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Review Questions

2. What are the key technology trends that heighten ethical concerns?
Table 5-1 identifies the four key technology trends. These trends include computer power doubling every 18 months, rapid decline in data storage costs, data analysis advances, and networking advances and the Internet. The doubling of computing power every 18 months is creating a growing dependence on systems and a consequent vulnerability to system errors, poor data quality, and failure of critical systems. Advances in data storage techniques and rapidly declining storage costs provide for massive data storage capabilities on individual systems and enable the routine violation of individual privacy. Advances in datamining techniques for large databases allow those who are able to dominate supercomputing capacity (large businesses and governments) to increase their power over individuals through the analysis of massive amounts of data about individuals. Advances in telecommunications infrastructure allow the movement of massive amounts of data at greatly reduced cost, permitting the use of data and, as a result, the invasion of privacy on a scale and precision unimaginable to us now. 3. What are the differences between responsibility, accountability, and

Responsibility means that you accept the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make. Accountability is a feature of systems and social institutions that allows the determination of who is responsible. Liability is a feature of political systems that permits individuals to recover damages done to them by responsible individuals or organizations.

5. Identify and describe six ethical principles.

The six ethical principles include the golden rule, Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative, Descartes' rule of change, Utilitarian Principle, Risk Aversion Principle, and ethical "no free lunch" rule. The golden rule suggests doing unto others as you would have them do unto you. Kant's Categorical Imperative suggests that if an action is not right for everyone to take, then it is not right for anyone. Descartes' rule of change, also known as the slippery slope rule, suggests that if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time. The Utilitarian Principle suggests taking the action that a chieves the higher or greater value. The Risk Aversion Principle suggests taking the action that produces the least harm or the least potential cost. The ethical "no free lunch" rule says that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone unless there is a specific declaration otherwise.

8. What are the three different regimes that protect intellectual property rights? What challenges to intellectual property rights are posed by the Internet?

Three different legal traditions that protect property rights are trade secret, copyright, and patent. A trade secret is any intellectual work product used for a business purpose /that can be classified as belonging to that business, provided it is not based on information in the public domain. The drawback to trade secret protection is that once an idea falls into the public domain, it no longer can be protected as a trade secret. A c/opyright is a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a period of 28 years. (For work created on or after January 1, 1978, the intellectual property is protected during the author's lifetime pl/us 70 years after his death.) The drawback of this protection is that underlying ideas are not protected, only their manifestations in a work. A patent grants the owner a monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 20 years. While patent protection does grant a monopoly on the underlying concepts and ideas, the difficulty is passing stringent criteria of non-obviousness, originality, and novelty. The Internet makes it very easy to widely distribute and reproduce intellectual property.

9. Why is it so difficult to hold software services liable for failure or injury?

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to hold software producers liable for their software products because it is only when software acts as a part of a defective product that strict liability pertains. If the software is strictly a service (not part of a product), these laws do not apply. As part of a product, software is still considered to be like books, which historically are protected from liability claims by the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of expression.

10. What is the most common cause of system quality problems?

The three principal sources of system quality problems are hardware and facility failures, software bugs and errors, and data quality. However, the most common cause of system quality problems is data quality. According to the 1998 Redman study cited in the textbook, individual organizations report data error rates ranging from 0.5 to 30 percent.

11. Name and describe four "quality of life" impacts of computers and information systems.
The textbook describes eight "quality of life" impacts of computers and information systems. These include balancing power, rapidity of change, maintaining boundaries, dependency and vulnerability, computer crime and abuse, employment, equity and access, and health risks. Balancing power describes the shift toward highly decentralized computing, coupled with an ideology of "empowerment" of thousands of workers and decentralization of decision making to lower organizational levels. The problem is that the lower-level worker involvement in decision making tends to be trivial. Key policy decisions are as centralized as in the past. The rapidity of change impact suggests that information systems have increased the efficiency of the global marketplace. As a result, businesses no longer have many

years to adjust to competition. Businesses can now be wiped out very rapidly, and along with them, jobs. The maintaining boundaries impact suggests that portable computers and telecommuting have created the condition where people can take their work anywhere with them and do it at any time. As a result, workers find that their work is cutting into family time, vacations, and leisure, weakening the traditional institutions of family and friends and blurring the line between public and private life. The dependency and vulnerability impact suggests that businesses, governments, schools, and private associations are becoming more and more dependent on information systems, and so they are highly vulnerable to the failure of those systems. The computer crime and abuse impact suggests that computers have created new opportunities for committing crimes and have themselves become the target of crimes. The employment impact suggests that redesigning business processes could potentially cause millions of middle-level managers and clerical workers to lose their jobs. Worse, if reengineering actually works as claimed, these workers will not find similar employment because the demand for their skills will decline. The equity and access impact suggests that access to computer and information resources is not equitably distributed throughout society. Access is distributed inequitably along racial, economic, and social class lines (as are many other information resources). Poor children attending poor school districts are less likely to use computers at school. Children from wealthy homes are five times more likely to use PCs for schoolwork than poor children. Whites are three times more likely to use computers at home for schoolwork than African-Americans. Potentially, we could create a society of information haves and have-nots, further increasing the social cleavages in our society. Health risks have been attributed to computers and information technologies. For instance, business now spends $20 billion a year to compensate and treat victims of computer-related occupational diseases. Those illnesses include RSI (repetitive stress injury), CVS (computer vision syndrome), and technostress.

Ch 9 Questions
Q 1:- What is the significance of telecommunications deregulation for managers and organizations? The telecommunication is collection of information by electronic means usually over some distance, now the managers and organization can make voice and videoconference with their clients or employees overall the world in a few seconds and low cost so the telecommunication help the organizations to decrease the cost of communication and the time and increase the profits and achieve their goals , mangers ask how telecommunication can reduce agency costs by increasing the scale & scope of operations without additional management. Q 13:-Name and describe the telecommunications applications that can support electronic commerce and electronic business. Telecommunications applications that support electronic commerce and business include electronic mail, groupware, voicemail, facsimile machines, digital information services, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, and electronic data interchange. 1. Electronic mail is the computer-to-computer exchange of messages. Groupware is a specialized form of teleconferencing 2. Dataconferencing that allows individuals working in different locations to work together on common documents and projects. 3. Voicemail is a system that digitizes spoken messages, transmits them over a network, and stores the message for later retrieval. The system includes a range of capabilities including saving messages and routing them to other parties. 4. Facsimile machines transmit documents containing both text and graphics over ordinary telephone lines using a scanner to digitize the document. 5. Teleconferencing refers to the ability to confer with a group of people simultaneously using the telephone or electronic mail group communication software. Dataconferencing refers to teleconferencing in which two or more users are able to edit and modify data files simultaneously.

6. Videoconferencing is teleconferencing that includes a video portion so that the individuals can actually see each other despite their distance. Digital information services enable users to retrieve information, such as stock market data, periodicals, competitor data, legal research, and news articles, from outside the firm. Distance learning refers to education or training delivered over a distance to individuals in one or more locations. Elearning refers to instruction delivered online using the Internet or private networks. Electronic data interchange is the direct computer-to-computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transaction documents such as invoices or purchase orders.

Q14:- give four examples of problems faced by enterprise networking 1. 2. 3. 4. loss management control organizational change requirements hidden costs of client / silver computing network reliability & security

Q15:- what are some solutions to enterprise networking problems? 1. 2. 3. 4. managing the change education & trainning data administration disciplines plannig for connectivity

Q16:- what are the principle factors to consider when developing a telecommunication plan? 1. distance :- if communication will be large local & internal the organization buildings & social network there little not large 2. range of services :- network must e-mail, voice mail, videoconferencing 3. security :- the most secure means of long-distance communication inline the organization owred the another communication is less secure 4. multiple access 5. utilization

Ch 17 Questions
Q 1:- what are five major dimensions for developing international information system architecture?
1- Global environment: Understand business drivers and challenges. 2- Corporate global strategy: How will your firm respond. 3- Organization structure: How will you accomplish the division of labor across a global environment. 4- Management and business processes: How can you discover and manage user requirements. 5- Technology Platforms: You need to have corporate strategy and structure before choosing the right technology.

Q 3:- what is meant by Global culture?

The development of common expectations, shared artifacts, and social norms among different cultures and people. A global culture is a shared culture in which people around the world share such cultural artifacts as news programs and movies. These, in turn, result in the emergence of shared social norms in such areas as proper attire, proper consumption, and values concerning good and bad government.

Q 4:- what are the major challenges to the development of global systems? 1- Global
1- Cultural particularism: Regionalism, nationalism and language differences 2- Social expectation: Brand name expectation, work hours 3- Political Laws: Transborder and privacy laws, commercial regulations 2-Specific 1- Standards: Different Electronic Data interchange, e-mail, telecommunication standards.

2- Reliability: Phone networks not uniformly reliable 3- Speed: Different data transfer speed, many slower than the US. 4- Personnel: Shortage of skilled constants.

Q 6:- Describe the four main strategies for global business and organizational structure?
1- Domestic Exporter-Characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin.(Near all international companies begin this way. and some move to another form) 2- Multinational-Concentrates financial management and control out of home base while decentralizing production, sales and marketing operations to units in other countries. (Many financial service firms along with host of manufactures such as General motors, Chrysler and Intel, fit this pattern.) 3- Franchisers-Are an interesting mix of old and new. On the one hand the product is created designed financed and initially produced in the home country, but for production specific reasons most rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing and human resource.(Food franchiser such as McDonald's and KFC fits in the pattern.) 4- Transitional-Nearly all the values-adding activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sourced of supply and demand. Wherever they appear and taking advantage of any local competitive advantage. (Few companies have actually attained transitional status but Citicorp, Ford, Sony and other companies are attempting this transition)

Q 8:- what are the major management issues in developing international systems?
12345Agreeing on common user requirements Introducing changes in business process Coordinating application development Coordinating software releases Encouraging local user to support global systems