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# Steve Goddard

Contents

Topic Page

Presentation Of Data 1
Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 3
Linear Correlation and Linear Regression 4
Probability, Binomial and Poisson Distribution, 7
Sampling and Estimation Theories and Significance
Testing
Bibliography 11

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Steve Goddard

## Statistics and Probability

Presentation of Data

## The diameter in millimeters of a reel of wire is measured in 48 places and the

results are as shown:

## 2.10 2.29 2.32 2.21 2.14 2.22

2.28 2.18 2.17 2.20 2.23 2.13
2.26 2.10 2.21 2.17 2.28 2.15
2.16 2.25 2.23 2.11 2.27 2.34
2.24 2.05 2.29 2.18 2.24 2.16
2.15 2.22 2.14 2.27 2.09 2.21
2.11 2.17 2.22 2.19 2.12 2.20
2.23 2.07 2.13 2.26 2.16 2.12

classes.

Frequen
Range cy
2.05 ≥ x ≤
2.09 3
2.10 ≥ x ≤
2.14 11
2.15 ≥ x ≤
2.19 11
2.20 ≥ x ≤
2.24 12
2.25 ≥ x ≤
2.29 9
2.30 ≥ x ≤
2.34 2

## Reel of Wire Diam eters -

Histogram

14

12

10
Frequency Density

0
2.05 ? x ? 2.09 2.10 ? x ? 2.14 2.15 ? x ? 2.19 2.20 ? x ? 2.24 2.25 ? x ? 2.29 2.30 ? x ? 2.34
Page 2 of 12 Diam etre (m m )
Steve Goddard

## 1.3 Form a cumulative frequency distribution

Range F
2.05 ≥ x ≤ 2.09
1.4 Draw an Ogive for the data

I went by the point made by a website I found about Ogives and drew straight lines
rather than a smooth one.

2.10 ≥ x ≤ 2.14
“The points should be connected by straight lines, not a smooth curve as
taught by many textbooks. The straight line assumes that the data are
uniformly distributed across the class interval - as represented on a histogram
by a rectangular bar. Whilst this will almost certainly not be true, it gives an
objective view that allows different people to come to common conclusions.
Connecting the points by a smooth curve is subjective and will lead to

2.15 ≥ x ≤ 2.19
different people drawing different conclusions from the data.”
Ogive Of Cum ulative Frequencys

60

50

2.20 ≥ x ≤ 2.24
Cumulative Frequency

40

30

20
2.25 ≥ x ≤ 2.29
10

0
2.30 ≥ x ≤ 2.34
2.05 ? x ? 2.09 2.10 ? x ? 2.14 2.15 ? x ? 2.19 2.20 ? x ? 2.24 2.25 ? x ? 2.29 2.30 ? x ? 2.34
Group

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Steve Goddard

## Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

2. Determine the mean, median and mode for the following data set:

## (73.8 + 126.4 + 40.7 + 141.7 + 28.5 + 237.4 + 157.9)

Mean µ = = 115 .2
7
Median = 126.4

## 3. The values of capacitances, in microfarads, of ten capacitors selected

at random from a large batch of similar capacitors are:

34.3, 25.0, 30.4, 34.6, 29.6, 28.7, 33.4, 32.7, 29.0, 31.3

Determine the standard deviation from the mean for these capacitors,
correct to three significant figures.

## (34.3 + 25 + 30.4 + 34.6 + 29.6 + 28.7 + 33.4 + 32.7 + 29 + 31.3)

x= = 30.9
10

Next I had to work out the deviation each result was from the statistical average:

## Capacitanc Deviation Deviation2

e Value x −x x −x
2

## 34.3 3.4 11.56

25.0 5.9 34.81
30.4 0.5 0.25
34.6 3.7 13.69
29.6 1.3 1.69
28.7 2.2 4.84
33.4 2.5 6.25
32.7 1.8 3.24
29 1.9 3.61
31.3 0.4 0.16
Total 80.1

∑x −x
2
I then used the formulae: Standard Deviation σ =
n

Putting this into context with the values I have been given gives,
80.1
σ= = 2.83 μF
10

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Steve Goddard

## 4. In an experiment to determine the relationship between the current

flowing in an electrical circuit and the applied voltage, the results
obtained are:

Current (mA) 5 11 15 19 24 28 33
Applied voltage (V) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

## Determine, using the product-moment formulae, the coefficient of

correlation.

First of all I worked out the mean of x and y, x being current and y being applied
voltage.

## Mean value of x = 19.285

Mean value of y = 8

## Next I calculated the deviation of each result:

X Deviation x = Y Deviation y =
(x −x) ( y − y)
5 -14.285 2 -6
11 -8.285 4 -4
15 -4.285 6 -2
19 -0.285 8 0
24 4.715 10 2
28 8.715 12 4
33 13.715 14 6

Knowing the product-moment formulae for working out the coefficient for linear
correlation is given by:

r=
∑ xy
{( ∑ x )( ∑ y )}
2 2

I then used the following table to get the required results to put into the equation

xy X2 Y2
85.71 204.061 36
33.14 68.641 16
8.57 18.361 4
0 0.081 0
9.43 22.231 4
34.86 75.951 16
82.29 188.10 36
∑xy =254 ∑x 2 = 577.426 ∑y 2
= 112

## Putting these values into the equations give:

254
r= = 0.9987
{( 577 .426 )(112 )}
This means the coefficient of linear correlation = 0.9987

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Steve Goddard

## 5. The relationship between the voltage applied to an electrical circuit

and the current flowing is as shown:

2 5
4 11
6 15
8 19
10 24
12 28
14 33

## Assuming a linear relationship, determine the equation of the regression

line of applied voltage, Y, on current, X, correct to 4 significant figures.

This table will show the results I need to put into the equation, Y = a0 + a1 X

## Current (mA), Applied X2 XY Y2

X Voltage (V), Y
2 5 4 10 25
4 11 16 44 121
6 15 36 90 225
8 19 64 152 361
10 24 100 240 576
12 28 144 336 784
14 33 196 462 1089
∑ =56
X ∑ =135
Y ∑X 2 =56 ∑ Y =13
X ∑Y 2 = 3181
0 34

## The regression coefficients a0 and a1 can be obtained using the equations:

∑Y = a 0 N + a1 ∑X

And ∑ XY = a 0 ∑ X + a1 ∑ X 2

## Substituting in the results from the above table gives:

135 = 7 a 0 + 56 a1

1334 = 56 a 0 + 560 a1

## I will call the top equation 1 and the bottom 2.

If I multiply each part of equation 1 by 56 and each part of the bottom equation by
7 I will get:

## I will call the top equation 3 and the bottom 4.

If I subtract equation 3 from equation 4 it will give me:

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Steve Goddard

1778 = 0 + 784 a1

## So rearranging the equation to make a1 the subject you would get:

1778
a1 = = 2.2679
784

Substituting this answer into equation 1 allows me to work out the value for a0 as
follows:

135 = 7 a0 + 56 (2.2679)

a0 = = 1.142
7

## The equation of the regression line of applied voltage on current =

Y = 1.149 + 2.267 X

I checked this result out in excel by drawing the graph and making a linear trend
line. From this I checked to see if my results look similar to the graph, which they
did.

35

30

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Steve Goddard

## Probability, Binomial and Poisson Distributions, Sampling and

Estimation Theories and Significance Testing

6. A box of fuses are all of the same shape and size and comprises 23 off
2A fuses, 47 off 5A fuses and 69 off 13A fuses. Determine the probability
of selecting at random, a:

2A fuse

5A fuse

13A fuse

23
Probability of getting a 2A fuse = = 0.1654
139

47
Probability of getting a 5A fuse = = 0.3381
139

69
Probability of getting a 13A fuse = = 0.4964
139

## 7. An automatic machine produces, on average, 10% of its components

outside of the tolerance required. In a sample of 10 components from this
machine, determine the probability of having three components outside
of the tolerance required by assuming binomial distribution.

( p + q) n

## When p = probability of component being outside tolerance and q being a

component inside of tolerance. q + p should always add up to be 100% or 1
Also n is the number of number of components used.

## ( 0.10 + 0.90 )10

Next I worked out the probability of 3 components being defective:

## n(n −1) n −2 2 n( n −1(n − 2) n −3 3

( p n ) + (nq n −1 p ) + ( q p ) +( q p ) + ….. And so on.
2! 3!

## 1 defective component: nq n −1 p =10 ×0.9 9 ×0.10 = 9 ×10 −9 = 0.3874

n(n −1) n −2 2 10 × 9
2 defective components: q p = 0.90 8 0.10 2 = 0.1937
2! 2!
And finally

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Steve Goddard

n(n −1)( n − 2) n −3 3 10 × 9 × 8
3 defective components q p = 0.90 7 0.10 3 = 0.0573
3! 3!

This makes the probability of selecting 3 incorrect components from a batch of 10:
5.73%

## To check my answers I used an online binomial calculator (see below)

I typed the required data in and hit generate and it came up with the possibilities
from 0 -10.

I was satisfied with my results because they matched the table generated by the
calculator

8. A large batch of electric light bulbs has a mean time to failure of 800
hours and the standard deviation of the batch is 60 hours. Using a table

Page 9 of 12
Steve Goddard

## of partial areas under the standardized normal curve, determine the

probability that the mean time to failure will be less than 785 hours
(correct to three decimal places), if a random sample of 64 light bulbs is
drawn from the batch.

## Mean time to fail = 800hours

Standard deviation = 60hours

## Find probability that the mean is under 785hours,

First of all I will work out the standard areas of the means which is given by the
equation:

σ
σx = Where σ is the standard deviation and N is the sample size
N

60
∴σ x = = 7.5
8

x −x 785 − 800
z= = = −2 Deviations
σx 7.5

Once I had found the value for z I looked at the table that stated the partial areas
under the standardised curve. From this I could see the z value of -2 equates to a
partial area of -0.4772.

Next I have to subtract the -0.4772 from 0.5000 because this is the value where z
= 0.
The probability of the mean time to failure being less than 785 hours is 0.023 to
3dp.

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Steve Goddard

## 9. The specific resistance of a reel of German silver wire of nominal

diameter 0/5mm is estimated by determining the resistance of 7 samples
of the wire. These were found to have resistance values, in ohms per
meters, as follows:

## 1.12, 1.15, 1.10, 1.14, 1.15, 1.10, 1.11

Determine the 99% confidence interval for the true specific resistance of
the reel of wire.

x Deviation Deviation2
x −x x −x
2

## 1.12 -0.004 0.000016

1.15 0.026 0.000676
1.10 -0.024 0.000576
1.14 0.016 0.000256
1.15 0.026 0.000676
1.10 -0.024 0.000576
1.11 -0.014 0.000196

7.87 0.002972

Firstly to work out the standard deviation I used the normal formula:

0.002971
σ= = 0.0206
7

To find the confidence interval for the specific resistance use I used the equation:

zcσ

N −1

## z c For a 99% confidence level = a confidence coefficient of 2.58

N = number of samples

So:

(3.14 ×0.0206 )
1.1243 + =1.1507
6
(3.14 ×0.0206 ) This means that the 99% confidence interval
1.1243 − =1.0979
6 for the true specific resistance of the reel of
wire is from 1.15 to 1.10 ohms.

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Steve Goddard

Bibliography

## http://www.adsciengineering.com/bpdcalc/ - Binomial Distribution Calculator

NC Statistics notes

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