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# 272

## 4 REACTANCE VARIATION AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS

4.4 4.1

PROBLEMS In order to measure the inclination of a crane arm, an LVDT is placed on it with a 10 kg mass linked to its rod. The LVDT is clamped on the arm and a spring is placed connecting the sensor frame to the mass, so that the mass can slide in the longitudinal direction and drag the rod as indicated in Figure P4.1.

## Figure P4.1 Application of an LVDT to inclination measurement.

a. By assuming that the coecient of friction for the mass M is m, the LVDT sensitivity is 100 mV/(mm/V), and the spring constant is K 200 N/cm, derive the equation for the output voltage for the LVDT when its primary is supplied by a 5 V rms voltage. What can we conclude about the value for m? b. Assuming that the changes in the measured angle y are rather slow, the power line frequency of 60 Hz can be used to supply the primary winding. The LVDT has a specied zero phase shift at 2.5 kHz. The transfer function relating the primary and secondary winding voltages when the load resistance is 100 kW is critically damped. What is the phase shift when it is excited at 60 Hz? How could this phase shift be corrected? 4.2 An LVDT having the characteristics given below is excited at 400 Hz and used to measure displacements at frequencies up to 20 Hz. If the output voltage of the two series-opposed connected secondary windings is measured with a device having an input impedance of 100 kWk100 pF, design a correcting network that yields a zero phase shift between the primary and output voltage. Supply Frequency (Hz) 60 1000 Input Z W 72 325 Output Z W 1000 4250 Phase Shift  75 6

Model S40

Range (mm) 2

## Sensitivity (mV/mm/V) 72 274

4.4 PROBLEMS

273

4.3

A given LVDT able to measure G50 mm has 250 mV (rms) FSO when excited by 5 V, 2 kHz. At 2 kHz its primary winding has 3500 W, 71 . Calculate the FSO when the primary is excited by 12 V (peak), 20 kHz. Assume that the parameters modeling the impedance of the primary winding remain constant with frequency. The circuit in Figure P4.4 is used to introduce a phase shift in a constant frequency voltage through a resolver. By assuming that the output voltage is applied to a device with a very high input impedance, what is the condition to be fullled by R and C so that the output amplitude is constant independent of rotor position? Then what is the relation between the relative inputoutput phase shift?

4.4

Figure P4.4

## Phase shifter (for a constant frequency) based on a resolver.

4.5

Derive (4.77) for ac tachometers. (Hint: Obtain the voltage induced in a single wire loop in the rotor and the output voltage from the resulting rotor current. Consider then that the rotor consists of N loops and add their contribution). A Hall eect sensor has a positive temperature coecient of resistance a 0:6 %/  C, and a negative temperature coecient of sensitivity b 0:08 %/  C. The circuit in Figure P4.6 is designed to reduce these

4.6

Figure P4.6