online PD from any location that has wireless connectivity. They can also strengthen collaborative PD by facilitating communication among peers and mentors. To be effective, PD needs to be ongoing supported by collaboration and teamwork among educators. Mobile devices enable access to online courses and can enable teachers to participate in PD more frequently and with more flexibility than traditional training sessions that are constrained to a particular time and place. Mentors can observe the practice of less experienced educators or pre-service teachers conducting video observations and provide constructive feedback. This may also improve the quality of feedback by allowing the mentors to pause and replay the video and sending feedback by mobile phones. Knowledge building and knowledge-building environments support practices and discourse that define knowledgecreating communities. (Hartnell-Young, 2009)

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• UK – PDA’s: Handheld mobile devices in initial teacher training in UK provided PDA’s to support (science-) student teachers. The aim was to support teaching and learning of science content as well as science process to promote students understanding of abstract concepts, enabling students to relate science to their own and real world experiences and facilitate data collection and presentation. Three functions were named as most popular and useful: the camera to record personal and work events, making notes for later use and the calendar. The use of the PDA’s for learning through a reflective blog and a capacity to communicate with others were hardly utilised (Wishart, 2009). Furthermore she reported that pilots and trials conducted with provided devices are not often scaled up or sustained. (Wishart, 2011).
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Therefore attention is shifting to use of learners’ own devices. Existing curriculum and conventions of instruction are reshaped into benefitting from use of mobile technologies by capturing the systematic transformation from a content- and teachercentered to a student-centered infrastructure, by enabling 1:1 computing to bridge formal and informal learning and to foster personalized and self-directed learning (Looi et al., 2009). Curriculum: This attempt is addressed in the Sys Tech project (Systemic Learning Solutions): In Finland schools have a lot of freedom to design their own local curriculum, which allows schools to apply mobile tools in their individual kinds of practices. The project is focusing on the transformative process of redesigning existing curriculum and the corresponding learning activities by building curriculum driven use scenarios based on the framework of a mobilized curriculum. (Mylläri et al, 2012). Characteristics of a mobilized curriculum are outlined as • to exploit mobile technologies to achieve learning in context, • student-centered and inquiry-based learning activities, • access to students’ artefacts is utilized for formative learning assessment and adjusting teaching/instruction • collaborative interactions are enabled and promoted. • Teacher development for curriculum development is facilitated (Looi et al, 2011)

• Pre-service –teachers – reflection of learning with mobile devices: The Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) research project aims to gain an understanding of the way mobile learning can enhance the development in pre-service Maths teacher education on campus, in school settings and more informal settings to rate the critical features of these mlearning activities from a pre-service teacher learning perspective: The use of their iPads is reported as to notice and capture ‘out – of - class’ Maths phenomena, following–up and discussing implications for their Maths-teaching. They used the technology to facilitate an enhanced awareness of Maths in everyday contexts, and then used this knowledge to develop rich, contextualised ideas for their own ICT-mediated K-6 Maths tasks. (Kearny et al, 2013) This is part of the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) program, investigating pre-service teachers’ existing knowledge, perceptions, access to, and experiences using technology to support their learning and teaching (Graham, 2011). The pre-service teachers are invited to reflect on the experience of working with resource packages, adapting it to their class situation and to reflect their understanding of the activities. It was resumed that the most significant experience offering scalability and promising longevity in impact was when students were engaged in a critical, reflective, and collaborative inquiry using the digital devices in their practice in class. And: Each discipline area has nuanced differences in the application (Graham, 2011). A collaborative inquiry approach can be adapted across curriculum or discipline classes to provide pre-service teachers and lecturers a way to critically and productively investigate the relationship between devices and appropriate activity and their particular disciplinary knowledge. The collaborative inquiry model was also reported to have provided the pre-service
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teachers and lecturers with a framework for ongoing professional learning. (Williams & Sutton, 2013). • Collaboration in mobile learning: Another small-scale research from Australia and the UK reflects the role of mobile learning and the value of collaboration between teachers and students in professional learning. (Abusson et al, 2009) “The role of mobile learning in teacher’s professional learning refers to teachers’ personal use of mobile devices for their own learning, for reflection, collaboration and feedback, support of staff development as well as ethics of use in the classroom.” It is suggested to capture the spontaneity of learning moments through the use of mobile technologies. This provides opportunities for authentic examples of classroom experiences and enables sharing of learning experiences with other teachers to stimulate professional conversations with a goal of improving the classroom learning environment. • Mentoring: MENTOR ME (Mobile Enhanced Mentoring) was a pilot project with 20 teacher training students at Barnet College, North London. To improve the mentoring and teaching experience the observations were shared with peers, tutors, mentors and lesson observers. Self-reflection, peer assessment, peer support and idea-sharing contributed to improving trainees’ practice and employability. (Cushing, 2011). • In developing countries due to restricted infrastructure (PCs, landlines/ electricity and Internet) use of mobile devices for learning becomes more crucial. In Sri Lanka the possibilities of using mobile phones for science teaching and learning were investigated to figure out the possibilities to substitute inadequate ICT resources in teacher training and in schools. “Mobile phones are cheap, widely spread, provide many functions offered by computers, video camera and still cameras, and especially teenagers are well acquainted with their functions” (Ekanayake & Wishart, 2011). The survey (n=200) explored that Sri Lankan teachers exhibit competences in a variety of uses and show positive attitudes towards the use of mobile phones in science teaching and learning. Barriers when introducing mobile phones for teaching and learning of science in schools were encountered by the small displays, costs associated with use and discipline in class. In Sub Sahara Africa the demand for teachers is rising rapidly as the school-age population continues to grow. In some countries initiatives provide groups of teachers with free laptops (Ghana, September 2012, national newsletters and personal oberservation by the author). Owning laptops is likely to lead teachers to engage in informal learning at their own pace, in their own time, thereby improving their ICT skills in ways that will benefit their learners. Teachers use laptops to source materials, develop new resources and enhance lesson delivery. These initiatives also have the potential to enhance teacher uptake of ICT integration. (Adam et al, 2011). TESSA, Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa, provides a large variety of highly structured study units for teachers based Open Educational Resources (OER), either on formal programs or
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through self-motivation. A set of 75 study units (Science, Literacy, Mathematics, Social Studies, Arts, and Lifeskills) has been developed for different cultural and linguistic contexts, available from www.tessafrica.net (Wolfeneden, 2012). Use of the modules is also reported from Togo, Ghana, Mauritius and Nigeria and Open University of Sudan, (Wolfenden et al, 2010). Findings highlight two important facts: • • A much more diverse set of teaching practices, e.g. richer questioning and answer sessions, and methods encouraging problem solving and creativity. Increased teacher preparation has enhanced their confidence in many cases. Increased enjoyment amongst students and teachers and cooperation among teachers are reported as well as and the impact on teacher educators at the partner institutions: Increased awareness of OER and the potential in education. Changing notions of the role of the teacher. Personal learning (involvement in a community of educators).

• • •

Much of research is documented from Australia: Comparing netbook-classes versus iPad classes in an Australian school it was resumed, that it is not necessarily the selection of the device but rather the use of devices by engaged, supportive and prepared teachers within the context of a broader pedagogical change program for successfully integration. (Keane et al, 2013)

Examples of Mobile Learning Projects across the Globe
After taking a close look to the teacher professional development a more general look must be done to the learners’ side. Previously, a number of schools started with pilot projects using Tablet PCs for enhancing the classroom activities with a new device. Studies have shown that increased screen size can lead to greater enjoyment and a positive impact on learning (Kim, 2011) Currently studies concentrate more or less on the use of iPads in the classroom, due to the fact that this device was the first one on the market and it is the market leader. For example, in Madison, schools were equipped with more than 1400 iPads. Administrators pointed out that students who used iPads, "were more engaged in the classroom" and according to the Wisconsin State Journal "the iPads were acquired due to the fact that they are less expensive, easier to use and more portable than Tablet PCs" (Sande, 2012). Another school in which students are using iPads is located in Manhattan Beach Unifed. In California 560 iPads were purchased and teachers were trained on how to use the iPads. Kuznia (2012) pointed out that the iPads helped to increase learning, but also mentioned that longer-term results show a decrease of the enthusiasm. The situation is similar in Cologne, Germany, where a school invested in 30 iPads. The tablets are being used in mathematics, music and religious education. A first report (Hollstein, 2011) pointed out that students are working more carefully and are more concentrated in their work. Also, in Austria a high school with a special focus on computer science and commercial started with the use of iPads. The pilot study is financed by the Ministry of Education, Art and Culture.

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While in industrialized countries there are scores of iPad in education projects, in developing countries much of the discussions is around the use of lower cost mobile phones or simple ebook readers (Trucano, 2012). In developing countries about 50% of m-Learning programs are designed to be compliant with feature phone technologies (smart-phone penetration is still low). This is important, because access to learning material via mobile phones does not only support formal settings but is often the only chance for informal learning, e.g. out of school children, girls looking for anonymous help with questions of HIV prevention etc. (Grimus et al, 2012). Most technology enhanced learning interventions in formal education are piloted at a small scale, and then find it difficult to scale up the pilot offering. Few projects have adopted an evolutionary design strategy to expand over time. Sustainable and well documented implementations of learning with mobile devices are for example Nokia Mo Maths (MoMaths Wiki, 2012) and iRead (iRead 2012) in Africa. In Latin America, the government of Chile supports a widely used education portal that helps students prepare for the national university admissions test, and it has recently made this content available via mobile devices. The one tablet per child policy (OTPC) in Thailand was presented during the UNESCO mobile learning week in Paris in February 2013. In 2012 all Grade 1 students were provided with low cost tablet PCs, to prevent heavy schoolbags, deliver content for every single child and support first reading and calculus.. Tablets for studrents should be expanded in 2013 to all Grade 7 students nationwide. Schools have been provided with 4-10 Mbps Wi-Fi. The tablets for teachers are more efficient, capable for e-books, manuals and lesson plans. Science, Mathematics, English, Thai and Social Studies can be downloaded to students tablet computers. Teachers were trained to master the equipment and to use it in teaching. Students are allowed to take the equipment back home (UNESCO MLW 2013). The device management software works alongside a pre-installed Learning System (LSystem). Regulated by the Office of Basic Education Commission (OBEC) under the Ministry of Education (MOE), the LSystem acts as a data warehouse to keep all e-content as well as the student’s learning performance and progress (Kunakornpaiboonsiri, 2013). South Korea has also launched a nationwide initiative to shift from paper to digital textbooks by 2015. The government wants textbook content to display on a variety of mobile devices including larger-screen tablet computers. Other large projects are in Russia and Turkey which will provide hundreds of thousands of low cost tablets to teachers and students (UNESCO Mobile Learning Week 2013).

Implementing Mobile Learning
The infrastructure, hardware, software, and systems for mobile learning are improving and costs are decreasing, thus it makes mobile technology more affordable and sustainable. In addition to reaching students in low-resource environments, mobile learning is now reaching those with disabilities, special learning needs, and those living in secluded or nomadic communities. While many pupils may be more adept than their teachers in using technology, young students in
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particular need dedicated teachers to create rich learning environments that allow them to make effective use of the technology to acquire, create and display the knowledge that they are gaining (Ferry, 2009) While technology gets better, faster and cheaper these trends will always be mediated by social, economic and political factors. (Traxler, 2012) To implement mobile learning in an effective way “leadership and planning, supportive school culture training and professional development, robust infrastructure and technical support, and access to digital content and instructional resources” are required. (Shapley et al, 2010, p.10) Students should be forced to act responsibly. Safe and responsible use of technologies is important. Trustworthy infrastructure and technologies to protect teachers and students must be ensured. Restricting students from using their own technologies for education at school cannot be a solution, user security and responsibility need to be supported by providing skills. Lauren Dawes investigated in the Future report how mobile technology affects the daily life of young people in remote areas and to achieve further aspirations (Dawes, 2011). The study included statistics on mobile use among young people in Morocco, Ghana, Uganda, and India. Dawes found that only 25 percent of the young people surveyed listed the classroom as their primary source of information and education. Sixty-three percent said they could learn through a mobile device. As one of her key findings Dawes reports, that education is one of the three priorities in life for the young people, 39% naming it as their key priority. With regards to mobile learning, 63% said they could clearly see the potential to use their mobile for learning and accessing educational content. However, some important challenges for mobile learning in developing countries are: ensuring availability of technology for everyone at an affordable price, overcoming negative perceptions of mobile devices in a classroom, and providing accessibility to content and texts where copyright laws are strict. “…Mobile phones and tablets are poised to be omnipresent in most education settings—in developing nations in particular, which can leapfrog personal computer technology and adopt cheaper, more versatile mobile devices”. (Leblois, 2012) After having implemented 1:1 iPads in class an Australian teacher (early adopter) stated: ..”a device that by necessity requires teachers to change pedagogy…. Teachers give up on being expert… students are the technical experts in devices…. teachers the experts in teaching and learning”. (Keane et al, 2013) Some questions should be asked before starting to use mobile devices for learning in schools. • What mobile devices are used and available to learners in different contexts? • Where and how do learners reflect on their experiences? • What assignments are already used by teachers to support the students’ learning? Furthermore, specific attention has to be drawn to particular ethical issues when implementing mobile devices in class teaching: parental and student informed consent is a responsibility of the teacher to play an educative role, to prevent cyber-bullying and potential public access to events
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and materials intended for a limited audience, and also sharing of digital materials for professional purposes (distribution should be controlled and managed).

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Graz University of Technology has a long tradition in research in using iPads in K-12 education. The following are three case studies and their outcomes. Based on this three-detailed case-studies the complexity of introducing mobile technologies will be easier understandable. a) Primary School, Salzburg (Huber, 2011): In October 2010 a first attempt was started to bring such devices into a primary school in Salzburg. The teacher as well as all the students received new iPads for a period of about six weeks. The purpose of the research was to determine how the technology in general works in a classroom setting and to think about the potential of using the technology. The pupils were allowed to carry home the devices and as well as to use it in the classroom. The teacher attended the class to conduct interviews and observe students using the iPad. The teacher concluded in her first reaction that the "iPad definitely grab children's attention straight away, namely before unpacking the devices for the first time." However, installation of apps turned out much more complicated than expected due to the fact that more than five iPads connected to the Internet did not work. This leads to a major problem of the six trial weeks, because any app has to be installed by the teacher or by the pupils at home. Secondly, the report carried out that it was very unsatisfactory, that only few apps in the store are appropriated for education in primary school. The same phenomena occurred when looking to appropriate German textbooks. The teacher concluded that "a lot of potential is simply wasted through lack of adequately reflected practical experience." Teachers should be trained on the use of mobile technology in the classroom so that these problems do not occur. b) Secondary School, Graz, Austria (Huber, 2012): Based on the first experiences in the primary school, the teacher applied the iPads to an English class with more than 20 pupils for another 6 weeks. She herself conducted classes in an innovative and novel way, by using just the iPads there were no textbooks, no paper and pencil and no further additional equipment. The research aims first to answer the question whether it is possible to teach English or not and second if yes, what is the main problem and what are the chances for introducing such devices in class. Furthermore a detailed look was done to different apps and how they perform in classroom settings. Tab. (Reading-Strategies) gives a short impression which reading-strategies were applied to the class, which pedagogical method was carried out and which apps were used for this realization. For example, during pre-reading strategy brainstorming with the MindMeister app or vocabulary work with the app net.Annotate app was done. The table carries out a direct relation between the teaching strategy and the practical work on the iPad. In the second part of the study we also asked for the usefulness of such apps especially for a group of young learners. Apple itself provides so called Human Interface Guidelines which should be used to design a highly usable app (iPad Human Interface Guidelines, 2011). But does this guideline also fit
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young learners? Must this guideline be enhanced with respect to children's needs? Huber & Ebner (2013) pointed out following crucial aspects: a) Rotation: If rotation is allowed within an app there should be clear hints what restrictions are implied in the two directions b) Hierarchy: The concept of hierarchy, positions and functions of auxiliary bars must be explained - children are not aware about such concepts c) Multi-touch gestures: Children must be familiar with such gestures before starting using apps. d) File-Handling: Especially on the iPad it is hard to understand where are my files located, how can I find it. Therefore a short introduction is absolutely necessary. f) Keyboard: Children must be aware how to use the touch based keyboard. Due to the fact that many functions are hidden in a first glance, it saves a lot of time when children get supported when using it. c) Secondary School, Graz, Austria (Frühwirth, 2013): Another field experiment was carried out in a secondary school in Austria. In this research study children got iPads during their music education. Music education is based on three stages - music history, practical experiences with music and general knowledge about music. Most of the pupils in a class never played any instrument, therefore it is hard to close the gap between the musicians and non-musicians. For this research, a didactical concept was carried out to learn about music by using iPads and appropriate apps like GarageBand. At the end of the lecture which lasted three hours, children have to compose and play their own piece of music. The result was quite amazing - without knowing any music notes the children (carried out by a short pretest) got engaged in the lecture deeper than ever before. The teacher reported not only a high engagement but also a higher learning outcome due to the fact of active learning with the iPads. @D$%%2'.&E0$7&='#-'(&4)*&72'1"'02&'!"#$%&'

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The 21st century teachers need to develop skills to engage students in order to coach them through meaningful learning in all content areas to equip them with 21st Century Technology skills, for success in their education, jobs, and lifelong learning experiences. In order to use mobile devices effectively, skills include models and methods in pedagogy, concepts of differentiation, community building, online assessment and evaluation, accessibility, policies and preparation. Teachers should act as door-openers to facilitate mobile devices as tools for learning and participate actively in educators’ networks and blogs. Teacher’s skills should cover the following. • Research and information skills: find evaluate and use authentic web based content (reliability) and effective resources (content, courses), social bookmarking, annotating web-pages, and use of it to draw conclusions or create a product; • Create and share: digital products, digital audio, video and online content, wikis, blogs, digital portfolios, personal networks, adapting courses to individuals; • Using Tools: free online programs, simulations and applications, assessment tools (to create quizzes, etc), file sharing tools, time-management and task-management tools (to organize work and learning), collaboration tools;
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Social learning, Social media and Social skills – Digital Citizenship: using textmessaging tools and social media for collaborative work and cooperative learning, sharing good practice, collaboration methods and practicalities of the informal learning space; Issues related to safety and online security: copyright, creative commons and fair use of online material, plagiarism.

The University College London (UCL) has published a list “The 33 Digital Skills Every 21st Century Teacher should Have”. This list can be retrieved from the from the University College London (UCL), edited by Clive Young, 15 June 2012 (https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/ele/2012/06/15/33digital-skills-for-21st-century-teachers/). In A Practical Guide for Educators Liz Kolb gives an overview how K-12 teachers can use cell phones in classroom (Kolb, 2011) • Discussions: blogs, twitter, posting things to topics covered in class, appropriate use of social media • Photographs and videos • Podcasts • Voice recording • Calculators • Polling • Research • Calendars (develop organization skills) • Taking notes, dropbox applications Finally Table 2 summarizes for example how reading skills can be taught in classes by using mobile technologies. Reading Strategy Strategy includes Brainstorming Movies Pre-Reading Strategy Vocabulary Work Making predictions During-Reading Strategy Intensive reading (highlighting text) Retelling new information Reconstructing passages / scenes from a text in comic form Reconstructing passages / scenes from a text in movie
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Suggestions for realization on the iPad: Suitable apps TotalRecall, MindMeister YouTube Worksheets in neu.Annotate + PDF Writing a possible ending in Pages Annotations and highlighting with neu.Annotate + PDF Microphone + Recording Comic Life (after taking suitable photos) Video editing in iMovie

Post-Reading Strategy

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form Creating a portfolio

(adding text) Pages (pre-set layouts or own design), Doodle Body for drawings

Table 2 How to foster reading skills by using mobile technologies in schools (Huber, 2012)
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There are some criteria that must be taken into account when applying mobile learning in the classroom (Huber & Ebner, 2013). These include: a) Visual aid: If a number of children is working in parallel on their personal devices there could be many questions. Therefore explaining the app is one precondition, but it can be suggested that a projector should be constantly in the classroom. b) Organization: It is highly recommended that apps on the iPad should be organized to improve the efficiency of teaching and learning. Each necessary app has to be moved to an appropriate accepted folder. Furthermore, an online file-sharing service (e.g. dropbox) can assist the file exchange in a meaningful way. c) Material: Teachers must be careful with the copyright issues. Hence, Open Educational Resources are suggested for use in digital classrooms. d) Choice of apps: Each app used in classroom has to be tested by the teacher beforehand. For example, unexpected appearing error messages can be a problem for inexperienced users. e) Connectivity: One of the biggest technical problems is about the connectivity to the Internet. If more than 20 children try to get access to the same time it might be helpful to add an additional router to guarantee stable Internet connections. f) Battery life: Teachers must be aware that the devices should be fully charged in the early morning. Therefore we like to suggest that there is a strategy or responsibility by whom and when the devices are charged. These observations lead to a short checklist, which is highly recommended to use before starting a mobile learning lecture. The checklist in Table 3 lists some of the issues when implementing mobile learning which can be used as a reminder. Technical Issues Visual aid (beamer …) Battery life Connectivity Didactical Issues Choice of applications (to be checked beforehand) Administrative Issues
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Organization (folders …) Tool to manage classes and grades File-sharing (Dropbox …) Table 3 Checklist for teachers who want to promote m-Learning (Huber & Ebner, 2013) UNESCO has issued a working paper series on Turning on Mobile Learning, initiatives and policy implications (Africa and the Middle East; Asia; Europe; Latin America; North America; Global Themes) and Mobile Learning for Teachers to support teachers and improve practice. These are helpful documents when planning to implement mobile learning in education.

Conclusion
Based on the trend in the growth of mobile technology, eventually all humans will have access to information and communication technology. Innovations are necessary around mobile learning pedagogies: the technology is here, now pedagogies to realize its potential for learning is needed. Research in different countries has pointed the slowness of change processes at school cultures compared to the speed of technology development, also in regard of access issues. As a result, teachers must be trained on how to design and deliver education on a variety of mobile emerging technologies, including smart phones and tablets. As more learning materials become electronic and available in the cloud, learners will be able to access the materials from anywhere and at their convenience using wireless mobile technology. Also, because of information explosion where there is constant change of information, learners can use the mobile technology to access up to date information. Having the technology in their hands – as well in schools as at home and on transfer—usage is easier and material always available– on one single device. Therefore the teacher will become a facilitator of learning and they will have to be trained in this new role. As the mobile technologies become more user-friendly and powerful, teachers have to find creative ways to design learning materials for delivery on mobile devices in accordance to the subjects they teach. Teachers must be trained on how to effectively use mobile technology as a learning tool in and out of the classroom. The number of educational applications for mobiles is growing at a rapid pace, but their use in schools is limited, more often constrained by policy than by the capabilities of the devices. Ethical concerns and worries are preventing teachers from embracing the full potential of mobile technologies for their own professional learning. Concerns about the disruptive nature of mobile phones expressed by teachers, administrators and parents have led many institutions to ban the use of mobile phones in schools. This challenges the possibilities of large scale take-into-use of mobile solutions and the possibilities of providing authentic learning experiences are restricted. Instead of banning mobile phones in schools, teachers must be trained on how to use mobile phones as a tool for learning. Successful educational use of mobile phones needs to adopt acceptable use policies and users guidelines. Student safety is a key component of any discussion about mobile learning. In North America educators are training students to take responsibility

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over how they use digital technologies instead of simply banning them, and as a result schools are beginning to loosen constricting rules and statutes. (West, 2012). There is rapid development in mobile learning technology that will impact how education is delivered. Teachers must be aware of the development of these emerging technologies. Some trends that will affect how learning materials are developed and delivered are described below. • Learning materials will be available in electronic repositories which will allow learners to access the learning materials from anywhere at their convenience. For example, learners will enter a learning outcomes and the system will assemble the learning materials that students have to complete to achieve the learning outcome. The technology is getting smaller and more powerful. At the same time it is getting nonphysical or virtual where one can project a full-size virtual screen or keyboard to use rather than using the small careen and keyboard on the mobile device. As these technologies become available, research will be needed on how to design learning materials for delivery on virtual devices. Since learning materials will be available in electronic repositories, teachers will be able to assemble lessons, units, modules, or courses in a short time by searching for the learning materials to achieve the learning outcomes. Because of initiatives such as Wikipedia, WikiEducator, etc. learners, experts, and others will be able to generate content for other learners to access; however, there will need to be a mechanism to validate the learning materials. There will be more use of multimedia materials to meet the needs of the current and upcoming generations of learners. Also, multimedia materials are information rich materials which require less text. Teachers will be required to develop multimedia materials. Learning materials will be available as open education resources under creative commons license that allow teachers to use the learning materials at no cost for education purpose. Teachers may have to customize the learning materials for their culture or the student ago group. The learning materials will be intelligent where it will learn about the learner as the learner progress and adapt the interface for the learner or prescribe the next appropriate learning sequence.

Most case reports from Australia refer to the adoption of mobile learning of pre-service teachers, demonstrating how it can improve learning. This can be a chance to implement new pedagogies in teaching and learning when it comes to training instructors to incorporate mobile technologies in classrooms: What works for a primary school teacher may be entirely different to what works for a secondary school teacher. • Different grade levels require different teacher training • Degrees to which teachers should be digitally competent and confident should be mirrored in curricula of teacher education
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• • • •

Ethics of using mobile devices for professional learning must be part of school guidelines Teaching should be seen as a reflective profession Assessment approaches need to be adapted to reflect the new ways of learning Teachers will become lifelong learners themselves.

The technology exists in the hands of learners: The use mobile of devices can replace needed supplies. Each device must serve a particular need in the learning process. They should not be used if they don’t have a purpose in the learning process. The use of these tools to facilitate learning must be in a distributed, controlled, and managed learning environment. There are contradictions and dialectics of mobile learning that are developing in the area between media use in everyday-life and use of mobile technologies by schools. These tensions need to be resolved in professional teacher development. Educators must be creative on the use of mobile technology in education to reach out to learners to provide high quality education regardless of location, background, and age. This can be accomplished by training teachers for education in the mobile world.

References
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