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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture 7
Thvenin Equivalent Circuits
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thvenin Equivalent Circuits
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
oc t
v V =
Thvenin Equivalent Circuits
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
t
t
sc
R
V
i =
Thvenin Equivalent Circuits
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thvenin Equivalent
Circuits

sc
oc
i
v
R
t
=
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
V A v
oc
50 ) 10 )( 5 ( = O =
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
sc
i
Use current divider to find i
sc
:
O = = =
=
+
=
+
=
50
1
50
1 5
40 10
10
5
2 1
1
A
V
i
v
R
A A A
R R
R
i
sc
oc
t
sc
i
sc

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
V
t
= 50V
R
t
= 50O
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Finding the Thvenin
Resistance Directly
We can find the Thvenin resistance by
zeroing the sources in the original network
and then computing the resistance between
the terminals.
When zeroing a voltage source, it becomes a
short circuit. When zeroing a current source,
it becomes an open circuit.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
O = + =
+
+ = 14 4 10
20 5
) 20 )( 5 (
10
t
R
Find the Thevenin Resistance
Zero the voltage
source
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Thevenin Resistance
O = + = 30 20 10
t
R
Zero the current
source
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Thevenin Resistance
Zero the current
and voltage
sources
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
4O
5O
10O
Find the Thevenin Resistance
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
sc n
i I =
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Step-by-step
Thvenin/Norton-Equivalent-
Circuit Analysis
1. Perform two of these:
a. Determine the open-circuit voltage V
t
= v
oc
.

b. Determine the short-circuit current I
n
= i
sc
.

c. Zero the sources and find the Thvenin
resistance R
t
looking back into the
terminals.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
2. Use the equation V
t
= R
t
I
n
to compute
the remaining value.

3. The Thvenin equivalent consists of a
voltage source V
t
in series with R
t
.

4. The Norton equivalent consists of a
current source I
n
in parallel with R
t
.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
A v
v v
oc
oc oc
63 . 15
8
125
0 1
25 15
10
= = = +

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
To find R
t
zero the sources:
A
V
R
V
i
R
t
t
sc
t
67 . 1
38 . 9
63 . 15
38 . 9
25 15
) 25 )( 15 (
=
O
= =
O =
O + O
O O
=
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
A i
R
n
t
67 . 1
38 . 9
=
O =
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
V v
v v v
KCL
v v v v v KVL
oc
oc x oc
x oc x x oc
30 0 2
30 10
2
:
3 0 2 :
= = +

= =
v
oc

+

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
i
sc

n sc sc
x
x x x
i A i i
v
KCL
v v v KVL
= = = +

= =
2 0 2
10
2 0
:
0 0 2 :
+

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the Norton Equivalent
O = = =
=
15
2
30
2
A
V
i
v
R
A i
sc
oc
t
n
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Source Transformations

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transform the Norton equivalent into a Thevenin
equivalent with V
t
= (2A)(5O) = 10V, R
t
= 5O
10v
= 5O
+

Note the reference


direction for the
current gives the
polarity for the
voltage source!
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Source Transformations
A
V
i
V i i V R i R i V KVL
t
33 . 1
5 10
20
0 20 5 10 10 10 :
2
2 2 2 2 2
=
+
=
= + = + +
10v
= 5O
+

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Source Transformations
A A A i i A i i 667 . 0 2 333 . 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
= = = + =
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thvenin/Norton Equivalents
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thvenin/Norton Equivalents
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maximum Power Transfer
The load resistance that absorbs the
maximum power from a two-terminal
circuit is equal to the Thvenin
resistance.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
t L
L
L
L
L t
t
L L L
L t
t
L
R R
dR
dP
R
R R
V
R i P
R R
V
I = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
+
= 0
2
2
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Find the load resistance for maximum
power
O = O =
+
=
+
= 4 4
5 20
) 5 )( 20 (
2 1
2 1
Max
L t
R
R R
R R
R
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
SUPERPOSITION
PRINCIPLE

The superposition principle states
that the total response is the sum of
the responses to each of the
independent sources acting
individually. In equation form, this is
n T
r r r r + + + =
2 1
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Superposition Principle
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Circuit with just v
s1

V
s2
short circuit
V v
R
R
v
s
eq
eq
T
45 . 5 20
10 75 . 3
75 . 3
10
1 1
=
+
=
+
=
R
eq
=3.75O
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Circuit with just v
s2
V
s1
short circuit
R
eq
=3.33O
V v v v
V v
R
R
v
T T T
s
eq
eq
T
27 . 7 82 . 1 45 . 5
82 . 1 10
15 33 . 3
33 . 3
15
2 1
1 2
= + = + =
=
+
=
+
=
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Superposition Principle
A
V V v v
i
T s
T
27 . 1
10
27 . 7 20
10
1
=
O

=
O