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2 LUGLIO 2005

A network theory for fss-based ebg surfaces

M. Nannetti, M. Caiazzo, A. Cucini, S. Maci

1

Abstract This paper presents a novel method for the efficient derivation of an

equivalent network representation of electromagnetic bandgap (EBG)

structures composed by lossless frequency selective surfaces (FSS) printed on

stratified dielectric media. The formulation presented yields a two-port

dominant mode equivalent matrix representation of the FSS, and is applicable

in the range of frequencies where a single propagating Floquet mode occurs.

Otherwise, it can be generalized to the case of an arbitrary number of

accessible modes. The elements of the diagonalized FSS matrix respect the

conditions of driving point LC impedance functions, thus, they can be

approximated in terms of poles and zeros, using a simple analytical expression.

The final result is a compact form of the dispersion equation, whose solutions

identify the modes of the structure.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, a great interest has been devoted to the study of the dispersion

properties of planar structures realized by frequency selective surfaces (FSS) on

grounded dielectric slab. This kind of structures are used to realize artificial

magnetic conductors (AMC) [1], electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) surfaces, or

surfaces which exhibit soft and/or hard equivalent boundary conditions [2].

As it is well known, an approximate model of an FSS may be given in terms of a

quasi-static LC impedance network placed in a TE or TM transmission line. In

absence of losses, the FSS impedance is purely reactive. Patch-type FSS are

described by a series LC network. At frequencies below the resonant frequency, the

FSS is capacitive. This capacitance may resonate in parallel with the inductance

provided by the section of short-circuited transmission line, thus, providing an AMC

surface. In a certain frequency band, the same structure can provide an inhibition to

the surface wave (SW) propagation, acting as an EBG surface. Similar

considerations apply to aperture-type FSS which can be described by a parallel LC

circuit. This simple circuital representation contains the essential physics to

qualitatively justify the basic aspects of the AMC properties. However, the lack of

description of important aspects such as the wavenumber dependence of the

1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione, Universit di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena,

e-mail: nannetti@unisi.it, caiazzo@ieee.org, cucini@dii.unisi.it, macis@dii.unisi.it

ID 0001-02-2005 2005 SIEM

M. NANNETTI ET AL.: A NETWORK THEORY FOR FSS-BASED EBG SURFACES 163

equivalent circuit or the coupling between TE and TM polarizations, imposes a more

rigorous generalization of the model.

Recently, a method has been introduced for the efficient synthesis of the FSS

admittance matrix for the study of dispersion properties [3]. This method is based on

the application of the Fosters reactance theorem, which implies that FSS admittance

functions of frequency satisfy the pole-zero analytical properties of the driving point

LC admittance functions. The identification of the poles and zeros of the FSS

equivalent admittance allows to reconstruct the surface response over a large

frequency band. In this paper, the method is generalized in order to deal with a wide

class of FSS-based artificial surfaces. A new derivation of the FSS admittance

matrix is proposed and some general properties of this kind of structures are pointed

out.

II. METHOD OF MOMENT ANALYSIS AND FSS ADMITTANCE

MATRIX

The formulation will be derived for the case of a patch-type FSS-based surface,

shown in Fig. 1(a), being implied that the approach can be applied similarly to

aperture-type FSS. Due to the periodicity of the problem, the analysis is reduced to

that of a single periodic cell, with phase-shift boundary conditions. By applying the

equivalence theorem, an electric current distribution is assumed on the surface of the

metallic patches, radiating with the Greens function (GF) of the grounded slab. By

imposing the boundary conditions on the surface of the metallic patches, the electric

field integral equation (EFIE) is derived

(1) 0 ) ( = +

imp s

E J E

where E

imp

is the tangential impressed electric field, and E

s

(J) is the tangential

electric field, scattered by the unknown electric currents. By using a Galerkin

spectral MoM approach, the EFIE is converted into a matrix equation

V I Z MOM = (2)

164 QUADERNI DELLA SOCIET ITALIANA DI ELETTROMAGNETISMO, VOL. 1, N. 2 LUGLIO 2005

Figure 1 FSS-based surface (a) and equivalent 2-port network

representation for the dominant mode (b).

Using the notation introduced by Orta et al. [4], the MoM matrix can be written

in compact form as

Q Z Q Z GF

H

MOM = (3)

where )] ( ), ( [ diag

p

TE

GF p

TM

GF

GF Z Z Z k k = is a diagonal matrix of order 2P

(with P denoting the number of Floquet waves (FW)), whose elements are the

spectral GF impedances

1

1

/

1

/

0

/

)] cot( ) ( ) ( [ ) (

= h k jY Y Z

z

E TM E TM E TM

GF

k k k

,

sampled at the FW spectral points k

p

. In the previous expression,

zm m

TM

m

k Y / ec =

and

0

/ e

zm

TE

m

k Y = are the modal transmission line TM and TE characteristic

admittances of the free space (m=0) or dielectric (m=1) region, with k

z0

= (k

2

k

x

2

k

y

2

)

1/2

and k

z1

= (c

r1

k

2

k

x

2

k

y

2

)

1/2

. In (3),

N n P p

TE

n p

TM

n p

Q Q Q

, 1 ; , 1 , ,

] , [

= =

= is a

2PN matrix (with N being the number of basis/test functions), with elements

p p n

TM

n p

Q o ) (

,

= k F and

p p n

TE

n p

Q o ) (

,

= k F , where denotes the Fourier

transform of the n-th basis function, and

) (k F

n

| | /

p p p

k k = o ,

p p

z o o = are the

spectral basis associated to the TM and TE component, respectively. Finally, the

superscript

H

denotes the transpose complex-conjugate matrix.

The derivation of the FSS admittance matrix will be drawn in the hypothesis that

at the most only the dominant FW is propagating in free space. Otherwise, the

formulation can be easily extended to an arbitrary number of accessible modes [5],

as shown in [6]. The generalization to accessible modes is of interest when dealing

with higher-order propagating modes or with near-field interaction with a proximity-

located antenna. With the single-mode hypothesis in mind, the MoM known vector

M. NANNETTI ET AL.: A NETWORK THEORY FOR FSS-BASED EBG SURFACES 165

V can be related to the impressed dominant FW voltage vector

imp

FW V be the

relationship

H

imp

FW V q V = , where

H

q is a N2 matrix obtained by the first two

columns of

H

Q . Analogously, FW I qI = . Thus, a relationship is obtained between

the dominant FW impressed voltage and total current, as

1

( )

H

imp imp

FW MOM FW FW FW I q Z q V Y V

= = (4)

By noting that the total dominant FW voltage is given by the summation of the

voltage associated to the impressed and scattered field,

imp s imp

GF FW FW FW FW FW V V V V Z I = + = , the FSS admittance matrix is obtained,

through Eq. (4), as

GF FW GF FW FSS Y Y Y Y Y

1

] [

= (5)

The previous expression allows to give a description of the FSS-based surface in

terms of an equivalent transmission line network, as in Fig. 1(b), where the FSS is

represented by a 2-port network, where each port is placed in parallel to the TM or

TE transmission line associated to the grounded dielectric slab.

III. ANALITYICAL APPROXIMATION OF THE FSS MATRIX

The 22 FSS admittance matrix is usually a full matrix. Under the hypothesis of

lossless FSS, the matrix elements are purely imaginary, thus implying that FSS Y can

be diagonalized by a rotation matrix

) ( ] , diag[ ) (

) 2 ( ) 1 (

o o = R Y Y R Y

FSS FSS

FSS (6)

where

(

=

o o

o o

o

cos sin

sin cos

) ( R (7)

166 QUADERNI DELLA SOCIET ITALIANA DI ELETTROMAGNETISMO, VOL. 1, N. 2 LUGLIO 2005

The rotation angle o and the eigenvalues , are dependent on the

frequency e and as well on the wavenumbers k

) 1 (

FSS

Y

) 2 (

FSS

Y

x

, k

y

. It must be noted that when the

direction of wave propagation is along any plane of symmetry of the FSS, TM and

TE modes are uncoupled and consequently o=0.

In absence of losses, it can be demonstrated that the eigenvalues ,

respect the Fosters reactance theorem. The main implication is that the functions

) 1 (

FSS

Y

) 2 (

FSS

Y

) , , (

) (

y x

i

FSS

k k Y e possess the same analytical properties of a passive driving-point

LC-function of frequency:

i) Poles and zeros lie on the real e axis, and are simple and alternate.

ii) A zero (patch-type FSS) or a pole (aperture-type FSS) is at e = 0.

iii) Poles and zeros are symmetrically displaced with respect to the origin.

On the basis of the previous points, the eigenvalues are approximated as

| | ( ) | | ( )

| | ( ) | | ( )

2

) (

2

2

) (

1

2

) (

2

) ( ) (

0

) (

) , ( / 1 ) , ( / 1

) , ( / 1 ) , ( / 1 ) , (

) , , (

2 1

y x

i

p y x

i

p

y x

i

z y x

i

z y x

i

y x

i

FSS

k k k k

k k k k k k C j

k k Y

e e e e

e e e e e

e

=

(8)

where . The final output is an analytical form of the

FSS admittance for any frequency and wavenumber. The parameters

) (

2

) (

2

) (

1

) (

1

i

z

i

p

i

z

i

p

e e e e < < <

) (

,

i

j z

e ,

) (

,

i

j p

e ,

and have a weak dependence on the wavenumbers (k

) (

0

i

C

x

, k

y

), that can be easily

interpolated from data relevant to few values. Analogous considerations hold for the

rotation angle o. This result allows to deal with a simple form of the resonance

equation

0 ] det[ = + FSS GF Y Y (9)

as derived from the equivalent network in Fig 1b. By straightforward algebraic

manipulations the dispersion equation can be explicitly rewritten as

(10) 0 ) )( ( sin ) )( (

) 2 ( ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 1 (

= + + +

TE

GF

TM

GF FSS FSS

TE

GF FSS

TM

GF FSS

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y o

The solutions of equation (10) identify, within the slow-wave region, the

wavenumbers of the SWs supported by the artificial surface.

M. NANNETTI ET AL.: A NETWORK THEORY FOR FSS-BASED EBG SURFACES 167

The numerical example presented here refers to a cross-dipole FSS-based surface

(dimensions in millimeters are given in the inset of Fig. 2). Figure 2 shows the

dispersion curves of the poles and zeros of the FSS admittance matrix eigenvalues,

along the contour of the irreducible Brillouin zone. It can be seen that the

dependence on the wavenumber is very weak. Figure 3 shows the Brillouin

dispersion diagram. We stress that the paths IX and IM (corresponding to

symmetry planes of the structure) are associated to pure TE or TM SW modes, while

along the path XM hybrid SW modes are present with possible TM or TE

predominance (quasi-TM or quasi-TE modes). Moreover, a mode turns from TM to

TE along the XM path. An EBG is obtained in the frequency range (11 11.7) GHz.

Figure 2 Dispersion curves of the poles (p) and zeros (z) of the FSS

admittance matrix eigenvalues, along the contour of the irreducible

Brillouin zone

168 QUADERNI DELLA SOCIET ITALIANA DI ELETTROMAGNETISMO, VOL. 1, N. 2 LUGLIO 2005

Figure 3 Dispersion diagram of the cross-dipole FSS-based

artificial surface.

REFERENCES

[1] F.-R. Yang et al., A novel TEM waveguide using uniplanar compact

photonic-bandgap (UC-PBG) structure, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory

Tech., Vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 2092-2098, Nov.1999.

[2] P.-S. Kildal, Artificially soft and hard surfaces in electromagnetics, IEEE

Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1537-1544, Oct. 1990.

[3] S. Maci, M. Caiazzo, A. Cucini, and M. Casaletti, A pole-zero matching

method for EBG surfaces composed of a dipole FSS printed on a grounded

dielectric slab, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 70-81,

Jan. 2005.

[4] J. C. Vardaxoglou, Frequency selective surfaces, Research Studies Press

Ltd., Taunton, England, 1997, pp. 221-238.

[5] T. E. Rozzi, Network analysis of strongly coupled transverse apertures in

waveguide, Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., Vol. 1, pp. 161-178, 1973.

[6] S. Maci and A. Cucini, FSS-based complex surfaces in Electromagnetic

Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Aspects, editors: N. Engheta and

R. W. Ziolkowski, Wiley InterScience, in press.

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